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Sample records for butter oil

  1. Butter and butter oil classification by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Araghipour, N.; Rozijn, M.; Baltussen, M.A.H.; Wisthaler, A.; Mark, T.D.; Frankhuizen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a tool for classification of milk fats was evaluated in relation to quality and authentication issues. Butters and butter oils were subjected to heat and off-flavouring treatments in order to create sensorially defective samples

  2. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  3. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher...... was significantly higher for rats fed the BDAG‐diet than for rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets. To conclude, the beneficial effects of DAG oil in reducing body fat accumulation cannot be observed in DAG oil containing butter blends, and the effect of DAG on bone health requires further investigation....

  4. Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2012-03-01

    Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:  This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix.

  5. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    stability than their respective control TAG blends. However, they had a significantly less salty and buttery flavour, which was ascribed to a much smaller water droplet size causing a delayed sensory perception in the mouth. The butter blend with DAG oil from rapeseed had a very neutral flavour...

  6. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  7. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  8. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  9. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    either butter (B) or an interesterified mixture (IM) of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT),and safflower oils. Blood drawn during weeks 5 and 10 of feeding was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),LDL-C, and triacylglycerols (TAG). Mean plasma levels...

  10. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  11. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    grams of the fat content of the habitualdiets was replaced by either butter/grapeseed oil (90:10) (BG); butter oil and low erucic rapeseed oil (65:35) (BR) orbutter blended in a 1:1 ratio with a interesterified mixture of rapeseed oil and fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil (70: 30)(BS). SUBJECTS: Thirteen...

  12. Composition and properties of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R J; Ryali, J; Schingoethe, D J; Kasperson, K M; Donovan, D C; Hippen, A R; Franklin, S T

    2001-02-01

    A control diet and a fish oil diet were fed to 12 multiparous Holstein cows to determine how the incorporation of Menhaden fish oil in the diet would influence the fatty acid composition, especially the conjugated linoleic acid and transvaccenic acid, contents of milk and butter. The control diet consisted of a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate, and the fish oil diet consisted of the control diet with 2% (on a dry matter basis) added fish oil. Milk from cows fed the control diet contained higher average concentrations of milk fat (3.37%) compared with milk from cows fed the fish oil diet (2.29%). Milk from cows fed fish oil contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and total unsaturated fatty acids (0.68 and 2.51; 1.42 and 6.28; and 30.47 and 41.71 g/100 g of fat, respectively). Butter made from the fish oil diet milk also had higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and unsaturated fatty acids. Penetrometer readings indicated fish oil diet butters were softer at 4 and 20 degrees C than the control diet butters. Acid degree values were similar in the fish oil butters compared with the control butters. No significant difference was found in the flavor characteristics of milk and butter from cows fed the control and fish oil diets. Production of milk and butter with increased amounts of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and other beneficial fatty acids may have a desirable impact on the health of consumers and lead to increased sales.

  13. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  14. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  15. Properties and stability of butter oil obtained from milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, A

    2000-04-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from cow's milk by two different methods were studied. Butter oil samples from cow's milk were made (i) directly from milk and (ii) from yoghurt. Samples were autoxidized at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C in the dark and the reaction monitored by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. Peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of the acid value was not significant. The thermal stability was highest in butter oil produced from yoghurt. Oxidative changes compared to hydrolytic changes are of greater significance in the thermal stability of butter oil samples. Arrhenius parameters and activation energies were calculated for the peroxide value data. The percent loss of linolenic acid was about 3 times faster than that of linoleic acid.

  16. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    of the dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... present in dietary fats was followed through absorption, chylomicron formation, and deposition in adipose tissue and in different liver lipids (triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil (BO), a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture...... (interesterification) of butter oil with rapeseed oil (65:35 w/w) for use as edible fat did not have any impact on the fatty acid composition beyond the chylomicron step when compared to the native mixture....

  17. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  18. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  19. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...... blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower...

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  1. Effect of antibloom fat migration from a nut oil filling on the polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin W; Zand, Imro't; Talbot, Geoff

    2008-03-12

    In confectionery products, loss in texture contrast between chocolate and filling and the appearance of fat bloom on the surface of the chocolate can be caused by fat migration. Bloom is often linked to the transformation of the cocoa butter betaV polymorph into betaVI. A previous study showed that small additions (1%) of nut oil can have a significant impact on the rate of transformation and that migration of nut oil from a filling would increase polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter. In the present study, antibloom fat was added to the filling in a model system. The antibloom fat migrated with the nut oil and inhibited the transformation of cocoa butter from the betaV polymorph into betaVI. Despite experiencing migration of greater amounts of nut oil, cocoa butter closest to the filling transformed more slowly than that farther away (i.e., the reverse of the situation in the absence of antibloom fat).

  2. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    , erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues....... Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma...

  3. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  4. Bees wax and its unsaponifiables as natural preservative for butter and cottonseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag, R. S.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Simple model systems consisting of butter oil or refined cottonseed oil mixed with melted bees wax and its unsaponifiables were designated to study their hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity during storage. Whole bees wax at 0,5 and 1% levels possessed significant pro-hydrolytic activity whilst its unsaponifiables at 0,25 and 0,5% exhibited antihydrolytic effect on butter oil. The addition of whole bees wax at 0,5 and 1 % caused no effect on peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of butter oil. However, bees wax unsaponifiables significantly reduced both peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of stored butter oil. Bees wax unsaponifiables added to refined cottonseed oil had no effect on the acid value, whilst whole bees wax possessed significant prohydrolytic activity. The data for peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of refined cottonseed oil demonstrated that both whole bees wax and its unsaponifiables had approximately the same antioxidant efficacy. The effectiveness of the added materials on the secondary oxidation products of refined cottonseed oil can be ranked according to its inhibition activity as follows: BHT (200 ppm > bees wax (1% > bees wax (0,5% > bees wax unsaponifiables (0,5% > bees wax unsaponifiables (0,25% > control.

    aceites de semilla de algodón Sistemas modelo simples consistentes en aceite de mantequilla o aceite de semilla de algodón refinado mezclado con cera de abeja derretida y su insaponificable fueron diseñados para estudiar su rancidez oxidativa e hidrolítica durante el almacenamiento. La cera de abeja íntegra a niveles del 0,5 y 1% tuvo una actividad pro-hidrolítica significativa, mientras que su insaponificable al 0,25 y 0,5% exhibió efecto antihidrolítico sobre el aceite de mantequilla. La adición de cera de abeja íntegra al 0,5 y 1% no causó efecto sobre el índice de peróxido y ácido tiobarbitúrico del aceite de mantequilla. Sin embargo, el insaponificable de cera de abeja redujo

  5. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB.

  6. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  7. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled and... preservatives, and color additives are not suitable ingredients in peanut butter. Oil products used as...

  8. Composition and flavor of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans, or their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, N; Baer, R J; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kasperson, K M; Whitlock, L A

    2001-10-01

    Milk was collected from eight multiparous Holstein and four multiparous Brown Swiss cows that were distributed into four groups and arranged in a randomized complete block design with four 4-wk periods. The four treatments included a control diet of a 50:50 ratio of forage-to-concentrate; a fish oil diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil; a fish oil with extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil and 1% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans; and an extruded soybean diet of the control diet with 2% (on dry matter basis) added fat from extruded soybeans. Milk from cows fed control, fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets contained 3.31, 2.58, 2.94, and 3.47% fat, respectively. Concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid in milk were highest in the fish oil (2.30 g/100 g of fatty acids) and fish oil with extruded soybean (2.17 g/100 g of fatty acids) diets compared with the control (0.56 g/100 g fatty acids) diet. Milk, cream, butter, and buttermilk from the fish oil, fish oil with extruded soybean, and extruded soybean diets had higher concentrations of transvaccenic acid and unsaturated fatty acids compared with the controls. Butter made from the extruded soybean diet was softest compared with all treatments. An experienced sensory panel found no flavor differences in milks or butters.

  9. MELTED BUTTER TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Melted butter is made from dairy butter by rendering the fat phase. It has specific taste and aroma, high-calorie content and good assimilability. Defects of butter which appeared during the storage causes by the development of microbiological processes or by the chemical oxidation. On the development of these processes influence quality and composition of fresh butter, its physical structure, content of the increased amount of gas phase and content of heavy metals, storage conditions. Microbiological spoilage of butter occurs generally due to damage of plasma which is good environment for the development of microorganisms. Defects of microbiological origin include: unclean, sour, moldy, yeasty, cheesy, bitter taste. Defects of test and smell chemical origin are formed due to hydrolytic digestion of lipids. It's prevailed at long storage of butter in the conditions of freezing temperatures. It's picked out the following main processes of spoiling: souring, acidifying and sallowness. Often these processes take place simultaneously.It has been investigated melted butter with lactated additive. The latter improves the microbiological and toxicological safety, prolongs the storage condition of the products. Technological efficiency of the additives is achieved by a multilayer products formation from the inactive bound water, preventing microorganisms growth and by the barrier layer with lactate inhibiting hydrolytic reactions. Oil samples were obtained with the batch-type butter maker application, then they were melted and after that lactated additive were supplemented. It has been studied organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the melted butter samples. The fatty-acid composition of melted butter were studied. Comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of cow's milk fat and produced melted butter has shown their similarity. Also in the last sample there is increased weight fraction of linoleic and linolenic acids. The obtained

  10. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter

  11. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  12. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  13. Comparison of Expansion During Fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Oil-Based and Butter Fat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion during fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols (MCT oil-based doughs compared to butter fat-based doughs were studied, and the mechanism of fermentation accelerator of MCT oilbased in dough was also investigated. The results obtained as follows; the concentration of MCT oil-based accelerator on the fermentation of dough was confirmed maximum at 6.0%. The rate of expansion became the maximum a 60% of gluten contents at the dough with MCT oil-based. Mechanism of expansion of fermentation on MCT oil-based doughs was discussed. Gluten is formed of gliadin and glutenin. Gluten was denatured by MCT oil-based, which gluten molecule grows large. Fermentation is promoted by this phenomenon. This fact can provide new information to the bread-making industry.

  14. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  15. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet.

  16. Effects of different forms of canola oil fatty acids plus canola meal on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayourthe, C; Enjalbert, F; Moncoulon, R

    2000-04-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 16-wk trial. A block of 10 cows received a control diet, based on corn silage, and the other block of 10 cows successively received four diets with 1) an extruded blend of canola meal and canola seeds, 2) canola meal and whole canola seeds, 3) canola meal and ground canola seeds, or 4) canola meal and calcium salts of canola oil fatty acids. Canola fat represented about 2% of dietary dry matter. Compared to control cows, treated cows had similar dry matter intake, milk production, and daily milk output of true protein or fat. Protein contents of milk was decreased by all treatments, with a lower effect of extruded or whole canola seeds. Milk fat contents was lowered by all treatments, extruded seeds and calcium salts resulting in most important effects. All treatments lowered the percentage of fatty acids with 12 to 16 carbons in milk fat, increased C18:0 and cis-C18:1 percentages, and the proportion of liquid fat in butter between 0 and 12 degrees C. Calcium salts and, to a lesser extent extruded seeds, resulted in most important improvements of milk fatty acid profile and butter softness, whereas whole seeds had low effects.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID.

  18. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of palm mid fraction oil with palmitic and stearic Fatty Acid mixture for production of cocoa butter equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2013-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm mid fraction oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored, and the composition of the five major triacylglycerols (TAGs) of the structured lipids was identified and quantified using cocoa butter certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cocoa butter equivalent with the TAGs' composition (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 30.7%, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol 40.1%, 1-palmitoy-2,3- dioleoyl glycerol 9.0%, 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol 14.5 %, and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol 5.7%) and with onset melting temperature of 31.6 °C and peak temperature of 40.4 °C which are close to those of cocoa butter. The proposed kinetics model for the acidolysis reaction presented the experimental data very well. The results of this research showed that palm mid fraction oil TAGs could be restructured to produce value added product such as CBE.

  19. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from palm olein and saturated fatty acid distillate from palm oil physical refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2012-11-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm olein oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored and the compositions of the five major triacylglycerol (TAG) of the structured lipids were identified and quantified using cocoa butter-certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cococa butter equivent with TAG compostion (POP 26.6 %, POS 42.1, POO 7.5, SOS 18.0 %, and SOO 5.8 %) and melting temperature between 34.7 and 39.6 °C which is close to that of the cocoa butter. The result of this research demonstrated the potential use of saturated fatty acid distillate (palmitic and stearic fatty acids) obtained from palm oil physical refining process into a value-added product.

  20. Conversion of olive pomace oil to cocoa butter-like fat in a packed-bed enzyme reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ozan Nazim; Fadiloğlu, Sibel; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2009-01-01

    Refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) was utilized as a source oil for production of cocoa butter-like fat. Immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase catalyzed acidolysis of ROPO with palmitic (PA) and stearic (SA) acids was performed in a laboratory scale packed-bed reactor. Effect of reactor conditions on product formation was studied at various substrate mole ratios (ROPO:PA:SA; 1:1:1, 1:1:3, 1:3:3, 1:2:6), enzyme loads (10%, 20%, 40%), substrate flow rates (1.5, 4.5, 7.5, 15 ml/min) and solvent amounts (150, 400 ml). The highest yield (10.9% POP, 19.7% POS and 11.2% SOS) was obtained at 40% enzyme load, 1:2:6 substrate mole ratio, 45 degrees C, 7.5 ml/min substrate flow rate, 150 ml solvent and 3h reaction time. The melting profile and SFC of the product were comparable to those of CB. Polarized light microscope (PLM) images showed no drastic changes in polymorphic behavior between CB and product.

  1. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the rec

  2. Effect of the addition of a cocoa butter-like fat enzymatically produced from olive pomace oil on the oxidative stability of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftçi, Ozan Nazim; Kowalski, Bolesław; Göğüş, Fahrettin; Fadiloğlu, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    A cocoa butter (CB)-like fat was produced in a packed bed enzyme reactor using sn-1,3 specific lipase, and its blends with CB were prepared at different ratios (CB: CB-like fat; 100: 0, 90: 10, 80: 20, 70: 30, 60: 40, 50: 50, 0: 100). The oxidation kinetics of CB: CB-like fat blends was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Samples were heated in DSC at different temperatures (130, 140, 150, 160 degrees C) under 100 mL/min oxygen. From DSC exotherms, oxidation induction times (OIT) were determined and used for the assessment of the oxidative stabilities of the blends. Oxidation kinetics parameters (activation energy, E(a); preexponential factor, Z; and oxidation rate constant, k) were calculated. In general, it has been observed that above 110 degrees C increasing the ratio of CB-like fat in the blend increased the k value with increasing temperature. It has been observed that for all blends the increase in k value with temperature was significant (P < 0.05). Increasing CB-like fat ratio in the blend decreased the content of major TAGs (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POP]; 1[3]-palmitoyl-3[1]stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [POS]; 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol [SOS]), and decreased the oxidative stability of the blends.

  3. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  4. Effect of processed oils and fats on cholesterol metabolism. III. ; Comparison of the effects of palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. Kako yushi no cholesterol taisha ni oyobosu eikyo. (3). ; Palm yu to koka daizuyu oyobi cacao abura tono eikyo no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.; Chimi, K.; Kanematsu, H.; Niiya, I. (Japan Institute of Oils and Fats, Other Foods Inspection, Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)); Shimura, M. (Japan Margaruibe, Shortening and Lard Industries Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizutani, H. (Ueda Oils and Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Kobe (Japan)); Hirai, C. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology)

    1991-09-20

    Effects on cholesterol contained in serum lipids, levers and feces of rats and the metabolism were compared between palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. In addition, the relations to the physical and chemical properties of these oils were also studied. In the case of cacao butter, saturated triglyceride of high fusing point was not contained at all and the main component is 2-oleo-1,3-disaturated glycerides. This component was the main cause for cacao butter to show the unique behavior. Concerning the cholesterol concentrations in lever, the hardened soybean oil group tended to be lower than other 3 groups and this tendency agreed approximately with that in serum. Cholesterol in the feces was also analyzed. Cholesteol content in the case of cacao butter was higher than those for the hardened soybean oil group and palm oil group, and much higher than that of the soybean oil group. But the lathosterol content did not show any significant difference compared with that of palm oil group, and the coprostanol content showed the lower value, which had the significant difference. 14 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents.

  6. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690 cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level and seven increasing concentrations of palm fats, up to 50% were fingerprinted and the calibration curve was obtained (n=19. In parallel, the validation was realized using different set of spiked butter samples ranging 1-44.4 % of palm fat (n=7. Finally, an independent set of commercial samples was analized (n=14.Partial least squares (PLS model was used for statistical data processing in accordance with standard method. The value of the correlation coefficient (R2= 0.977 between actual and predicted values was statistically significant (p<0.001, considering the superposition of  "actual vs predicted” curves. This combined FTIR-PLS evaluation revealed that 3 out of  samples of butter were suspected of adulteration with palm oil, presented values 14 ranging 4-12%.In conclusion, ATR-FTIR methodology may offer an rapid evaluation of  butter samples authenticity. The low value for detection limit (3%palm oil in butter and the low limit of quantification (9.8% palm oil in butter confirms that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy  is a sensitive method to identify the adulteration of butter with  palm oil.   

  7. Postprandial lipid responses do not differ following consumption of butter or vegetable oil when consumed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2015-04-01

    Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.

  8. Dietary cocoa butter or refined olive oil does not alter postprandial hsCRP and IL-6 concentrations in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Teng, Kim-Tiu; Raff, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Contrary to other long chain saturated fatty acids (SFA), fats high in stearic acid do not raise plasma cholesterol concentrations, however, a slight elevation in inflammatory markers, plasma fibrinogen and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been observed in the fasting state. The effect of stearic acid on inflammation in the postprandial state has not yet been reported. We conducted a single blind crossover, randomized, postprandial study to compare the effects of a fat load of cocoa butter high in stearic acid and olive oil in ten healthy women. The test meals contained 1 g of fat per kg body weight (mean 62 g). Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasting), 4 and 6 h. Both diets resulted in a significant increase in serum triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration over time (P = 0.003) and a decrease in serum IL-6 concentration after 4 h followed by an increase to post absorptive values after 6 h (P < 0.001); whereas serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration was not affected. There was no difference between diets in effects on serum TAG, hsCRP and IL-6 concentrations and no association between postprandial lipemia and inflammatory markers. High intake of dietary fats increase postprandial serum TAG, however, may not affect inflammatory markers postprandially. Thus, fat rich in stearic acid does not seem to increase postprandial inflammation.

  9. Analysis of Oil Components of Mango Seed Butter and Its Penetration Enhancing Effect in Vitro%芒果脂油脂成分分析和体外促渗作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文澜; 梁菊; 董亚南; 陈姗

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the oil components of mango seed butter were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that the six main components of mango seed butter are hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, 11 -dodecenoicacid, arachidic acid,behenic acid, and tetracosanoic acid. The mass fraction of these components are 15.235% , 78. 041% ,0.425% ,4.681% ,0.674% ,0.549% respectively. Skin penetration experiments in vitro show that the oil components of mango seed butter can significantly increase the transdermal penetrance of lidocaine. The accumulated permeation amounts of azone group and mango seed butter group are 794. 84 u,g and 1208. 7 g respectively,while the accumulated permeability are 7.95% and 12.8%. Penetration enhancing effect of mango seed butter in vitro for lidocaine is superior to azone in some degree.%利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)分析了芒果脂所含的油脂成分.分析结果显示,芒果脂的6个主要成分及其质量分数分别是:棕榈酸为15.235%,油酸为78.041%,11-二十碳烯酸为0.425%,花生酸为4.681%,山俞酸为0.674%,木质素酸为0.549%.体外经皮渗透试验显示,芒果脂能够显著增加经皮给药制剂的皮肤透过率,氮酮组和芒果脂组对利多卡因的累积透皮量分别为794.840μg和1208.700μg,累积透皮率分别为7.95%和12.80%,芒果脂对模型药利多卡因的体外促渗作用一定程度上优于氮酮.

  10. The effect of butter grains on physical properties of butter-like emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Buldo, Patrizia; Mortensen, Kell; Andersen, Ulf; Knudsen, Jes C; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat exists as globules in its natural state in milk. The potential of using globular fat to modulate the rheological properties and crystallization behavior in butter-like emulsions was studied in the present work. We conducted a comparative study of butter-like emulsions, with a fat phase consisting of 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% anhydrous milk fat (AMF), the remaining fat being butter grains, and all samples containing 20% water, to obtain systematic variation in the ratio of globular fat. All emulsions were studied over 4wk of storage at 5°C. By combining small and large deformation rheology, we conducted a detailed characterization of the rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions. We applied differential scanning calorimetry to monitor thermal behavior, confocal laser scanning microscopy for microstructural analysis, and low-field pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to measure solid fat content. By combining these techniques, we determined that increasing the fraction of globular fat (by mixing with butter grains) decreases the hardness of butter-like emulsions up to an order of magnitude at d 1. However, no difference was observed in thermal behavior as a function of butter grain content, as all emulsions containing butter grains revealed 2 endothermal peaks corresponding to the high (32.7°C ± 0.6) and medium (14.6°C ± 0.1) melting fractions of fatty acids. In terms of microstructure, decreasing the amount of butter grains in the emulsions resulted in formation of a denser fat crystal network, corresponding to increased hardness. Moreover, microstructural analysis revealed that the presence of butter grains resulted in faster formation of a continuous fat crystal network compared with the 100% AMF sample, which was dominated by crystal clusters surrounded by liquid oil. During storage, hardness remained stable and no changes in thermal behavior were observed, despite an increase in solid fat content of up to 5%. After 28d of storage, we

  11. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  12. butter fingers和a butter ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文成

    2000-01-01

    butter(黄油)fingers(手指), 是用手指来抠黄油吃?不是的。要是一个人的手指上沾了黄油,那他的手指就一定是很油腻、很滑,很难拿得住手里的东西。因此butter fingers是指那些笨手笨脚的人。例如,一个非常恼火的爸爸在谈论他的儿子: John is a rocket scientist and is supposed to be smart, but you are to see what a butter finger he is all around the house. For instance, if I asked him to wash the dishes he's sure to drop a dish or a cup. 约翰是个研究火箭的科学家,应该是很聪明的,可是你看看他在家里那笨手笨脚的样子。比如说,要是我让他洗盘子,他肯定会摔破一个盘子或摔破一个杯子。 butter ball(球),字面意思是一个黄油做成的球,但作为习惯用语它指很胖的人就象一个球一样。例如: Laura has a very beautiful face, but the way she keeps...

  13. 健康食品花生酱%All Peanut Butters Healthy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Processed or Fresh, Peanut Butter Is Good Food无论是加工过还是新鲜的,花生酱都是好东西. Store-bought peanut butter is as good tor you as the fresh-ground-in-the-health-food-store variety, a study shows. That any kind of peanut butter is healthy seems too good to be true. But the lowly peanut is packed full of healthy oils and vitamin E.

  14. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  15. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    dairy fat in general and phytanic acid on metabolic parameters, we performed several studies. First, we investigated effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and circulating metabolic markers, of high fat diets based on butter from high- or low-yield production, a diet based on high...... oleic acid sunflower oil, and a diet based on grape-seed oil with high amount of linoleic acid, in diet induced obese mice. Second, we investigated phytanic acid effects on similar parameters in obese mice, both as dose response in butter based diets, and in grape-seed oil based diets with and without...... addition of phytanic acid. Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter. Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese...

  16. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24239920 . Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin, mineral, and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention ... artery Cardiac ablation procedures Carotid artery surgery Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart failure - ...

  17. THE TECHNOLOGY OF MAKING BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Farcas; Liviu Giurgiulescu

    2009-01-01

    This work paper has the purpose to mark out the physico-chemical and sensitive characteristics as taste, smell, aspect or consistency of the butter. Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins.

  18. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  19. Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids unfavorably affects blood lipoproteins. As margarines are a major source of trans, claims for the advantages of margarines over butter need to be scrutinized. Here we review dietary trials that directly compared the effects of butter and margarine on blood lipids. We iden

  20. Optimization on butter oil powder formulations and emulsifying conditions%牛油粉末油脂配方及乳化条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范婷婷; 杨富民; 王炳祥

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop the butter powder formulation,to optimize the process conditions of the emulsion,based on emulsion stability and viscosity index,the butter powder formulation with carbohy-drates,proteins,stabilizers,composition and consumption of emulsifier and emulsifying conditions were studied by using the single factor test combined with orthogonal test.The results showed that composition of 30% butter,mass ratio of maltodextrin and glucose syrup was 5∶1,the consumption of 65%,sodium ca-seinate 3.5%,arabic gum 2.5%,emulsifier SE-13 0.5%,GMS 0.4%,CITREM 0.9%,under emulsifying temperature 75 ℃,emulsifying time for 15 min,the rotational speed of shearing machine 9 000 r/min,the e-mulsifying stability and embedding rate of the product was 96.7% and 92.49% respectively.%为了研制牛油粉末油脂配方,优化乳化工艺条件,以乳化稳定性和粘度为指标,采用单因素试验结合正交试验,对牛油粉末油脂配方中的碳水化合物、蛋白质、稳定剂、乳化剂组成和用量以及乳化条件进行了优化筛选.结果表明:最佳乳化条件为牛油30%,麦芽糊精∶葡萄糖浆为5∶1、用量65%,酪朊酸钠3.5%,阿拉伯胶2.5%,乳化剂SE-130.5%,GMS 0.4%,CITREM 0.9%,乳化温度75℃,乳化时间15 min,乳化剪切机转速9000 r/min的条件下,乳化稳定性为96.7%,产品包埋率达92.49%.

  1. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whipped butter. 58.346 Section 58.346 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.346 Whipped butter. (a) The quality requirements for whipped butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Whipped Butter for U.S....

  2. Tropical vegetable fats and butters: properties and new alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Salas Joaquín

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fats and butters are characterized by their high contents of saturated fatty acids, which confer to them melting points and rheological properties adequate for the production of high valuable food commodities. We can distinguish 3 groups of tropical fats: those having medium chain fatty acids, like coconut or palm kernel oils, those rich in palmitic acid, like palm oil and its fractions, and those rich in stearic acid like cocoa butter. Modern biotechnology has provided with alternatives to these species in engineered common oil crops enriched in saturated fatty acids and processes aimed to enrich common oils in disaturated TAGs by enzymatic transesterification. The present and future of these new sources of saturated fats are discussed in this work.

  3. Crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter in the presence of sorbitan esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Podchong, Pawitchaya; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter crystallization in the presence of sorbitan mono- and triesters or canola oil was investigated. Solid-state surfactant esters accelerated early-stage cocoa butter solidification while suppressing later growth. Sorbitan tristearate showed the strongest effect, followed by sorbitan monostearate and sorbitan monopalmitate. Liquid-state surfactants suppressed cocoa butter crystallization at all time points, with sorbitan trioleate showing a stronger effect than sorbitan monooleate, which behaved in a similar fashion to canola oil. Via DSC, the palmitic and stearic-based surfactants only associated with cocoa butter's high-melting fraction, with the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola oil showing little influence. All sorbitan esters had little effect on polymorphism, whereas canola oil accelerated the form II-to-III-to-IV transition. The palmitic and stearic-based surfactants greatly reduced cocoa butter crystal size whereas the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola showed no notable effect. Overall, sorbitan esters impacted cocoa butter crystallization kinetics, though this depended on surfactant structure and concentration.

  4. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples.

  5. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter.

  6. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter. 58.345 Section 58.345 Agriculture Regulations... Official Identification § 58.345 Butter. The quality requirements for butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Butter for U.S. Grade AA, U.S. Grade A, or U.S. Grade B,...

  7. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  8. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...

  9. Oil migration in 2-component confectionery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winston L; McCarthy, Michael J; McCarthy, Kathryn L

    2010-01-01

    Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences.

