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Sample records for butter oil

  1. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  2. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  3. Discovery of new lactones in sweet cream butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Elise; Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain; Aeberhardt, Kasia; Rubin, Mark

    2011-06-22

    Sweet cream butter oil was analyzed to identify new volatile compounds that may contribute to its flavor, with an emphasis on lactones. The volatile part of butter oil was obtained by using short-path distillation. As some previously unknown lactones were detected in this first extract, it was fractionated further. The fatty acids were removed, and the extract was fractionated by flash chromatography. Three lactonic fractions possessing a creamy, buttery, and fatty character were investigated in depth by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) (EI and CI) and high-resolution GC-time-of-flight MS. Many lactones were identified by their mass fragmentation and by comparison with reference materials synthesized during this work. Six γ-lactones, five δ-lactones, and one ε-lactone were identified for the first time in butter oil, seven of them for the first time in a natural product. The possible contribution of these new lactones to the aroma of butter oil is briefly discussed.

  4. An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent changes to the common agricultural policy (CAP saw a shift to greater market orientation for the EU dairy industry. Given this reorientation, the volatility of EU dairy commodity prices has sharply increased, creating the need to develop proper risk management tools to protect farmers’ income and to ensure stable prices for processors and consumers. In addition, there is a perceived threat that these commodities may be replaced by cheaper substitutes, such as palm oil, as dairy commodity prices become more volatile. Global production of palm oil almost doubled over the last decade while butter production remained relatively flat. Palm oil also serves as a feedstock for biodiesel production, thus establishing a new link between agricultural commodities and crude oil. Price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices, as well as between butter, palm oil and crude oil prices, before and after the Luxembourg agreement, are analysed. Vector autoregression (VAR models are applied to capture price transmission effects between these markets. These are combined with a multivariate GARCH model to account for potential volatility transmission. Results indicate strong price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices. EU butter shocks further spillover to palm oil volatility. In addition, there is evidence that oil prices spillover to World butter prices and World butter volatility.

  5. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher......This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... protein content than rats fed the BDAG and OTAG‐diets, and the fat content was significantly lower in rats fed the ODAG‐diet as compared to rats fed the OTAG and BDAG‐diets. A significantly higher content of ash was observed in rats fed the two TAG diets. The ratio of abdominal fat weight/body weight...

  6. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  7. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... kernel oil, or both oils. 172.861 Section 172.861 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  8. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  9. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (Psafflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  10. Effects of cocoa butter triacylglycerides and minor compounds on oil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Maleky, Farnaz

    2018-04-01

    In a multi-component chocolate product, oil migration, from high oil content filling into chocolate, is one of the major contributors to the product quality loss. Among various parameters influencing oil diffusivity, cocoa butter is studied intensively. Studies have shown that the rate of oil transportion in cocoa butter is affected by its composition, the way that it is crystallized, and also the storage conditions. To model and study effects of cocoa butter type and processing conditions on oil migration, five different cocoa butter samples were studied in this work. Samples' chemical compositions in addition to their structural properties were analyzed to understand and compare oil migrations in the networks. Crystallized cocoa butter samples were placed in contact with a cream as a source of liquid oil. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the movement of liquid oil into samples was investigated. The effects of minor differences in the cocoa butter chemical compositions on oil migrations rate are shown clearly. The highest effective diffusion coefficient was observed in the sample with the higher unsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids content. Although shearing at 250s -1 delayed oil migration in all the samples and a significantly lower diffusion coefficient was observed in the dynamic samples, the effects of chemical composition were still dominant. This study successfully highlighted that even minor differences in cocoa butter composition affect the network mass transfer phenomenon dramatically and that it is not easy to diminish these possessions by just crystallization processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  12. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  13. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  14. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  15. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    of the dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... present in dietary fats was followed through absorption, chylomicron formation, and deposition in adipose tissue and in different liver lipids (triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil (BO), a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture...... (interesterification) of butter oil with rapeseed oil (65:35 w/w) for use as edible fat did not have any impact on the fatty acid composition beyond the chylomicron step when compared to the native mixture....

  16. Effects of oil content on the sensory, textural, and physical properties of pecan butter (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Emily A; Kerr, William L

    2017-10-20

    It has been difficult to produce acceptable pecan butters as the high oil content results in a product that flows and separates too easily. The objective of this work was to create pecan butters with varying oil levels (50-70%) and determine which would give the most acceptable product. Consumers rated pecan butters with 55-60% oil the most acceptable, whether roasted or not. Acceptability varied most in terms of texture and spreadability, but not flavor. Under large deformation firmness varied from 51.8 g (70% oil) to 4,880 g (50%) oil, while "spreadability" ranged from 19.2 to 7748 (g/s). Samples with 70% oil had the lowest viscosity and were Newtonian. Pecan butters with 50-55% oil had high viscosity and were shear thinning. Yield stress decreased with oil content, ranging from 0.014 to 500 Pa. The storage modulus (G') increased from ∼7 Pa for samples with 70% oil up to 260,000 Pa for those with 50% oil. In conjunction, tan δ decreased from 1 to 0.07, showing the products take on much more solid-like behavior as oil is removed. In conclusion, the rheological properties of pecan butter were quite sensitive to the amount of oil in the product. Differences in acceptability were primarily due to "texture" and "spreadability," suggesting there is a limited range of firmness and spreadability that consumers will deem acceptable. There has been considerable demand for butters and spreads made from a variety of culinary nuts. Pecans generally have too much oil (∼70%) to make a product with proper consistency and stability. In this study, some of the oil was removed to overcome this problem. It was found that pecan butter with 55-60% oil was most acceptable to consumers and with the level of firmness, yield stress, and spreadability most similar to commercial nut butters. The oil was relatively simple to remove from unroasted nuts, thus manufacturers could easily produce more acceptable pecan butter for the market. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enhancement of oleic acid in butter oil by high oleic fraction of moringa oleifera oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Oleic acid in butter oil (BO) was enhanced by a high oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO). HOF was blended with BO at four different concentrations i.e. 5%, 10 percent, 15% and 20% (HOF-5, HOF-10, HOF-15 and HOF-20, respectively), compared with a control (BO). The oleic acid in HOF increased from 71.55 percent to 80.25%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content of HOF was 76.88% and 34.52 mg/100 g. Supplementation of butter oil with 20% HOF, decreased the cholesterol from 224 to 177 mg/100 g. Peroxide value of three months stored HOF-20 was 1.18 (meqO/sub 2/ kg) as compared to control, 3.15 (meqO/sub 2/kg). Induction period of HOF-20 was 4.07 h greater than control. These results evidenced that oleic acid in butter oil can be substantially increased by HOF of MOO. (author)

  18. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  19. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  20. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  1. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil...... Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma...... into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden...

  2. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower......The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...

  3. The effect of coconut oil and palm oil as substituted oils to cocoa butter on chocolate bar texture and melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbardo, Rebecca Putri; Santoso, Herry; Witono, Judy Retti

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter has responsibility for dispersion medium to create a stable chocolate bar. Due to the economic reason, cocoa butter is partially or wholly substituted by edible oils e.g palm oil and coconut oil. The objective of the research was to observe the effect of oil substitution in the chocolate bar towards its melting point and texture. The research were divided in three steps which were preliminary research started with fat content analysis in cocoa powder, melting point analysis of substituted oils anc cocoa butter, and iodine number analysis in vegetable fats (cocoa butter, coconut oil, and palm oil), chocolate bar production with substitution 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%wt of cocoa butter with each of substituted oils, and analysis process to determine the chocolate bar melting point with DSC and chocolate bar hardness with texture analyser. The increasement of substituted oils during substitution in chocolate bar would reduce the melting point of chocolate bar from 33.5°C to 31.6°C in palm oil substitution with cocoa butter and 33.5°C to 30.75°C in coconut oil substitution. The hardness of chocolate with palm oil were around 88.5 to 139 g on the 1st cycle and 22.75 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. The hardness of chocolate with coconut oil were around 74.75 to 152.5 g on the 1st cycle and 53.25 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. Maximum amount of fats substitution to produce a stable texture chocolate bar is 60% wt.

  4. Studies on the changes of biologically active complexes of sunflower oil, tard, and butter under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Stamatov, D.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of changes in the biologically active complex of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays: The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses (10 4 , 10 6 and 10 7 ) of gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the after-effect on the carotenes, tocopherols, sterols and linoleic acid in sunflower oil, lard and butter. Under these conditions, only the carotenes and tocopherols are subjected to changes to the point of destruction. What was found is a good correlative connection between the changes in the tocopherols and the degree of oxidation of the corresponding fats. (orig.) [de

  5. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 641-600 (Korea)

    2007-05-15

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO{sub 4}. The surface properties of LiFePO{sub 4} are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO{sub 4}, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO{sub 4} (D{sub 50} = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2C rate reach 150 mAh g{sup -1} or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0C/0.2C are between 94.4 and 98.9%. (author)

  6. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  7. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (psafflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (psafflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  8. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: A randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenquist Anna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs. Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs in plasma. Methods A randomized crossover design (n = 19 was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P Results No significant difference was seen in incremental area under the curve (iAUC plasma-TAG between the meals. ALA and oleic acid levels were significantly increased in plasma after ALA-rich oil and olive oil meals, respectively. Palmitic acid was significantly increased in plasma-TAG after the butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. Conclusions The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  9. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet.

  10. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  11. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J; Finikarides, Leila; Afzal, Islam; Lentjes, Marleen; Luben, Robert; Forouhi, Nita G

    2018-03-06

    High dietary saturated fat intake is associated with higher blood concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), an established risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, there is increasing interest in whether various dietary oils or fats with different fatty acid profiles such as extra virgin coconut oil may have different metabolic effects but trials have reported inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in blood lipid profile, weight, fat distribution and metabolic markers after four weeks consumption of 50 g daily of one of three different dietary fats, extra virgin coconut oil, butter or extra virgin olive oil, in healthy men and women in the general population. Randomised clinical trial conducted over June and July 2017. General community in Cambridgeshire, UK. Volunteer adults were recruited by the British Broadcasting Corporation through their websites. Eligibility criteria were men and women aged 50-75 years, with no known history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes, not on lipid lowering medication, no contraindications to a high-fat diet and willingness to be randomised to consume one of the three dietary fats for 4 weeks. Of 160 individuals initially expressing an interest and assessed for eligibility, 96 were randomised to one of three interventions; 2 individuals subsequently withdrew and 94 men and women attended a baseline assessment. Their mean age was 60 years, 67% were women and 98% were European Caucasian. Of these, 91 men and women attended a follow-up assessment 4 weeks later. Participants were randomised to extra virgin coconut oil, extra virgin olive oil or unsalted butter and asked to consume 50 g daily of one of these fats for 4 weeks, which they could incorporate into their usual diet or consume as a supplement. The primary outcome was change in serum LDL-C; secondary outcomes were change in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC and HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio and non

  12. Gas assisted mechanical expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs and edible oils from oilseeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The current methods used to recover high quality oil from oilseeds have low yields (mechanical expression, aqueous extraction), require the use of toxic chemicals and rigorous purification processes that can reduce the quality of the oil (solvent extraction with hexane) or are unsuitable for the

  13. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  14. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  15. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  16. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    : Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P

  17. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  18. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's.

  19. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women.

    OpenAIRE

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen John; Finikarides, Leila; Afzal, Islam; Lentjes, Maria Antonetta; Luben, Robert; Forouhi, Nita Gandhi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: High dietary saturated fat intake is associated with higher blood concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, an established risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, there is increasing interest in whether various dietary oils or fats with different fatty acid profiles such as extra virgin coconut oil may have different metabolic effects but trials have reported inconsistent results. We aimed to compare changes in blood lipid profile, weight, fat distribution, an...

  20. FAT CRYSTALS AND THE FLOW RHEOLOGY OF BUTTER AND MARGARINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C; Sherman, P; Matsumoto, S

    1970-03-01

    The viscosities of fat crystals extracted by 1 % Aerosol O.T. from butter and margarine have been studied using a Weissenberg Rheogoniometer. By applying the Brodnyan (1959) equation for non-spherical particles to the viscosity data at high rates of shear, after correcting for secondary flow phenomena, it was deduced that the axial ratios of the margarine fat crystals were between 3.05 and 3.94, with the fat crystals from butter lying midway between the two extremes. By applying viscosity equations of the exponential type to such data, it should be possible to calculate the viscosity of butter and margarine at very high rates of shear when the viscosity of the liquid oil in the fat phase and the volume concentration of water drops are known. This information could be useful for predicting the spreadability characteristics of butter and margarine.

  1. Bread and Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Billington, Freya

    2014-01-01

    Bread and Butter is an experimental musical that gives voice to the unspoken dreams and desires we have to keep the lid on in the workplace...\\ud Collaboration with Jennifer Bell and The Beautiful Machine\\ud \\ud Screenings:\\ud Aesthetica Film Festival, York, UK \\ud Cambridge FIlm Festival, UK (BAFTA accredited)\\ud Kraljevski Filmski Festival, Serbia\\ud UP:SCREEN UoG Gallery Installation\\ud NY Short FilmFridays - Bahche\\ud SEIFF Film Festival, Seoul KOREA\\ud Syracuse International Film Festiva...

  2. Biodiesel production from butter factory effluent | Schabort | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in energy demand coupled with the depletion of fossil fuels has increased the need for renewable and sustainable energy sources. Butter waste effluent was identified as a possible feedstock for biodiesel. The effects of the temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and the reaction time were ...

  3. strength properties of shea-butter nuts under compressive loading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Compression tests were performed on heat-treated Shea-butter nuts to study the effects of ... the only source of vegetable oil. It was also .... the longitudinal axis, while in the lateral loading position ... Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to.

  4. Tropical vegetable fats and butters: properties and new alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Salas Joaquín

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fats and butters are characterized by their high contents of saturated fatty acids, which confer to them melting points and rheological properties adequate for the production of high valuable food commodities. We can distinguish 3 groups of tropical fats: those having medium chain fatty acids, like coconut or palm kernel oils, those rich in palmitic acid, like palm oil and its fractions, and those rich in stearic acid like cocoa butter. Modern biotechnology has provided with alternatives to these species in engineered common oil crops enriched in saturated fatty acids and processes aimed to enrich common oils in disaturated TAGs by enzymatic transesterification. The present and future of these new sources of saturated fats are discussed in this work.

  5. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016). The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby...

  8. Microbiological quality of karin butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokce, R.; Aslanalp, Y.; Nur Herken, E.

    2010-07-01

    Karin butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karin), is a traditional butter type. Karin used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karin butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karin butter samples was found to be poor in general. (Author)

  9. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...... oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian...

  10. Profiling the quality characteristics of the butter of Pentadesma butyracea with reference to shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayegnon, Bernolde P; Kayodé, Adéchola Pp; Tchobo, Fidèle P; Azokpota, Paulin; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Pentadesma butyracea is a tropical plant species. Its kernels are rich in edible butter similar to shea butter. This study evaluated the quality characteristics of the Pentadesma butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin, using a quantitative survey approach and physicochemical and sensorial analysis methods. The butter of Pentadesma is mostly used for food preparation, cosmetic and therapeutic applications. It is characterized by a yellow colour, a hard texture, a relatively sweet taste and a bright appearance. Consumers preferred Pentadesma butter to shea butter for colour, taste, texture and appearance. Instrumental analysis showed that the average water content (6.5 g kg(-1) ) and peroxide value (0.74 mEq O2 kg(-1) ) of Pentadesma butter were lower than those of shea butter, for which average water content and peroxide values were 20.7g kg(-1) and 2.09 mEq O2 kg(-1) respectively. The fatty acid profile of Pentadesma butter is similar to that of shea butter. This study showed that the Pentadesma butyracea butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin exhibited quality characteristics which are better than that of shea butter. The data generated can be used for a better exploitation of the butter in food and cosmetic industries. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Production and quality of kefir cultured butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Karaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream is the main raw material for the butter production and reflects its properties into butter quality. Maturation of cream with appropriate starter culture is important for butter quality, sensory properties and shelf life of the end product. Kefir grains contain important probiotics for healthy nutrition including lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts in high numbers. The aim of this research was to determine the properties of butter produced using natural kefir culture during a 21-day cold storage. Determination of microbial, chemical and sensory properties of butter samples was carried out. Control sample (KOTE had 6.64 log CFU g-1 Lactococcus spp. while kefir cultured butter samples had 8.58 log CFU g-1. Kefir cultured butter contained 5.24 log CFU g-1 L. acidophilus at Day 1, while control samples did not have L. acidophilus. Acetaldehyde content of kefir cultured butter was significantly higher from the uncultured butter. According to sensory evaluation performed by 12 panelists, KKTE samples had better sensory properties than those observed in the KOTE samples.

  12. The use of modified packaging in the technology of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the food industry has led to a significant increase in the role of packaging in food production. At present, so-called "active packings" have appeared that have a positive effect on the product in contact with it, including through the use of antimicrobial additives. Work has been carried out on the use of a water-soluble form of chitosan in the technological process for the production of creamy butter "Krestyanskoe". The sample of chitosan was dissolved in drinking water with ascorbic acid (mass fraction 1%. The resulting chitosan solution was applied to the packaging material-aluminum laminated foil. Packaging is considered suitable for use after complete evaporation of moisture at room temperature from the surface of the material. The process of obtaining butter cream was carried out according to a conventional technological scheme by converting high-fat cream. It is determined that butter "Peasant" with chitosan is microbiologically more resistant than the control sample. The effect of the mass fraction of chitosan in the inner layer of the packaging material on the contacting product was experimentally established. It is established that the developed modified package allows to reduce the number of pathogens on the oil surface. In the course of storage, the control samples before the experimental ones showed the first signs of spoilage: an acidic unpleasant smell appeared and an aftertaste that sharply increased by the end of the storage period. The results of determining the organoleptic properties of the products correlated with physicochemical and microbiological indices. On the surface of the oil of the control samples, a more active development of yeast and mold fungi was observed. It is determined that the use of chitosan solution inhibits the development of mold fungi and yeast. The possibility of increasing the shelf life of butter "Peasant" in modified packaging by an average of 30% is proved.