  10. The role of mixing temperature on microstructure and rheological properties of butter blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that the rheological properties of butter blends can be modified by the applied mixing temperature. Blends were prepared by mixing 10 or 25% of rapeseed oil (RO) with butter, at three different temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C). Afterwards the blends were stored at 5 °C...... the effect on the rheological behavior. The microstructure analysis showed that a high content of RO and high processing temperatures produce a less dense crystal network and a change in protein/water distribution. Furthermore, this study shows that the addition of RO to butter and the high mixing...... temperature solubilize some of the milk fat triacylglycerides (TAG), which are not able to re-crystallize fully. A high mixing temperature is shown to inhibit the ability to rebuild the rigidity of the crystal network in butter blends....

  11. Microbiological quality of karin butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokce, R.; Aslanalp, Y.; Nur Herken, E.

    2010-07-01

    Karin butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karin), is a traditional butter type. Karin used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karin butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karin butter samples was found to be poor in general. (Author)

  12. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  13. Changing the functionality of cocoa butter

    OpenAIRE

    De Clercq, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa butter is an essential ingredient in chocolate as it forms the continuous phase of chocolate. It’s therefore responsible for the gloss, texture and typical melting behaviour of ‘irresistible’ chocolate. The aim of this research was to change the functionality of cocoa butter by two different methods. In the first part, cocoa butter was modified by physical refining by using packed column steam refining with or without silica pretreatment. The physicochemical properties of the refined co...

  14. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life...... on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO2e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level......, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO2e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO2e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence...

  15. Lipídeos séricos e morfologia hepática de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, gordura de peixe e porco, margarina e manteiga Serum lipids and hepatic morphology of rats fed different lipid sources (soybean oil, fish fat and lard, margarine and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elisa Ferreira de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as alterações lipídicas séricas e morfológicas hepáticas de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, gordura de peixe e porco, margarina e manteiga. MÉTODOS: Os 50 ratos Wistars utilizados no estudo foram divididos em cinco grupos, que durante 28 dias receberam dietas semissintéticas com diferentes fontes lipídicas: óleo de soja, gordura de porco, manteiga, margarina e gordura de peixe. Foram avaliados os pesos corporais, o consumo alimentar e o coeficiente de eficiência alimentar; a atividade da lipase lipoproteica; as concentrações séricas de colesterol total e de lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triacilgliceróis e albumina, bem como a histologia dos tecidos hepático e cardíaco. RESULTADOS: O tipo de fonte lipídica não influenciou o consumo alimentar, o ganho de peso, o coeficiente de eficiência alimentar dos animais, nem a atividade da lipase lipoproteica, porém promoveu alterações nas concentrações séricas de colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triacilgliceróis e albumina. Todos os grupos apresentaram gotículas lipídicas nas paredes coronarianas e nos capilares cardíacos, sendo caracterizada como esteatose a deposição de gordura no fígado dos animais que receberam óleo de soja, gordura de peixe, de porco e manteiga. CONCLUSÃO: A fonte lipídica que apresentou os melhores resultados foi o óleo de soja, enquanto o consumo de gordura do peixe causou efeito sérico e tecidual semelhante ao encontrado para as outras fontes lipídicas (gordura de porco, manteiga e margarina, as quais podem contribuir para o surgimento e a progressão das doenças cardiovasculares.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed serum lipids and hepatics morphological changes in rats fed different lipid sources (soybean oil, fish fat and lard, margarine and butter. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups. They were given semi-synthetic diets with

  16. 蔗糖形态对氢化棕榈仁油/可可脂混合体系结晶性质的影响%Influence of sugar forms on crystallization properties of hydrogenated palm kernel oil/cocoa butter mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雯雯; 王风艳; 王兴国; 刘元法

    2012-01-01

    The mixture system of hydrogenated palm kernel oil and cocoa butter( mass ratio 9:1) was used as material, and the effects of different forms of sugar (crystaline sugar, powder sugar) and lecithin on the crystallization and melting behavior were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The results showed that the influence of sugar forms on the crystallization and melting behavior of oil was not remarkable without adding lecithin; however, with the addition of lecithin, the melting point and crystallization point increased as the sugar particle size decreased; lecithin decreased the crystallization point of the oil mixture in both sugar forms.%以氢化棕榈仁油/可可脂(质量比9∶1)混合体系为基料油,采用差示扫描量热仪( DSC)考察不同形态蔗糖(结晶糖、糖粉)和卵磷脂对熔化结晶性质的影响.结果表明:未添加卵磷脂时,蔗糖形态对基料油的熔化结晶性质影响不大;添加卵磷脂后,蔗糖颗粒越细,熔化和结晶温度越高;两种形态的蔗糖体系,添加卵磷脂均使结晶温度显著降低.

  17. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  18. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  19. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  20. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Sayma Akhter; Morag A. McDonald; Ray Marriott

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that...

  1. Keeping the quality of cows’ butter by γ-irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rady, A. H.; Badr, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows’ butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter wa...

  2. Friction Buttering: A New Technique for Dissimilar Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, G. M.; Mastanaiah, P.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Kottada, Ravi Sankar

    2017-02-01

    This work offers a fresh perspective on buttering, a technique often considered for fusion welding of dissimilar metals. For the first time, buttering was attempted in solid state using friction deposition. Using this new "friction buttering" technique, fusion welding of two different dissimilar metal pairs (austenitic stainless steel/borated stainless steel and Al-Cu-Mg/Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) was successfully demonstrated. The results show that friction buttering can simplify a tough dissimilar welding problem into a routine fusion welding task.

  3. Method validation for detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Ulberth, Franz; Anklam, Elke

    2004-01-01

    A European interlaboratory study was conducted to validate an analytical procedure for the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate. In principle, the fat obtained from plain chocolate according to the Soxhlet principle is separated by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography into triacylglycerol fractions according to their acyl-C-numbers, and within a given number, also according to unsaturation. The presence of cocoa butter equivalents is detected by linear regression analysis applied to the relative proportions of the 3 main triacylglycerol fractions of the fat analyzed. The amount of the cocoa butter equivalent admixture is estimated by partial least-squares regression analysis applied to the relative proportions of the 5 main triacylglycerols. Cocoa butter equivalent admixtures were detected down to a level of 2% related to the fat phase, corresponding to 0.6% in chocolate (assumed fat content of chocolate, 30%), without false-positive or -negative results. By using a quantification model based on partial least-squares regression analysis, the predicted cocoa butter equivalent amounts were in close agreement with the actual values. The applied model performed well at the level of the statutory limit of 5% cocoa butter equivalent addition to chocolate with a prediction error of 0.6%, assuming a chocolate fat content of 30%.

  4. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and...

  5. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  6. Effect of Churning Process on Heavy Metals in Cream, Butter and Butter Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Aminzadeh Vahedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are appropriate source of fat, protein and minerals for human, thus it is important to control the level of toxic elements in these products. The aim of this research was investigation about existence of some elements (lead, Cadmium, Copper and iron in different types of samples including pasteurized and local cream, butter, and butter milk. The amount of elements was determined using flame atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The butter milk was evaluated as the most contaminated products, significantly (p<0.05. By passing time, concentration of heavy metals was increased even higher than Maximum residue levels (MRLS. Results show that elements have more tendencies toward serum phase.

  7. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    @@ letter作"信"讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter,业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation 等等.还有一种信是a bread-and-butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread-and-butter letter就是"黄油面包信"吧?非也.

  8. A bread-and-butter letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道庚

    2007-01-01

    letter作“信”讲是很常用的词,私人信件是personal letter。业务信件叫做business letter,祝贺信是letter of congratulation,邀请信是letter of invitation等等。还有一种信是a bread—and—butter letter,你知道是什么信吗?我们知道bread and butter是涂有黄油的面包,那么,a bread—and—butter leuer就是“黄油面包信”吧?非也。

  9. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the diel...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  10. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  11. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum mois

  12. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... plastic or semiplastic mass or liquid having very few particles larger than 1/16 inch in any dimension....

  13. Detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate by gas liquid chromatography of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Senaldi, Chiara; Ulberth, Franz; Anklam, Elke

    2004-01-01

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents in cocoa butter and plain chocolate is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profile of 74 genuine cocoa butter and 75 cocoa butter equivalent samples obtained by high-resolution capillary gas liquid chromatography was created, using a certified cocoa butter reference material (IRMM-801) for calibration purposes. Based on these data, a large number of cocoa butter/cocoa butter equivalent mixtures were arithmetically simulated. By subjecting the data set to various statistical tools, reliable models for both detection (univariate regression model) and quantification (multivariate model) were elaborated. Validation data sets consisting of a large number of samples (n = 4050 for detection, n = 1050 for quantification) were used to test the models. Excluding pure illipé fat samples from the data set, the detection limit was determined between 1 and 3% foreign fat in cocoa butter. Recalculated for a chocolate with a fat content of 30%, these figures are equal to 0.3-0.9% cocoa butter equivalent. For quantification, the average error for prediction was estimated to be 1.1% cocoa butter equivalent in cocoa butter, without prior knowledge of the materials used in the blend corresponding to 0.3% in chocolate (fat content 30%). The advantage of the approach is that by using IRMM-801 for calibration, the established mathematical decision rules can be transferred to every testing laboratory.

  14. Quantification of triacylglycerol molecular species in cocoa butter using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with nano quantity analyte detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species were quantified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a nano quantity analyte detector (NQAD). TAG standard compounds, i.e., 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (β-POP), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-rac-glycerol (β-POS), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (β-SOS), and natural cocoa butter were used for analyses. NQAD gave the first order equation passing through the origin for all TAG standard compounds. TAG molecular species in cocoa butter were quantified using the calibration curves and the obtained values were almost the same as the reported ones of conventional cocoa butter. Furthermore, a recovery test was also carried out and the values were almost 100. Therefore, HPLC-NQAD can be successfully used for the quantification of TAG molecular species in natural fats and oils.

  15. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    -fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...... (TAG), serum free fatty acid and leptin between the groups. However, the butter-fed rats had a lower content of TAG in the white gastrocnemius muscle (7.7  1.5 vs. 23.1  6.2 mg/g tissue, p=0.01), and a much higher n-3 PUFA content (total n-3 PUFAs 1,43  0.06 vs 0.73  0.02g/mg tissue, p

  16. Composition of cocoa shell fat as related to cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saied, H M; Morsi, M K; Amer, M M

    1981-06-01

    The physical and chemical constants of cocoa shell fat (a by-product resulted during the production of cocoa butter at chocolate factories) were almost identical with those of cocoa butter obtained from the same cocoa beans except for their high acid value. Shell fat contained more amount of phospholipid content (as cephalin) than cocoa butter. The lipid classes were almost the same in cocoa butter and shell fat, however, the latter contained an unidentified constituent which was not found in cocoa butter. The fatty acids were determined quantitatively by GLC, and the results showed that the predominant acids in cocoa butter were palmitic, and oleic. Less amounts of capric, myristic, palmitoleic and linoleic were found in cocoa butter, whereas more amounts of these acids were found in shell fat. Cocoa butter gave higher values of stearic and myristic acids than those of shell fat. Seventeen compounds were detected by GLC in the unsaponifiable matter of both cocoa butter and shell fat from which eight were identified as C30 hydrocarbon, C32 hydrocarbon, squalene, alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, campsterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol in the two samples. The sterols were determined quantitatively, and it was found that the predominant sterol in cocoa butter and shell fat was B-sitosterol. Cocoa butter contained higher values of stigmasterol than that of shell fat, which contained increasing values of campsterol, low values of cholesterol were found in both samples. Stability of cocoa butter and shell fat towards oxidative rancidity at 100 degrees C was the same (10.5 hrs).

  17. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-24

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  18. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  19. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  20. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  1. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  2. Chem I Supplement. Butter and Margarine: Their Chemistry, Their Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R.; McGill, Diana Combs

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the differences between margarine and butter, focusing on the chemical differences. Provides a brief historical overview of the development of both commodities. Describes the manufacture of butter and of margarine, and details the differences in chemical composition and nutritive contents. (TW)

  3. Butter Sculptures:Art to Melt the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAJIANQING

    2004-01-01

    Butter sculptures originated in the Tar Monastery in Qinghai Province. They form a kind of carving art, but the material used is butter mixed with mineral colors. The Tibetans think those who pay sacrifices to Buddha and Buddhist guardians will enjoy peace and happiness.

  4. Penentuan Bilangan Iodin pada Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Dhesy Phatiarma

    2015-01-01

    Determination has been made of Iodine Value with titration methods in some Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS) in PT. Palmcoco Laboratories, Medan. Results obtained from the average level of iodine value Cocoa Butter Substitute derives from Medan is 0,21 gr I2/100gr and from Kuala Tanjung is 0,29 gr I2/100gr. 112401022

  5. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minckler MR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Minckler,1 Joseph Fisher,2 Rachel Bowers,2 Richard Amini1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, 2College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. Case report: This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient’s presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. Conclusion: This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter. Keywords: jojoba butter, simmondsin, cyanoglycoside, anorectic

  6. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration.

  7. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programmes against ectoparasites and as seed dresser. Owing to their chemical stability, they tend to accumulate in the lipid part of the organisms. The stored pesticides are excreted with the endogenous fat during milk production. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico. From the pesticides, only HCB, beta-HCH, pp'-DDT, op'-DDT and pp'-DDE with major frequency and levels were detected. The HCB mean level was low at 0.008 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomer, only the beta-HCH at 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis was determined, remaining as the main contaminant of the monitored butters. Among DDTs, pp'-DDE was the major constituent (0.043 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.036 mg kg(-1)) and op'-DDT (0.009 mg kg(-1)). Comparing the previous study (1994) and this one (2001), all organochlorine pesticides had a descendent tendency; beta-HCH decreased from 0.095 to 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis, whereas the total DDT decreased from 0.056 to 0.047 mg kg(-1), pp'-DDT from 0.050 to 0.036 mg kg(-1), op'-DDT from 0.018 to 0.009 mg kg(-1), while pp'-DDE increased from 0.032 to 0.043 mg kg(-1). The decreased DDT levels in Mexican butters is caused by the substitution of organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids used by the Mexican Ministry of Health since 1999 in sanitary programmes.

  8. Development of a single droplet freezing apparatus for studying crystallisation in cocoa butter droplets

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2015.02.010 The single droplet freezing apparatus described by Pore et al. (J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc., 86, 215-225), which allows crystallisation to be monitored in situ by X-ray diffraction, was modified to allow rapid switching of coolant gas and monitoring by video microscopy. The apparatus was used to study drops of cocoa butter undergoing simulated spray freezing at high coo...

  9. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  10. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.

  11. Quantity of cholesterol in butter from Zagreb market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the quantity of cholesterol in butter - a representative of dairy products with known high quantity of milk fat, is determined. The results show that the quantity of milk fats for the butter samples from domestic production (n=17 was 83.9 %, and from the industrial production (n=5 85.2 %. Average cholesterol quantities, in before mentioned samples, were 227 mg/100g or 22 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of sample. The results show that the increase of milk fats does not strictly influence cholesterol increase in the individual butter sample.

  12. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  13. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were...... in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis...

  14. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  15. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  16. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  17. Butter, my love” Joy, Sorrow and Rehabilitation: Not simply Cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to his “love” for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of “cherry picking”, i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC, the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: “If you were to give

  18. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  19. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Bilandžić; Marija Sedak; Maja Đokić; Đurđica Božić; Božica Solomun Kolanović; Ivana Varenina

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg): Al 0.01-3.93, Co

  20. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  1. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues.

  2. Rapid extraction of aflatoxin from creamy and crunchy peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Victor A

    2005-01-01

    A rapid extraction technique was developed for the isolation and subsequent liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in creamy and crunchy peanut butter. Peanut buftter samples were extracted with a methanol 15% sodium chloride (7 + 3) solution followed by a second extraction with methanol. The extract was subjected to a cleanup using a Vicam Aflatest immunoaffinity column. Control samples for both smooth and crunchy peanut butter were fortified at 4 different levels for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. The average aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 recoveries from smooth peanut buffer were 95.2, 89.9, 94.1, and 62.4%, respectively, and 92.4, 84.3, 85.5, and 53.7%, respectively, from crunchy peanut butter. This extraction method and the official AOAC Method 991.31 produced comparable results for peanut butter samples. This method provides a rapid, specific, and easily controlled assay for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanut butter with minimal solvent usage. Organic solvent consumption was decreased by 85% and hazardous waste production was decreased by 80% in comparison with the AOAC method. Along with the decreased solvent consumption, significant savings in time were observed.

  3. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum,...

  5. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter colle

  7. Organochlorine pesticide residues in cow's milk and butter in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Pardío, V T; Waliszewski, K N; Chantiri, J N; Aguirre, A A; Infanzón, R M; Rivera, J

    1997-12-03

    This monitoring study of 355 samples of cow's milk collected from the central region of Veracruz state and 448 samples of national butter brands was conducted to determine the contamination levels of organochlorine pesticides. The results obtained for mean HCH levels were 0.094 and 0.093 mg/kg on fat basis in cow's milk and butter samples, respectively. The mean DDT levels were 0.159 and 0.049 mg/kg, respectively. In relation to cow's milk, the total HCH levels in Veracruz state were higher but total DDT levels were comparable to those reported in other countries. On the other hand, organochlorine levels detected in national brand butter samples were lower than those found in other countries, where these pesticides are still used in sanitary actions. These results confirmed that dairy products in Mexico presented organochlorine pesticide residues (owing to their use in sanitary actions) indicating a human exposure through these food products.

  8. AN ECONOMIC MODEL OF U.S. IMPORTS OF BUTTER AND MILK FAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Kenneth W.; Wu, Zhen

    2005-01-01

    This study developed a model to explain monthly imports of butter and butter substitutes. The U.S. imports butter and other high milk fat products that can substitute for a strict definition of butter. These products include dairy spreads, butter substitutes, anhydrous milk fat, and food preparations. The U.S. imports these high milk fat products under a tariff-rate quota system (TRQ) implemented by the World Trade Organization (WTO). This study quantified all the milk fat contained in U.S. b...

  9. Cluster analysis for the systematic grouping of genuine cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalent samples based on triglyceride patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Ulberth, Franz; Anklam, Elke

    2004-06-16

    The triglyceride profile of cocoa butters (CBs) from different geographical origins, varieties, growing seasons, and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) was determined by capillary gas liquid chromatography. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the five main triglycerides of the samples for the ability to find natural groupings among (a) CBs of various provenance and (b) CBE samples of different types. The samples were clustered using Ward's method, and the similarity values of the linkages were represented by dendrograms. The five triglycerides contained adequate information to obtain a meaningful sample differentiation. This information can be used to assess the purity and the origin of the CB sample examined.

  10. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (PCream fermentation modified nutritional and textural properties of butter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.

  11. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in Seuss's…

  12. "The Butter Battle Book": Engaging Children's Thoughts of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how "The Butter Battle Book" by Dr. Seuss can be used to introduce the moral issue of war to young children. Studies the written responses of 1,187 children in grades kindergarten to 6 to the story. Notes that only the fourth- through sixth-grade students (who felt themselves beyond Dr. Seuss) understood the allegorical nature of the…

  13. Characteristics of traditionally processed shea kernels and butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Akissoe, N.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional production of shea butter requires a heat treatment of the nuts. This study compared the end products derived by two commonly used heat treatments, namely smoking and boiling followed by sun-drying. Neither treatment influenced the moisture content of the kernels (8–10%), but the boi

  14. Letter to the Editor re: Bittman's "Butter is Back"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Bittman suggests that “Butter Is Back” (column, March 26) based on one highly controversial meta-analysis. There are a number of ways to summarize the available scientific data. The links? Conclusions of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, released last fall, ...

  15. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  16. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  17. The Quality of Milk Chocolate Bars by Substitution of Cocoa Butter, Milk Powder and Lecithin Soya – A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasni Dian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk chocolate is most important products of confectionary that are well-known for its consumer, and a precious ended product in entirely value added chain in cacao. In chocolate industry, each ingredient plays an important role in product quality. This research aims to assess the possibility of substitution of cocoa butter and its impact on physiological appearance and sensory quality hedonically, to formulate optimum formulation of palm oil as cocoa butter substitute (0%; 10%; 20%, milk powder (0%; 10%; 20% and lechitin (0.5%; 1%; 1.5%. Melting point and attribute preferences test were conducted for aroma, texture and flavour. Melting point were indicated that interaction within palm oil replacement and milk powder had significant impact to lowering the melting point of milk chocolate, whilst addition of lechitin up to 1% also decreased the melting point range. Attribute preference test from 40 untrained panellists evaluated that palm oil replacement up to 20% had improved the panellists preferences for aroma whereas it had contradiction effect for texture. For taste, additional milk powder up to 20% definitely enhances the taste preferences. Partial Least Regression shows that palm oil replacement had negative effect on aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, whereas it has positive impact on texture. The increase of additional of milk powder plays an negative impact as well to panellist perceptions towards aroma, flavour and texture. Lechitin as emulsifier influences significantly towards the aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, but not for texture. Sensory evaluation revealed that milk chocolate made from 10% palm oil substitution, 10% milk powder and 1% lechitin as more accepted hedonically as conventional milk chocolate.

  18. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing.

  19. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  20. Contemporary carbon content of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, T; Ondov, J M; Buchholz, B A; VanDerveer, M C

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈ 250 μg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5 ± 1.2% (n = 3, 1σ) to 97.1 ± 0.8% (n = 3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16 ± 0.12 (n = 5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S.

  1. Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G

    2009-01-01

    Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

  2. Monitoring of butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) for pesticidal contamination from cotton belt of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Singh, Jagdeep; Singh, Shashi; Kathpal, T S

    2005-06-01

    Butter (45) and ghee (55) samples were collected from rural and urban areas of cotton growing belt of Haryana and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi residue analytical technique employing GC-ECD and GC-NPD systems equipped with capillary columns. Butter samples were comparatively more contaminated (97%) than ghee (94%), showing more contamination with organochlorine insecticides from urban samples. About 11% samples of butter showed endosulfan residues above MRL value and 2% samples had residues of synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates each above their respective MRL values. In ghee, residues of HCH & DDT both and of endosulfan exceeded the MRL values in 5 and 20% samples, respectively. Among organophosphates, only chlorpyriphos was detected with 9% samples showing its residue above MRL value. Irrespective of contamination levels, residues above the MRL values were more in ghee. More extensive study covering other agricultural regions/zones of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of milk products.

  3. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  4. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  5. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  6. Phase equilibria and physical properties of CO2-saturated cocoa butter mixtures at elevated pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kareth, S.; Weidner, E.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The melting point and phase behaviour of cocoa butter under CO2 pressure were observed in a high-pressure view cell. The melting point decreases from 35 to 23 °C at CO2 pressures higher than 5 MPa. A static analytical procedure was used to measure the solubility of CO2 in cocoa butter at 40, 80 and

  7. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

  8. Nutritional Composition of Shea Products and Chemical Properties of Shea Butter: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Akissoe, N.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand of shea products (kernels and butter) has led to the assessment of the state-of-the-art of these products. In this review, attention has been focused on macronutrients and micronutrients of pulp, kernels, and butter of shea tree and also the physicochemical properties of shea butte

  9. Contamination with Escherichia coli of fresh butter produced by cow’s milk in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENVER BAJRAMI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Processing of milk may produce undesirable effects and some microorganisms produce food infections carrying the pathogens that will increase the likelihood of infection of the consumer`s food. Contamination of milk and milk products is largely due to human factor and unhygienic conditions. Fresh butter is usually contaminated with different kinds and levels of pathogens. In Kosovo fresh butter is produced in home conditions and sometimes in not appropriate hygienic conditions. Sixty two butter samples were randomly collected from different localities of Kosovo for the isolation of E. coli a notorious contaminant. All the samples were inoculated on different bacteriological media and a number of biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of the isolates. The results revealed that out of 62 fresh samples 22, 5% (16/62 showed growth of E. coli. The highest number of butter samples contaminated with E. coli is recorded from butter samples obtained from vending shops and houses. Among the 16 butter samples showed growth of E. coli the highest rate of contamination was found in butter samples collected in Ferizaj region. 5 butter samples collected in Ferizaj or 8% showed the values of E. coli from 10cfu/g to 100cfu/g

  10. Texture of butter from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, G; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Lindberg, G L; Beitz, D C

    2003-10-01

    Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows were selected that tested higher (n = 5) or lower (n = 5) in their proportion of milk unsaturated fatty acids. Milk samples were collected a week after testing, and butter was prepared from the individual samples. Milk and butter samples were again analyzed for fatty acid composition. Butter at 5 degrees C was evaluated by a sensory panel for spreadability and by a texture analyzer at both 5 and 23 degrees C for hardness and adhesiveness. Milk and butter samples from cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition had a lower atherogenic index, and the butter samples were more spreadable, softer, and less adhesive. Thus, phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet is sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties.

  11. Aflatoxin M1 in white cheese and butter consumed in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Hasan; Yarsan, Ender; Sarimehmetoglu, Belgin; Cakmak, Omer

    2002-10-01

    We studied the occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 183 sample of white cheese and butter in Istanbul, Turkey in 2001. The incidence of AFM1 in white cheese and butter samples was as high as 65 and 81, respectively. The particularly high AFM,concentrations imply that more importance should be given to routine analysis of these dairy products.

  12. Characterization of cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses: implications for vegetable fat quantification in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, J E; Dionisi, F

    2001-09-01

    The fatty acids from cocoa butters of different origins, varieties, and suppliers and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (Illexao 30-61, Illexao 30-71, Illexao 30-96, Choclin, Coberine, Chocosine-Illipé, Chocosine-Shea, Shokao, Akomax, Akonord, and Ertina) were investigated by bulk stable carbon isotope analysis and compound specific isotope analysis. The interpretation is based on principal component analysis combining the fatty acid concentrations and the bulk and molecular isotopic data. The scatterplot of the two first principal components allowed detection of the addition of vegetable fats to cocoa butters. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk cocoa butter and of the individual fatty acids is related to mixing with other vegetable fats and possibly to thermally or oxidatively induced degradation during processing (e.g., drying and roasting of the cocoa beans or deodorization of the pressed fat) or storage. The feasibility of the analytical approach for authenticity assessment is discussed.

  13. Polymorphism, microstructure and rheology of butter. Effects of cream heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2012-12-01

    The effect of cream heat treatment prior to butter manufacturing, fluctuating temperatures during storage and presence of fat globules vs. no fat globules was examined in laboratory scale produced butter. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry was used to study crystallization behaviour and nuclear magnetic resonance to measure solid fat content and water droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the crystal structure was linked to the rheological properties and microstructure of the butter using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Butter produced from non-matured cream mainly formed α- and β'-crystals with minor traces of β-crystals. Maturing of the cream caused a transition from α- to β'- and β-form. The rheological behaviour of slow cooled butter deviated from the matured ones by having a lower elastic modulus, caused by a weaker crystal network. Presence of fat globules did not affect the rheological properties significantly.

  14. Keeping the quality of cows’ butter by γ-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rady, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows’ butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows’ butter and increased its shelf life at 4±1ºC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples without any effects on its sensory properties.En esta investigación se estudió el uso de la radiación gamma para mantener la calidad de

  15. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2012-09-15

    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived.

  16. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Aliyu; Bala, Muntari; Bala, Shuaibu M.

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10 U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology. PMID:25937979

  17. A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jana; Päpke, Olaf; Bergman, Ake

    2005-12-01

    The main source of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is, in general, food. In this study, 64 butter samples from 37 countries were analyzed to assess the global contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) together with its major metabolites. The objectives of the study were to assess the presence of major organohalogen contaminants in butter, to trace geographical differences, and to determine toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in butter. The highest PCDD/F concentrations were found in butter from Korea with an average of 1.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid weight (l.w.). from PCDD/F and an additional contribution from the non- and mono-ortho-PCBs of 0.55 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Belgian butter showed average levels of 0.53 and 1.2 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, respectively, but one sample of Belgium butter had a total TEQ level as high as 4.0 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Three out of five butter samples from Portugal showed similarly high PCDD/F TEQ levels. The sigmaPCB levels in European butter appeared to be somewhat higher than in the samples from the rest of the world. The average contribution of CB-153 to the total PCB concentration was 22% (SD 6.4, coefficient of variation 29%). Generally, the PCBs contributed around 60% of the total TEQ value, with CB-126 contributing approximately half of this value. This shows the important TEQ contribution from dioxinlike PCBs to the total TEQs. The highest HCB levels were found in butter samples from Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Slovenia. Low levels of HCB in butter were generally found in the Southern Hemisphere. Butter samples from countries from Eastern Europe had elevated sigmaDDT concentrations, with a particularly high concentration in Ukraine butter, followed by some Russian samples, Brazil, and the U.S.