  13. From margarine to butter: predictors of changing bread spread in an 11-year population follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prättälä, Ritva; Levälahti, Esko; Lallukka, Tea; Männistö, Satu; Paalanen, Laura; Raulio, Susanna; Roos, Eva; Suominen, Sakari; Mäki-Opas, Tomi

    2016-06-01

    Finland is known for a sharp decrease in the intake of saturated fat and cardiovascular mortality. Since 2000, however, the consumption of butter-containing spreads - an important source of saturated fats - has increased. We examined social and health-related predictors of the increase among Finnish men and women. An 11-year population follow-up. A representative random sample of adult Finns, invited to a health survey in 2000. Altogether 5414 persons aged 30-64 years at baseline in 2000 were re-invited in 2011. Of men 1529 (59 %) and of women 1853 (66 %) answered the questions on bread spreads at both time points. Respondents reported the use of bread spreads by choosing one of the following alternatives: no fat, soft margarine, butter-vegetable oil mixture and butter, which were later categorized into margarine/no spread and butter/butter-vegetable oil mixture (= butter). The predictors included gender, age, marital status, education, employment status, place of residence, health behaviours, BMI and health. Multinomial regression models were fitted. Of the 2582 baseline margarine/no spread users, 24.6% shifted to butter. Only a few of the baseline sociodemographic or health-related determinants predicted the change. Finnish women were more likely to change to butter than men. Living with a spouse predicted the change among men. The change from margarine to butter between 2000 and 2011 seemed not to be a matter of compliance with official nutrition recommendations. Further longitudinal studies on social, behavioural and motivational predictors of dietary changes are needed.

  14. Fate of Campylobacter jejuni in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T; Doyle, M P; Berg, D E

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis was associated with a restaurant in Louisiana during the summer of 1995. Thirty cases were identified, and four required hospitalization. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from the patients, and epidemiologic studies revealed illness associated with eating garlic butter served at the restaurant. Three batches of garlic butter prepared by the restaurant associated with the outbreak and a C. jejuni isolate obtained from a patient involved in the outbreak were used for studies to determine the fate of C. jejuni in garlic butter. Studies also were done to determine the efficacy of the heat treatment used by the restaurant to prepare garlic bread to kill C. jejuni. Garlic butter was inoculated with approximately 10(4) and 10(6) CFU/g of C. jejuni and held at 5 or 21 degrees C. Results revealed that the survival of C. jejuni differed greatly, depending on the presence or absence of garlic. At 5 degrees C, C. jejuni populations decreased to an undetectable level (days in butter with no garlic. At 21 degrees C, C. jejuni populations decreased to an undetectable level within 5 h for two batches and to 50 CFU/g in 5 h for another batch. In contrast, C. jejuni was detected at 500 CFU/g at 28 h after inoculation but was undetectable at 3 days in butter with no garlic held at 21 degrees C. The heating procedure (135 degrees C, 4 min) used to make garlic bread by the implicated restaurant was determined not to be sufficient for killing C. jejuni, with the internal temperature of the buttered bread after heating ranging from 19 to 22 degrees C. This study revealed that C. jejuni can survive for many days in refrigerated butter, but large populations (10(3) to 10(5) CFU/g) are killed within a few hours in butter that contains garlic. Furthermore, the heat treatment used by the restaurant to melt garlic butter in making garlic bread was not adequate to kill C. jejuni.

  15. Constitutive equation of butter at static loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the constitutive modelling of finite deformation in the commercially obtained butter (composition is 83 % of milk fat at the temperature 17–20 °C. The specimens from the butter (height L0=14.6 mm and diameter 20 mm have been compressed between two parallel metal plates at a fixed crosshead speed 20 mm/min using of the testing device TIRA TEST. The force F and the deformation ∆L are measured during compression and both quantities are recorded. The experimental records force F – displacement (deformation were obtained. These records have been transformed into stress–strain dependences and into true stress–true strain. The basic data on the strain behaviour of a butter under low strain rates have been obtained. Experimental results show that the behaviour of butter can be described by a hyperelastic material model. In this model, the quasi–static response is defined by compressible hyperelasticity, whereby the strain energy potential is assumed to be representable by a newly proposed polynomial series with three independent parameters. The material parameters in the constitutive model are determined from compression test. A comparison of predictions based on the proposed constitutive equation with experiments shows that the model is able to describe the strain behaviour of the butter examined.

  16. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum

  17. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  18. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  19. Polymorph identification studies on cocoa butter from Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Fadzillah Basri; Fauziah Abdul Aziz; Mohd Omar, A.K.; Nik Norulaini, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyzed and examined the cocoa butter samples from Sabah. This work presence the crystal phases present in cocoa butter sample thus proved the existence of polymorph obtained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cocoa butter samples were extracted using a conventional method by Soxhlet Extraction method. Crystals were formed under controlled static and tempered conditions. Cocoa butter polymorphism demonstrates that it is the actual crystallization temperature, not the cooling rate that determines the polymorph that crystallizes. (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of antiseptic soap from neem oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, neem oil and shea butter oil were mixed in various proportions and used in preparing soaps which were subsequently characterized. The combination of Neem oil to Shea butter oil considered were 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 (wt:wt). The physical properties of the prepared soap ...

  1. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  2. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-01-01

    Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs. PMID:18759970

  3. Development and optimization of sweet cream butter from buffaloes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... and shape of fat network (Hunt et al., 2000) is the primary determinant of butter ... by some local dairy industries of Pakistan but this butter production is far less than the per ..... artificial neural network. Int. Dairy J. 18: 323-328.

  4. Butter vs. Margarine: Which Is Better for My Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Which spread is better for my heart — butter or margarine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., ... answers/butter-vs-margarine/faq-20058152 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this ...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or...

  6. Benefits and constraints of shea butter production by women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benefits and constraints of shea butter production by women in Nasarawa state, ... young within the age bracket of 30-39 years and family size of more than 5. ... they derived from their shea butter processing business included better feeding of ...

  7. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minckler MR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Minckler,1 Joseph Fisher,2 Rachel Bowers,2 Richard Amini1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, 2College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. Case report: This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient’s presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. Conclusion: This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter. Keywords: jojoba butter, simmondsin, cyanoglycoside, anorectic

  8. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  9. Keeping the quality of cows' butter by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Badr, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows' butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the Other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows' butter and increased its shelf life at 4 +/- 1degreeC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples) without any effects on its sensory properties [es

  10. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  11. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  12. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  13. Butter, my love” Joy, Sorrow and Rehabilitation: Not simply Cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to his “love” for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of “cherry picking”, i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC, the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: “If you were to give

  14. Nutrient content and anti-nutritional factors in shea butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... (%ash + %fat + %moisture + %fibre + %protein) while the protein content was ... Table 1. Comparison of proximate composition of raw shea-butter leaf with some raw Nigerian leafy vegetables. .... beef, milk, fish and eggs.

  15. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minckler, Michael R; Fisher, Joseph; Bowers, Rachel; Amini, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient's presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter.

  16. Income Generation from Shea Butter Production by Women in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ... Southern. Guinea Savanna and less abundantly in the Northern/Sudan Savanna. ... Hypothesis 3 There is no significant difference in output between shea butter ... purposive selection of Zone A (Niger South) and Western zone in Nasarawa.

  17. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  18. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter

    OpenAIRE

    Minckler, Michael R; Fisher, Joseph; Bowers, Rachel; Amini, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Michael R Minckler,1 Joseph Fisher,2 Rachel Bowers,2 Richard Amini1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, 2College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms f...

  19. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    in epidemiological studies, where the typical fatty acid composition of milk-fat, i.e. a high level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been correlated to increased insulin-resistance. It is therefore essential to characterize the impact of milk......-fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...

  20. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  1. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  2. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter

  3. Development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, K. K.; Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Cho, J. H.; Song, I. T.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.; Kim, I. J.; Park, W. K.

    1999-12-01

    Butter-fly valves are advantageous over gate, globe, plug, and ball valves in a variety of installations, particularly in the large sizes. The purpose of this project development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve (intelligent butter-fly valve system). The intelligent butter-fly valve system consist of a valve body, micro controller. The micro controller consist of torque control system, pressure censor, worm and worm gear and communication line etc. The characteristics of intelligent butter-fly valve system as follows: Linear flow rate control function. Digital remote control function. guard function. Self-checking function. (author)

  4. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of milk, butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the physicochemical, microbial load and sensory properties of milk, butter with or without garlic was carried out using fresh milk from white Fulani cow for eight weeks of the lactation. The milk used was milked manually by the Fulanis early in the morning. Fat content was highest in milk (4.13±0.16) and least in ...

  5. Perception of Modern Processing Technology by Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), CABI and Scopus ... industries account for 90% of total Shea butter exports from West Africa while cosmetic and ..... Using modern technology could lead to increase productivity 3.79 0.91. The cost of .... Globalization in the Shea Value Chain: The maintenance and relevance of.

  6. Quality assessment of butter produced using traditional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the sensory evaluation, two commercially marketed ghee products (Sameer, and Lubega brands) were added. Total viable counts in all the samples were in the range ... churning and two representative marketed products. Key words: Butter, ghee, microbial safety, churning, traditional processing, human-centered design ...

  7. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may not be included. (2) Unblanched peanuts, including the skins and germ. (c) The seasoning and... are regarded as suitable, except that artificial flavorings, artificial sweeteners, chemical... stabilizing ingredients shall be hydrogenated vegetable oils. For the purposes of this section, hydrogenated...

  8. Phytochemistry and Agro-Industrial Potential of Native Oilseeds from West Africa: African Grape (Lannea microcarpa), Marula (Sclerocarya birrea), and Butter Tree (Pentadesma butyracea)

    OpenAIRE

    Adama Hilou; Adjima Bougma; Mamoudou H. Dicko

    2017-01-01

    Ethnobotanical investigations on local oilseed species in Burkina Faso revealed that oils from tree oilseeds are frequently used for food, cosmetics and traditional medicine by local people. To test the bio-preservative capacity, the effect of the oilseed extracts on the stabilization of Shea butter was evaluated. Levels of bioactive phyto-components were evaluated through several methods. Some aspects of the quality of oilcakes were evaluated based on their inhibitory capacity on the endogen...

  9. Development and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a Shea Butter-Containing Lipid Nutrition Supplement for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Sloffer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID’s A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa, a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed. LNS formulas were batched (0.8 kg in a wet grinder, sealed under nitrogen in three-layer mini-pouches (20 g, and underwent ASLT at 40 ± 2 °C for six months with sampling every eight weeks. At each time point, water activity, moisture, peroxide value, oil separation, vitamin C content, and hardness were evaluated. Results showed comparable stability among all formulas with an increase in Aw (p < 0.05 but no change in vitamin C, oil separation, or peroxide value. Addition of Shea butter improved the LNS’s hardness, which remained stable over time. Modifying fat profile in LNS can improve its texture and essential fatty acid content without affecting its storage stability.

  10. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

  11. Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G.

    2009-01-01

    Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

  12. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lup Dragomir; Flavia Pop

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC) storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for ...

  13. Saturated Fats from Butter but Not from Cheese Increase HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity from J774 Macrophages in Men and Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Didier; Arsenault, Benoît J; Boyer, Marjorie; Bernic, Daniela; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Talbot, Denis; Tremblay, Angelo; Levy, Emile; Asztalos, Bela; Jones, Peter J H; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2018-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and coronary artery disease risk varies according to food sources. How SFAs from butter and cheese influence HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), a key process in reverse cholesterol transport, is currently unknown. In a predefined secondary analysis of a previously published trial, we have examined how diets rich in SFAs from either cheese or butter influence HDL-mediated CEC, compared with diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a randomized crossover controlled consumption trial, 46 men and women with abdominal obesity consumed 5 isocaloric diets, each for 4 wk. Two diets were rich in SFAs either from cheese (CHEESE) or butter (BUTTER) [12.4-12.6% of energy (%E) as SFAs, 32%E as fat, 52%E as carbohydrates]. In 2 other diets, SFAs (5.8%E) were replaced with either MUFAs from refined olive oil (MUFA) or PUFAs from corn oil (PUFA). Finally, a lower fat and carbohydrate diet was used as a control (5.8%E as SFAs, 25.0%E as fat, 59%E as carbohydrates; CHO). Post-diet HDL-mediated CEC was determined ex vivo using radiolabelled J774 macrophages incubated with apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from the participants. Mean (±SD) age was 41.4 ± 14.2 y, and waist circumference was 107.6 ± 11.5 cm in men and 94.3 ± 12.4 cm in women. BUTTER and MUFA increased HDL-mediated CEC compared with CHEESE (+4.3%, P = 0.026 and +4.7%, P = 0.031, respectively). Exploring the significant diet × sex interaction (P = 0.044) revealed that the increase in HDL-mediated CEC after BUTTER compared with CHEESE was significant among men (+6.0%, P = 0.047) but not women (+2.9%, P = 0.19), whereas the increase after MUFA compared with CHEESE was significant among women (+9.1%, P = 0.008) but not men (-0.6%, P = 0.99). These results provide evidence of a food matrix effect modulating the impact of dairy SFAs on HDL

  14. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits.

  15. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  16. Quality of traditionally processed shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and shea butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    The shea tree is an endogenous and multipurpose tree from the Savanah zone of Africa, mostly used for its fruits and the fat extracted from its kernels, commonly known as shea butter. The butter is used for cooking and medicinal purposes by local populations, and

  17. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. Objective: To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter Methods: A total of 60 random ...

  18. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  19. Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Ester From Some Common Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalytic conversion of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was carried out by homogeneous and heterogeneous transesterification of melon seed, shea butter and neem seed oils using NaOH, KOH and 5wt%CaO/Al2O3 catalyst systems respectively. Oil content of the seeds from n-hexane or hot water extract ranged ...

  20. Effects of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids have been determined in raw and fried rainbow trout. Olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, margarine and butter were used in the frying process. Moisture content was decreased and protein, fat, ash and cholesterol contents were increased after frying. Differences ...

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Kai Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter. Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kai; Zhong, Lily; Santiago, Juan Luis

    2017-12-27

    Plant oils have been utilized for a variety of purposes throughout history, with their integration into foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. They are now being increasingly recognized for their effects on both skin diseases and the restoration of cutaneous homeostasis. This article briefly reviews the available data on biological influences of topical skin applications of some plant oils (olive oil, olive pomace oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, safflower seed oil, argan oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, avocado oil, borage oil, jojoba oil, oat oil, pomegranate seed oil, almond oil, bitter apricot oil, rose hip oil, German chamomile oil, and shea butter). Thus, it focuses on the therapeutic benefits of these plant oils according to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on the skin, promotion of wound healing and repair of skin barrier.

  3. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  4. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  5. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  6. Potensi Tepung Wortel (Daucus carrota L. dalam Meningkatkan Sifat Antioksidan dan Fisikokimia Sweet Cream Butter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeka Patricia Sianturi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of addition powder carrot as antioxidant agent to antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The method used was experiment laboratory. The materials used were sweet cream butter and carrot powder and the treatments were the addition of carrot powder 0% (A, 2% (B, 4% (C, and 6% (D then analyzed about antioxidant activity, fat content, mositure, cholesterol, pH value and melting point of sweet cream butter. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the basic design of Block Randomized Design (BRD and continued by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT if there was a significantly different. Finding suggested an effect of the addition carrot powder could improve the quality (up to 42.55% of sweet cream butter which is 6% of carrot powder give the best treatment.

  7. Industrial application of different heat treatments and cream fat contents for improving the spreadability of butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondhoosh, Arash; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individual factors, which interfere in the continuous churning, were manipulated to enhance the rheological properties and chemical composition of butter. This process leads to achieve softer; more spreadable, and ultimately healthier product for consumers. In addition it could preven...

  8. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  9. Physico-Chemical characteristics of shea butter( Vitellaria paradoxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed oil was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane solvent and analysed for colour, refractive index, viscosity, oil content, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, iodine value, ƒ¿-tocopherols and fatty acid profile. Shea oil content, colour, refractive index and viscosity ranged from 41-54%, orange to ...

  10. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rozalli, N. H.; Chin, N. L.; Yusof, Y. A.; Mahyudin, N.

    2015-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectiv...

  11. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory prof...

  12. Dynamics of Consumer Response to Food Contamination: The 2007 Peanut Butter Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtavoryan, Rafael; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Salin, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the foodborne illness outbreak affecting a national brand of peanut butter to determine how demand for the product category was affected. The illness outbreak coincided with growth in the quantity demanded for the peanut butter category. The negative impact on the category associated with the initiation of the product recall was significant and dissipated over time. The recovery of the product category after the recall indicates that the information was correctly targeted and a...

  13. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  14. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  15. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers.

  16. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J.R.; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3 = 17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25–50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. PMID:24007741

  17. Optimization of a two stage process for biodiesel production from shea butter using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ajala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA shea butter (SB necessitated this study. The reduction of %FFA of SB by esterification and its subsequent utilization by transesterification for biodiesel production in a two stage process for optimization studies was investigated using response surface methodology based on a central composite design (CCD. Four operating conditions were investigated to reduce the %FFA of SB and increase the %yield of shea biodiesel (SBD. The operating conditions were temperature (40–60°C, agitation speed (200–1400 rpm, methanol (MeOH: oil mole ratio: 2:1–6:1 (w/w for esterification and 4:1–8:1 (w/w for transesterification and catalyst loading: 1–2% (H2SO4, (v/v for esterification and KOH, (w/w for transesterification. The significance of the parameters obtained in linear and non-linear form from the models were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimal operating conditions that gave minimum FFA of 0.26% were 52.19°C, 200 rpm, 2:1 (w/w and 1.5% (v/v, while those that gave maximum yield of 92.16% SBD were 40°C, 800 rpm, 7:1 (w/w and 1% (w/w. The p-value of <0.0001 for each of the stages showed that the models were significant with R2 of 0.96 each. These results indicate the reproducibility of the models and showed that the RSM is suitable to optimize the esterification and transesterification of SB for SBD production. Therefore, RSM is a useful tool that can be employed in industrial scale production of SBD from high FFA SB.