  18. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  19. Salmonellosis and the gastrointestinal tract: more than just peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2008-08-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing about 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats, but almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of more than 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis, but bacteremia and endovascular and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, and antibiotic therapy is reserved for persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis.

  20. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  1. COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF COCOA BUTTER MADE FROM THE PROCESSING OF THE IVORIAN COCOA BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID KOFFI AKAKI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color of cocoa butters was measured using a CM-2002 Minolta Spectrocolorimeter. The results showed that the ‘’L’’ values (lightness varied from 73.11 to 84.76, the ‘’a’’ values (greenness varied from – 2.15 to – 1.08 and a redness of 4.99, and the ‘’b’’ values (yellowness varied from 28.63 to 41.11. Acidities of all typescocoa butters varied from 0.47 to 10.26. The best cocoa butters were obtained from staly and fully purple beans and cocoa beans of grades 4, 5, and 6. These butters had acidities of 0.48 and 0.56 for fully purple and staly beans and 2.41, 1.30, and 0.47 for grades 4, 5, and 6, respectively.

  2. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    Background: This paper alms to analyse socioeconomic variation in the use of cheese and butter in Europe by reviewing existing dietary surveys. It explores whether socioeconomic differences in the intake of these foods follow a similar pattern in all countries. Methods: An overview of available...... studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption......,of cheese and butter (animal fat) for each study. FAO's food balance sheets were used to classify the countries according to consumption trends of these foodstuffs. Results: In all countries higher social classes used more cheese than lower classes. The results for butter were less consistent. In the Nordic...

  3. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    OpenAIRE

    Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta; Zoubida Charrouf; Abdelfattah Derouiche; Younes Rahali; Yahya Bensouda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forea...

  4. Palm Based Mono-Diacylglyceride as an Emulsifier in Producing Chocolate with Cocoa Butter Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifier used in the preparation of chocolate has the function to stabilize fat and water that can prevent the occurrence of blooming. Emulsifier generallyused in the preparation of chocolate is lecithin. However as an alternative monodiacylglycerol (MDAG can be used. MDAG can be synthesized from vegetableoil such as palm oil and its fraction. This research was conducted to study the effect of palm MDAG and variation of its concentration on quality of chocolate. The palm MDAG used was palm kernel oil MDAG (MDAG PKO, palm oleinMDAG (MDAG POL, palm stearin MDAG (MDAG PS at the concentration between 0.3 to 0.9%. Results of the study showed that chocolate which usedpalm MDAG did not cause blooming. Increase of MDAG concentration tended to increase fat content but the reverse result was observed in the case of lecithin.The melting point of chocolate tended to increase with increasing concentration of MDAG POL and MDAG PS but the reverse result was observed in lecithin,meanwhile for MDAG PKO similar result was observed. The protein content of chocolate tended to decrease with increasing MDAG concentration but thereverseresult was observed in lecithin. Viscosity of chocolate with lecithin, MDAG PKO and MDAG POL decreased in accordance with increasing concentration,meanwhile in MDAG PS at the concentration of 0.3% in the beginning viscosity decreasedbut later on increased with increasing concentration. The use of emulsifierat the concentration of 0.3–0.9% did not have significant effect on fat content, melting point of fat and protein content, but it had significant effect on viscosity.Results of organoleptic testing showed that the use of palm MDAG have not significant effect on texture, taste, and appearance of chocolate. Types and concentrations of palm MDAG which were highly accepted by the panelist there wereMDAG PS and MDAG PKO with concentration 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Keywords: chocolate, cocoa butter substitute, lecithin, palm oil

  5. Contamination with Escherichia coli of fresh butter produced by cow’s milk in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    ENVER BAJRAMI; KAPLLAN SULAJ

    2014-01-01

    Processing of milk may produce undesirable effects and some microorganisms produce food infections carrying the pathogens that will increase the likelihood of infection of the consumer`s food. Contamination of milk and milk products is largely due to human factor and unhygienic conditions. Fresh butter is usually contaminated with different kinds and levels of pathogens. In Kosovo fresh butter is produced in home conditions and sometimes in not appropriate hygienic conditions. Sixty two butte...

  6. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory prof...

  7. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  8. Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2014-09-01

    Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter.

  9. 影响黄油生成量因素及黄油的外送方法%Factors affecting output of butter and butter delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建东

    2015-01-01

    烯烃生产过程中碱洗塔中会生成黄油。本文针对黄油产生的危害性,介绍了黄油生成的机理,并提出了减少黄油生成的优化方法及黄油外送方法。%The mechanism of butter generated in caustic tower during olefin production is introduced in this paper to provide solutions for reduction of the output and delivery methods of the butter.

  10. To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène

    2013-01-01

    countries is commercialised unprocessed. This paper examines the factors enabling and constraining the processing of shea nuts into shea butter in Burkina Faso. Our analysis is based on socio-economic survey data collected from 536 households in the Zoundwéogo and Cascades provinces of Burkina Faso, as well...... as qualitative interview data collected from 74 shea butter producers in the province of Sissili. The factors affecting the selection of shea butter production as a livelihood activity as well as the economic success of this activity are analysed using a Heckman selection model. Moreover, we study the effect...... of locality of residence, defined as place of residence along the rural–urban continuum, on shea butter processing and income. We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to the Union and earn...

  11. Analisis Triasilgliserol Pada Cocoa Butter Equivalent yang Dibuat Dari RBDPO dan Asam Stearat Menggunakan Katalis Enzim Dedak Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Azlia Hafisa

    2015-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penentuan triasilgiserol pada Cocoa Butter Equivalent yang dibuat dari RBDPO dan asam stearat menggunakan katalis enzim dedak padi. Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) merupakan lemak cokelat yang memiliki sifat fisik mirip dengan Cocoa Butter. Pembuatan CBE dilakukan dengan pencampuran rasio RBDPO dan asam stearat dengan beberapa perbandingan yaitu 1:1; 1:2,3 ; 1:3 ; 1:4 ; 1:5,6 ; 2:1 dan 3:1 dengan penambahan enzim dedak padi. Penentuan komposisi TAG menggunakan ...

  12. Spatial gradients of OCPs in European butter--integrating environmental and exposure information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jana; Müller, Anne; Vives, Ingrid; Mariani, Giulio; Umlauf, Gunther

    2013-05-01

    The Stockholm Convention and the Global Monitoring Plan encourage the production of monitoring data to effectively evaluate the presence of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all regions, in order to identify changes in levels over time, as well as to provide information on their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we report the first step of two to investigate whether butter is a feasible matrix to screen with the purpose to reflect regional ambient atmospheric air levels of POPs. The first step described here is to generate monitoring data; the second is to investigate the relationship between the two matrixes, i.e., POP concentrations in air and butter, which will be reported in another article published in this journal. Here, the 27 organochlorine pesticides listed under the Stockholm Convention have been analyzed in 75 butter samples from Europe. The general conclusions were as follows: Total organochlorine pesticide concentration is lower in butter from northern and central Europe. The spatial gradient of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane and hexachlorocyclohexane is increasing in the eastern region of Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine), dieldrin towards France, and endosulfan levels were elevated on the Azores Island in the Atlantic Ocean. One butter sample from Romania exceeded the European Maximum Residue Limit value for lindane, but the other butter pesticide levels were all below the limit values. The dataset reported here can be used for the calibration of the air-grass-dairy products model, which would support the feasibility to use butter as biomonitor for measuring POP levels in ambient air.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (pbutter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality.

  14. Environmental impacts of milk powder and butter manufactured in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, William; Goggins, Jamie; Clifford, Eoghan; Zhan, Xinmin

    2017-02-01

    The abolition of the milk quota system that was in place in Europe was abolished in 2015, which instigated an immediate increase in milk production in many European countries. This increase will aid in addressing the world's ever growing demand for food, but will incur increased stresses on the environmental impact and sustainability of the dairy industry. In this study, an environmental life cycle assessment was performed in order to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of milk powder and butter in the Republic of Ireland. A farm gate to processing factory gate analysis, which includes raw milk transportation, processing into each product and packaging, is assessed in this study. Operational data was obtained from 5 dairy processing factories that produce milk powder (4 of which also produce butter). Results for each environmental impact category are presented per kilogram of product. Energy consumption (raw milk transportation and on-site electrical and thermal energy usage) contributes, on average, 89% and 78% of the total global warming potential, for milk powder and butter respectively, for the life cycle stages assessed. Similarly, energy consumption contributes, on average, 86% and 96% of the total terrestrial acidification potential for milk powder and butter respectively, for these life cycle stages. Emissions associated with wastewater treatment contribute approximately 10% and 40% to the total freshwater eutrophication potential and marine eutrophication potential, respectively, for both milk powder and butter production. In addition, packaging materials also has a significant contribution to these environmental impact categories for butter production. Results were also presented for three milk powder products being manufactured by the factories surveyed: skim milk powder, whole milk powder and full fat milk powder. The analysis presented in this paper helps to identify opportunities to reduce the environmental impacts

  15. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    -blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed...

  16. Development of an offline bidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of stereospecific triacylglycerols in cocoa butter equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Le, Thien Trung; Dewettinck, Koen

    2013-08-21

    Acyl migration is a serious problem in enzymatic modification of fats and oils, particularly in production of cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymatic acidolysis reaction, which leads to the formation of non-symmetrical triacylglycerols (TAGs) from symmetrical TAGs. Non-symmetrical TAGs may affect the physical properties of final products and are therefore often undesired. Consequently, an accurate method is needed to determine positional isomer TAGs during the production of CBE. A bidimentional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with combination of non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC and silver ion HPLC joining with an evaporative light scattering detector was successfully developed for the analysis of stereospecific TAGs. The best separation of positional isomer standards was obtained with a heptane/acetone mobile-phase gradient at 25 °C and 1 mL/min. The developed method was then used in multidimensional determination of the TAG positional isomers in fat and oil blends and successfully identified the TAGs and possible isomers in enzymatically acidolyzed CBE.

  17. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers.

  18. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, exacerbates β-amyloid cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S; Vartak, Ashish P; Vince, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Diacetyl (DA), an ubiquitous butter-flavoring agent, was found to influence several aspects of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation--one of the two primary pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thioflavin T fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements revealed that DA accelerates Aβ¹⁻⁴² aggregation into soluble and ultimately insoluble β-pleated sheet structures. DA was found to covalently bind to Arg⁵ of Aβ¹⁻⁴² through proteolytic digestion-mass spectrometric experiments. These biophysical and chemical effects translated into the potentiation of Aβ¹⁻⁴² cytotoxicity by DA toward SH-SY5Y cells in culture. DA easily traversed through a MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, DA was found not only to be resistant to but also inhibitory toward glyoxalase I, the primary initiator of detoxification of amyloid-promoting reactive dicarbonyl species that are generated naturally in large amounts by neuronal tissue. In light of the chronic exposure of industry workers to DA, this study raises the troubling possibility of long-term neurological toxicity mediated by DA.

  19. [Biologically active substances in grated cocoa and cocoa butter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, V M; Stankevich, N M; Makarov, V G; Tikhonov, V P

    2007-01-01

    In the article results of comparative analysis of grated cocoa and cocoa butter samples are presented. The investigation was done by modern instrumental methods such as HPLC, GC, UV- VIS-spectroscopy, and also with application of titrimetric and grarimetric methods. In the analyzed samples contents of total phenolics changes in an interval 1,0-3,2%, including monomeric proantocyanidins 0,6-1,35%; pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) 0,34-0,76 microg/g; phenyl ethylamine from 2,79 to 14,97 microg/g, tyramine from 9,56 to 71,68 microg/g, dopamine from 5,3 to 25,85 microg/g; theobromine from 3,3 to 8%, caffeine from 0,49 to 0,70%; among the amino acids at the greatest quantities were presented glutaminic and asparaginic acids, arginin and leucin; three main fatty acids were determined - palmitinic (31+/-2% rel.), oleinic (35+/-2% rel.) and stearinic (35+/-2% rel.); the main phytosterins were sytosterin (up to 192 mg%) and obtusifoliol (up to 198,5 mg%).

  20. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter.

  1. Evaluation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower hard stearins for cocoa butter equivalent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2012-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are produced from vegetable fats by blending palm mid fraction (PMF) and tropical butters coming from shea, mango kernel or kokum fat. In this regard, high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower hard stearins from solvent fractionation can be used in CBE production since their compositions and physical properties are similar to those found in the above-mentioned tropical butters. In this work, three sunflower hard stearins (SHS) ranging from 65% to 95% of disaturated triacylglycerols and a shea stearin (used as reference) were blended with PMF to evaluate their potential use in CBEs formulation. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of PMF/SHS showed eutectic formation for SHS 65 and SHS 80, but monotectic behaviour with softening effect for SHS 95. Three CBEs from SHS and shea stearin were formulated according to phase behaviour diagrams and solid fat content data at 25 °C. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of these CBEs with cocoa butter showed no eutectic behaviour. Therefore, CBEs elaborated from SHS exhibited full compatibility with cocoa butter.

  2. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  3. Study on Color and Antioxidant Properties of Rambutan Seed Fat as Cocoa Butter Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Khairy. H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the color (whiteness, L*, a*, b* and antioxidant properties (radical scavenging activity, total phenolic compound of rambutan seed fat (RSF and its mixture with cocoa butter (CB were investigated. Different proportions were applied in preparing the samples between (RSF and (CB. The results showed that significant differences among samples in the whiteness, (L* and (a* value, whereas (b* value had no significant differences. With regard antioxidant activity the results showed that total phenolic compound (TPC of cocoa butter was (47.37±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat, while the other mixtures between (RSF and (CB showed (40.49±0.01-11.12±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH of cocoa butter valued (67.32±0.44 µmol trolox/100 g fat, similar to the mixture M1 (60.16±0.23. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture ratio up to 40% rambutan seed fat (RSF can benefit as a cocoa butter replacer whereas a higher ratio completely change original cocoa butter characteristics. Thus, there is the possibility of using the (RSF as replacer of (CB and could utilize by chocolate products.

  4. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p probiotic products stored at different temperatures, Bifidobacterium had the greatest survivability, followed by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus. The probiotics used in the study had different surviving patterns, and their survival was influenced by storage conditions. Fat content of peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children.

  5. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  6. Development of a rapid method for the detection of cocoa butter equivalents in mixtures with cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcarolo, R; Anklam, E

    2001-01-01

    A simple and rapid gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed for the detection of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in cocoa buffer (CB). It is based on the use of a 5 m nonpolar capillary column for the separation of the main triglycerides of CB according to their acyl/carbon numbers. The GC procedure was optimized to avoid thermal degradation of the triglycerides. By computing the ratio C54/C50 and (C54/C50) x C52 and by 2-dimensional plotting of these values, authentic CB samples were clearly distinguished from samples containing various CBEs. The detection of little as 1% CBE in CB (corresponding to about 0.3% CBE in chocolate) in a model system was shown to be possible. Under real conditions, for a wide range of CBs, about 2.5% CBEs in CB were detected. With this method, quantitation was possible at a concentration of 5% CBEs in CB mixtures, which corresponds to around 1% in chocolate; this value is far below the maximum level of 5% CBEs allowed to be added to chocolate.

  7. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties.

  8. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  9. Development and performance evaluation of frustum cone shaped churn for small scale production of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Adarsh M; Sahu, C; Agrawal, A K; Bisen, P; Chavhan, B B; Sinha, Geetesh

    2016-05-01

    The present research was intended to develop a small scale butter churn and its performance by altering churning temperature and churn speed during butter making. In the present study, the cream was churned at different temperatures (8, 10 and 12 °C) and churn speeds (35, 60 and 85 rpm). The optimum parameters of churning time (40 min), moisture content (16 %) and overrun (19.42 %) were obtained when cream was churned at churning temperature of 10 °C and churn speed of 60 rpm. Using appropriate conditions of churning temperature and churn speed, high quality butter can be produced at cottage scale.

  10. [Effect of methylcellulose on protein hydrolysis by pepsin in butter cream].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrich, A Ia

    1977-01-01

    The digestiveability of proteins with pepsin in butter creames, where the source of nutrients formed condensed milk, was studied. It was made certain that in specimens containing a greater proportion of butter the proteins were less susceptible to be assailed. When some of the butter is replaced with methylcellulose for the purpose of reducing the calorific value of the cream there was observed an accelerated proteolysis by comparison with both the traditional specimens and those containing the same amount of fat as the test samples. In the test conditions the slowing down of the fat proteins hydrolysis was not associated with inactivation of pepsin. The cited data support the expediency of using methylcellulose in the confectionary industry.

  11. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...... affects cholesterol concentrations. Twenty-three subjects collected 2 × 24 h urine samples after 6 weeks of cheese and 6 weeks of butter intake with equal amounts of fat in a cross-over intervention study. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS. A two-step univariate data analysis approach using linear...... sulfate, xanthurenic acid, tyramine sulfate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, isovalerylglutamic acid and several acylglycines including isovalerylglycine, tiglylglycine and isobutyrylglycine when compared to butter intake of equal fat content. The biological mechanisms of action linking the metabolites...

  12. Design of butter tube group filling method%黄油桶装方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞虎; 袁越锦

    2012-01-01

    A butter tube group filling method and a group filling system are designed to ensure the quality of butter filling and improve the filling efficiency. The system makes butter tube simultaneous group running, simultaneous primary group filling, simultaneous respective group measurement (respective compensation come true. The whole work process is controlled by PLC.%设计了成组灌装方法和灌装系统,实现黄油桶成组同步运行,成组同步初灌装,成组同步分别计量、分别补偿,保证黄油灌装质量,提高灌装效率.整个工作过程用PLC(Programmable Logic Controller,可编程控制器)控制.

  13. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    Butter and other milk fat-based products are valuable products for the dairy industry due to their unique taste, their textural characteristics, and nutritional value. However, an increased consumer demand for low-fat-based products increases the need for an increased essential understanding...... of the effective factors governing the structure of milk fat-based products. Today, 2 manufacturing techniques are available: the churning method and the emulsification method. The first is typically used for production of butter with a globular structure, which has become increasingly popular to obtain low....... Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...

  14. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, L.B.; Luccas, V.; Kieckbusch, T.G.

    2011-07-01

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air-grass-yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air-butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP.

  16. Synthesis of cocoa butter triacylglycerols using a model acidolysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göǧüş, Fahrettin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reaction parameters such as substrate mole ratio, reaction temperature, enzyme load, water content and reaction time were studied in a model enzymatic acidolysis system. Palmitic and stearic acids were incorporated into triolein (OOO under the catalysis of sn-1,3 specific lipase to produce the three major triacylglycerols (TAGs in cocoa butter (CB, namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl--glycerol (POP, 1(3-palmitoyl-3(1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS and 1,3distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS. TAG contents of the reaction products were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC.The best results (15.2% POP, 30.4% POS, 15.2 % SOS were obtained at 1:3:3 (OOO:palmitic acid:stearic acid substrate mole ratio and reaction parameters: time 10 h, temperature 45 oC, enzyme load 20 %, water content 5 %. The results obtained in this model system might be used for the optimization and application of lipase catalyzed acidolysis reactions in natural systems to produce cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs.El efecto de parámetros de reacción como el ratio molar de sustratos, carga de enzima, contenido de agua o temperatura de reacción fueron estudiados en un sistema modelo de acidolisis para la síntesis de triglicéridos disaturados. Los ácidos grasos palmítico y esteárico se incorporaron a la molécula de trioleína (OOO mediante la catálisis con una li-pasa sn-1,3 específica para producir los tres triglicéridos (TAGs mayoritarios de la manteca de cacao (CB: 1,3-dipalmitil-2-oleoil glicerol (POP, 1(3-palmitil-3(1-estearil-2glicerol (POS and 1,3-diestearil-2-oleoil glicerol (SOS. Los TAGs producidos en cada reacción se analizaron por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. Los mejores resultados (15.2 %, POP, 30.4 % POS, 15.2 % SOS se obtuvieron empleando la relación molar de sustratos 1:3:3 (OOO: ácido palmítico:ácido esteárico y los parámetros de reacción: tiempo 10h, temperatura 45 °C, carga de enzima 20

  17. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate...... if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. 3. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique...

  18. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether......, such as butter, cause the PCs to be less resistant to ESC under stress. The reason for this is that these chemicals and the PCs have sufficiently similar Hansen solubility parameters to allow surface conformational changes even though absorption is non-existent or extremely small. ATR-FTIR was used to detect...

  19. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    There is a long term interest of lipase applications in lipid modifications because of the inherent advantages over chemical methods such as more specific reactions involved, less energy used, moderate reaction conditions and so on. In this work, cocoa butter-like fats (CBF) were produced using......-8%. And about 90% of the present PPP and PPSt triglycerides were separated from the product. Under above parameters, the final pilot products had similar compositions to those of cocoa butter. In this research, IPPL showed initial interesterification activity at the similar level as Lipozyme IM from Novo...

  20. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitore...

  1. Production of 1, 3 Regiospecific Lipase From Bacillus sp. RK-3: Its Potential to Synthesize Cocoa Butter Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bacillus sp. RK-3 isolated from soil initially produced 3.28 IU/mL of 1, 3 regiospecific lipase in medium containing 1.0% olive oil. After process optimization, 10.56 IU/mL of lipase was produced in medium containing sunflower oil 1.5 %, tryptone 2 %, Ca2+ 20 mM using 3 % inoculum in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 mL of the medium at pH 7.0, 250 rpm and 30 °C for 36 h. Scale up in 10 L bioreactor with 7.5 L of the optimized medium yielded 16.41 IU/mL in 30 h resulting in net 6.0 fold increase in enzyme units as against initial units of 3.28 IU/mL obtained under unoptimized conditions. The productivity in 10 L bioreactor is 0.547 IU/mL/h as against initial of 0.091 IU/mL/h. The lipase exhibited 95.12 % stability in hexane, followed by THF (75.83 % and petroleum ether (73.85 % after 24 h of incubation. Cocoa butter substitute (CBS synthesis was attempted in a reaction containing 1.2 IU/mg of lipase using palm oil and methyl stearate in hexane. The reaction product being formed was analyzed qualitatively using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and quantified by gas chromatography (GC which showed 83.17 % conversion efficiency for CBS in 24 h.

  2. Comparative study of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and gas chromatography for quantitative determination of cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalent triacylglycerol composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, F; Absalon, Ch; Eloy, A; Salagoity, M H; Esclapez, M; Medina, B

    2003-01-01

    The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition study of cocoa butter (CB) and cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) has been performed by gas chromatography (GC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). These two techniques provided comparable results. The advantage of the MALDI technique was the detection of each compound comprising the triacylglycerol classes (Cn). Moreover, comparison of the data obtained by these two techniques indicated that TAG relative percentages could be obtained quantitatively with the MALDI technique. These techniques have been applied for the composition determination of CB + CBE mixtures. Encouraging results showed that it is possible to quantify an admixture containing as little as 4% of CBE.

  3. Comparison between the Effect of Cow Ghee and Butter on Memory and Lipid Profile of Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansude, Akshata Sanjay; Angadi, Eesha Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The traditional texts designate Cow Ghee as Medhya Rasayana, beneficial for mental alertness and memory. There has been concern about increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to its high percentage of saturated fatty acids in ghee. Amongst all edible fats, nutrition composition of cow ghee and butter is comparatively similar. Hence we had planned a study to assess effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile. Aim So the aim of this study is to assess the effect of cow ghee on memory and lipid profile Materials and Methods Nootropic activity of test drugs was assessed by Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) model. Rats were divided into four groups namely control, Piracetam, cow ghee and butter. All drugs were given orally for 21 days. Transfer latency was measured in EPM model and probe test was done in MWM model. Results Cow ghee and butter group showed no significant effect on memory in EPM and MWM model. There was reduction in weight of animals in Cow Ghee group and increase in weight with Butter. In both the models there was a significant increase in Triglyceride (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL) levels of rats in butter groups and increase in TG and VLDL of rats with cow ghee in EPM model. Conclusion The result of experiment suggests that no beneficial effect cow ghee and butter on cognition was seen. However, ghee is relatively safer when compared to Butter in considering lipid profile. PMID:27790463

  4. Industrial application of different heat treatments and cream fat contents for improving the spreadability of butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondhoosh, Arash; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    hardening of texture especially in winter. Methods: Firstly, Pasteurized cream with different fat contents (40 & 45% fat) was passed through heat treatments, and then it was injected to a continuous churn. Textural and melting behavior and fatty acid composition of butter were analyzed. Results: Increasing...... the fat content of cream (from 40 to 45 %) and holding time (from 3h to 5h) in mid-temperature (18 °C) and reducing the churning temperature (from 12 °C to 10 °C), resulted in soft butter texture and improved butter spreadability. Loss Tangent (tan δ) was increased from 0.11 to 0.74 (T=15 °C;f=1Hz......). The melting temperature of butter was decreased from 36°C to 32°C and total trans fatty acid content was decreased from 3.2 % to 1.87 %. Conclusion: It was concluded that such heating process (which has been studied and reported in patents) absorbs the low- SFC fats of the cream, integrates them...

  5. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provided by the statutory standard for butter (21 U.S.C. 321a); (2) The product contains cream or milk, including milk constituents (including, but not limited to, whey, casein, modified whey, and salts of casein... cream, milk, or milk constituents; (3) The product is not nutritionally inferior, as defined in §...

  6. Monitoring of butter and animal fat oxidation stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Sadadinović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of fat is one of the basic reactions which causes the depletion of butter and animal fat quality as well as other products containing them. Since the most of reaction products of fat oxidation are harmful for consumers' health, inadequate and scarce monitoring of edible fats and fat containing products quality, presents increased health risk as well as financial loss for the producers. In fat oxidation stability estimation, standard chemical methods were used (iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, anisidine number etc., which require time and chemical usage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis presents the simple and efficient way for butter and animal fats oxidation stability estimation. Laboratory investigations were performed to monitor oxidation stability of butter and animal fat in fresh state, as well as in spent phase, used in frying process. The results obtained were compared to the results of standard chemical analysis, and they confirmed the reproducibility and applicability of differential scanning calorimetry in oxidation stability of butter and animal fats monitoring.

  7. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, M O; Armstrong, J D; Miles, M S; Burton, T; Groothuis, T G G; Metcalfe, N B

    2011-09-01

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the use of implants for studies of maternal hormonal influences on adult fishes and their offspring.

  8. Characterization of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, F C; Liendo, R; Quintana, A

    2000-06-01

    Cocoa butter is the most important fat used in the confectionery and chocolate industries. The main objective of the present study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of cocoa butter extracted from hybrid cultivars belonging to the germplasm bank of the Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (National Foundation for Agricultural Research). AOAC methods were used for the assessment of the proximal composition of the beans, physical and chemical characteristics as well as for the fatty acid profile of the fat. It was found that there were statistical differences in the proximate composition of the cocoa beans among the cultivars studied as well as the iodine and saponification indices of the butter. Saturated fatty acids were present in higher proportions than unsaturated fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acid as the main fractions. Oleic acid content was higher than linoleic acid. The fatty acid profile found is the main factor that influences the hard texture of the cocoa butter from Venezuelan cocoa hybrids cultivars.

  9. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Miles, M. S.; Burton, T.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the us

  10. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  11. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S-Y; Yang, W; Krishnamurthy, K

    2008-06-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) light, a nonthermal technology, was used to treat both the peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic properties of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated using a Xenon RS-3000C under the following conditions: 3 pulses/s, 14.6 cm from the central axis of the lamp, 4 min (extract) or 3 min (liquid peanut butter). After the treatment, the peanut samples were centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed by SDS-PAGE and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA). For comparison, boiling treatments were also performed. SDS-PAGE showed that while boiling treatment had little effect on the peanut allergens, PUV-light-treated samples displayed a reduced solubility or level of peanut allergens (63 kDa). Solubility of another allergen (18 to 20 kDa) was unaffected. Insoluble aggregates formed were responsible for the reduced level of allergens in PUV-light-treated samples. ciELISA showed that untreated samples exhibited an IgE binding 7-fold higher than the PUV-treated samples. It was concluded that PUV light was effective in reducing IgE binding of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The current study provides an approach to the development of a possibly less allergenic peanut product. However, the reduction in actual allergenicity needs to be confirmed by clinical studies.

  12. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  13. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability.

  14. Method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ in cheese and butter by HPLC using an immunoaffinity column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Hisako; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive convenient method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in cheese and butter by HPLC was developed and validated. The method employs a safe extraction solution (mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water) and an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up. Compared with the widely used method employing chloroform and a Florisil column, the IAC method has a short analytical time and there are no interference peaks. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the IAC method were 0.12 and 0.14 µg/kg, while those of the Florisil column method were 0.47 and 0.23 µg/kg in cheese and buffer, respectively. The recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD) for cheese (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 92% and 7%, respectively, while for the Florisil column method the corresponding values were 76% and 10%. The recovery and RSD for butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 97% and 9%, and those in the Florisil method were 74% and 9%, respectively. In the IAC method, the values of in-house precision (n=2, day=5) of cheese and butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) were 9% and 13%, respectively. The IAC method is superior to the Florisil column method in terms of safety, ease of handling, sensitivity and reliability. A survey of AFM₁ contamination in imported cheese and butter in Japan was conducted by the IAC method. AFM₁ was not detected in 60 samples of cheese and 30 samples of butter.

  15. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-stearin is manufactured by: (i) Directed esterification of fully saturated 1,3-diglycerides (derived from... sulfonic acid (§ 173.395 of this chapter), or (ii) By interesterification of partially saturated 1,2,3... Japan Institute of Oils and Fats: Analysis Method of Residual Ethyl Esters of Fatty Acids” issued by...

  17. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  18. Effects of milk fat, cocoa butter, or selected fat replacers on flavor volatiles of chocolate ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, W M; Marshall, R T; Grün, I U; Ellersieck, M R

    2001-01-01

    Selected volatile compounds of chocolate ice creams containing 0.6, 4.0, 6.0, or 9.0% milk fat or containing 2.5% milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of three fat replacers (Simplesse, Dairy Lo, or Oatrim) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The headspace concentration of most of the selected volatile compounds increased with decreasing milk fat concentration. Fat replacers generally increased the concentration of volatiles found in the headspace compared with milk fat or cocoa butter. Few differences in flavor volatiles were found between the ice cream containing milk fat and the ice cream containing cocoa butter. Among the selected volatiles, the concentration of 2,5-dimethyl-3(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine was the most highly correlated (negatively) with the concentration of milk fat, and it best discriminated among ice creams containing milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of the fat replacers.

  19. Effect of dietary alpine butter rich in conjugated linoleic acid on milk fat composition of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Collomb, Marius; Bee, Giuseppe; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Multiparous sows (n 17) were included in a controlled cross-over-study in order to investigate the influence of a natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (alpine butter) on the milk fatty acid composition of lactating sows (as an animal model for lactating women) and on the growth performance of their progeny. The usual fat source of a standard lactation diet was replaced by either CLA-rich alpine butter or margarine (control diet). Compared with the margarine diet, feeding the alpine butter-supplemented diet increased (P 0.05) affected. Growth performance of the progeny was similar for both dietary treatments. In summary, the findings show that adding alpine butter to the diet does not provoke a milk fat depression and does not alter the composition of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA in sow milk but increases its CLA concentration.

  20. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  1. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  2. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and doc...

  3. The incidence of Listeria spp. in soft cheeses, butter and raw milk in the province of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G; Trovatelli, L D

    1990-02-01

    Samples of soft cheese, butter and raw milk were examined for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 1, haemolytic and virulent for mice) and L. innocua (the only other Listeria sp. isolated) were each found in 2/21 (1.6%) of soft cheese samples. Five per cent of butter samples were contaminated with L. innocua. No Listeria spp. were detected in 40 raw milk samples. The results were compared with similar studies in Italy and abroad.

  4. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration.

  5. Antioxidation activity of natural cocoa butter and its application in skin cream%天然可可脂的抗氧化活性及其在护肤霜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠玲; 李晨晨; 俞苓

    2015-01-01

    The vitro antioxidation activity of cocoa butter was evaluated by the determination of scavenging ratio of DPPH free radicals and ABTS+ free radicals,as well as oil peroxide value (POV). Results showed that the cocoa butter polyphenols display good antioxidation activity,the half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) value of DPPH free radicals and ABTS+ free radicals is 11.61 and 10.59 mg/L respectively,which are better than that of vitamin C and vitamin E. Natural cocoa butter can effectively restrain the oxidation of oils and fats, and the effect is directly correlated with the dosage. Adding natural cocoa butter into cosmetic creams can effectively raise the moisturizing performance,upgrade the whitening effect and improve the skin elasticity. Meanwhile,it is safe for human skin and no skin irritation displays.%通过DPPH自由基和ABTS+自由基清除率以及油脂过氧化值的测定,对可可脂体外抗氧化能力进行评价,并将可可脂应用于护肤霜中,对其功效进行评价。结果表明:可可脂多酚具有很好的抗氧化活性,其清除DPPH自由基和ABTS+自由基的半数效应浓度(EC50)分别为11.61和10.59 mg/L,优于维生素C和维生素E;天然可可脂能有效抑制油脂的氧化,效果与用量呈正相关;添加可可脂能有效提高护肤霜的保湿性,增强美白效果,改善皮肤弹性,对皮肤安全、无刺激性。

  6. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en diferentes proporciones. Sus propiedades y particularmente el índice de grasa sólida, ayudaron mucho en la selección de la mezcla más adecuada para la producción de chocolate local. Se encontró que las mezclas con el 10% o 15% de lllexao en manteca de cacao, dieron los resultados más satisfactorios con respecto a la palatabilidad, dureza y consistencia.

  7. Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed...

  8. Shea butter solid nanoparticles for curcumin encapsulation: Influence of nanoparticles size on drug loading

    OpenAIRE

    Hajj Ali, Hassan; Michaux, Florentin; Bouelet Ntsama, Isabelle Sandrine; Durand, Pierrick; Jasniewski, Jordane; Linder, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In the present work, shea butter solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were prepared by sonication using nonionic surfactants as stabilizers without organic solvent. The mixture design methodology enabled to control particles size from 50?nm to more than 1?µm according to the mixture composition. Then, curcumin, a natural polyphenol, has been encapsulated in nanoparticles with a wide range of diameters (50–230?nm) and the encapsulation efficiency has been related to the part...

  9. A comparison of the effects of cheese and butter on serum lipids, haemostatic variables and homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biong, Anne S; Müller, Hanne; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Veierød, Marit B; Pedersen, Jan I

    2004-11-01

    Milk fat contains considerable amounts of saturated fatty acids, known to increase serum cholesterol. Little is known, however, about the relative effect of different milk products on risk factors for CHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of Jarlsberg cheese (a Norwegian variety of Swiss cheese) with butter on serum lipoproteins, haemostatic variables and homocysteine. A controlled dietary study was performed with twenty-two test individuals (nine men and thirteen women) aged 23-54 years. The subjects consumed three isoenergetic test diets, with equal amounts of fat and protein, and containing either cheese (CH diet), butter + calcium caseinate (BC diet) or butter + egg-white protein (BE diet). The study was a randomised cross-over study and the subjects consumed each diet for 3 weeks, with 1 week when they consumed their habitual diet in between. Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of each period. Serum was analysed for lipids and plasma for haemostatic variables and homocysteine. Total cholesterol was significantly lower after the CH diet than after the BC diet (-0.27 mmol/l; P=0.03), while the difference in LDL-cholesterol was found to be below significance level (-0.22 mmol/l; P=0.06). There were no significant differences in HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apo A-I, apo B or lipoprotein (a), haemostatic variables and homocysteine between the diets. The results indicate that, at equal fat content, cheese may be less cholesterol increasing than butter.

  10. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed...

  11. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  12. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  13. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  14. Determination of cocoa butter equivalents in milk chocolate by triacylglycerol profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

    2007-05-02

    An analytical approach for the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in milk chocolate is presented. It is based on (i) a comprehensive standardized database covering the triacylglycerol composition of a wide range of authentic milk fat (n=310), cocoa butter (n=75), and CBE (n=74) samples and 947 gravimetrically prepared mixtures thereof, (ii) the availability of a certified cocoa butter reference material (IRMM-801) for calibration, (iii) an evaluation algorithm, which allows a reliable quantification of the milk fat content in chocolate fats using a simple linear regression model, (iv) a subsequent correction of triacylglycerols deriving from milk fat, (v) mathematical expressions to detect the presence of CBEs in milk chocolate, and (vi) a multivariate statistical formula to quantify the amount of CBEs in milk chocolate. The detection limit was 1% CBE in chocolate fat (0.3% CBE in milk chocolate, having a fat content of 30%). For quantification, the average error for prediction was 1.2% CBE in chocolate fat, corresponding to 0.4% in milk chocolate (fat content, 30%).

  15. Preparation of peanut butter suspension for determination of peanuts using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, Mary W; Brewer, Vickery A; Williams, Kristina M; Westphal, Carmen D; Heeres, James T

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the 8 most common allergenic foods and a large proportion of peanut-allergic individuals have severe reactions, some to minimal exposure. Specific protein constituents in the peanuts are the cause of the allergic reactions in sensitized individuals who ingest the peanuts. To avoid accidental ingestion of peanut-contaminated food, methods of analysis for the determination of the allergenic proteins in foods are important tools. Such methods could help identify foods inadvertently contaminated with peanuts, thereby reducing the incidence of allergic reactions to peanuts. Commercial immunoassay kits are available but need study for method performance, which requires reference materials for within- and between-laboratory validations. In this study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2387 peanut butter was used. A polytron homogenizer was used to prepare a homogenous aqueous Peanut Butter suspension for the evaluation of method performance of some commercially available immunoassay kits such as Veratox for Peanut Allergen Test (Neogen Corp.), Ridascreen Peanut (R-Biopharm GmbH), and Bio-Kit Peanut Protein Assay Kit (Tepnel). Each gram of the aqueous peanut butter suspension contained 20 mg carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, 643 microg peanut, 0.5 mg thimerosal, and 2.5 mg bovine serum albumin. The suspension was homogenous, stable, reproducible, and applicable for adding to ice cream, cookies, breakfast cereals, and chocolate for recovery studies at spike levels ranging from 12 to 90 microg/g.

  16. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  17. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  18. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  19. Comprehensive analysis of polar and apolar constituents of butter and margarine by nuclear magnetic resonance, reflecting quality and production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Jan

    2008-04-23

    The separation of butter or margarine into polar (soluble in water) and apolar fractions (soluble in chloroform) and subsequent analysis of these fractions by (1)H NMR permits a comprehensive analysis of its constituents. In the polar fraction the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid, the organic acids citric, lactic, butyric, acetic, and formic acid, and, furthermore, the carbohydrate lactose were quantified. In the apolar fraction the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) rumenic acid, diglycerides, and linoleic acid were quantified. Rumenic acid is a characteristic component of ruminant fats and was found in all butter samples. The levels varied between 0.50 and 1.08%. Ten brands of Brazilian butter were investigated as was one brand from Norway. Also, two brands of margarine were investigated for comparison. A large variation in especially polar constituents was found between the butter samples, revealing the presence of preservatives in five brands of butter from Brazil, remarkable because these additives are legally not allowed. Furthermore, the levels of organic acids and lactose permitted conclusions about the production process and quality; for example, the presence of higher levels of free butyric acid indicate lipolysis, leading to a lower quality, and low levels of lactose indicate that after churning the residual milk fluids have been removed by an additional washing step in the production process.

  20. Comparison of butter quality parameters available on the Czech market with the use of FT NIR technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NIR spectroscopy offers very wide opportunities in the food quality control. This method allows measuring of the samples with minimal usage of chemicals. We used the NIR spectroscopy for the quality control of butters available on the Czech market. Creating a methodology to measure the butter, build calibration models for the fat content and dry matter and verify their functionality. We used 26 samples of butters, of which 13 came from the Czech production and 13 came from abroad. Using reference and instrumental methods were determined the contents of fat, dry matter and acid number. Samples were measured using a FT NIR Antaris spectroscope in reflectance mode on the integrating sphere. The results demonstrated that FT NIR could divide the measured samples of butters into two classes according to their origin. Statistical progressing of the results did not confirm conclusive differences in the amount of the measured components between Czech and foreign butters. Functionality of the calibration models for the fat content and dry matter was demonstrated, while the calibration model for the assessment of the acid number was unreliable.

  1. Effects of duodenal infusions of palmitic, stearic, or oleic acids on milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Moncoulon, R

    2000-07-01

    Four dairy cows fitted with a duodenal cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of daily duodenal infusion of 500 g of fatty acids (containing mainly C16:0, C18:0, or cis-C18:1) on fecal concentrations of fatty acids, fatty acid profiles of milk fat, and solid fat content of butter. Fecal concentrations of C16:0 and especially of C18:0 were increased by duodenal infusion. Infusion with C16:0 increased the proportion of C16:0 in milk fat and delayed softening of butter when the temperature rose. Infusion with C18:0 resulted only in a slight increase of C18:0 proportion in milk fat and did not significantly affect solid fat in butter between -10 and 30 degrees C. With the infusion of cis-C18:1, the proportion of cis-C18:1 in milk fat was more than twice that of control, to the detriment of C16:0. Butter contained low proportion of solid fat, even at low temperatures. Increasing C16:0 or cis-C18:1 in milk fatty acid via duodenal infusion can be used to study their specific effects on butter characteristics, but, because of a low transfer from infusion to milk, this method is less efficient with C18:0.

  2. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... content from 44% to 49.5% was observed when decreasing the churning temperature. Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.5 μm to 18.5 μm and less water could be incorporated into the butter during mixing. Using...... differential scanning calorimetry, it was observed that water addition as well as churning at low temperatures induced a transition toward more stable crystal structures, as the melting point in the high melting fraction was slightly lower for butter churned at high temperature. This did, however, not reflect...

  3. Triacylglycerol analysis for the quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBE) in chocolate: feasibility study and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, Fabiola; Golay, Pierre-Alain; Hug, Bernadette; Baumgartner, Marcel; Callier, Philippe; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2004-04-07

    A new European legislation (2000/36/CE) has allowed the use of vegetable fats other than cocoa butter (CB) in chocolate up to a maximum value of 5% in the product. The vegetable fats used in chocolate are designated as cocoa butter replacements and are called cocoa butter equivalents (CBE). The feasibility of CBE quantification in chocolate using triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles was conducted by analyzing 55 samples of CBs and 31 samples of CBEs using a liquid chromatograph equipped with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). Statistical evaluation of the data obtained has been performed, and a simulation study has been carried out to assess the viability to use this method for quantifying the amount of CBE in real mixtures and in chocolates. The TAGs POP, POS, PLS, and the ratios POP/PLS, POS/PLP (P, palmityl; O, oleyl; S, stearyl; L, linoleyl) are particularly significant to discriminate between CB and CBE. Analysis of 50 mixtures between 5 different CBEs and 10 different CBs at 2 different concentration levels is presented. The data are visualized and interpreted. A mathematical model has been developed to assess the amount of CBE in real mixtures. This predictive model has been successfully applied and validated on dark chocolates including authorized CBE. The results are affected by +/-2.1% absolute average error. In particular, estimations between 10 and 20% of CBE show a very good match. On the other hand, values equal to or smaller than 5% show a larger prediction error (detection limit of the method). For the main purpose of this method (i.e., quantification of CBE at 5% max in chocolate, which represents about 15% of the total fat) this model shows very good results. For milk chocolate, the mathematical model can also be used if TAG are integrated from partition number (PN) 46 to 54. Consequently, the model proposed provides sufficient information to verify the real application of the European legislation.

  4. 藏式酥油茶生产工艺研究%Research on the Process of Tibet Buttered Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 杜金城; 于上富; 丁秀云; 霍贵成; 杜鹏

    2015-01-01

    利用黄油和砖茶为主要原料来研制适合藏民饮用的酥油茶饮品;通过单因素试验比较不同熬煮时间, 茶水比, 含盐量, 奶油添加量和单甘脂添加量对酥油茶口感的影响. 当添加2%砖茶,10%黄油,1.5%盐,0.5%单甘酯, 0.04%D-异抗坏血酸钠和熬煮时间30 min时,酥油茶的口感最好,适合于藏民饮用.本研究生产的酥油茶,颜色棕黄色,组织均匀,气味芬芳,口感香浓,保质期长;无分层、油浮、析水、颗料悬浮等现象.%To study a buttered tea which could be used for Tibet residents based on the combination of butter and tea. Through single-factor experiments, boiling time, ratio of tea and water, the addition of salt and butter were compared. When the condition:the content of the tea was 2%, the content of the butter was 10%, 1.5%salt was used, he content of the monoglyceride was 0.5%, 0.04%D-isoascorbic acid sodium was used and boiling time was 30 min, the quality of buttered tea was best and appropriate for Tibet residents;The developed buttered tea had a brown color, average constitution, sweet taste and a long keeping time, in addition, no other terrible conditions were found for this product.

  5. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  6. MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE:"China Won't Let her Bread and Butter in Others' Hands"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yumei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Grain production: strategic industry to maintain socical stability Q: What is the grain issue of China? A: I'd like to answer this question with two sentences.First,grain production is a strategic industry to maintain social stability of China; our government should always consider feeding a population of 1.3 billion as the major priority and can never overlook this issue.Second,China,a heavily-populous nation,must stick to the principle of"relying mainly on her own to achieve self-sufficiency"to ensure food security;China cannot let her bread and butter be held in others' hands.

  7. Michael Butter, Patrick Keller, and Simon Wendt, eds. Arnold Schwarzenegger: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Body and Image.

    OpenAIRE

    Liokaftos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Arnold Schwarzenegger: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Body and Image has been edited by Michael Butter, Patrick Keller, and Simon Wendt, all of whom have contributed individual essays to the volume.Most of the essays appearing in this collection were first presented at the “Arnold Schwarzenegger: Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven auf Körper und Image” conference that took place at the Heidelberg Centre for American Studies from September 18-20, 2009. Although there is no formal division of th...

  8. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  9. Modificação por via enzimática da composição triglicerídica do óleo de piqui (Caryocar brasiliense Camb Piqui (Caryocar brasiliense Camb oil triglyceride composition modification by enzymatic way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Lúcia Facioli

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Piqui (Caryocar brasiliense Camb oil was transformed into a cocoa butter-like fat through an enzymatic interesterification reaction using Lipozyme in the presence of stearic acid that was incorporated in the sn 1,3-3,1 position into triglyceride. Stearic acid incorporation was determined by HPLC, based on the quantification of the principal triglycerides (POP, POS e SOS found in cocoa butter. The proposed process was feasible with a reaction time of 240 minutes with 10% of Lipozyme at 70ºC and substract weight ratio of 0,33 (stearic acid:piqui oil.

  10. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-01

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  11. ‘Don’t play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don’t play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don’t play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  12. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.

  13. Determination of Trace Elements in Ghanaian Shea Butter and Shea Nut by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Alhassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the concentrations of trace elements in Ghanaian shea nut and shea butter. As part of the study, measurements of the elemental composition of shea butter and shea nut samples were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA using the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1. Samples collected from local markets in the Northern region of Ghana and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1547 Peach leaves were irradiated at the GHARR-1 facility. Validation of the method was done using NIST SRM Orchard Leaves (1571 under the same experimental conditions. Six trace elements (Na, Mn, Al, Cl, Ca and K were detected with maximum concentration of Na found to be 15±1 mg/kg in SN5, Mn; 7.4±0.8 mg/kg in SN6, Al; 259±3 mg/kg in SN1, Cl; 666±27 mg/kg in SN1, Ca; 0.21±0.04 wt.% in SN4, K; 2.0±0.04 wt.% in SN1, Ce; 3.2±0.06 mg/kg in SN2, Se; 0.12±0.004 mg/kg in SN4, and Sc; 0.40±0.02 mg/kg in SN2 . The concentrations of the trace elements were within the limit laid down for safe human consumption.

  14. ‘Don't play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V.; Ryan, Mark H.; Vanderbilt, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don't play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don't play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years. PMID:27095009

  15. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria from "Sheep's Dhan", a traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep’s Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep’s milk in Jijel (East of Algeria. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exopolysaccharide.

    Veintiséis bacterias lácticas fueron aisladas de “Sheep´s Dhan”, una mantequilla tradicional hecha con leche de oveja en Jijel (al Este de Argelia. Estas cepas pertenecen a tres géneros: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc y Lactobacillus. Los resultados mostraron que Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis fue la especie predominante en esta mantequilla tradicional. Los resultados de la evaluación de la aptitud tecnológica indican que la principal cepa tiene una buena aptitud de acidificación, algunas de ellas mostraron una buena actividad proteolítica y únicamente Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum fue capaz de producir exopolisacárido.

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DE MANTEIGAS TIPO EXTRA COMERCIALIZADAS NO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO QUALITY EVALUATION OF BUTTERS COMMERCIALIZED IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanilda M. AUGUSTA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A manteiga é um produto gorduroso onde a fase aquosa está dispersa na fase oleosa formando emulsão do tipo água/óleo. As análises físicas e químicas revelam se a fase oleosa apresenta alterações decorrentes de hidrólise, rancificação ou adulteração. A adição de outras gorduras na manteiga provoca alterações em seus índices físicos e químicos. Para avaliar a qualidade de manteigas tipo extra com sal comercializadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, cinco marcas nacionais e duas importadas, totalizando 66 amostras, foram submetidas às análises de acidez, índice de peróxidos, índice de iodo, teor de umidade, teor de cloreto de sódio e composição em ácidos graxos por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução. A acidez das amostras variou de 0,76 a 2,03 ml SN%; o índice de peróxidos de 0,15 a 3,82 meq peróxidos/kg gordura; o índice de iodo de 20,76 a 53,46 g I2/100g gordura; o teor de umidade de 11,3 a 20,3%; o teor de cloreto de sódio de 0,14 a 2,21%; a composição em % dos principais ácidos graxos foi C14:0 (9,7-12,1%; C16:0 (22,0-26,1%; C18:0 (9,6-11,7% e C18:1 (21,9-24,2%. Os resultados das amostras foram comparados com o RIISPOA (1952 e com a Portaria n0. 146/96 do MAARA. Todas as amostras analisadas estavam com a acidez dentro dos padrões; 85,5% estavam com índice de peróxidos acima do permitido; 15,2% estavam fora dos limites de índice de iodo; 34,8% estavam com excesso de umidade e 7,5% estavam com o teor de cloreto de sódio acima do permitido. A composição em ácidos graxos estava dentro dos padrões.Butter is a fatty product where the aqueous phase is dispersed in oil phase forming a water/oil emulsion. The physical and chemical analysis determine the occurrence of hidrolysis, rancification or adulteration in the oil phase. The improper addition of other fats in butter formulation, in order to reduce costs, causes a modification of the oil phase physical and chemical characterisitics. Five brazilian

  18. Hazelnut oil consumption of families in the central town of Ordu province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat SAYILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparative analysis of consumption of edible oil of families in Central Town of OrduProvince. In addition, factor analysis was conducted on factors which affect the consumption of hazelnut oil. The data used in the study in January 2013 was a result of a survey conducted with 272 people. According to the survey, the most consumed oils, butter (71.32% and hazelnut oil (61.76%, which is the amount of total fatconsumption of 6.71 kg/month per family and 1.89 kg/month per person. Families with more than 5 littercontainers prefer buying oil. Hazelnut oil is thought to be healthy and of good quality too much is consumed by local people. As a result of factor analysis, three factors (image and highly attractive, odour and low weight, quality and health affecting hazelnut oil consumption has been collected under the title.

  19. Marketing of butter in the European Community, demand functions and policy alternatives with a restriction to four member countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oskam; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn this article optimum instrument values for two different objectives of an EC marketing policy for butter are considered. In the first part of the study the demand equations of four EC countries, le., West Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Denmark, are estimated and disc

  20. Safety of Butter and Influencing Factors%奶油的安全性及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫蓓红

    2016-01-01

    Dairy safety is increasingly subject to public concern , while domestic butter industry uses the tradtional batch churn methods and lacks of experience of safety studies , risk control and crises handling about butter. Factors that affect product safety were introduced and risk of microbial contamination for butter products was also presented in this review. This review provided theoretical support for developing and manufacturing of butter in China.%乳制品安全问题受到社会公众高度关注,目前国内奶油的生产主要采用传统的批次法,对奶油的安全性研究、风险控制和危机处理更是缺乏相关经验。阐述奶油微生物方面的风险以及影响产品安全性的主要因素,为国内奶油产品的开发与生产提供理论参考。

  1. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration.

  2. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products. (a) Microbiological. Samples... microbiological control. (b) Composition. Sampling and testing for product composition shall be made on churns or... lipase activity. (2) Free fatty acid. This test should be made on churnings or batches from samples...

  3. Multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Tennessee infections associated with peanut butter--United States, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    In November 2006, public health officials at CDC and state health departments detected a substantial increase in the reported incidence of isolates of Salmonella serotype Tennessee. In a multistate case-control study conducted during February 5-13, 2007, illness was strongly associated with consumption of either of two brands (Peter Pan or Great Value) of peanut butter produced at the same plant. Based on these findings, the plant ceased production and recalled both products on February 14, 2007. The outbreak strain of Salmonella Tennessee subsequently was isolated from several opened and unopened jars of Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter and from two environmental samples obtained from the plant. New case reports decreased substantially after the product recall. As of May 22, 2007, a total of 628 persons infected with an outbreak strain of Salmonella serotype Tennessee had been reported from 47 states since August 1, 2006. Local and state public health officials in multiple states, with assistance from CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are continuing to investigate this outbreak caused by peanut butter, a new food source for salmonellosis in the United States. All remaining jars of Peter Pan or Great Value peanut butter with a product code beginning with 2111 should be discarded.

  4. Modelling energy and environmental impacts of traditional and improved shea butter production in West Africa for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Colleen C; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2017-01-15

    This study improves the global application of methods and analyses, especially Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), that properly incorporates environmental impacts of firewood and a social sustainability indicator (human energy) as tools for sustainable human development. Specifically shea butter production processes, common throughout sub-Saharan Africa and crucial to food security, environmental sustainability, and women's empowerment, are analyzed. Many economic activities in the world rely on firewood for energy and labor that aren't included in traditional LCAs. Human energy (entirely from women) contributed 25-100% of shea butter production processes (2000-6100kJ/kg of shea butter) and mechanized production processes had reduced human energy without considerably greater total energy. Firewood accounted for 94-100% of total embodied energy (103 and 172MJ/kg of shea butter for improved and traditional shea butter production processes respectively) and global warming potential and 18-100% of human toxicity of the production processes. Implementation of improved cookstoves modeled in this study could reduce: (1) global warming potential by 78% (from 18 to 4.1kg CO2 eq/kg and 11 to 2.4kg CO2 eq/kg of shea butter for the traditional and improved processes respectively), (2) the embodied energy of using firewood by 52% (from 170 to 82MJ/kg and 103 to 49MJ/kg for the traditional and improved processes respectively), and (3) human toxicity by 83% for the non-mechanized traditional and improved processes (from 0.041 to 0.0071 1,4 DB eq/kg and 0.025 to 0.0042 1,4 DB eq/kg respectively). In addition, this is the first study to compare Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and process-based LCA in a developing country and evaluate five traditional and improved shea butter production processes over different impact categories. Overall, this study developed a framework to evaluate and improve processes for achievement of the United Nation's Sustainable Development

  5. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quast, L. B.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w cupuassu fat were determined. Precrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL. Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the β polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter.