  18. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  19. Acceptance and purchase intent of US consumers for nonwheat rice butter cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Eaw, A; Chompreeda, P; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Haruthaithanasan, V; Suwonsichon, T; Saidu, J E; Xu, Z

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated consumer acceptance and purchase intent of nonwheat butter cake formulations prepared with Thai jasmine rice flour. Three nonwheat rice butter cakes were prepared with varying amounts of powdered emulsifier (propylene glycol ester:diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglyceride, 8:2) at 0% (product A), 7.5% (product B), and 15% (product C) of the margarine content (15%) in the cake formulation. A commercial wheat-based butter cake served as the control. Consumers (n= 400) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a binomial (yes/no) scale. At least 81% of consumers accepted products B and C, of which 42.1% and 47%, respectively, would purchase the products if commercially available. Product A was neither liked nor disliked with an overall liking score of 5.39. The butter cake products were differentiated by textural acceptability (overall texture, softness, and moistness) with a canonical correlation of 0.71 to 0.79. Overall liking and taste influenced overall acceptance and purchase intent. Odor influenced purchase intent (P= 0.0014), but not overall acceptance. The odds ratio of overall liking was 3.462 for purchase intent, indicating the probability of the product being purchased is 3.462 times higher (than not being purchased, P flour with Thai jasmine rice flour for production of butter cake products acceptable to American consumers.

  20. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie-Gauvin, K; Peiman, K S; Larsen, M H; Aarestrup, K; Gilmour, K M; Cooke, S J

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher with cortisol-vegetable shortening than with cortisol-cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol-vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol-cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are both viable techniques for cortisol manipulation in fishes in temperate climates, providing researchers with different options depending on study objectives. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Synthesis of cocoa butter triacylglycerols using a model acidolysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göǧüş, Fahrettin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reaction parameters such as substrate mole ratio, reaction temperature, enzyme load, water content and reaction time were studied in a model enzymatic acidolysis system. Palmitic and stearic acids were incorporated into triolein (OOO under the catalysis of sn-1,3 specific lipase to produce the three major triacylglycerols (TAGs in cocoa butter (CB, namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl--glycerol (POP, 1(3-palmitoyl-3(1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS and 1,3distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS. TAG contents of the reaction products were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC.The best results (15.2% POP, 30.4% POS, 15.2 % SOS were obtained at 1:3:3 (OOO:palmitic acid:stearic acid substrate mole ratio and reaction parameters: time 10 h, temperature 45 oC, enzyme load 20 %, water content 5 %. The results obtained in this model system might be used for the optimization and application of lipase catalyzed acidolysis reactions in natural systems to produce cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs.El efecto de parámetros de reacción como el ratio molar de sustratos, carga de enzima, contenido de agua o temperatura de reacción fueron estudiados en un sistema modelo de acidolisis para la síntesis de triglicéridos disaturados. Los ácidos grasos palmítico y esteárico se incorporaron a la molécula de trioleína (OOO mediante la catálisis con una li-pasa sn-1,3 específica para producir los tres triglicéridos (TAGs mayoritarios de la manteca de cacao (CB: 1,3-dipalmitil-2-oleoil glicerol (POP, 1(3-palmitil-3(1-estearil-2glicerol (POS and 1,3-diestearil-2-oleoil glicerol (SOS. Los TAGs producidos en cada reacción se analizaron por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. Los mejores resultados (15.2 %, POP, 30.4 % POS, 15.2 % SOS se obtuvieron empleando la relación molar de sustratos 1:3:3 (OOO: ácido palmítico:ácido esteárico y los parámetros de reacción: tiempo 10h, temperatura 45 °C, carga de enzima 20

  2. Development and performance evaluation of frustum cone shaped churn for small scale production of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Adarsh M; Sahu, C; Agrawal, A K; Bisen, P; Chavhan, B B; Sinha, Geetesh

    2016-05-01

    The present research was intended to develop a small scale butter churn and its performance by altering churning temperature and churn speed during butter making. In the present study, the cream was churned at different temperatures (8, 10 and 12 °C) and churn speeds (35, 60 and 85 rpm). The optimum parameters of churning time (40 min), moisture content (16 %) and overrun (19.42 %) were obtained when cream was churned at churning temperature of 10 °C and churn speed of 60 rpm. Using appropriate conditions of churning temperature and churn speed, high quality butter can be produced at cottage scale.

  3. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, L.B.; Luccas, V.; Kieckbusch, T.G.

    2011-07-01

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  4. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... addition of phytanic acid. Third, we investigated butter and phytanic acid effects on human T-cell polarization, both by in vitro incubation with phytanic acid, and by a 12 weeks intervention with intake of butter. Finally, we performed two human interventions, first one with intake of butter and cheese...... fatty acids are raised in dairy fat along with the amount of green plant material intake of the cattle. Phytanic acid is one of these minor fatty acids, due to agonist activities for nuclear receptors with central roles in among others the lipid and glucose metabolism. To determine the effects of both...

  5. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  6. Assessment of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) butter content and composition throughout fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servent, Adrien; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice; Pinot, Marie-Neige; Tardan, Eric; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Hue, Clotilde

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity (free and total fat), extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador. Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter. A 4.71% increase in free fat was measured in the Ecuadorian samples fermented for 144 h. Conversely, total fat content remained stable throughout fermentation. Protein and polyphenol contents decreases were linked to fat content augmentation by a strong negative interaction. Triglyceride and total and linked fatty acid kinetics (0 to 6 days) of the butter remained statistically stable during fermentation, as did unsaponifiable matter. The origin of fermentation had a predominant and significant impact on composition, revealed by PCA. This work underlines and explains the importance of fermentation process in improving yield of fat that can be extracted while preserving the composition of this cocoa butter. This study highlights an interaction in cocoa unfermented or partially fermented beans. This phenomenon causes butter content retention but is slowly broken after 72 h fermentation. Therefore, fermentation appears to be also necessary to enhance the cocoa butter content extracted from the nibs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter-like lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael; Wei, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics...... as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance. Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T. cacao can only be cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids (CBLs) are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids...... industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature...

  8. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate...... if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. 3. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique...

  9. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    Background: This paper alms to analyse socioeconomic variation in the use of cheese and butter in Europe by reviewing existing dietary surveys. It explores whether socioeconomic differences in the intake of these foods follow a similar pattern in all countries. Methods: An overview of available s...... classes prefer modern foods,. lower classes traditional foods....... studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption...

  10. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  11. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based...... on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO2e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level...... footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life...

  12. Cold-storage defects in butter and their relation to the autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badings, H.T.

    1970-01-01

    In this thesis investigations are described of the identification of aroma compounds which are formed as a result of oxidative deterioration of butter during cold storage, producing a typical trainy (fishy) off-flavour. As these flavour defects are caused chiefly by autoxidative breakdown of

  13. Fourth-Grade Primary School Students' Thought Processes and Challenges Encountered during the Butter Beans Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Neslihan; Eraslan, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with mathematical modeling studies that have gradually drawn interest in recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the thought processes of fourth-grade students in the Butter Beans Problem and to identify possible challenges in this process. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted at a university-foundation…

  14. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  15. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Miles, M. S.; Burton, T.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the

  16. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% ...

  17. Impact of lactic acid bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid content and atherogenic index of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Roufegari-Nejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Sterptococcus thermophilus (as thermophilic culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, cremoris and diacetylactis, Leuconostoc citrovorum (as mesophilic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis and a mixed culture of L.acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis on fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and atherogenic index (AI of butter. Fatty acid analysis with gas chromatography indicated that application of thermophilic and mixed culture decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid; whereas, the butters made with L. acidophilus had the highest content of CLA. Moreover, AI in the samples prepared with thermophilic cultures was the least. Sensory evaluation of the treatments revealed no significant differences (p> 0/05 in appearance and color. However, the butters prepared with thermophilic and mesophilic cultures had more desirable taste in comparison with the samples made with L. acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis. From the nutritional point of view, the adverse effect of butter could be diminished via the application of selected lactic acid bacteria.