    Se han determinado las características físicas de mezclas binarias pre-cristalizadas de manteca de cacao (mezcla de Bahia + Indonesia con 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 y 30 % (m/m de grasa de cupuassu. La pre-cristalización se ha efectuado a escala de laboratorio utilizando un reactor de vidrio con camisa (700mL con agitación. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido, difracción de rayos- X, contenido en grasa solida y tensión de ruptura. Los valores de tensión de ruptura de las mezclas pre-cristalizadas disminuyeron con la incorporación de grasa de cupuassu, siendo este comportamiento observado también para el punto de fusión. Después de la pre-cristalización, manteca de cacao y grasa de cupuassu confirmaron la presencia de polimorfismo β, por medio de análisis de difracción de rayos-X. La adición de hasta 30% de grasa de cupuassu en la manteca de cacao no afecta de modo significativo en las propiedades físicas cuando son comparadas con la manteca de cacao pura.

  6. [Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G; Losi, G; Frega, N; Lercker, G; Cocchi, M; Gori, A; Cerretani, L

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation) ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not all fats are harmful

  7. Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not

  8. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali, E-mail: dmendil@gop.edu.tr [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 {mu}g/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 {mu}g/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  9. Non-saponifiable fraction of cocoa shell butter: effect on rat and human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warocquier-Clerout, R; Sigot, M; Ouraghi, M; Chaveron, H

    1992-02-01

    Synopsis Non-saponifiable lipid fraction (ICSB) extracted from cocoa shell butter was solubilized in dimethylformamide (DMF) and analysed for its biological activity on growth of rat and human fibroblasts. Non-saponifiables (10 mug ml(-1)) partially protected cells from toxicity of DMF (1%) and allowed the growth of fibroblasts cultivated in optimal conditions (10% fetal calf serum-FCS, 37 degrees C) or improved the survival of cells maintained in altered conditions (2.5% FCS, 35 degrees C). At higher concentration (ICSB 50 mug ml(-1), DMF 1%), the protective effect was suppressed. ICSB was fractionated by chromatography into four compounds: sterols, terpenic alcohols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons +/- carotenoids. We found that biological activity of ICSB was mostly due to the major fraction containing sterols.

  10. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotten, Christiane; Plaza, Dorota; Manzini, Simone; Nolan, Steven P; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L; Lapkin, Alexei

    2015-07-06

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl2(iBu-phoban)2(3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas-liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested.

  11. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18....... TAG synthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). In order to produce CBL in S. cerevisiae, we selected six cocoa genes encoding GPAT, LPAT and DGAT potentially responsible...... for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast...

  12. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  13. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  14. Evaluation of cocoa butter as potential lubricant for coprocessing in pharmaceutical tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeagbo, Adebolu Adewole; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2008-01-01

    The lubricant activity of cocoa butter coprocessed with magnesium stearate plus talc (CMT) was compared with magnesium stearate plus talc (MT) using flow and compressional characteristics of paracetamol granules and mechanical properties of their tablets as assessment parameters. The flow of the granules quantified as Hausner's ratio, Carr's index, and angle of repose showed that CMT has a higher ability than MT to reduce densification of granules due to vibration. Compressional characteristics analyzed using density measurements and the Heckel and Kawakita plots revealed that CMT did not facilitate the increase in the densification of the granules during the filling and at low pressures, D(b). Also, CMT reduced the plastic deformation of the granules measured by the P(y)-yield pressure at onset of plastic deformation and P(k)-yield pressure of deformation under compression. The mechanical properties determined by the tensile strength, T, and brittle fracture index, BFI, of the tablets produced were affected by CMT. The T and BFI of tablets with CMT were lower than those of MT. The results suggest that though CMT lowered the plasticity of the granules, it improved their flow rate and assisted in producing tablets with fewer tendencies to cap or laminate. This work concluded that cocoa butter, an inexpensive and easily available lipid, is an effective and viable lubricant that can be co-processed with magnesium stearate/talc mixture for an efficient lubrication of granules and may be useful in reducing lamination and capping in formulations that are susceptible to these 2 defects of tablets.

  15. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  16. Elaboration and sensory evaluation of pecan nut butter (Carya Illinoensis K suitable for people with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to elaborate two butters with pecan nut (Carya Illinoensis K, suitable for people with chronic degenerative diseases and with cardio vascular risk. Because are these diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the world. The pecan nut (Carya Illinoensis K is a food rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs such as oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as linoleic acid, which have been shown to be effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels. A sensorial test was also carried out to see the grade level of this product, finding that it was well accepted by potential consumers. The parameters that most influenced the choice and acceptability of butter were the appearance and consistency.

  17. The linear relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the cow diet, milk fatty acid composition, and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C; Lopez, C; Delaby, L; Peyraud, J L

    2006-06-01

    Fresh grass in the cow diet improves the rheological and nutritional properties of butter. However, the relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the diet and these properties is still unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the diet and the properties of milk and butter. Four groups of 2 cows were fed 4 isoenergetic diets characterized by increasing amounts of fresh grass (0, 30, 60, and 100% dry matter of forage) according to a Youden square design. Energy levels were similar among all diets. Thus, no effect of mobilization was observed and the results were only due to the proportion of fresh grass in the diet. Milk yield linearly increased with the proportion of fresh grass in the diet (+0.21 kg/d per 10% of grass). Fat yield remained unchanged. Thus, by effect of dilution, increasing the proportion of fresh grass in the diet induced a linear decrease in fat content. Milk fat globule size decreased by 0.29 mum when the proportion of grass reached 30% in the diet. Increasing the proportion of fresh grass in the diet induced a linear increase in unsaturated fatty acids percentages at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Relationships were +0.38, +0.12, +0.05 and -0.69 points/10% of fresh grass in the diet for C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:3n-3, and C16:0, respectively. These modifications in fatty acid composition, and in particular in the spreadability index, C16:0/C18:1, were responsible for linear decreases in final melting temperature and solid fat content in butter fat, perceived in sensory analysis by a linear decrease in firmness in mouth. The nutritional value of butter was also linearly improved by the proportion of fresh grass in the diet by halving the atherogenicity index.

  18. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial potential for use in tropical regions.

    En este trabajo se presenta el comportamiento de la microestructura y la cristalización de mantecas de cacao representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de tres regiones geográficas diferentes de Brasil. Las muestras se evaluaron de acuerdo a la microestructura, la cinética de cristalización y el comportamiento polimórfico. La evaluación de estos parámetros nos permite establecer relaciones entre la composición química y el comportamiento de la cristalización de las muestras, así como las diferencias sobre la adecuación del potencial tecnológico e industrial para su aplicación en las regiones tropicales.

  19. Alternative method for the quantification by gas chromatography triacylglycerol class analysis of cocoa butter equivalent added to chocolate bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, François; Destouesse, Sarah; Moustirats, Joëlle; Esclapez, Maryse; Salagoity, Marie-Hélène; Medina, Bernard

    2004-05-19

    Directive 2000/36/EC allows chocolate makers to add up to 5% of only six specific cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) to cocoa butter (CB). A quantification method based on triacylglycerol (TAG) class analysis by gas chromatography with an unpolar column was set up for routine control purposes of chocolate bars. Mixtures of CBEs/CB were elaborated according to a Placket-Burman experiment design and analyzed by gas chromatography. A matrix was built with the normalized values of TAG classes (C50, C52, C54, and C56) of pure CBs of various origins, homemade CB/CBE mixtures (1 CB type), and mixtures containing CBE with CBs of various origins. A multivariate calibration equation was computed from this matrix using a partial least-squares regression technique. CBE addition can be detected at a minimum level of 2%, and the mathematical model allows its quantification with an uncertainty of 2% with respect to the cocoa butter fats. The model has also been applied for deconvolution and quantification of each CBE of a CBE mixture in chocolate bars.

  20. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Benhamada, N.; Leghouchi, E.

    2010-07-01

    This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria). Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (Author) 20 refs.

  1. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  2. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  3. Simultatenous determination of diacetyl and acetoin in traditional turkish butter stored in sheep’s rumen (Karinyagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce, R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Karinyagi (traditionally named karin is made of cows’ milk cream and is produced by filling butter in cleaned sheep’s rumen. The effect of butter storage in sheep’s rumen on the production of diacetyl and acetoin was investigated. These compounds were determined by GC-MS and they are the typical butter flavor commonly found in fermented dairy products. The modified method for the simultaneous extraction of diacetly and acetoin from butter samples was accurate and precise. The recoveries of diacetyl and acetoin were 94.7 and 110.8%, respectively, while the detection limits were 1.83 and 0.51 mg·L-1, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the monitoring of aroma compounds in Karin butter samples during different time intervals. The concentration of acetoin remained stable through 0–50 days while the concentration of diacetyl increased to 33.0 μg·g-1 up to 40 days and remained constant through 40–50 days.El Karinyagi comercial (nombre tradicional Karin está hecho de crema de leche de vaca, y producido llenando con mantequilla el rumen limpio de ovejas. Se ha investigado el efecto del almacenamiento de la mantequilla en el rumen de ovejas sobre la formación de diacetilo y acetoína. Estos compuestos son el típico flavor a mantequilla que se detecta comúnmente en los productos lácteos fermentados y han sido determinados mediante GC-MS. El método modificado para la extracción simultánea de diacetilo y acetoína en mantequilla resultó ser exacto y preciso y las recuperaciones de 94,7 y 110,8 % respectivamente, mientras que los límites de detección fueron 1.83 y 0,51 mg·L-1, respectivamente. El método propuesto se aplicó al control de compuestos aromáticos en Karin y muestras de mantequilla, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. La concentración de acetoína se mantuvo estable entre 0–50 días mientras que la concentración de diacetilo aumentó a 33,0 mg·g-1 hasta 40 días y se mantuvo constante

  4. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  5. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria.

  6. Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Nik Norulaini, N A; Sahena, F; Abedin, M Z; Mohamed, A; Mohd Omar, A K

    2014-07-01

    The blending effects of mango seed fat (MSF), extracted using supercritical fluid, and palm stearin (PS) to formulate hard cocoa butter replacers (CBRs), were investigated. The triglycerides (TG), thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC) of the formulated blends were determined using different chromatographic and thermal techniques. All the blends had three main TGs; namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) (8.6-17.7%), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) (12.6-19.6%), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) (37.2-31.4%), with SOS being the major component. The melting peak temperatures gradually increased and shifted towards higher temperatures with PS. The crystallization onset temperatures increased, while the offset decreased with PS. The SFC did not drop to 0% at 37.5°C, which was shifted to 0% at and above 40°C for some blends. The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries.

  7. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  8. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  9. In vitro Starch Hydrolysis Rate, Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Butter Cake Prepared Using Resistant Starch Type III Substituted for Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjanta, J; Utaipattanaceep, A; Naivikul, O; Piyachomkwan, K

    2008-09-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS III) derived from enzymatically debranched high amylose rice starch was prepared and used to make butter cake at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) in place of wheat flour. Physico-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, and in vitro starch hydrolysis rate of the developed butter cake were investigated. This study showed that the content of resistant starch in butter cake increased significantly (Pstarch hydrolysis rate compared to the control cake (0% RS III). The rates of starch hydrolysis from 0 to 180 min digestion time for 0, 5, 10 15, and 20% RS III in place of wheat flour in butter cakes were 3.70 to 67.65%, 2.97 to 64.86%, 2.86 to 59.99%, 2.79 to 55.96 and 2.78 to 53.04% respectively. The physico-chemical properties of 5 to 10% RS III substituted with wheat flour in the butter cake were not significantly different from the control cake and were moderately accepted by panellists in the sensory evaluation test.

  10. Processing Methods and Physical Properties of Butter and Its Nutrient Analysis%黄油的加工方法及其物理性质和营养成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙剑锋; 王颉

    2011-01-01

    Processing methods of butter and food additives allowed to be used in butter were introduced.The physical properties of butter were discribed from aspects of components,color,structural status and flavor.A preliminary evaluation of nutritional value of butter was also carried out,which had a certain reference value for butter producers and consumers.%介绍了黄油的加工方法及加工中允许使用的食品添加剂,从成分、色泽、组织状态、风味等方面介绍了黄油的物理性质,并初步评价了黄油的营养价值,对黄油的生产者和消费者具有一定的参考价值。

  11. Estabilidade de pasta de amêndoa de castanha de caju Stability of cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a estabilidade de pasta de castanha de caju obtida pela moagem de amêndoas quebradas com açúcar, sal e lecitina de soja. A influência de diferentes embalagens (potes de vidro e de polipropileno e do uso de antioxidantes (BHA, BHT e tocoferóis na qualidade do produto também foi investigada. Características físico-químicas (atividade de água, índice de acidez, cor e textura instrumentais, microbiológicas (coliformes totais e fecais, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bolores e leveduras e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, foram acompanhadas durante 300 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28 °C. Foi observado aumento do índice de acidez, redução da maciez e descoloração. No entanto, essas alterações pouco afetaram a aceitação sensorial, que ficou entre "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei moderadamente", após os 300 dias de armazenamento. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram boa qualidade do produto, estando dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira: contagem de coliformes a 45 °C (fecais menor que 10 NMP.g -1 e ausência de Salmonella spp. em 25 gramas. Os resultados demonstraram que as pastas podem ser armazenadas nas condições e tempo testados, e que não houve influência dos materiais de embalagem utilizados e nem dos antioxidantes na estabilidade do produto.This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants (BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated. Physicochemical (water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeast and mold and

  12. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  13. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of milk fat and cocoa butter equivalents in milk chocolate: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona

    2007-01-01

    A collaborative trial was conducted to validate an analytical approach comprising method procedures for determination of milk fat and the detection and quantification of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) in milk chocolate. The whole approach is based on (1) comprehensive databases covering the triacylglycerol composition of a wide range of authentic milk fat, cocoa butter, and CBE samples and 947 gravimetrically prepared mixtures thereof; (2) the availability of a certified cocoa butter reference material for calibration; (3) an evaluation algorithm, which allows reliable quantitation of the milk fat content in chocolate; (4) a subsequent correction to take account of the triacylglycerols derived from milk fat; (5) mathematical expressions to detect the presence of CBEs in milk chocolate; and (6) a multivariate statistical formula to quantitate the amount of CBEs in milk chocolate. Twelve laboratories participated in the validation study. CBE admixtures were detected down to a level of 0.5 g CBE/100 g milk chocolate, without false-positive or -negative results. The applied quantitation model performed well at the statutory limit of 5% CBE addition to milk chocolate, with a prediction error of 0.7%, and HorRat values ranging from 0.8 to 1.5. The relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) values for quantitation of CBEs in analyses of chocolate fat solutions ranged from 2.2 to 3.8% and for analyses of real chocolate samples, from 4.1 to 4.7%, demonstrating that the whole approach, based solely on chocolate fat blends, is applicable to real milk chocolate samples.

  14. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  15. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication.

  16. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids. However, POP, POS and SOS are not among the major TAG forms in yeast. TAG synthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). In order to produce CBL in S. cerevisiae, we selected six cocoa genes encoding GPAT, LPAT and DGAT potentially responsible for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast strains harboring cocoa genes increased 190, 230 and 196% over the control strain, respectively; especially, the potential SOS content of the three yeast strains increased 254, 476 and 354% over the control strain. Moreover, one of the three yeast strains had a 2.25-fold increased TAG content and 6.7-fold higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.

  17. Migration of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO) and Phthalates From Twist Closures into Food and Enforcement of the Overall Migration Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Fankhauser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces...... food simulant olive oil was determined and compared with the legal limit of 60 mg kg(-1). The results ranged from 76 to 519 mg kg(-1) and as a consequence the products were withdrawn from the market....

  18. Effect of feeding fresh forage and marine algae on the fatty acid composition and oxidation of milk and butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K E; Budge, S; Rose, M; Rupasinghe, H P V; Maclaren, L; Green-Johnson, J; Fredeen, A H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding fresh forage either as pasture plus a concentrate (PAS) or as a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), combined with either a ruminally inert lipid supplement high in saturated fatty acids (-) or a ruminally protected microalgae containing 22 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/100 g of fatty acids (+) on the fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidation of milk and butter. For the 8 mid-lactation Holstein cows in this study, milk yield was not significantly affected by treatment, averaging 32.3 ± 1.28 kg/d. Milk fat content was higher for PAS⁻, averaging 5.05 compared with 4.10 ± 0.17% for the mean of other treatments, and was significantly depressed with microalgae supplementation (3.97 vs. 4.69 ± 0.17%). The saturated fatty acid level in the milk of cows fed TMR⁻ was significantly higher than that of the other treatments (66.9 vs. 61.2 g/100 g of FA). The level of monounsaturated FA was lowered by feeding TMR⁻ (27.4 vs. 32.0 g/100 g of FA), whereas levels of polyunsaturated FA were elevated by feeding PAS+ compared with the mean of the other treatments (6.54 vs. 5.07 g/100 g of FA). Feeding the rumen-protected microalgae increased the DHA content of milk more than 4-fold (0.06 to 0.26 g/100g of FA) with the PAS treatment. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk was highest for PAS+ compared with the other treatments (4.18 vs. 3.41 g/100g of FA). In general, the fatty acid composition of butter followed that of milk. Overall, feeding the TMR supplemented with the rumen-protected microalgae increased the levels of volatile products of oxidation in milk and butter. No effect of forage type or microalgae supplementation was observed on the oxidative stability or antioxidant capacity of milk, although the oxidative stability of butter exposed to UV was reduced with microalgae supplementation, particularly with TMR, as assessed by using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay.

  19. Consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy and development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring: role of maternal atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Mauro; Alessandri, Claudia; Sopo, Stefano Miceli; Panetta, Valentina; Pingitore, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Salvatore; Zappalà, Daniela; Zicari, Anna Maria

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that changes in dietary habits, particularly increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and decreased consumption of omega-3 PUFAs may explain the increase in atopic disease seen in recent years. Furthermore, it seems possible that it is mainly prenatal or very early life environmental factors that influence the development of allergic diseases. It has also been suggested that intrauterine risk factors may act differently if mother themselves suffer from allergic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy might influence the development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring. The study population was divided into the offspring of allergic and non-allergic mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study enrolling 295 offspring of allergic mothers and 693 of non-allergic mothers. Information regarding maternal intake of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy as well as other prenatal and perinatal confounding factors were retrospectively assessed by parental report via a standardized questionnaire. Atopy was determined by skin-prick tests (SPT) to eight prevalent inhalant allergens and two foods. In the allergic mothers' group there is no clear correlation between maternal intakes of fish, butter and margarine and sensitizations to food or inhalants. In the non-allergic mothers' group there was no correlation between butter and margarine intake and food or inhalant sensitizations. On the contrary, a protective effect of fish intake on SPT positivity was observed. In particular, frequent maternal intake ('2-3 times/wk or more') of fish reduced the risk of food sensitizations by over a third (aOR 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.69). A similar trend, even if not significant, was found for inhalants. Finally, even in the whole study population, i.e. allergic group plus non-allergic group, there was a similar trend between increased consumption of

  20. Lactic acid bacteria from Sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter from sheep's milk: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Boudjerda, J.; Leghouchi, E.; Karam, N. E.

    2009-07-01

    Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep's milk in Jijel (East of Algeria). These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactic ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exo polysaccharide. (Author) 42 refs.

  1. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and baby care products. Sometimes the less expensive soya oil is added to peanut oil. ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ...

  2. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  3. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  4. Isothermal Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter at 17 and 20 °C with and without Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolle, Annelien; Goderis, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2016-05-04

    Differential scanning calorimetry and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation were used to elucidate isothermal cocoa butter crystallization at 17 and 20 °C in the absence and presence of different limonene concentrations. At 17 °C, a three-step crystallization process was visible for pure cocoa butter, whereby first an unknown structure with long spacings between a 2L and 3L structure was formed that rapidly transformed into the more stable α structure, which in turn was converted into more stable β' crystals. At 20 °C, an α-mediated β' crystallization was observed. The addition of limonene resulted in a reduction of the amount of unstable crystals and an acceleration of polymorphic transitions. At 17 °C, the crystallization process was accelerated due to the acceleration of the formation of more stable polymorphic forms, whereas there were insufficient α crystals for an α-mediated β' nucleation at 20 °C, resulting in a slower crystallization process.

  5. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  6. Contamination of liquid milk and butter with pesticide residues in the Ludhiana district of Punjab state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder; Kang, B K

    2004-11-01

    An analysis of 92 samples of liquid milk from Ludhiana, India, during 1999-2001 revealed the presence of DDT in 6 (7.4%) samples and of these 2 samples were found to exceed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of DDT fixed at 0.05 mg kg(-1) (on a whole milk basis). HCH residues were detected in 49 (53.3%) samples and constituted only gamma-HCH (lindane). The MRL of lindane is fixed at 0.01 mg kg(-1) (whole milk basis), and all 49 liquid milk samples exceeded this value. These results are indicative of contamination of bovine milk with pesticide residues as a result of the ban on the use of DDT and HCH in agriculture and public health programs. Similarly, analysis of 40 samples of butter showed the presence of DDT and HCH in 28 and 8 samples, respectively. However, none of the samples exceeded the MRL value of either DDT or any isomer of HCH. DDT residues comprised mainly p,p-DDE and p,p-TDE, whereas HCH residues were present as lindane in 6 samples, and 2 samples revealed the presence of beta-HCH. The estimated daily intake of lindane through the consumption of contaminated liquid milk exceeded its acceptable daily intake value for children. Interestingly, none of the liquid milk or butter samples revealed the presence of any commonly used organophosphorus or synthetic pyrethroid insecticides at their detection limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

  7. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (Characteristics of cashew nut butter with added chocolate and cinnamon were evaluated. Formulations were obtained by grinding ingredients onto a homogeneous paste, which was analyzed for moisture, pH, ash, protein, fat, acid value, water activity, texture and sensory acceptance. Products obtained showed low water activity (<0.32 as well as moisture content (<1.4%. Fat (45.3 to 49.1% and protein (15.4 to 16.3% content were high. Nut butter formulations showed good sensory acceptance (82.9 to 100.0% and purchase intent (60.0 to 80.0% by the tasters.

  8. Levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and total phthalate esters in milk, cream, butter and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, M; Read, W A; Castle, L; Gilbert, J

    1994-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and total phthalate ester plasticizer levels were determined in milk, cream, butter and cheese samples from a variety of sources from three European countries (UK, Norway and Spain). Samples of milk (from Norway) obtained at various stages during collection, transportation and packaging operations showed no apparent trends in phthalate contamination with total phthalate levels (expressed as DEHP equivalents) in the raw milk of between 0.12 and 0.28 mg/kg. On processing the DEHP was concentrated in the cream at levels up to 1.93 mg/kg, whereas low fat milk contained from cheese, butter and other fatty products varied considerably in their levels of contamination, the highest being cheese samples containing 17 mg/kg of DEHP and 114 mg/kg total phthalate. However, the majority of samples contained 0.6-3.0 mg/kg DEHP and 4-20 mg/kg total phthalate. UK cream samples contained levels of 0.2-2.7 mg/kg DEHP and 1.8-19.0 mg/kg total phthalate. The level found in these products was too high to have resulted solely from milk by concentration in the fat phase and must therefore have arisen in other ways.

  9. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  10. Production of fats and oils by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1987-10-20

    This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

  11. The effect of flow rate at different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asep, E K; Jinap, S; Russly, A R; Jahurul, M H A; Ghafoor, Kashif; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-05-01

    The effects of flow rate, different pressures and temperatures on cocoa butter extracted from cocoa nib using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) were investigated. The yield was analyzed for total fat content, triacylglycerol (TG) profile, and fatty acid (FA) profile. Extractions were carried out at pressures of 20 and 35 MPa, temperatures of 50 and 60 °C, and CO2 flow rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 mL min(-1). The result shows that the yield of cocoa butter extract increased with increasing pressure, temperature, and flow rate and the optimum conditions for the maximum cocoa butter extraction were 35 MPa, 60 °C and 2 mL min(-1), repectively. TGs and FAs were found to be similar in composition to those of cocoa butter obtained by conventional methods. The lower molecular weight TGs and FAs showed higher selectivity compared to higher molecular weight TGs and FAs.

  12. Effect of cocoa butter replacement with a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid (C-trim30) on the rheological and tribological properties of chocolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter in chocolates was replaced with C-trim30 (5, 10, 15% by weight), a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid containing elevated amount of beta-glucan (32%, db). Then, the effects of the C-trim30 on the rheological, tribological, and textural properties of chocolates were investigated. The viscos...

  13. [Immunologic analysis of milk, hen egg, and soybean proteins in butter and margarine, and clinical assessment for availability of hypoallergenic margarine (HAM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, S; Takahashi, Y; Aihara, Y; Kurihara, K; Suguro, H; Matsuyama, S

    1996-12-01

    To determine the allergenic proteins in commercially available butter and margarine, protein fractions were extracted and immunologically analyzed against milk, hen egg, and soybean antigens. Butter and 10 kinds of margarine were proved to contain these proteins in various concentrations by ELISA and immunoblotting methods by use of the rabbit antisera developed against each food proteins. However, hypoallergenic margarine was found to contain no such proteins at all. Using sera obtained from atopic dermatitis patients, previously detected high levels of IgE antibodies to milk, hen egg, or soybeans, the extracted protein fraction from butter and margarine was analyzed whether these proteins react with IgG antibodies in patients' sera. The sera with high levels of specific IgE recognized protein antigens in these extracts except those from hypoallergenic margarine, suggesting that proteins in butter and margarine may become allergenic for the patients sensitive to the proteins, and that hypoallergenic margarine will be a reasonable alternative for the allergic patients to milk, hen egg, or soybeans.

  14. Development and validation of a method for the determination of low-ppb levels of macrocyclic lactones in butter, using HPLC-fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Resende, Michele Fabri; Brasil, Taila Figueiredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-07-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four macrocyclic lactones (ML) (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin) in butter, using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The method employed heated liquid-liquid extraction and a mixture of acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and water, with preconcentration and derivatization, to produce stable fluorescent derivatives. The chromatographic run time was validation followed international guidelines and employed fortified butter samples. The figures of merit obtained, e.g. recovery (72.4-106.5%), repeatability (8.8%), within-laboratory reproducibility (15.7%) and limits of quantification (0.09-0.16 μg kg(-1)) were satisfactory for the desired application. The application of the method to real samples showed that ML residues were present in six of the ten samples evaluated. The method proved to be simple, easy and appropriate for simultaneous determination of ML residues in butter. To our knowledge, this is the first method described for the evaluation of ML in butter.

  15. 非水相酶促酸解制备类可可脂的工艺研究%Preparation of cocoa butter equivalents with lipase -catalyzed acidolysis under non- aqueous condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈琪; 刘元法; 徐振波; 王风艳; 王兴国

    2011-01-01

    在非水相条件下,利用固定化脂肪酶催化棕榈油中熔点分提物(POMF)与硬脂酸(St)进行酸解反应制备类可可脂(CBE).考察了不同固定化酶、酶添加量、反应溶剂、酶的水分活度、底物质量比和反应温度对反应产率、速率以及产物中甘三酯组成的影响.结果表明:Lipozyme RM IM添加量8%(以底物质量计),环己烷为溶剂,酶水分活度0.54,St与POMF质量比2:1,反应温度60℃为最佳酸解条件;在此条件下反应150 min,产物中主要甘三酯POP、POS、SOS含量分别达到19.36%、44.17%和25.54%.这与天然可可脂组成(POP 18%、POS 42%、SOS 27%)较为相似,满足CBE指标要求.%Under non - aqueous conditions, the production of cocoa butter equivalents ( CBE ) through acidolysis of palm oil midfraction( POMF)with stearic acid using immobilized lipase as a catalyst was studied. Factors such as immobilized lipase, enzyme dosage, solvent, water activity of lipase, mass ratio of substrate and temperature were investigated to evaluate their influence on the yield and reaction rate together with triglyceride composition of the final product. The result showed that the optimal conditions were as follows:mass ratio of stearic acid to POMF 2:1 in the cyclohexane system ,60 ℃, Lipozyme RM IMIM dosage 8%, water activity of lipase 0.54. After reaction for 150 min under the conditions, the contents of the main triglycerides of POP,POS and SOS in the final product were 19.36% ,44.17% and 25.54% ,respectively,which were quite similar to natural cocoa butter( 18% ,42% and 27% ).