  18. Comparison of sunscreens Containing Titanium Dioxide Alone Or In Association With Cocoa, Murumuru Or Cupuaçu Butters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marronato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingredients of natural origin may represent alternatives for formulating sunscreens, without compromising their effectiveness. The literature has shown the antioxidant potential of compounds existing in murumuru (Astrocaryum murmuru, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum and cocoa (Theobroma cacao butters that recommends further investigation. The objectives of this research were: (1 to develop bioactive photoprotective formulations containing cocoa, murmuru or cupuaçu butters in association with a physical sunscreen (titanium dioxide (TiO2 and (2 determine the possible photoprotective activity of butters and their interactions with the sunscreen. Cocoa, cupuaçu and murumuru butter were individually associated to TiO2 in O / W emulsions. The anti-UVA and UVB efficacy in vitro was estimated by diffuse transmittance analysis in a Labsphere® UV2000S, using quartz plates and Transpore® tape to obtain the SPF (sun protection factor and critical wavelength. Photoprotective formulations containing titanium dioxide and bioactive butters were obtained using Aristoflex® AVC and triglycerides of caprylic capric acid (GTCC. The SPF of the samples containing only TiO2 and formulations containing cocoa, murumuru or cupuassu butters associated with TiO2 ranged from 4 to 5. The critical wavelength values for these formulations ranged from 383.0 to 386.7 nm. The results indicated no increase in the SPF value for formulations containing vegetable butters. The critical wavelength values indicated their potential to absorb part of the UVA radiation.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air–grass–yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p′-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air–butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. - Highlights: • Air, grass and butter POPs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were at the lower end of the global levels. • The pasture of the TP was found to be a “sink” of DDTs. • Bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the food chain: air–grass–yak. • The TF A:B was tested to be an excellent tool to predict air OCPs and PCBs in the TP. - Transfer and bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the terrestrial food chain: air–grass–yak (butter)

  20. Contamination of U.S. butter with polybrominated diphenyl ethers from wrapping paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Smith, Sarah; Colacino, Justin; Malik, Noor; Opel, Matthias; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.S. butter contamination with extremely high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs. One of the samples and its paper wrapper contained very high levels of higher-brominated PBDEs. Dietary estimates were calculated using the 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data, excluding the elevated sample. The highly contaminated butter sample had a total upper bound PBDE level of 42,252 pg/g wet weight (ww). Levels of brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-206, -207, and -209 were 2,000, 2,290, and 37,600 pg/g ww, respectively. Its wrapping paper contained a total upper-bound PBDE concentration of 804,751 pg/g ww, with levels of BDE-206, -207, and -209 of 51,000, 11,700, and 614,000 pg/g, respectively. Total PBDE levels in the remaining nine butter samples ranged from 180 to 1,212 pg/g, with geometric mean of 483 and median of 284 pg/g. Excluding the outlier, total PBDE daily intake from all food was 22,764 pg/day, lower than some previous U.S. dietary intake estimates. Higher-brominated PBDE congeners were likely transferred from contaminated wrapping paper to butter. A larger representative survey may help determine how frequently PBDE contamination occurs. Sampling at various stages in food production may identify contamination sources and reduce risk.

  1. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the positional structure of dietary triacylglycerol affected lipidemic responses. Thirty healthyadults (16 men and 14 postmenopausal women) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations >3.37 mM (130 mg/dL)enrolled in a prospective...

  2. Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Maryam; Murphy, Gwen; Etemadi, Arash; Dawsey, Sanford M; Liao, Linda M; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-09-01

    Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes. Design: In this study we used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 566,407 persons who were 50-71 y old at baseline (1995-1996). The median follow-up time was 15.5 y. Intakes of nuts and peanut butter were assessed through the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancers and their subtypes. Results: We identified 966 incident cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, 323 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 698 cases of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 732 cases of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. Compared with those who did not consume nuts or peanut butter [lowest category of consumption (C0)], participants in the highest category of nut consumption (C3) had a lower risk of developing gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.94)]. This inverse association was also seen for peanut butter consumption [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.94)]. We observed no significant associations between the highest and lowest intakes of nuts or peanut butter and the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Among older American adults, both nut and peanut butter consumption were inversely associated with the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  3. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  4. Triacylglycerols in some underutilised tropical seed oils 1. Systematic studies of ten oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Adebowale, Y.A.; Nicholson, G.

    2002-05-01

    Triacylglycerols composition of ten lesser known and underutilised tropical seed oils have been determined. The seed oils include Monodora tenuifolia, Monodora myristica, Colocynthis citrullus, Cyperus esculentus, Cucumeropsis edulis, Andenopus breviflorus, Telfairia occidentalis, Blighia sapida, Antiaris africana and Sesame indicum. In the Moreaceae family (M. tenuifolia, M. myristica) the dominant triacylglycerol are OPO/POO, LLO, OOL, and OOO. They accounted for over 60% of the total triacylglycerol content in the oils. In the Cyperaceae family (C. esculentus), OPP/POO, POL and OOO accounted for over 80% of the total triacylglycerol content. In the Cucurbitaceae family, SSP was the dominant triacylglycerol specie in A. breviflorus, while OPO/POO and OOO were the dominant species in C. citrullus and C. edulis. Blighia sapida recorded a different distribution of triacylglycerols composition. PLL occurred at the highest concentration, while other high molecular weight triacylglycerols were also identified in the oil. They include, SSA, OSA, LSA, OAA and LLA. Analysis of A. antiaris oil showed a different pattern in the distribution of the triacylglycerols. LaLaM, MMLa and LaLaLa accounted for about 80% of the total triacylglycerols. This result reflected the fatty acid composition of the oil. Lauric acid (C12:0) and Myristic acid (C14:0) accounted for 71.5% of the total fatty acid. The possible use of the oils as cocoa butter equivalents CBEs and cocoa butter substitutes CBSs are discussed. (author)

  5. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  6. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    -8%. And about 90% of the present PPP and PPSt triglycerides were separated from the product. Under above parameters, the final pilot products had similar compositions to those of cocoa butter. In this research, IPPL showed initial interesterification activity at the similar level as Lipozyme IM from Novo......There is a long term interest of lipase applications in lipid modifications because of the inherent advantages over chemical methods such as more specific reactions involved, less energy used, moderate reaction conditions and so on. In this work, cocoa butter-like fats (CBF) were produced using....../w) 1.3-1.7/1, hexane/substrates(v/w): 1.0:1-1.2:1. Based on the pilot batch plant, the total process is following: substrates, drying, reaction, filtration, fractionation, neutralisation, de-solventization and drying, and product. The fractionation process reduced the free fatty acid content to 5...

  7. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  8. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  9. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  10. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  11. Application of enzymatic alkalimetric method for identification of cream and palm oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nikulina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the "butter" product category is widely falsified by non-dairy fats, mainly by palm oil. The methods recommended for the detection of palm oil in the fat- and oil industry products require a long-term sample preparation or the use of expensive complex equipment, which makes it urgent to search for new, more rapid analytical methods that can be used in small laboratories. An enzymatic- and alkalimetric method distinguishing between palm oil and butter is suggested in the work. The method consists in enzymatic hydrolysis of fat followed by titrimetric determination of the amount of excreted fatty acids with visual fixation of the equivalence point; titrant is the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (0.1 mol / dm3 and indicator is phenolphthalein. Pancreatic lipase was used as the enzyme. The effect of enzyme activity, the medium pH, temperature and time on the hydrolysis of palm oil and butter was studied. The developed method peculiarity is the use of non-optimal conditions for lipid splitting. This makes it possible to reduce the rate of reaction to establish fine differences in the hydrolysis of different compositions fats. Conditions for the identification of fats - at pH = 7.9 (aqueous solution of sodium tetraborate 1% by weight were justified. In the presence of pancreatic lipase 20000, the splitting of palm oil begins in 25 minutes after the experiment start, and butter splitting begins after 10 minutes. Optimum hydrolysis time allowing to distinguish between palm oil and butter is 20 min. Identification of fats is carried out by comparing the results of alkalimetric titration of the splitting products after 5 minutes (V5’ and 20 minutes (V20’ after the beginning of hydrolysis of the fat under study with the pancreatic lipase 20000. If the sample analyzed contains only butter, then V20’ / V5’ ? 2. Numerically equal values of V5’ and V20’ are obtained when analyzing a palm oil. The value V20’ / V5’, which is in

  12. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid......, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective: To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design: In a double......-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed...

  13. Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Bolanos, Monserrat; Herrera Ramirez, Carlos H.; Lutz Cruz, Giselle

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author) [es

  14. Quality of milk used in informal artisanal production of coalho and butter cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina de Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal cheeses such as coalho and butter participate in the socio-cultural identity of people and deserve recognition. Like many artisanal cheeses, it is common to produce coalho and butter cheeses from raw milk. For this reason, it is essential that the raw material from dairies is of good quality to minimize risks to consumers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of milk in artisanal cheese factories in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Fifty samples were collected from areas that stand out in dairy production in the state. These samples underwent microbiological and physical–chemical analysis, as well as antibiotic residue and fraud searches. Viable strict and facultative mesophilic bacteria were surveyed, in addition to total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus; titratable acidity in Dornic degrees, density, cryoscopy, stability to alizarol, and percentages of protein, lactose, and fat contents were also measured, and tests for residues and recurrent fraud in milk were conducted. In general, all samples exceeded the limit established by law for mesophilic bacteria counting; Salmonella sp. was found in one sample. Given this contamination, the acidity of 76% of the samples was higher than allowed by the legislation. Regarding fat and protein parameters, 14% and 10% of the samples were below the required values by the legislation, respectively. Furthermore, there is suspicion of fraud by adding water in 24% of samples. Chlorides were found in 16% and antimicrobial residues in 46% of samples. Therefore, the quality of the milk used in informal artisanal cheese making in the state of Rio Grande do Norte is poor and may pose a risk to consumers, with the loss of quality of coalho and butter cheeses.

  15. Development of an ultrasonic shear reflection technique to monitor the crystallization of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolle, Annelien; Foubert, Imogen; Hettler, Jan; Verboven, Erik; Demuynck, Ruth; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2015-09-01

    The quasi-isothermal crystallization process of cocoa butter was monitored by an ultrasonic shear reflection technique utilizing a custom-built experimental set-up in a temperature controlled environment. To facilitate the interpretation of the measurement results, the propagation of shear waves was first theoretically studied in different configurations of gas, liquid or solid layers with varying thickness for the case of normal incidence, yielding theoretical equations of the shear wave reflection coefficient (swRC) for different layering conditions. The typical experimentally observed pattern of the swRC during quasi-isothermal cocoa butter crystallization was subsequently linked to the theoretical equations. The remarkable oscillatory damped response in the swRC as function of the crystallization time could be explained by constructive and destructive interference of a first reflection at the boundary between a plexiglass delay line and the crystallized cocoa butter and a second reflection occurring at the interface between crystallized and liquid substance. This hypothesis was supported by the excitation frequency dependence of the oscillations. The quality of the fit of the theoretical model to the experimental results was very good and also the reproducibility between different independent measurements was acceptable. Finally, measurements at different temperatures (18°C and 20°C) suggested that the technique was able to detect differences in crystallization behavior, as measurements at 18°C displayed faster oscillations compared to measurements at 20°C. Moreover, this was also confirmed by the theoretical model, as a higher value of the crystallization rate parameter K, exhibited more rapid oscillations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals......, such as butter, cause the PCs to be less resistant to ESC under stress. The reason for this is that these chemicals and the PCs have sufficiently similar Hansen solubility parameters to allow surface conformational changes even though absorption is non-existent or extremely small. ATR-FTIR was used to detect...

  17. Method for the routine quantitative gas chromatographic analysis of major free fatty acids in butter and cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, A H; Lindsay, R C

    1980-07-01

    A rapid quantiative method was developed for routine analysis of the major, even carbon-numbered free fatty acids in butter and cream. Free fatty acids were isolated directly from intact samples by a modified silicic acid-potassium hydroxide arrestant column and were separated by gas chromatography with a 1.8 m x 2 mm inner diameter glass column packed with 10% neopentyl glycol adipate on 80/100 Chromosorb W. Purified, formic acid-saturated carrier gas was required for minimal peak tailing and extended column life. The accuracy and reproducibility of the mmethod was established through quantitative recovery studies of free fatty acid mixtures, free fatty acids added to butter, and replicate analysis of butter and cream samples.

  18. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... content from 44% to 49.5% was observed when decreasing the churning temperature. Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.5 μm to 18.5 μm and less water could be incorporated into the butter during mixing. Using...... differential scanning calorimetry, it was observed that water addition as well as churning at low temperatures induced a transition toward more stable crystal structures, as the melting point in the high melting fraction was slightly lower for butter churned at high temperature. This did, however, not reflect...

  19. To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène

    2013-01-01

    Processing of environmental products by rural households in developing countries is often considered a way to lift poor natural resource-dependent households out of poverty by increasing the returns to labour of their harvesting activities. Still, the bulk of environmental products in developing...... of locality of residence, defined as place of residence along the rural–urban continuum, on shea butter processing and income. We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to the Union and earn...... superior revenues from these sales than their rural counterparts. We relate these urban–rural discrepancies to the physical and socio-economic conditions that characterise life in different localities and propose policy recommendations based on our findings....

  20. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; van der Heijden, A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water

  1. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  2. Crystallisation in water-in-cocoa butter emulsions: Role of the dispersed phase on fat crystallisation and polymorphic transition

    OpenAIRE

    Di Bari, Vincenzo; Macnaughtan, William; Norton, Jennifer; Sullo, Antonio; Norton, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The present work is one of the first to focus on the role of emulsified water droplets on the crystallisation behaviour of water-in-cocoa butter emulsions under quiescent conditions (i.e. absence of any externally applied force). Cocoa butter (CB) systems were designed to progressively increase the number of heterogeneous nuclei within the CB matrix, and the crystallisation behaviour was studied at four temperatures (5 °C, 10 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C). Information on the crystallisation kinetics a...

  3. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 o C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s -1 and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material

  4. ‘Don’t play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don’t play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don’t play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  5. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  6. Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract (butter colour).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, H; Larsen, J C; Tarding, F

    1978-01-01

    It is well known that synthetic food colours especially some azo dyes can provoke hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, and astma (Michaëlsson and Juhlin, 1973, Granholt and Thune, 1975). Natural food colours are scarcely investigated with respect to potential allergic properties. Annatto extract, a commonly used food colour in edible fats e.g. butter, has been tested in patients. Among 61 consecutive patients suffereing from chornic urticaria and/or angioneurotic oedema 56 patients were orally provoked by annatto extract during elimination diet. Challenge was performed with a dose equivalent to the amount used in 25 grammes of butter. Twentysix per cent of the patients reacted to this colour 4 hours (SD: 2,6) after intake. Similar challenges with synthetic dyes showed the following results: Tartrazine 11%, Sunset Yellow FCF 17%, Food Red 17 16%, Amaranth 9%, Ponceau 4 R 15%, Erythrosine 12% and Brillant Blue FCF 14%. The present study indicates that natural food colours may induce hypersensitivity reactions as frequent as synthetic dyes.

  7. Different magnesium release profiles from W/O/W emulsions based on crystallized oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Sameh; Essafi, Wafa

    2018-01-01

    Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions based on crystallized oils were prepared and the release kinetics of magnesium ions from the internal to the external aqueous phase was investigated at T=4°C, for different crystallized lipophilic matrices. All the emulsions were formulated using the same surface-active species, namely polyglycerol polyricinoleate (oil-soluble) and sodium caseinate (water-soluble). The external aqueous phase was a lactose or glucose solution at approximately the same osmotic pressure as that of the inner droplets, in order to avoid osmotic water transfer phenomena. We investigated two types of crystallized lipophilic systems: one based on blends of cocoa butter and miglyol oil, exploring a solid fat content from 0 to 90% and the other system based on milk fat fractions for which the solid fat content varies between 54 and 86%. For double emulsions based on cocoa butter/miglyol oil, the rate of magnesium release was gradually lowered by increasing the % of fat crystals i.e. cocoa butter, in agreement with a diffusion/permeation mechanism. However for double emulsions based on milk fat fractions, the rate of magnesium release was independent of the % of fat crystals and remains the one at t=0. This difference in diffusion patterns, although the solid content is of the same order, suggests a different distribution of fat crystals within the double globules: a continuous fat network acting as a physical barrier for the diffusion of magnesium for double emulsions based on cocoa butter/miglyol oil and double globule/water interfacial distribution for milk fat fractions based double emulsions, through the formation of a crystalline shell allowing an effective protection of the double globules against diffusion of magnesium to the external aqueous phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Marketing of butter in the European Community, demand functions and policy alternatives with a restriction to four member countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oskam; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn this article optimum instrument values for two different objectives of an EC marketing policy for butter are considered. In the first part of the study the demand equations of four EC countries, le., West Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Denmark, are estimated and

  9. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Rapid Analysis Procedures for Triglycerides and Fatty Acids as Pentyl and Phenethyl Esters for the Detection of Butter Adulteration Using Chromatographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Naviglio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of three methods for quality control, fraud detection, and authentication of butter fat and other oils/fats using chromatographic techniques, with one method for triglycerides and two methods for fatty acids (FAs. The procedure for the analysis of triglycerides requires only dissolution of the sample in n-hexane and gas chromatography (GC analysis using a capillary column. The second method is based on the transesterification of triglycerides as pentyl esters in a single-step reaction using sodium pentanoate in pentanol. The reaction proceeds at room temperature and is similar to the potassium hydroxide-catalysed transesterification of triglycerides with methanol and even more similar to the sodium methoxide method and sodium butanoate method. The advantage of using pentyl esters includes reducing the volatility of short-chain FAs, and substantial recoveries were obtained compared with methyl ester analysis. The third method involves the transesterification of triglycerides in fat through reaction with 2-phenylethanol in a single step; 2-phenylethanol possesses a chromophore, and the phenethyl esters formed are analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection.

  11. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quast, L. B.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w cupuassu fat were determined. Precrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL. Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the β polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter.