  16. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  17. Compatibility study of a low-calorie cocoa butter alternative%一种低热代可可脂的相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志华; 黄健花; 韩璐; 金青哲; 王兴国

    2015-01-01

    采用等温曲线和ΔSFC 曲线分析法,研究了自制短长碳链低热代可可脂(LCSL)与市售可可脂(CB)、非月桂酸类代可可脂(CBR)、月桂酸类代可可脂(CBS)、类可可脂(CBE)产品的相容性,结果表明:LCSL 与市售产品在低温下的相容性较好,其中与 CBS 的相容性最好,温度低于20℃时 LCSL 与 CBS 可任何比例相容;LCSL 适合完全取代 CB 用于生产糖果或巧克力制品,且在配方中需控制 CB 含量低于5%。%The compatibility of the blends of a low–calorie cocoa butter alternative(LCSL)prepared in laboratory and commercially cocoa butter(CB),non–lauric cocoa butter replacers(CBR), lauric cocoa butter substitute(CBS)and cocoa butter equivalents(CBE)were studied. The solid fat isothermal curve and solid fat difference(ΔSFC)curve indicated the good compatibility of LCSL with CB or CB alternatives at lower temperature. The mixture of LCSL and CBS was the best one. Any proportion of compatibility between LCSL and CBS was detected when the temperature was lower than 20 ℃ . LCSL was suitable for replacing CB completely in chocolate,chocolate coating and other confectionery products,and the content of CB should be lower than 5%.

  18. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoui, Tayeb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria. Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Esta es la primera vez que se describen las propiedades microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas y la composición en ácidos grasos de una mantequilla tradicional producida con leche de vaca del Este de Argelia. Cinco muestras de mantequilla fueron preparadas en el laboratorio siguiendo el método tradicional usado por la población del área de Jiels (Este de Argelia. Nuestros resultados muestran la presencia de ácido láctico, bacterias psicrotróficas y levaduras, mientras que stafilococos y bacterias lipolíticas no fueron detectadas. Importantes diferencias fueron encontradas en los valores químicos de las diferentes muestras de mantequilla. Los valores de pH variaron entre 4.64 y 5.53. La humedad e impurezas excedió el 17.5% y 9.19%, respectivamente. Los valores de índice de acidez, índice de peróxidos, índice de saponificación e índice de yodo variaron entre: 23.56-31.35 mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g, respectivamente. Finalmente

  19. Biomodification of edible fats and oils by yeasts; Kobo ni yoru shokuyo yushi no seibutsugakuteki kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Endo, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-10-20

    Lipid-biomodification ability was examined for yeasts isolated from soil using culture medium containing beef tallow (2%). Some yeasts, e.g. Candida, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species were able to grow on fats and oils. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were modified in lipids of some strains. Candida sp. MIS-1 and YM1-1 preferentially produced oleic acid. Candida sp. MIS-1 had high level of triacylglycerol with a melting point like olive oil. Fatty acid composition of lipids in Candida lipolytica IAM4948 and Rhodotorula sp. AO3-5 was similar to that of cacao butter. Yeast oils obtained from C. lipolytica provided the melting characterization different from beef tallow. 30 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Effect of coagulants on the quality of chhana and rasogolla obtained from admixture of buffalo milk and butter milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, V K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Suryamani

    2015-03-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effect of different coagulant (lactic acid, citric acid and calcium lactate) on yield, sensory and textural characteristics of chhana and rasogolla made from admixture of buffalo milk and sweet cream butter milk (SCBM). The highest yield of chhana was observed with calcium lactate whereas the minimum yield was found with citric acid. There was no significant difference found with respect to flavour and colour and appearances scores, however, significant (p < 0.01) difference found in body and texture of chhana samples prepared with different coagulant. In addition to that, significant (p < 0.05) difference observed with respect to body and texture, flavour and porosity of rasogolla, but no significant difference was observed in colour and appearance as well as sweetness of rasogolla prepared with chhana obtained from varying coagulants. Among different coagulants, citric acid was found best suitable for chhana as well as rasogolla making.

  1. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana), which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs), suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts during future

  2. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    Full Text Available Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana, which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs, suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts

  3. Palm Based Mono-Diacylglyceride as an Emulsifier in Producing Chocolate with Cocoa Butter Substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan; , Ijah; Aga Prima Hardika

    2015-01-01

    Emulsifier used in the preparation of chocolate has the function to stabilize fat and water that can prevent the occurrence of blooming. Emulsifier generallyused in the preparation of chocolate is lecithin. However as an alternative monodiacylglycerol (MDAG) can be used. MDAG can be synthesized from vegetableoil such as palm oil and its fraction. This research was conducted to study the effect of palm MDAG and variation of its concentration on quality of chocolate. The palm MDAG used was palm...

  4. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  5. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  6. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods : Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30 and the control group olive oil (n = 30. Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL and water content of the epidermis (WCE on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60 of oils treatment. Results : The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023 and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001. The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01 and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity.

  7. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (psaturated fatty acids (pfats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised.

  8. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p0.05) between G3 on day 0 and 56 days for total cholesterol. Meanwhile, total plasma HDLcholesterol content of rats fed with C8:0 was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the baseline (day 0) and the total plasma LDL cholesterol levels of rats in G4, G5 and G6 were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the baseline (day 0

  9. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Morrison

    Full Text Available As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats, as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals.ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON containing cocoa butter (15% w/w and cholesterol (1% w/w for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF or virgin (VIR pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content.Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity.Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin

  10. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals.

  11. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...

  12. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter.

  13. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter.

  14. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  15. 不同油脂熬制的火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化%Quality changes of oils in different kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珠; 唐洁; 卢靖; 车振明

    2014-01-01

    Four kinds of hot pot soup stocks were made by mixed oils of palm olein and rapeseed oil(vol-ume ratio of palm olein of 5 degrees to palm olein of 8 degrees to rapeseed oil 3: 2: 3), mixed oils of palm stearin and butter(volume ratio of palm stearin to butter 1: 2), rapeseed oil and butter respectively, and the quality changes of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling were studied. The results showed that peroxide value, acid value and malondialdehyde content of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks increased during boiling, and the quality of base oil of hot pot soup stock affected the quality of oil in hot pot soup stock directly during boiling;with the boiling time prolonging, the contents of unsat-urated fatty acids of the oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks all decreased;the relative contents of trans fatty acids of oil in hot pot soup stocks made by rapeseed oil and mixed oils of palm olein and rape-seed oil increased significantly after boiling for 16 h.%对棕榈液油菜籽油复合油脂(5度棕榈液油、8度棕榈液油、菜籽油体积比3:2:3)、棕榈硬脂牛油复合油脂(棕榈硬脂与牛油体积比1:2)、菜籽油以及牛油熬制的火锅底料在熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化进行研究。结果表明:4种火锅底料在熬煮过程中油脂过氧化值、酸值和丙二醛含量均出现增长的趋势,火锅底料基础油脂质量直接影响火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量;随着熬煮时间的延长,4种火锅底料中油脂不饱和脂肪酸含量均降低,棕榈液油菜籽油复合火锅底料、菜籽油火锅底料经熬煮16 h 后,其油脂中反式脂肪酸含量明显升高。

  16. 智能酥油提炼机的设计与实现%Design and implementation of intelligent butter refining machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧玲; 肖伟; 益西拉姆; 普顿

    2011-01-01

    本设计结合西藏地区酥油提炼过程繁琐且提炼成品不理想,造成市场上酥油价格昂贵的现状,设计出了具有最佳提炼速度与提炼时间的酥油提炼机。该提炼机是以SPCE061A为主控制器,通过调节电机驱动控制板的控制信号,使其占空比发生变化.从而实现对电机的精确控制。该酥油提炼机操作简单,实用性强,与西藏地区的实际需求相结合,具有一定的推广前景。%Combined with the butter refining process complex and most refined product disqualified in Tibet area, which results in high price of butter in current market, a butter refining machine is achieved, which can provide optimal refining speed and time. The refining machine adopts SPCE061A as main controller processor, which adjusts the control signal's dutyfactor to control motor precisely. The refining machine has characteristic of simple operation rule, strong practicality, and combines with actual demand of Tibet area, which has certain promotion prospects.

  17. Effects of Development Interventions on the Productivity and Profitability of Women Shea Butter Processors in the West Gonja District of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afishata Mohammed Abujaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of development agencies’ interventions on productivity and profitability of women shea butter processors in contributing to the development of the shea nut industry in Northern Ghana. A survey of 114 women shea butter processors, comprising of 57 each of both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of development interventions in the West Gonja District were sampled and interviewed with a semi structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also held to obtain qualitative data. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA conducted at 5% level of significance found that labour productivity of beneficiaries of development interventions by way of training, equipment and machinery provisions do not differ significantly from that of respondents who had never benefited from such interventions. Similar results were found with regard to average monthly profit made by beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Market sourcing was identified as a major problem affecting women shea butter processors in the district. The study therefore recommends that development agencies programs should highlight follow-up trainings, monitoring and supervisions to ensure the sustainability of projects so that they can continue to yield expected impacts. Also, development agents should include market sourcing opportunities in rural enterprise improvement interventions since that remains a challenge to the realization of development interventions

  18. Production, composition and fatty acid profile of milk and butter texture of dairy cows fed ground or pelleted concentrate with sunflower and/or lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio José Ferreira Figueiroa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the milk production, composition, milk fatty acid profile, butter texture and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed corn silage and concentrate containing one of the following: ground sunflower seeds; ground sunflower seeds treated with 50 g of lignosulfonate/kg of sunflower dry matter; pelleted sunflower seeds; or ground sunflower seeds pelleted and treated with 50 g of lignosulfonate/kg of sunflower dry matter. Four lactating cows were used, each with 130±28 days in lactation and a body weight of 569±63 kg. These animals were distributed in a Latin square design with four periods of 21 days each, with 14 days of adaptation and seven days of data collection. The diets were formulated to meet nutritional requirements and had a forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40. The milk fat was lower in the pelleted treatments. The concentrations of 16:1 n-11 and trans18:1 n-9 in the milk increased, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher for the pelleted treatments. The firmness and adhesiveness of the butter and the blood parameters analyzed were not affected by the treatments. Addition of lignosulfonate is not effective in protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids from the ruminal biohydrogenation process, and the pelleting process has little effect on the milk fatty acid profile and can not change the butter texture.

  19. Analysis of sterol and other components present in unsaponifiable matters of mahua, sal and mango kernel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Rupali; Bhattacharyya, Dipak K; Ghosh, Mahua

    2010-01-01

    The amount and characterization of phytosterol and other minor components present in three Indian minor seed oils, mahua (Madhuca latifolia), sal (Shorea robusta) and mango kernel (Mangifera indica), have been done. Theses oils have shown commercial importance as cocoa-butter substitutes because of their high symmetrical triglycerides content. The conventional thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) & gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques were used to characterize the components and the high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique was used to quantify the each group of components. The experimental data showed that the all the three oils are rich in sterol content and among all the sterols, beta-sitosterol occupies the highest amount. Sal oil contains appreciable amount of cardenolides, gitoxigenin. Tocopherol is present only in mahua oil and oleyl alcohol is present in mango kernel oil. Hydrocarbon, squalene, is present in all the three oils. The characterization of these minor components will help to detect the presence of the particular oil in specific formulations and to assess its stability as well as nutritional quality of the specific oil.

  20. Physical Chemical Properties of Fermented and Roasted Rambutan Seed Fat (RSF as A Potential Source of Cocoa Butter Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Khairy.H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan (Nephelium opossum L is one of the most important tropical fruits that is originally found in Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Borneo and other countries in this region. The industrial processing of this fruit produces seeds and peels as waste materials. The aim of this work was to determine the physical-chemical properties of fermented-roasted Rambutan seed fat (RSF and its mixtures with Cocoa butter (CB in term of viscosity, texture (hardness, thermal stability, and fatty acid composition, and free fatty acid, acid value. The mixtures M3, M4, and RSF which possess similar crystal formation showed almost similar hardness index in the range of 11.18 to 24.77. The mixtures M1 and CB exhibited higher hardness index than M2, M3, M4 and RSF in the range of 57.55 to 63.85. The results showed that a low viscosity was observed in the mixture CB and M1 with increasing the temperatures at 35, 40 and 50 oC whereas, a high viscosity was observed in the other mixture such as M3, M4, and RSF with increasing the temperature, respectively. The result found that the major fatty acid composition was present in CB (100%CB+0%RSF and M1 (80%CB+20%RSF, such as palmitic, stearic and oleic acid, respectively. The results showed no significant differences (P > 0.05 in FFA among CB (2.72±0.65%, M1 (3.01±0.32% and M2 (3.47±0.16%. At the same time, the results of A.V showed significant differences (P < 0.05 among CB (4.68±1.29, M1 (5.98±0.64 and M2 (6.92±0.33 mgKOH/g, respectively, but M1 value was very close to CB value. The results exhibited that CB and M1 had a lower viscosity than M2, M3, M4 and RSF with increasing temperature. From these results, it was found that it is possible to utilize rambutan seed fat as a cocoa butter replacer in a suitable ratio depending on the final products.

  1. Quantitative analysis of triglyceride species of vegetable oils by high performance liquid chromatography via a flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, F C; Erdahl, W L; Schmit, J A; Privett, O S

    1984-11-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of triglyceride species composition of vegetable oils by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) via a flame ionization detector (FID) is described. Triglycerides are separated into molecular species via Zorbax chemically bonded octadecylsilane (ODS) columns using gradient elution with methylene chloride in acetonitrile. Identification of species is made by matching the retention times of the peaks in the chromatogram with the order of elution of all of the species that could be present in the sample on the basis of a random distribution of the fatty acids and comparison of experimental and calculated theoretical carbon numbers (TCN). Quantitative analysis is based on a direct proportionality of peak areas. Differences in the response of individual species were small and did not dictate the use of response factors. The method is applied to cocoa butter before and after randomization, soybean oil and pure olive oil.

  2. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  3. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  4. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  5. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  6. Detection of Butter Adulteration with Lard by Employing (1)H-NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Man, Yaakob bin Che; Rohman, Abdul; Rosman, Arieff Salleh; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2015-01-01

    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.

  7. Biosorption of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution using activated carbon from shea butter seed shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, Folahan A.; Oba, Ismaila A.

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of prepared activated carbon from shea butter seed shells (SB-AC) for the adsorption of formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of optimization parameters including initial concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and temperature of adsorbate solution on the sorption capacity were studied. The SB-AC was characterized for the following parameters: bulk density, moisture content, ash content, pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal conditions for the adsorption were established and the adsorption data for AA fitted Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm well, whereas FA followed Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic data were examined. It was found that pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to adequately explain the sorption kinetic of AA and FA from aqueous solution. It was again found that intraparticle diffusion was found to explain the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were estimated and the negative values of ∆G showed that the adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous in nature, while the negative values of ∆H indicate that the adsorption process was exothermic. It is therefore established that SB-AC has good potential for the removal of AA and FA from aqueous solution. Hence, it should find application in the regular treatment of polluted water in aquaculture and fish breeding system.

  8. Studies in vitro to discern the structural requirements for carcinogenicity in analogues of the carcinogen 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J; Styles, J A; Paton, D

    1980-01-01

    4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow, DAB), is the parent member of a large family of 'azo-carcinogens'. Experiments have been conducted in vitro to determine the key structural requirements for carcinogenic activity in this chemical class, and it is suggested, based on the activity observed for 4-cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline, that the 4-phenylazo group of DAB is not an essential structural feature per se. The N-oxide derivative of DAB has been evaluated in vitro and the positive response observed related to its metabolic activation. It is concluded that cyclic amines, such as pyrrolidine, can replace the N-dimethyl group of DAB with a retention of biological activity. The confusion that exists in the literature concerning the chemical identity and carcinogenic status of 2-dimethylaminobenzo[c]cinnoline has been investigated, and it is concluded that it is a potential animal carcinogen. This observation also indicates that the phenylazo group of DAB can be incorporated within an aromatic ring system with a retention of biological activity. As observed earlier with a mixture of azobenzene and DAB, azobenzene also potentiates the cell transforming properties of the above cinnoline derivative in vitro. Two charts are presented. The first attempts to integrate DAB within a much larger family of carcinogens, and the second illustrates the usefulness of structure-activity studies in general.

  9. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immune system. Despite coconut oil's high calorie and saturated fat content, some people use it by mouth to ... Coconut oil is high in a saturated fat called medium chain triglycerides. These fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. However, research on the effects ...

  10. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  11. Production zones and systems, markets, benefits and constraints of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn butter processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bup Divine Nde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The shea tree is a multipurpose tree crop indigenous to Sub Saharan African. The tree is highly cherished for the oil that is extracted from its kernels and used nationally and internationally in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in chocolate formulations. The processing and sales represent significant income earning opportunities for rural women who are the main stakeholders in the production chain. Shea nuts and its products are listed among the top ten Non-Traditional Exports of Ghana. In Burkina Faso it is the fourth most important export crop after gold, cotton and livestock and makes a contribution of about 6 million USD to the national economy. Today the shea tree is the second most important oil crop in Africa after the palm nut tree. About 500 million shea trees grow in Africa which has the potential of producing shea nuts worth about 150 million USD yearly. This represents substantial earnings for the Sub-Saharan African economies when fully exploited. Shea trees grow in 21 Sub-Saharan African countries that can be grouped into 3 zones following their potentials for shea nut production per year: high production zone comprising of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda that have potentials of producing 70 000–300 000 tons per year; average production zone comprising of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Guinea Conakry, Senegal and Togo with potentials of 10 000–70 000 tons per year and low production zones made up of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Niger and Sierra Leone with yearly production potentials less than 10 000 metric tons. Though semi mechanized and some few fully mechanized productions methods are employed in the major shea producing countries of West Africa, most of the rural women still used traditional processing procedures. Major importers of shea are European Union, Japan and the USA. The sector is still constrained by lack of

  12. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins Perazzo

    Full Text Available There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%, which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05, was detected in products packed in film formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  13. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several fats and oils at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba İnanç Horuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants recently have gained popularity since synthetic ones have toxic and carcinogenic effects. In the present study, effect of temperature (120, 150 and 180°C and cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several oils (olive, hazelnut and palm oils and fats (milkfat and butter was examined. In order to compare the results with the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT was used at a concentration of 200 ppm. This level is the legal maximum limit allowed. Experiments were conducted by using a PetroOxy device, a rapid small scale oxidation stability test. According to induction time values obtained by PetroOxy device, the stability of oils drastically decreased with increasing temperature. Cinnamaldehyde had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on all fat and oil samples compared to control (no antioxidant added and BHT added samples. BHT significantly increased induction times of all fat and oil samples at lower temperatures. However, it was not effective at 180°C (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that cinnamaldehyde could not be considered as a good alternative to BHT for preservation of fats and oils at high temperatures.

  14. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF NATURAL PALM OIL BASED DICLOFENAC SODIUM SUPPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pugunes and R.E. Ugandar*

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to formulate and evaluate natural palm oil based Diclofenac sodium suppositories. The formulated natural palm oil based suppositories were compared with suppositories of water soluble bases (PEG 4000 and 6000 and lipid soluble base (cocoa butter. The in-vitro drug release rate studies were carried out by using dissolution apparatus. The in-vitro release pattern of diclofenac sodium from the formulated suppositories F1, F2, F3 and F4, were found to be 9.51% to 73.67%, 16.73 to 84.22%, 65.04 % to 87.54% and 50.76% to 83.54% after 30 min and 3 hrs respectively. The rapid in-vitro release rate was shown by F3 (Formulation with PEG 4000 as base. F3 can be used for immediate action. The in-vitro release rate of F1 (with natural palm oil base was found to be moderate and consistent when compared with all other formulations. Natural palm oil base can be considered as a suitable base for sustained release suppositories. Natural palm oil suppository base can be used as a base for sustained release suppositories of Diclofenac sodium. It is encouraged to perform drug release kinetic studies for this respective base in future. Besides that, in-vitro release rate studies can also be included for this natural palm oil base incorporated with different classes of drugs.

  15. Buttered Tea and Buttered Tea Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    YEYULINFOLKLOREKetlesusedtomakebuterandbutercontainers.WhenIrecentlyvisitedafriendinLhasa,thewholefamilywasdrinkingbuteredtea...

  16. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples.

  17. Migration of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates from twist closures into food and enforcement of the overall migration limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, G A; Jensen, L K; Fankhauser, A; Biedermann, S; Petersen, J H; Fabech, B

    2008-04-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di-iso-nonylphthalates (DINP), were found in seven samples at 6-173 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations (99-173 mg kg(-1)) were in products of garlic and tomatoes in oil and in fatty food products such as sauce béarnaise and peanut butter. For five of the samples the overall migration from unused lids to the official fatty food simulant olive oil was determined and compared with the legal limit of 60 mg kg(-1). The results ranged from 76 to 519 mg kg(-1) and as a consequence the products were withdrawn from the market.

  18. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-02-06

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability. Under the same growth conditions, we found that TAGs were the main lipids in all six yeasts and that T. oleaginosus can produce more TAGs than the other five yeasts. Less than 3% of the total TAGs were identified as potential SOS in the six yeasts. However, T. oleaginosus produced 27.8% potential POP and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future.

  19. Effect of Emulsifiers on Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter%乳化剂对可可脂结晶行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风艳; 王兴国; 孙小玲; 徐春伟; 马素琴; 黄凯; 刘元法

    2012-01-01

    从结晶热力学、动力学及形态学3个方面考察了5种乳化剂对可可脂结晶行为的影响.结果表明:单甘脂的添加降低了可可脂在25~30℃温度范围内的固体脂肪含量,不利于巧克力的加工.山梨醇酐单硬脂酸酯(Span60)的添加使可可脂晶体的三维球晶生长方式向二维平面晶体生长方式转变,并显著加快可可脂的结晶速率.Span60和聚乙氧基硬脂酸山梨糖醇(Tween60)缩短了可可脂的半结晶时间,而单甘脂、卵磷脂及聚甘油多聚蓖麻酸酯(PGPR)使可可脂的半结晶时间延长.偏光显微镜结果表明乳化剂的添加使得可可脂球晶的直径增大.%The effect of emulsifiers on crystallization behavior of cocoa butter were evaluated from the aspects of thermodynamics,dynamics and morphology. Results indicated that;the addition of monoglyceride reduced the solid fat content of cocoa butter at 25~30 ℃, which was not conducive to the processing of chocolate. The three dimensional sphere -crystal growth was changed by the addition of Span60 to two - dimensional crystal growth. Meanwhile,the crystallization rate was significantly increased by the addition of Span60. The hypocrystalline time(t1/2) of cocoa butter was reduced by the addition of Span60 and Tween60,while prolonged by the addition of monoglyceride,lecithin,and PGPR. The polarized microscopy results indicated that addition of emulsifiers increased the diameter of cocoa butter sphere - crystals.

  20. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  1. All About Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats. Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils) ... oil, and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered to ...

  2. USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Zouari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microorganisms synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Microbial surfactants are not yet a sustainable alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants seeing their potentially high production charges. This study highlights the use of low-cost agro-industrial raw material for fermentative production of biosurfactants. The Box–Behnken Design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of the ratio butter milk /distilled water, poultry-transforming wastes and inoculum size for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by B.subtilis SPB1 in submerged fermentation.The best production yield was about 12.61 ± 0.7 g/L of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant. It can be obtained when using a ratio butter milk /distilled water of 1.5, poultry-transforming wastes of 23g/L and an inoculum size of 0.12. In comparison to the highest biosurfactant production yield reported for Bacillus subtilis SPB1, three fold increases were obtained.

  3. The lactose and galactose content of milk fats and suitability for galactosaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Portnoi, P. A.; Macdonald, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Butter oil, ghee and butter are theoretically low in lactose. All three products are high in milk fat; butter oil and ghee contain approximately 99.3% fat and butter around 80% fat. We report the lactose and galactose content of butter, ghee, and butter oil and assess their suitability in a low galactose diet. Methods: A total of 12 samples (butter oil n = 5, ghee n = 5, butter n = 2) were analysed by High-Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Det...

  4. Physicochemical characteristic and compatibleness of oils and fats in chocolate coating%巧克力涂层基料油的理化性质及其相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛跃庭; 胡明明; Ooi Cheng Keat; 张玉军

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristic and compatibleness of palm mid fraction,perhydro palm kernel olein and cocoa butter,as base oils and fats in chocolate coating,were studied.The result showed that, when content of palm mid fraction in the blend of palm mid fraction and hydrogenated palm kernel olein was below 30%,there was slight eutectic.The blend was suitable as chocolate coating without trans fatty acids.The addition of cocoa butter caused serious eutectic among the ternary system (palm mid fraction and hydrogenated palm kernel olein and cocoa butter);therefore it was inadvisable to add cocoa butter in the blend.%选用棕榈油中间分提物(PMF)、全氢化棕榈仁液油(HPKOL)、可可脂(CB)作为巧克力涂层的基料油,对其理化性质及其相容性进行分析。结果表明,当两相体系 PMF -HPKOL 中 PMF 含量在30%以下时,共晶现象较弱。PMF 和 HPKOL 混合可以作为涂层油脂配方,用于开发无反式脂肪酸巧克力涂层。添加可可脂会导致三相体系(PMF -HPKOL -CB)严重的共晶现象,因此在代可可脂涂层配方中不宜再添加可可脂。

  5. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    the effect of butter with a naturally high content of vaccenic acid and a concomitantly higher content of monounsaturated FAs on classic and novel risk markers of IHD. Design: In a double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study, 42 healthy young men were given 115 g fat/d from test butter...... that was high in vaccenic acid (3.6 g vaccenic acid/d) or a control butter with a low content of vaccenic acid. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the intervention. Results: The intake of the vaccenic acid-rich diet resulted in 6% and 9% lower total cholesterol and plasma HDL......-cholesterol concentrations, respectively, than did the intake of the control diet (P = 0.05 and 0.002, respectively), whereas the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol did not differ significantly between the groups. The FA composition of lipid classes reflected the FAs' proportion of the test butter. No other differences were...

  6. Influence of hydrogenated oil as cocoa butter replacers in the development of sugar-free compound chocolates: Use of inulin as stabilizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Baracco, Yanina; Lecot, Javier; Zaritzky, Noemi; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the addition of inulin as a surfactant or stability agent on white compound chocolate sweetened with sucralose and Stevia was studied. Samples were stored at 7, 15 and 30°C during 100days and the influence of inulin on rheological properties, sensorial attributes, shelf-life, physical properties such as melting, crystallization and blooming were analyzed. The shelf-life of the compound chocolate with the incorporation of inulin was higher than the control sample without replacement. Compound chocolate with inulin at 10%w/w showed a dense matrix structure, reducing the size and number of fat crystals formed during storage; furthermore they presented higher values of brightness and WI. This chocolate also showed less fracturability and improved thermal properties. DSC studies revealed increased values of onset and peak temperatures and enthalpy of melting of the polymorphic form V, at higher storage temperatures, achieving greater stability against degradation processes.

  7. 不同年龄・胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响%Effects of Dairy Cow Age, Fetal Times and Lactation Month on the Butter-fat Percentage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双军; 尚娇; 尚海彬; 李强子; 张丽

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究不同年龄、胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响。[方法]对宁夏平吉堡奶牛场1500头成年奶牛乳脂率进行测定,研究不同年龄、胎次和泌乳月对奶牛乳脂率的影响。[结果]奶牛平均乳脂率为3.64%,随着年龄的增长而逐渐下降,乳脂率由4岁的3.94%降至9岁的3.54%;奶牛平均乳脂率随着胎次的增加也逐渐下降,由1胎的4.03%降至8胎的3.26%;奶牛平均乳脂率随着泌乳月的延长而呈两头高中间低的变化趋势。[结论]该研究结果对今后的奶牛生产具有一定的指导意义。%Objective] To research the effects of dairy cow age, fetal times and lactation month on the butter-fat percentage.[Method] Butter-fat percentage of 1 500 adult cows was detected in Ningxia Pingjibao Dairy Farm.Effects of dairy cow age, fetal times and lactation month on the butter-fat percentage were researched.[Result] The average butter-fat percentage of dairy cow was 3.64%, which gradually reduced as the age increased.The butter-fat percentage reduced from 3.94% at 4-year old to 3.54% at 9-year old.The average butter-fat percentage of dairy cow gradually reduced as the dairy cow enhanced, which declined from 4.03% of the first fetus time to the eighth fetus.The average butter-fat per-centage of dairy cow showed a change trend of peaking at both sides.[Conclusion] This research provides certain guidance for the dairy cow pro-duction in future.

  8. 影响酶催化制备类可可脂过程中酰基位移和酯交换因素研究%Influence factors of acyl migration and enzymatic interesterification during cocoa butter equivalent produced by lipase-catalyzed reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海东; 魏安池; 赵凯艳; 郑彦芳

    2014-01-01

    In the paper,the production of cocoa butter equivalent by enzymatic interesterification of palm oil midfraction(POMF)and stearic acid(StA)was studied. The characteristics of directed hydrolysis of pancreatic lipase and Lipozyme TL IM catalyzed interesterification were utilized. Sn-2 acyl migration rate and ester exchange degree were analyzed in combination with thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The reaction conditions of cocoa butter equivalent production were as follows:POMF was 5 g,water activity was 0.43,the amount of enzyme was 10%,the mass ratio of POMF to StA was 1∶1.8,shaking speed was 150 r/min,the reaction temperature was 60℃and the reaction time was 10 h. Under the circumstances,the ester exchange degree was 75.70%,the acyl migration rate was 12.30%,the slip melting point of the production was 31~35℃and the acid value was 1.2 mgKOH/g.%该文研究棕榈油中间熔点物(POMF)与硬脂酸(StA)进行酶酯交换制备类可可脂。利用胰脂酶定向水解和Lipozyme TL IM脂肪酶酯交换的特性,结合TLC和GC法分析Sn-2位酰基转移率和酯交换的程度。从而得出棕榈油中间物制备类可可脂的反应条件:POMF为5 g,水活度为0.43,加酶量为10%,底物质量比为1∶1.8,振荡速度为150 r/min,反应温度60℃,反应时间10 h。此时,酯交换程度为75.70%,酰基转移率为12.30%,产品的滑动熔点为31~35℃,酸值为1.2 mgKOH/g。

  9. 代可可脂花生夹心糖制作工艺优化%Optimization of Ingredient Composition for Cocoa Butter Substitute/Peanut Bonbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆梅; 靳靖; 魏春燕; 吴聪; 黄博英

    2012-01-01

    以花生糖为糖芯,代可可脂为主要包衣材料,制作代可可脂巧克力花生夹心糖。利用响应面分析法优化糖芯制作工艺。根据Box-Behnken中心组合试验设计原理对工艺条件进行优化,在分析各因素显著性及其交互作用的基础上,得出花生糖芯口感最佳配方为:糖芯的最佳配料为白糖-淀粉糖浆-花生粉末-猪油(添加量质量配比为3.33:4.02:7.24:1),包衣材料的最佳配料为白糖30%、乳化剂0.5%、代可可脂-可可粉8:1(m/m);包衣厚度1.4mm,包衣温度50℃。%In this study,cocoa butter substitute/peanut bonbons were made with peanut sugar as the core and cocoa butter substitute as the main coating material.Response surface methodology was used to optimize the ingredient composition of bonbon core and coating based on a central composite design.According the results of significance analysis of various variables and their interactions,the optimal bonbon core was composed of sugar,starch syrup,peanut powder and lard at a mass ratio of 3.33:4.02:7.24:1,and the optimal bonbon coating was composed of 30% sugar,0.5% emulsifier,and cocoa butter substitute:cocoa powder at a mass ratio of 8:1,1.4 mm in thickness,and formed at 50 ℃.

  10. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  11. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  12. Guns, Butter, or Sheepskins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeiter, Solomon

    1985-01-01

    Some of the uneven effects of the coming enrollment decline are delineated. This condition may be exacerbated by the competition for 18-year-olds from the military and business and industry. Statistical comparisons are included. (MLW)

  13. Windmills, Butter, and Bacon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In spite of ideological concerns due to N.F.S. Grundtvig’s reservations about the natural sciences and the traditional education of his day, the Grundtvigian movement and, especially, teachers at the People’s High Schools and the agricultural schools played an important role in the dissemination ...

  14. Bread and Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2010-01-01

    Annual giving is the number one indicator that someone will make a major or planned gift. Annual funds are the meat and potatoes of fundraising. But if the annual fund has recently taken a backseat to major and megagifts, the recession made a bad situation even worse. Today, most annual fund performance indicators have plummeted. Virtually all…

  15. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from traditional butter made from camel milk in arid regions (Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem, Kaid Harche

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains previously isolated from the traditional butter made from camel milk (shmen were evaluated for some probiotic criteria. Among 38 strains investigated for bile resistance, 14 were tolerant to 2% oxgall with survival percentages ranging from 69 to 75%. Out of these, only 4 strains (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 were sufficiently resistant to pH 2.0 for 2 to 6 h incubation periods. Only crude extracts of L. plantarum SH12 and L. plantarum SH24 were inhibitory against Lactococcus lactis B8, the strain used as indicator. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was completely lost after treatment with α-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. L. plantarum SH12 and SH24 strains were susceptible to penicillin G, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin, but resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. These strains showed rapid acidification activity (0.921 and 1.075 mmol/l of lactic acid, respectively, a good proteolytic activity (5.45 and 3.49 mg/l tyrosine at 72 h, respectively and high survival percentage after freeze-drying. None of the strains produced polysaccharides or haemolysin in sheep blood.Se evalúan algunas características probióticas de cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum aisladas de la mantequilla tradicional elaborada a partir de leche de camello (shmen. De 38 cepas investigadas para resistencia biliar, 14 fueron tolerantes a un 2% oxgall con porcentajes de supervivencia entre 69 y 75%. De éstas, sólo 4 cepas (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 fueron suficientemente resistentes a pH 2 con periodos de incubación entre 2 y 6 h. Únicamente los extractos crudos de L. plantarum SH12 y L. plantarum SH24 fueron inhibitorios frente a Lactococcus lactis B8, la cepa utilizada como indicador. La actividad antibacteriana de los extractos crudos se perdió completamente después de tratamiento con α-quimotripsina y proteinasa K. Las cepas SH12 y SH24 fueron susceptibles a la penicilina G, oxacilina

  16. Effect of fractional crystallization on composition and thermal properties of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla seed fat and cocoa butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractional crystallization behaviors of cocoa butter (CB and enkabang fat (EF in acetone were investigated. Melted samples of CB and EF were mixed separately with acetone in 1:2 a (w/v ratio and partitioned into solid and liquid fractions under controlled temperature conditions. The isolated fractions were compared to their respective native samples with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as gas liquid chromatography (GLC, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. According to the results, partitioning of either CB or EF under solvent assisted crystallization conditions yielded a major solid and a minor liquid fraction. The solid and liquid fractions of both fats were found to display many similarities, but few differences with regard to their composition and thermal properties. While the solid fractions may be useful as a hard stock in hard margarine and cosmetic product formulation, the liquid fraction would be useful as an ingredient for food applications.Se investigan los comportamientos de una cristalización fraccionada de la manteca de cacao (CB y la grasa de enkabang (EF en acetona. Las muestras fundidas de CB y EF se mezclaron por separado con acetona en una relación 1:02 (w/v y se dividen en fracciones sólida y líquida bajo condiciones de temperatura controlada. Las fracciones aisladas se compararon con sus respectivas muestras nativas con respecto a diversos parámetros físico-químicos utilizando métodos químicos estándar, así como técnicas instrumentales, como la cromatografía gas-líquido (GLC, cromatografía líquida de fase inversa de alta resolución (RP-HPLC, y calorimetría de barrido diferencial (DSC. De acuerdo con los resultados, el fraccionamiento tanto de CB como EF bajo condiciones de cristalización asistida con disolvente produjo una fracción s

  17. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  18. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Shimko, Michael J.; Wells, J.R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A.; Case, Shannon L.; Thompson, Janet A.; Fedan, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport, without affecting Cl− transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100–360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  19. On Saozi Noodle, Toad Butter and the Chinese Character"de"%(月肃)子面、蟾酥及“的”字三议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩健畅

    2012-01-01

    "臊子面"应为"(月肃)子面",这可以从许多古籍记载中看得出来。蟾酥的制作通常是于夏秋捕捉癞蛤蟆,后去内脏,撑开晒干,用瓷匙刮癞蛤蟆的表面,促使其分泌浆液,再盛于瓷器内,干燥后就称为蟾酥。上古至清,"的"字的含义指姬妾宫人来了月经,不用口说,以红色丹砂、胭脂或其它红、绛、玄、蛾黄色颜料点在额中,意即避开房事。%"Saozi Noodle"should have been written in another way,which can be seen from many ancient books.The making of toad butter usually begins with summer and autumn when people try to catch a toad,gut it and air its dead body.Afterward the surface of toad is to be scraped with a porcelain spoon for the secreting of thick liquid to be put in a porcelain vessel.Wait until it is dried when it is called toad butter.Ever since antiquity,the meaning of"de"refers to the menstruation period of concubines and people in the imperial court.When this happens,the females don’t have to tell but put a dot made up of red cinnabar,rouge or other colors such as red,purple,black or yellow,which indicates the avoidance of having sexual intercourse.

  20. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro.

  1. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Mohamedou, M M; Zouirech, K; El Messal, M; El Kebbaj, M S; Chraibi, A; Adlouni, A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B), CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P = 0.001), total chol by 9.13%, (P = 0.01), and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P = 0.02). However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P = 0.01 and 9.40%,  P = 0.045, resp.). Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P = 0.038) in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  4. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  5. Particles at Oil-Air Surfaces: Powdered Oil, Liquid Oil Marbles, and Oil Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Johnston, Shaun K; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2015-07-08

    The type of material stabilized by four kinds of fluorinated particles (sericite and bentonite platelet clays and spherical zinc oxide) in air-oil mixtures has been investigated. It depends on the particle wettability and the degree of shear. Upon vigorous agitation, oil dispersions are formed in all the oils containing relatively large bentonite particles and in oils of relatively low surface tension (γla cyclomethicone containing the other fluorinated particles. Particle-stabilized oil foams were obtained in oils having γla > 26 mN m(-1) where the advancing air-oil-solid contact angle θ lies between ca. 90° and 120°. Gentle shaking, however, gives oil-in-air liquid marbles with all the oil-particle systems except for cases where θ is 24 mN m(-1) with omniphobic zinc oxide and sericite particles for which advancing θ ≥ 90°, dry oil powders consisting of oil drops in air which do not leak oil could be made upon gentle agitation up to a critical oil:particle ratio (COPR). Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion of the dry oil powders to air-in-oil foams was observed. When sheared on a substrate, the dry oil powders containing at least 60 wt % of oil release the encapsulated oil, making these materials attractive formulations in the cosmetic and food industries.

  6. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Eveline; Walstra, Pieter; Dewettinck, Koen

    2010-01-15

    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the manufacturing of products like ice cream, butter and whipped toppings partial coalescence is required to achieve the desired product properties. It contributes to the structure formation, the physicochemical properties (stability, firmness,...) and the sensory perception, like fattiness and creaminess of the final food products. This review critically summarises the findings of partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions in order to provide insight in how to enhance and retard it. Next to the pioneering work, a large set of experimental results of more recent work is discussed. First, the general mechanism of partial coalescence is considered and a distinction is made between partial and 'true' coalescence. The main differences are: the required solid particles in the dispersed oil phase, the formation of irregular clusters and the increased aggregation rate. Second, the kinetics of partial coalescence is discussed. In more detail, potential parameters affecting the rate of partial coalescence are considered by means of the encounter frequency and capture efficiency of the fat globules. The flow conditions, the fat volume fraction and the physicochemical properties of continuous aqueous phase affect both the encounter frequency and capture efficiency while the actual temperature, temperature history and the composition and formulation of the emulsion mainly affect the capture efficiency.

  7. Fast non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography separation of triacylglycerol regioisomers with isocratic mobile phase. Application to different oils and fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba Sompila, Arnaud W G; Héron, Sylvie; Hmida, Dorra; Tchapla, Alain

    2017-01-15

    The distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-1/3 position or the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural fats and oils affects their physical and nutritional properties. In fats and oils, determining the presence of one or two regioisomers and the identification of structure, where they do have one, as well as their separation, became a problem of fundamental importance to solve. A variety of instrumental technics has been proposed, such as MS, chromatography-MS or pure chromatography. A number of studies deal with the optimization of the separation, but very often, they are expensive in time. In the present study, in order to decrease the analysis time while maintaining good chromatographic separation, we tested different monomeric and polymeric stationary phases and different chromatographic conditions (mobile phase composition and analysis temperature) using Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP-LC). It was demonstrated that mixed polymeric stationary bonded silica with accessible terminal hydroxyl groups leads to very good separation for the pairs of TAGs regioisomers constituted by two saturated and one unsaturated fatty acid (with double bond number: from 1 to 6). A Nucleodur C18 ISIS percolated by isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/2-propanol) at 18°C leads to their separations in less than 15min. The difference of retention times between two regioisomers XYX and XXY are large enough to confirm, as application, the presence of POP, SOP, SOS and PLP and no PPO, SPO, SSO and PPL in Theobroma cacao butter. In the same way, this study respectively shows the presence of SOS, SOP and no SSO, PSO in Butyrospermum parkii butter, POP, SOP, SOS and no PPO, PSO and SSO in Carapa oil and finally POP and no PPO in Pistacia Lentiscus oil.

  8. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  9. Modulation of mutagenic activity in meat samples after deep-frying in vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, C; Lopez de Cerain, A; Bello, J

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have been carried out on the influence of frying fats on the formation of food mutagens, but most of them have been performed on model systems or under cooking conditions that are more frequent in northern countries. The objective of this work was to study the overall mutagenic activity generated in hamburgers and frankfurters deep-fried under cooking conditions that are normal practice in Spain and other Mediterranean countries, in order to determine if there was any modulation of the mutagenic activity with respect to other cooking conditions previously studied. Hamburgers were prepared from beef purchased in a butcher's shop. Frankfurters as well as the oils [olive, marc olive ('orujo'), sunflower and soya bean oil] and butter were purchased in a local supermarket. The samples were fried in a teflon-coated frying pan at 170-180 degrees C for 10, 20 or 30 min. The mutagens were extracted and the mutagenic activity evaluated using the Salmonella mammalian microsome assay with strain TA98. Two independent assays were carried out for each experimental condition. All the hamburgers showed a mutagenic activity that was more than four times higher than that of the controls. Frankfurters showed a lower mutagenic activity than hamburgers (fried under the same conditions) because they have a lower protein content and a higher fat content. Hamburgers fried in olive oil for 10 min showed a significant increase in the number of revertants with respect to the other oils, probably due to the fact that the temperature reached was approximately 10 degrees C higher. Longer frying times significantly increased the number of revertants in samples fried in oils, except in olive oil, probably due to its lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.

  11. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiraouani Boucetta K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta,1 Zoubida Charrouf,2 Hassan Aguenaou,3 Abdelfattah Derouiche,4 Yahya Bensouda1 1Research Team on Formulation and Biopharmacy, Research Center for Drug, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 2Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 3Mixed Unit of Research in Nutrition, ITU / CNESTEN, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco; 4Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco Background: During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity.Materials and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity, and the resonance running time (RRT at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application.Results: The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net elasticity of the skin (R5 (P<0.001, biological elasticity (R7 (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002. The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net

  12. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  13. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  14. Fish oil and olive oil can modify insulin resistance and plasma desacyl-ghrelin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Saidpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence exists for reciprocal effects of insulin and desacyl-ghrelin (DAG concentration, but the association between different fatty acid saturation in high fat diet (HFD and these hormones remain to be established. To evaluate the impact of different sources of dietary fat and the level of fatty acid saturation on plasma insulin and DAG levels and also the association of DAG with insulin action this study was carried out. Methods: Male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of HFDs, high fat butter (HF-B, high fat soy (HF-S, high fat olive (HF-O, high fat fish (HF-F, and a group of standard diet (SD. Blood samples were collected after 8 weeks and after they were fasted for 24 h. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, insulin, DAG and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were measured. Results: Plasma insulin levels at fed and fasted status, were significantly higher in rats on HF-B compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05. Insulin concentration in rats on HF-S was also higher than those on SD, HF-F and HF-O diets (P<0.05, in the feeding status. Insulin resistance was significantly higher in rats on HF-B, compared to those on SD, HF-F and HF-O (P<0.05. Rats that were fed with HF-B diet had lower fasting plasma DAG levels than the SD, HF-F and HF-O groups (P<0.05; furthermore, the HF-F group had significantly higher DAG level than the HF-S groups (P<0.05. Conclusions: Fish and olive oils may hence contribute to lower insulin level and HOMA-IR by increasing DAG concentration and may have more health benefits than other fat sources in diets.

  15. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given.

  16. 原料特性与花生酱品质间关系模型的建立%Establishment of Relationship Model Between Peanut Material Characteristics and Peanut Butter Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩阿娜; 刘红芝; 刘丽; 石爱民; 王强

    2016-01-01

    为解决“普通花生品种过多和原料过剩、专用加工品种和原料缺乏”的问题,本研究对26个品种花生的感官特性、理化与营养特性、加工特性与其花生酱品质之间的关系进行研究,建立原料特性与花生酱品质间的关系模型。以26个品种花生制备的花生酱为原料,分析各品种花生特性与花生酱品质间的关系,采用20个品种的原料特性数据构建评价模型,另外6个品种品质数据进行验证。结果显示,花生原料的百仁重、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、总维生素E、油酸/亚油酸等5个指标与花生酱品质在0.05水平上关系显著,采用统计学分析建立花生酱用花生原料特性评价模型,验证模型的R2为0.788。研究结果表明,花生的原料特性显著影响花生酱品质,粗蛋白、总维生素E与油酸/亚油酸等指标的含量越高,花生酱品质越好。该方法可为不同花生品种的加工利用和专用品种的选择提供依据。%In order to solve the adverse situation, which ordinary peanut varieties and ingredients are lack and special processing varieties and ingredients are surplus. This paper mainly discussed the relationship between peanut quality ( sensory quality, physicochemical quality and processing quality ) and peanut butter, and to establish the relationship model between peanut material characteristics and peanut butter quality. 26 peanut varieties were used to prepare the peanut butter, and the relationship between the characteristics of peanut and peanut butter was analyzed. 20 varieties were assigned to the calibration set, whereas the remaining 6 varieties constituted the validation set. The results showed that the characteristics of different peanuts varieties and its preparation peanut butter had significantly difference. Hundred ker﹣nel weight, the content of protein and fat, the total vitamin content and O/L ratio had significant relation﹣ships with peanut butter

  17. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  18. At-line near-infrared spectroscopy for prediction of the solid fat content of milk fat from New Zealand butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Lucy P; Holroyd, Stephen E; Illingworth, David; van de Ven, Frank; Lane, Susan

    2007-04-18

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy calibrations that will allow prediction of the solid fat content (SFC) of milk fat extracted from butter by one measurement during manufacture were developed. SFC is a measure of the amount of the solid fraction of fat crystallized at a temperature expressed as a percentage (w/w). At-line SFC determinations are currently performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which involves a 16 h delay period for tempering of the milk fat at 0 degrees C prior to the SFC measurements, from 0 to 35 degrees C in a series of 5 degrees C increments. The NIR spectra (400-2500 nm) were obtained using a sample holder maintained at 60 degrees C. Accurate predictions for the SFC (%) were developed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression models to relate the NIR spectra to the corresponding NMR values. The independent validation samples (N = 22) had a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.385-0.762% for SFC between 0 and 25 degrees C, with SFC reference values ranging between 70.42 and 8.96% with a standard deviation range of 3.36-1.47. The low bias (from -0.351 to -0.025), the slopes (0.935-1.077), and the excellent predictive ability (R2; 0.923-0.978) supported the validity of these calibrations.

  19. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  20. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  1. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  2. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  3. Oil Module Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    in any a^regate sense, or (b) to be "valid" for crude oil production in all countries. Neither, however, is it to provide detailed point... oil production by the oil companies through their regular channels. Such oil is said to be "sold back" by the countries to the coirpanies...a royalty to the producing country government. revenue received by the producing country government as a result of sales of its share of crude

  4. Soluble oil cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlinson, A.P.; White, J.

    1987-06-23

    A soluble oil, suitable when diluted with water, for use as a cutting fluid comprises an alkali or alkaline-earth metal alkyl benzene sulphonate, a fatty acid diethanolamide, a mixed alkanolamine borate, a polyisobutenesuccinimide and a major proportion of mineral oil. The soluble oil is relatively stable without the need for a conventional coupling agent and some soluble oil emulsions are bio-static even though conventional biocides are not included.

  5. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  6. Lubricating oil; Junkatsuyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H.

    1999-07-20

    As a reflection of business recession, sales amount of lubricating oils in 1998 in Japan was 2.334 million kl that is 96.1% of that in the previous year. In addition, export amount was 394 thousand kl that also decreased sharply to 81.9% of that in the previous year. In this situation, researches and developments of environment-adaptable lubricating oils such as fuel consumption-saving engine oils, new mechanism-corresponding drive system oils (AFT, CVT), refrigerating machine oils for substitute coolants, biodegradable oils and greases, environment corresponding processing oils (non-chlorine type cutting oils), and so on have been executed actively. In respect to lubricating oils for vehicles, numerous researches and developments of engine oils are executed while putting stress on the improvement of fuel consumption saving for reducing CO{sub 2} exhaust; improvement of adaptability to exhaust treating apparatus for purging harmful components from exhaust gas; and environmental corresponding of long drain for reducing waste oils. In respect to lubricating oils for industry, basic characteristics and utility characteristics of fire-resistant working fluids and biodegradable working fluids; and utility characteristics of new functional fluids and electric viscous fluids are reported in view of their relationship with environmental protection. (NEDO)

  7. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  8. Natural oils as lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  9. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  10. 不同包装条件下精酥油的品质变化研究%Changes of the quality of pure butter under different package conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪蕾; 杨丽杰; 陈雪; 霍贵成

    2012-01-01

    The fresh pure butter made in the laboratory were packaged with vacuum packaging,film packaging and common plastic packing respectively,and they were stored in the 4℃ and room temperature.In order to study the changes of the quality of pure butter during storage,the assessment of moisture content,acid value,peroxide value,the total bacteria count and the sense organ were measured every other day according to the relevant test methods and standards.The result showed that under the 4℃ storage conditions,vacuum packaging could keep the moisture content of the pure butter better than the other two packages.Vacuum packaging could inhibit the increase of the acid value effectively during the storage period,followed by film packaging and common plastic packing.In the aspect of oxidation resistance,the film packaging was similar to the vacuum packaging,and was better under the 4℃ storage condition.Under the film packaging,the total bacteria count of the pure butter was lower compared with the other two packages,according to the sensory evaluation standard,the shelf life of pure butter was 61d under the room temperature,however,that of pure butter was over 76d under the 4℃ storage condition.%对实验室制作的新鲜精酥油,采用真空、薄膜和普通塑料进行包装,并分别置于4℃和室温下进行贮存,依据相关检测方法及标准,定期测定水分含量、酸价、过氧化值、菌落总数及感官指标,研究精酥油在不同贮存条件下的品质变化。结果表明,在4℃冷藏条件下,真空包装相对于其他两种包装可以更好保持精酥油的水分含量;真空包装能够有效的抑制精酥油在贮存期间内的酸价增加,其次是薄膜包装和普通塑料包装;薄膜包装在抗氧化方面与真空包装效果相差不大,并且在4℃冷藏条件下相较于真空包装可以更好的防止精酥油的氧化;相比于其他两种包装,精酥油在薄膜包装下的菌落总数较低;依据感官评定标

  11. Effect of argan and olive oil consumption on the hormonal profile of androgens among healthy adult Moroccan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Jafri, Ali; Driouch, Issam; El Khasmi, Mohammed; Adlouni, Ahmed; Benajiba, Nada; Bamou, Youssef; Saile, Rachid; Benouhoud, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p argan or olive oils. The results suggest that consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.

  12. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  13. 牛油火锅底料品质变化特征及货架期预测%Quality Changes during Storage and Shelf Life Prediction of Butter Hotpot Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽兰; 尼海峰; 闫志农; 卢晓黎

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated changes in the sensory quality, acid value, peroxide value and total bacterial count of butter hotpot seasoning during storage at different temperatures (5, 25 ℃ and 37 ℃). Acid value was found to be a reliable indicator for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning. A kinetic model of acid value for predicting the shelf life of butter hotpot seasoning was developed with E (activation energy) and K0 (regression coefficient) of 21.82 J/mol and 32.62, respectively. The reliability of the prediction model was validated.%以牛油火锅底料为研究对象,在不同贮藏温度(5、25、37℃)条件,对牛油火锅底料的感官品质、酸价、过氧化值及菌落总数变化情况进行研究。结果表明预测牛油火锅底料货架期采用酸价变化动力学模型较为可靠。以酸价为指标建立动力学模型预测牛油火锅底料的货架期,模型的活化能(E)和回归系数(K0)分别为21.82J/mol和32.62。经验证,此动力学模型可较准确的预测火锅底料货架期。

  14. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A; Kreil, Katherine R; Melka, David C; Boden, William D; Dion, Jamie L; Miller, Zachary A; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B; Zink, Donald L

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results.  Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions.  Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels.

  15. Modified QuEChERS method combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of 26 mycotoxins in sesame butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Han, Shen; Lu, Meiling; Wang, Peiyue; Han, Jing; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-11-01

    A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 26 mycotoxins in sesame butter was developed by coupling the modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The samples were sequentially extracted using 20 mL (80:20, v/v) and 5 mL (20:80, v/v) acetonitrile aqueous solutions, followed by salting out by the addition of magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. Finally, the samples were purified using hexane and dispersed C18 solid phase extraction (dSPE). The mycotoxins were further separated using a C18 column and detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) in the multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Using this detection technique, 16 mycotoxins were detected as positive ions using methanol and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase, whereas the other 10 mycotoxins were detected as negative ions using methanol and water as the mobile phase. With the matrix-matched quantification calibration, the developed method showed a good linear dynamic range with regression coefficients of 0.995 or higher. This method allowed for the detection of the 26 mycotoxins at LOQs significantly lower than the available maximum residue levels currently regulated by EU regulations. Additionally, at the three spiking levels examined, the majority of recoveries were within 60-120%, with RSDs within 15%. The method developed herein has the advantages of high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput, and it can be applied to the target screening of mycotoxins in real samples.

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in corn, cottonseed, peanuts, peanut butter, and poultry feed: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, M W; Stack, M E; Nesheim, S; Park, D L; Pohland, A E

    1989-01-01

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening method for aflatoxins at 20 ng/g was studied by 12 collaborators. Test samples of peanut butter were extracted by blending with methanol-water-hexane (55 + 45 + 100) and heating the test extracts on a steam bath; test samples of the other commodities were extracted by blending with methanol-water (80 + 20). All test extracts were filtered and the filtrates were diluted with buffer to a final methanol concentration of less than 30%. Each diluted filtrate was applied to a cup containing a filter with immobilized polyclonal antibodies specific to aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1. Aflatoxin B1-peroxidase conjugate was added, the cup was washed with water, and a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and tetramethylbenzidine was added. The test sample was judged to contain greater than or equal to 20 ng aflatoxins/g when, after exactly 1 min, no color was observed on the filter; when a blue or gray color developed, the test sample was judged to contain less than 20 ng aflatoxins/g. All collaborators correctly identified naturally contaminated corn and raw peanut positive test samples. No false positives were found for controls containing less than 2 ng aflatoxins/g. The correct responses for positive test samples spiked at levels of 10, 20, and greater than or equal to 30 ng aflatoxins/g (the ratio of B1:B2:G1 was 10:1:3) were 52, 86, and 96%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. BUTTER:一种基于主题模型和异构网络的缺陷分发方法%BUTTER:An Approach to Bug Triage with Topic Modeling and Heterogeneous Network Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广乐; 张文; 王青

    2014-01-01

    当软件缺陷被提交到缺陷跟踪系统并经过确认之后,它会被分发给开发人员进行缺陷修复.这个过程就叫做缺陷分发.随着被提交到系统的缺陷报告日益增多,手工分发缺陷报告会变得越来越困难.提出了一种自动分发缺陷的方法BUTTER.与其他方法不同的是, BUTTER不仅利用主题模型分析缺陷报告中的文本信息,而且创新性地建立了一个包含提交者、缺陷和开发者三种节点及其相互关系的异构网络,从该异构网络中抽取了更多的结构信息.实验证明, BUTTER进行自动缺陷分发较其他缺陷自动分发方法要好.%When a bug was reported to the bug tracking system, it should be assigned to a developer who is responsible for its resolution after it is confirmed. This processing is called bug triage. With increasing number of bug reports submitted to the bug tracking system, it is more and more difficult to assign appropriate developers to the reported bugs manually. In this paper, we propose an approach called BUTTER (BUg Triage by topic modeling and heTERogeneous network analysis) to automatically assign bugs to developers. Different from existing work, BUTTER not only uses topic model to analyze the text information from bug reports, but also innovatively takes structural information into consideration by constructing a heterogeneous network which includes relationships among submitters, bugs and developers. Experiment shows that BUTTER outperforms other methods on automated bug triage.

  18. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  19. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  20. Tarim Oil Field Company Oil Output Exceeds 5 Million Tons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    PetroChina Tarim Oil Field Company (Tarim Oil Field), located in the hinterland of Takelamagan Desert in Northwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region,produced 5.006 million tons of crude oil in 2002,ranking it as the sixth largest onshore oil field in China. This is the first time Tarim Oil Field has topped 5 million tons for its crude production.

  1. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  2. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  3. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  4. SINTESA POP FAT MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI DAN FRAKSINASI BERBAHAN MINYAK SAWIT DAN OLEIN SUPER TERHIDROGENASI [Synthesis of POP Fat via Interesterification and Fractionation Based on Plam Oil and Hydrogenated Super Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesterification of fat blends containing palm oil (RBDPO and hydrogenated super olein (HSOL at weight ratios of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 and fractionation was studied for production POP fat. POP fat is cocoa butter equivalent (CBE which contains high triglyceride of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP and its can be used as alternative fat for cocoa butter with the standard i.e. triglyceride composition of saturated-unsaturated-saturated (SUS more than 65% and melting point about of 32-35°C. Interesterification was conducted chemically using sodium methoxide. Then, interesterified product was fractionated two stages using hexane and acetone as solvent, respectively. Interesterification of the subtrates resulted change of triglycerides composition of PPP, PPS, POP, POS and POO which were showed with the concentration of several triglycerides were increased, some were decreased and several new triglycerides were formed. The change of triglyceride structure cause melting point and solid fat content were decreased. Fractionation 2 stages of interesterified product resulted fat containing high triglyceride of POP (above 62% and POS range of 10-17% and melting point about of 35-39°C. This product can be categorized as CBE which produced from the substrate of RBDPO to HSOL at weight ratio was 2:1 with characteristic i.e. POP 68.2%, POS 10.8 % and melting point of 35°C.

  5. The excipient usefulness of carbosil® and Landolphia owariensis in two oil-based self-emulsifying formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obitte Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to improve on the solubility of ibuprofen using two vegetable oil-based self-emulsifying formulations (SEFs and to evaluate the potential usefulness of Carbosil; (CARB and Landolphia owariensis latex (LOL in them. Isotropicity, drug solubility, viscosity, emulsification time (EMT, drug release, aqueous dilution, postemulsification drug precipitation and refrigeration tests were carried out on the coconut oil (CO and shea butter oil (SBO-based SEFs. Results showed that only four out of nine batches of the SEFs passed the preformulation isotropicity test. A 100-mg quantity proved to be the maximum amount of drug that could be dissolved by the SEFs to form a stable solution. After 72 hrs all the SEFs still retained stability. All of CO SEFs witnessed remarkable phase separation or drug precipitation However, SBO SEFs having oil:surfactant:cosurfactant ratio of 35:45:20 and containing LOL or LOL-CARB blend lost isotropicity or displayed drug precipitation 6 months later. Refrigeration temperature did not introduce any form of instability or phase separation. Similar viscosities were recorded by the two oil-based SEFs. However, little but inconsistent variation in viscosity was observed between SBO SEFS and LOL-containing SEFs. Aqueous dilution and postemulsification drug precipitation test indicated absence of phase separation and drug precipitation, respectively. Drug-release studies showed that the t 50 of SBO SEFs almost ranked equally with SBO SEFs containing LOL. CO SEFs emulsified at a longer time than those of SBO. SEFs distinctly recorded higher EMTs than those with LOL or CARB-LOL blend. In conclusion, solubility of ibuprofen was improved, CARB gelled the SEFs while LOL reduced their EMTs.

  6. 出口花生酱生产加工过程HACCP体系模式的建立%Establishment of HACCP System in Peanut Butter Processing for Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 刘靖

    2016-01-01

    依据HACCP体系的前提条件和基本原理,研究建立了出口花生酱生产加工管理的HACCP体系模式。通过对花生酱生产加工过程进行危害分析,确定了加工前的原料收购及验收、烘烤、管道磁铁过滤花生酱、过筛等四个关键控制点(CCP),并建立了相应的预防和监控措施,确保出口花生酱的质量安全。%Based on prerequisites and basic principles of the HACCP system,the establishing of HACCP system in Peanut Butter processing for Export was researched. By critical control points analysis,four CCPs including acquisition and acceptance of raw materials,baking,filtration by pipeline magnet and sieving,relatively preventive and monitoring measures were determined.It can ensure the quality and safety of export Peanut Butter.

  7. The pollution and control of microorganism in the production line of butter%浅谈酥油生产过程中微生物污染及防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达娃卓玛

    2015-01-01

    通过对酥油制作过程中微生物污染的途径、污染的类型及主要的污染防控措施进行介绍,为西藏地区引入先进的奶牛饲养、管理、挤奶等方法和相关卫生标准,制定相应的酥油微生物危害防控措施提供一定的理论依据。%The types of microorganism clusters,ways of pollution,and the main pollution prevention and control measures were introduced of the production line of butter.In order to draw into advanced methods of milk cow breeding,management,and related standards,or provide certain theoretical basis to formulate corresponding prevention and control measures of microor-ganism pollution in the production of butter.

  8. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction by Box-Behnken design for determination of acetoin in butter followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Mostafa; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-10-15

    A novel approach, ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USA-RM-DLLME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for selective determination of acetoin in butter. The melted butter sample was diluted and homogenised by n-hexane and Triton X-100, respectively. Subsequently, 400μL of distilled water was added and the microextraction was accelerated by 4min sonication. After 8.5min of centrifugation, sedimented phase (surfactant-rich phase) was withdrawn by microsyringe and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. The influence of effective variables was optimised using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with desirability function (DF). Under optimised experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 0.6-200mgL(-1). The detection limit of method was 0.2mgL(-1) and coefficient of determination was 0.9992. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5% (n=5) while the recoveries were in the range of 93.9-107.8%.

  9. Oil:SOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese economy will be hit hard if the recent oil shortage is not eased quickly This year’s oil shortage was reminis- cent of the previous one in 2005. Cargo drivers drove gingerly with half-full tanks,diesel generators sat silently waiting for oil that wasn’t there,and many taxis even stopped running because of the shortage. This time the oil shortage,which first started in southern cities like Guangzhou and Shenzhen in August,spread to northern cities like Zhengzhou and Taiyuan in November.

  10. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  11. Fatty acid profile of "bottled butter fat" produced in the region of Salinas, Minas Gerais Perfil dos ácidos graxos de "manteigas de garrafa" produzidas na região de Salinas - Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Clemente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic history of Salinas, Minas Gerais is largely based on cattle-breeding. The discoverers found in the city's region a large potential for the progress of their activities, either in agriculture or in cattle-breeding (OLIVEIRA, 2000. Even today, milk production plays an important role in family farming activities, which besides raw milk, provides curdal cheese, cottage cheese, and "bottled butter fat", which is manufactured with fat extracted from whey. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the fatty acid profile of "bottled butter fat" produced in Salinas, in the northern region of Minas Gerais , and also to analyze the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid of these butters. The fatty acid profile of the "bottled butter fat" was determined by chromatographic analysis, according to methodology advanced by Luddy et al. (1960, and later modified by Abreu (1993. Analysis of variance was applied for comparison of the averages by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The fatty acid profiles of all the "bottled butter fat" were found to be similar. The concentration of saturated fatty acids was higher than that of the unsaturated, with averages of 60,36% and 39,64%, respectively.A história econômica de Salinas apóia-se em grande parte na pecuária. Os desbravadores encontraram na região do município, um grande potencial para o desenvolvimento de suas atividades, seja na lavoura de mantimentos, seja na pecuária (OLIVEIRA, 2000. Até hoje, a produção de leite ocupa certo destaque nas atividades da agricultura familiar que, além do leite "in natura", fornece também o queijo de coalho, o requeijão e, dos soros obtidos desses produtos elabora-se a manteiga de garrafa. Assim, esse estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de analisar o perfil dos ácidos graxos de manteigas de garrafa produzidas em Salinas, norte de Minas Gerais e análise da relação de ácidos graxos saturados: ácidos graxos insaturados dessas manteigas. O

  12. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  13. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Text size: s m l xl Crude Oil Spills and Health Overviews Health Information Coping with Disasters ... U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife Environmental Quality: Oil Spill Preparation and ...

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P < 0.001; rs = 0.81 for cPLA2, P < 0.001; and rs = 0.69 for sPLA2, P < 0.001). In face of the previous reports showing reduced PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease.

  15. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  16. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  17. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  18. Another Oil Disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ More than 800 fishing boats in Dalian,a coastal city in northeast China's Liaoning Province,joined the effort on July 20 to clean up crude oil that gushed into the sea after two oil pipelines exploded at Dalian Xingang Harbor four days earlier.

  19. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  20. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  1. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  2. Chinese Oil Giants Eye Canadian Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ SinoCanada, a subsidiary of Sinopec International Petroleum Exploration and Development Corporation, and Canada-based Synenco Energy Inc announced on May 31 that they have inked a series of agreements to launch a joint venture for common development of the oil sand project located in Athabasca region of Northeast Canada's Alberta Province. Based on the agreements, Sinopec will pay 105 million Canadian dollars (US$84 million) for a stake in Canada's Northern Lights oil sands project while Synenco owns the remaining 60 percent share,and will operate the project as the managing partner.

  3. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: fhmo@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  4. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  5. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T.

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  6. GOOD OLD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays everybody is getting puzzled and confused about choosing right oil for daily use. Most of the ads in the market revolving around sunflower oil only with different brand names claiming it is heart friendly. In recent years, younger generation may not be familiar much with our age old traditional oils like sesame oil. Sesame oil is also called as gingelly oil or til oil is rich in vitamin E and B. It is a good source of minerals like calcium, manganese and phosphorous and promotes healing. It contains high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreases high blood pressure. Because of its antioxidant property, it decreases cholesterol and good for heart. It acts like a sedative, relieves mental fatigue and promotes sleep when it is used for head massage. It is having laxative nature, relieving constipation. When applied topically on to the skin it is acting as an excellent moisturizer and an emollient. Because of its natural antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties it keeps away the skin and tooth infections. Hence, it can be used by one and all without any hesitation for regular cooking. However, it is not preferred for deep frying. Let us once again say OLD IS GOLD

  7. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  8. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  9. Precious Oil, New Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The oil price is flying sky high, not only with respect to the purchase price, but also in oil futures and stock. On November 7, the International oil future price reached a new high of US$ 98.62 per barrel in New York.Just two days before the peak day, on November 5, the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) was back in China's A-share market with a new offering. The opening quotation on the first day of this new issue reached RMB 48.60 yuan per share.

  10. Physical Properties, Volatiles Compositions and Sensory Descriptions of the Aromatized Hazelnut Oil-Wax Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Emin; Öğütcü, Mustafa; Yüceer, Yonca Karagül

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, thermal and sensorial features of vitamin enriched and aromatized hazelnut oil-beeswax and sunflower wax organogels. Another objective was to monitor the influence of storage on textural and oxidative stability and volatile composition of the organogels. The results show that organogels with beeswax had lower levels of solid fat content, melting point and firmness than sunflower wax counterparts. The microphotographs revealed that beeswax organogels had spherical crystals while sunflower wax organogels continued need-like crystals, but both organogels continued crystallized β' polymorph. All organogels maintained their oxidative stability during storage. Quantitative descriptive analysis results were consistent with these findings that the organogel structure and properties were similar to breakfast margarine. The main volatile components of the organogels with added strawberry aroma were ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, D-limonene, ethyl caproate; banana-aroma were isoamyl acetate, isoamyl valerianate, ethyl acetate; and butter-aroma were 2,3-butanedione, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These volatile components were not only detected in the fresh samples but also at the end of the storage period. Sensory definition terms were matched with the sensory descriptors of the detected volatiles. In conclusion, the new organogels were shown to be suitable for food product applications.

  11. MOC encourages private oil companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce issued a guideline in late June, encouraging private oil companies to take part in refined oil's processing, transportation and retail. The government will support competitive and large companies to integrate into asset-based oil groups and technology service-based oil companies, according to the guideline. Private business will be encouraged to obtain stable access to refined oil resources, technology and management service. China's refined oil market is largely controlled by three State-owned heavyweights: PetroChina, the largest oil producer in Asia; Sinopec,

  12. OIL DISPLACEMENT IN MISCIBLE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Juttner

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available After primary oil recovery in reservoirs remains about 70% of unexploited oil. To improve the recovery of the remaining reserves, injection of a fluid provide the extra energy in a mchunical form. Oil displacement can he achieved by gas injection of lean natural gas, mainly methane, carbon dioxide etc. Oil displacement can be in immiscible or miscible conditions. This paper deals with mechanism of miscible gas drive. On the basis of simulation of the oil displacement process by gas injection into oil field Žutica the character of process, i. c. a degree of miscibility or immiscibility between the injected fluid and reservoir oil was determined.

  13. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  14. Shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanou, Haby; Lamien, Niéyidouba; Notivol Paíno, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    La publicación de esta hoja divulgativa ha sido financiada con la acción complementaria nº AC-2008-00050-00-00, titulada "Publicación de hojas divulgativas: Uso y gestión sostenible y conservación de especies forestales para la alimentación (ELA) en Africa Subsahariana" solicitada por el Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), investigador responsable: Eduardo Notivol Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of priority food tree species in sub-S...

  15. Bush butter tree (Dacryodes edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kengue, Joseph; Kengni, Edouard; Tabuna, Honoré

    2011-01-01

    La publicación de esta hoja divulgativa ha sido financiada con la acción complementaria nº AC-2008-00050-00-00, titulada "Publicación de hojas divulgativas: Uso y gestión sostenible y conservación de especies forestales para la alimentación (ELA) en Africa Subsahariana" solicitada por el Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), investigador responsable: Eduardo Notivol Conservation and sustainable use of genetic resources of priority food tree species in sub-S...

  16. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation from... the production area, that produce a spearmint flavored oil. Oil shall be segregated into the following... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4...

  17. Peak oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, W. H. [W. H. Ziegler, Av. des Mousquines 40bis, Lausanne (Switzerland); Campbell, C. J. [Stabbal Hill, Ballydehob, County Cork (Ireland); Zagar, J.J. [Four Blues, Schull, County Cork (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  18. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  19. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, T. G.

    2013-05-01

    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  20. Enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakma, A.; Rafiq Islam, M.; Berruti, F.

    1991-01-01

    Some forty to sixty percent of the original oil in place typically remains trapped in the reservoir after primary and secondary recoveries. Enhanced oil recovery refers to the recovery of the residual oil by different techniques. Many of the existing and proposed enhanced oil recovery techniques require sound understanding of basic chemical engineering principles such as fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, interfacial phenomena etc. Chemical EOR techniques require a good understanding of interfacial phenomena, chemical reaction, multicomponent absorption. Understanding of the fundamentals of the various EOR processes is not adequate. EOR is increasingly attracting a growing number of chemical engineers and, as a result, some of the fundamental aspect of EOR are now being investigated. However, much more remains to be done and chemical engineers can play an important role in providing a better understanding of EOR fundamentals. This volume presents selected papers on EOR presented at AICHE meetings.

  1. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  2. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  3. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  4. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  5. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident.

  6. The Evolution of Shea Butter's "Paradox of paradoxa" and the Potential Opportunity for Information and Communication Technology (ICT to Improve Quality, Market Access and Women's Livelihoods across Rural Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bello-Bravo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shea trees grow across 4 million km2 of sub-Saharan Africa. Shea parklands provide a sustainable source of edible fat (shea butter that, in terms of volume, is currently second only to cocoa butter as a vegetal source of stearic acid in the multi-billion dollar chocolate and cosmetic sectors. However, in terms of international trade, shea has been opaque to consumers of edible products (where the majority of shea exports end their global journey and actually only well-known in western markets as a cosmetic ingredient. The millions of women collectors have been disconnected from global supply chains, as the majority of their sheanuts are factory processed, supplied by traders who, in many cases, do not understand quality issues nor share knowledge with their village-based collectors—this is the “Paradox of paradoxa”. This review provides the background to this issue by contextualizing the industry and describing how weak post-harvest quality control impacts the shea supply chain. The paper then explains how this knowledge was incorporated into a 3D animation available for free transmission to rural African audiences and viewing on portable devices like video capable mobile phones. This tool offers the potential of low-cost multiple benefits to users, which we term here a win-cubed [win3] opportunity, where women collectors can receive free knowledge of using less resources to produce higher quality shea kernels which in turn offer higher extraction yields, lowering production costs, of a better and more marketable product.

  7. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  8. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  9. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  10. Spreading of oil and the concept of average oil thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, R. [Innovative Ventures Ltd., Cochrane, AB (Canada); Quintero-Marmol, A.M. [Pemex E and P, Campeche (Mexico); Bannerman, K. [Radarsat International, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Stevenson, G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The area of on oil slick on water can be readily measured using simple techniques ranging from visual observations to satellite-based radar systems. However, it is necessary to know the volume of spilled oil in order to determine the environmental impacts and best response strategy. The volume of oil must be known to determine spill quantity, response effectiveness and weathering rates. The relationship between volume and area is the average thickness of the oil over the spill area. This paper presents the results of several experiments conducted in the Gulf of Mexico that determined if average thickness of the oil is a characteristic of a specific crude oil, independent of spill size. In order to calculate the amount of oil on water from the area of slick requires information on the oil thickness, the inhomogeneity of the oil thickness and the oil-to-water ratio in the slick if it is emulsified. Experimental data revealed that an oil slick stops spreading very quickly after the application of oil. After the equilibrium thickness has been established, the slick is very sensitive to disturbances on the water surface, such as wave action, which causes the oil circle to dissipate into several small irregular shapes. It was noted that the spill source and oceanographic conditions are both critical to the final shape of the spill. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  12. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  13. The lactose and galactose content of milk fats and suitability for galactosaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Portnoi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Butter oil (commonly used in food industry and ghee contain minimal lactose and galactose and so are permitted in a UK galactosaemia diet. Butter is considered too high in lactose and is unsuitable in a low galactose diet.

  14. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  15. Anthelmintic Activity of Grapeseed Oil and Linseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami J

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelminthic activity of vegetable fixed oils,grapeseed and linseed oil using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The oils were tested at differentconcentrations for the determination of paralysis time and death time of the earthworms. Albendazole isused as standard and it was found that grapeseed and linseed oil showed a better anthelminthic activityin comparison with the standard.

  16. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  17. RECENT OIL PRICE DECLINE BENEFITS OIL GIANTS LIMITEDLY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sinopec, Asia's largest refiner, hasn't really benefited from recent declines in global crude oil prices, because its refining costs still far exceed domestic oil product prices. China caps refined oil product prices at relatively low levels by world standards.

  18. Power from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M.; Luria, S.

    1988-02-01

    The possibilities for burning oil shale directly to generate a substantial fraction of Israel's electric power are to be investigated by means of a demonstration plant. The plant incorporates a fluidized bed reactor in which combustion tests have shown Israeli oil-shale will burn with high carbon utilization and without the need for supplementary fuel. Sulphur dioxide emissions are nearly all absorbed by the limestone that makes up about 50% of the shale. The design is for co-generation, supplying low pressure process steam for a chemical plant and electricity to the grid. Economic evaluation suggests that oil shale power generation in Israel could in the future be at least competitive with coal and under some circumstances have a cost advantage.

  19. Wavelets in oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the role of wavelet methods applied to identification and characterization of oil reservoir is elaborated. The market rate of petroleum product is very much related to exploration, drilling and production cost. The main goal of researchers working in oil industry is to develop tools and techniques for minimizing cost of exploration and production. Efforts of researchers working in applications of wavelet methods in different parts of the world to achieve this goal is reviewed. Wavelet based solution of Buckley-Leverett equation modelling reservoir is discussed. Variants of Buckley-Leverett equations including its higher dimension versions are introduced. Wavelet methods for inverse problems associated with Buckley-Leverett equation, which are quite useful for oil recovery, are also explained in this chapter.

  20. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  1. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  2. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Brian K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries. Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. Results In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115], whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49] but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]; stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0]. Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. Conclusions Increased palm oil

  3. Business cycles in oil economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon.

  4. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: analizar el impacto de la sustitución de una dieta rica en grasas saturadas por una dieta rica en grasas monoinsaturadas sobre el perfil antropométrico, metabólico y lipídico en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Material y método: estudio prospectivo, longitudinal y comparativo en el que 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas participaron en dos períodos de intervención dietética de 28 días cada uno: 1) (dieta SAT) consumieron mantequilla. Fórmula calórica (FC) = 15% de proteínas, 38% grasas. [20% grasas saturadas (AGS), 12% grasas monoinsaturadas (AGM) y 47% carbohidratos y 6% poliinsaturadas (AGPI)]. 2) Periodo MONO: con aceite de oliva virgen extra (AOVE). Fórmula calórica = 15% de proteínas, 38% grasas (.

  5. Production of Cocoa Butter Equivalent through Enzymatic Interesterification of Tea Seed Oil%Lipozyme TL IM脂肪酶催化茶油酯交换制备类可可脂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓洋; 孟宏昌; 毕艳兰; 杨国龙; 张丽芬; 王志强

    2009-01-01

    研究了无溶剂体系中利用Lipozyme,IL IM脂肪酶催化茶油与硬脂酸和棕榈酸进行酯交换反应制备类可可脂.利用酯交换程度和酰基位移程度来评价各反应影响因素对反应工艺的影响.反应条件为:茶油3 g,反应时间14 h,底物物质的量比为6.0(脂肪酸/茶油),加酶量20%(以茶油质量计),反应温度60℃,硬脂酸与棕榈酸的物质的量比为2/1,水活度0.43(20℃)时所制备的类可可脂产品的β-POP+β-POSt+B-StOSt的总量为27.24%,与天然可可脂的符合度达到37.3%;熔点范围为21~24℃,这与产品中油酸含量偏高有关.

  6. 无溶剂系统酶促POMF连续化酯交换反应生产类可可脂研究%Cocoa Butter Equivalent Continuous Production by Enzymatic Interesterfication of Palm Oil Midfraction in Solvent Free System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华昌; 邓静; 罗惠波; 周健

    2004-01-01

    通过填充床酶反应器中POMF与SME酯交换生产类可可脂(CBE)连续化反应实验,研究空速对产率(R)和连续化特异性酯交换能力(CSIV)影响.当SI为0.54时,R值为121%,比产量(PE)为3.99g.g-1.h-1.经过差示扫描量热法(DSC)分析,产品热性能符合类可可脂质量要求.

  7. Enzymatic Preparation of Cocoa Butter Equivalent (CBE) from Chinese Tallow Oil Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)%基于响应面的酶法酯交换制备乌桕脂油类可可脂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳; 韦富香; 王志成; 刘云; 闫云君

    2010-01-01

    在无溶剂状态下,研究Lipozyme TLIM催化乌桕脂油酯交换反应制取类可可脂.采用三因素五水平响应面法优化工艺参数,获得最优工艺条件为:酶用量9 wt.%,反应温度52.5℃,反应时间3 h.在最优条件下,类可可脂得率为(85.111±0.475)%.高温气相色谱和红外光谱分析表明类可可脂中甘油三酯组成和结构与天然可可脂类似.

  8. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  9. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  10. Oil Trading Centre to Reopen in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil companies will likely resume activities at the oil trading centre in Shanghai this year, a move to further liberalize the once tightly controlled oil market. The centre will trade forward contracts for refined oil products,including gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and fuel oil, industrial sources said.

  11. Suspension of oil supply and import of oil from the overseas oil development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyung [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The import of oil from the overseas oil development is not only reducing the probability and the scale of supply suspension but also enhancing the competitive power of oil industry by securing crude oil stably and economically. Therefore, the import of oil from the overseas oil development is desperately required to meet the opening of domestic oil market. Since the overseas oil development program has started in 1981, the government subsidy from special energy accounting is $0.6 billion occupying 25% of total investment with $2.4 billion. In spite of such a government subsidy, the import amount of development in 1997 is 13.6 million barrel, which is only 1.6% of domestic crude oil consumption. With the goal of supplying 10% of domestically consumed crude oil with self-developed crude oil by 2010, the government is considering a support plan to secure oil for the energy security, because enterprises are lowering its priority of investment on the overseas oil development program as a result of IMF crisis and restructuring. This study estimates the amount of government subsidy through the positive analysis, by selecting an aftermath supporting program as an alternative. (author). 28 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    We have revised upwards our assumptions for oil prices in this Outlook, reflecting current market conditions. Globally, fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of energy to 2030 in both scenarios. Rising oil and gas demand and imports, if unchecked, would accentuate the consuming countries' vulnerability to a severe supply disruption and resulting price shock. The growing insensitivity of oil demand to price accentuates the potential impact on international oil prices of such a disruption.

  13. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  14. [Antioxidant activity of flaxseed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozorovskaia, N N; Rusina, I F; Lupinovich, V L; Beketova, N A; Sorokin, I V; Ipatova, O M; Levachev, M M

    2003-01-01

    Effective concentration of antioxidants and its reactivity toward peroxil radicals (constant k7) have been measured by the chemiluminescence technique for flaxseed oil. Effective concentration of antioxidants is shown to depend on the technology of producing flaxseed oil; period of seed storage before use; and storing duration of flaxseed oil also. Minor component content of flaxseed oil, which may be the members of antioxidant pool, has been quantitatively estimated.

  15. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  16. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  17. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  18. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  19. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  20. Oil Futures off the Agenda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuShijun

    2003-01-01

    Speculation that the domestic oil futures exchange would reopen soon was premature, industry sources said. Beijing-based media indicated on March 4 that the resumption of oil futures was imminent, as part of the government's efforts to limit oil price fluctuations over fears of war with Iraq. The source