    Se han determinado las características físicas de mezclas binarias pre-cristalizadas de manteca de cacao (mezcla de Bahia + Indonesia con 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 y 30 % (m/m de grasa de cupuassu. La pre-cristalización se ha efectuado a escala de laboratorio utilizando un reactor de vidrio con camisa (700mL con agitación. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido, difracción de rayos- X, contenido en grasa solida y tensión de ruptura. Los valores de tensión de ruptura de las mezclas pre-cristalizadas disminuyeron con la incorporación de grasa de cupuassu, siendo este comportamiento observado también para el punto de fusión. Después de la pre-cristalización, manteca de cacao y grasa de cupuassu confirmaron la presencia de polimorfismo β, por medio de análisis de difracción de rayos-X. La adición de hasta 30% de grasa de cupuassu en la manteca de cacao no afecta de modo significativo en las propiedades físicas cuando son comparadas con la manteca de cacao pura.

  12. Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not

  13. Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter-like lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael; Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2018-04-01

    Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance. Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T. cacao can only be cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids (CBLs) are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids in the form of TAGs, but these are typically not rich in saturated fatty acids. To make yeast an attractive host for microbial production of CBLs, its fatty acid composition needs to be optimized. We engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains toward a modified fatty acid synthesis. Analysis of the fatty acid profile of the modified strains showed that the fatty acid content as well as the titers of saturated fatty acids and the titers of TAGs were increased. The relative content of potential CBLs in the TAG pool reached up to 22% in our engineered strains, which is a 5.8-fold increase over the wild-type. SOS content reached a level of 9.8% in our engineered strains, which is a 48-fold increase over the wild type. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in butter from United Kingdom production, retail, and catering premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H C; Little, C L; Elson, R; Greenwood, M; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J

    2006-07-01

    Two recent listeriosis outbreaks involving butter prompted this first cross-sectional study on the prevalence, levels, and types of Listeria species in 3229 samples of butter from production, retail, and catering premises in the United Kingdom during May and June 2004. When the criteria of the Microbiological Guidelines were used, 99.4% of samples were found to be of satisfactory microbiological quality, 0.5% were of acceptable quality, and 0.1% were of unsatisfactory quality as a result of high levels (>100 CFU/g) of Listeria spp. The butter samples with Listeria spp. present at more than 100 CFU/g were negative for L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was detected in 0.4% (n=13) of samples, all at levels of less than 10 CFU/g, and were therefore of acceptable quality. Butter was contaminated more frequently with Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, when packed in plastic tubs, when in pack sizes of 500 g or less, when stored or displayed above 8 degrees C, when a hazard analysis system was not in place, and when the manager had received no food hygiene training. This study demonstrates that although butter is regarded as a low-risk product, it may provide an environment for the persistence and growth of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes. The control of L. monocytogenes in food processing and supply systems is critical in order to minimize the potential for this bacterium to be present in foods at the point of consumption at levels hazardous to health.

  15. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  16. Determination of Commercials Cooking Oils and Fats Using Chemometrics Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azwan Mat Lazim; Mohd Zuli Jaafar; Phang Wei Shong, P.W.; Suzereen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chemometric method has been used in determining the oil quality. The samples used were olive oil, sunflower oil and butter from two different brands. Two different conditions were applied, either it was fresh or fried. Titratio, a conventional method was used to determine free fatty acids content (FFA), iodine value (IV), and peroxide value (PV). Twelve samples were then used for analysis and their FTIR spectra were measured at 4000-400 cm -1 . The computer stimulation was used to process the data based on their pattern recognition which optimized by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). PCA model was used to distinguish the properties between fresh and fried oil. The PLS model was used to predict the value for validation test in comparison with conventional results. Results showed the validation value for fresh oil was 0.90. This indicated the chemometric method was in agreement with conventional method. (author)

  17. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1......), and it is essential to modulate the yeast TAG biosynthetic pathway for higher CBL production.Results: We cloned seven GPAT genes and three LPAT genes from cocoa cDNA, in order to screen for CBL biosynthetic gene candidates. By expressing these cloned cocoa genes and two synthesized cocoa DGAT genes in S. cerevisiae......, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some of the strains. In the best producer, the potential CBL content was eightfold higher than the control strain, suggesting the cocoa genes expressed in this strain were functional and might be responsible...

  18. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David

    2017-01-01

    for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast...... higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.......Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18...

  19. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    . Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...... storage, however, postcrystallization increases the solid fat content and strengthens the fat crystal network. The fat crystal network is strengthened by the formation of more and stronger crystal–crystal interactions due to mechanically interlinking of fat crystals, which occurs during crystal growth....... Postcrystallization is directly linked to chemical composition. The initially observed microstructural difference causing different rheological behavior will disappear during storage due to postcrystallization and formation of more crystal–crystal interactions....

  20. Impact of the addition of cocoa butter equivalent on the volatile compounds profile of dark chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Souza, Cristiano; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the partial replacement of cocoa butter (CB) by cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) in the release of volatile compounds in dark chocolate was studied. The fatty acid profile, triacylglyceride composition, solid fat content (SFC) and melting point were determined in CB and CBE. Chocolate with CB (F1) and with different content of CBE (5 and 10%-F2 and F3, respectively) were prepared. Plastic viscosity and Casson flow limit, particle size distribution and release of volatile compounds using a solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography (SMPE-GC) were determined in the chocolate samples. The melting point was similar for the studied samples but SFC indicated different melting behavior. CBE showed a higher saturated fatty acid content when compared to CB. The samples showed similar SOS triglyceride content (21 and 23.7% for CB and CBE, respectively). Higher levels of POS and lower POP were observed for CB when compared to CBE (44.8 and 19.7 and 19 and 41.1%, respectively). The flow limit and plastic viscosity were similar for the studied chocolates samples, as well as the particle size distribution. Among the 27 volatile compounds identified in the samples studied, 12 were detected in significantly higher concentrations in sample F1 (phenylacetaldehyde, methylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2-acetylpyrrole, acetophenone and isovaleric acid). The highest changes were observed in the pyrazines group, which presented a decrease of more than half in the formulations where part of the CB was replaced by the CBE.

  1. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  2. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  3. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  4. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Benhamada, N.; Leghouchi, E.

    2010-07-01

    This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria). Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (Author) 20 refs.

  6. Investigation of the levels of some element in edible oil samples produced in Turkey by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendil, Durali; Uluoezlue, Ozguer Dogan; Tuezen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The element contents (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd, Na, K, Ca and Mg) in edible oils (olive oil, hazelnut oil, sunflower oil, margarine, butter and corn oil) from Turkey were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The concentrations of trace element in the samples were found to be 291.0-52.0, 1.64-0.04, 3.08-1.03, 0.71-0.05, 0.03-0.01, 1.30-0.50, 84.0-0.90, 50.1-1.30, 174.2-20.8 and 20.8-0.60 μg/g for iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cobalt, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, respectively. Cadmium was found to be 4.57-0.09 μg/kg. The high heavy metal and minerals accumulation levels in the samples were found in olive oil for Cu, Pb, Co, margarine for Fe, K, corn oil for Zn, Mn, butter for Na, Mg, sunflower oil for Ca and hazelnut oil for Cd, respectively.

  7. Simultatenous determination of diacetyl and acetoin in traditional turkish butter stored in sheep’s rumen (Karinyagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce, R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Karinyagi (traditionally named karin is made of cows’ milk cream and is produced by filling butter in cleaned sheep’s rumen. The effect of butter storage in sheep’s rumen on the production of diacetyl and acetoin was investigated. These compounds were determined by GC-MS and they are the typical butter flavor commonly found in fermented dairy products. The modified method for the simultaneous extraction of diacetly and acetoin from butter samples was accurate and precise. The recoveries of diacetyl and acetoin were 94.7 and 110.8%, respectively, while the detection limits were 1.83 and 0.51 mg·L-1, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the monitoring of aroma compounds in Karin butter samples during different time intervals. The concentration of acetoin remained stable through 0–50 days while the concentration of diacetyl increased to 33.0 μg·g-1 up to 40 days and remained constant through 40–50 days.El Karinyagi comercial (nombre tradicional Karin está hecho de crema de leche de vaca, y producido llenando con mantequilla el rumen limpio de ovejas. Se ha investigado el efecto del almacenamiento de la mantequilla en el rumen de ovejas sobre la formación de diacetilo y acetoína. Estos compuestos son el típico flavor a mantequilla que se detecta comúnmente en los productos lácteos fermentados y han sido determinados mediante GC-MS. El método modificado para la extracción simultánea de diacetilo y acetoína en mantequilla resultó ser exacto y preciso y las recuperaciones de 94,7 y 110,8 % respectivamente, mientras que los límites de detección fueron 1.83 y 0,51 mg·L-1, respectivamente. El método propuesto se aplicó al control de compuestos aromáticos en Karin y muestras de mantequilla, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. La concentración de acetoína se mantuvo estable entre 0–50 días mientras que la concentración de diacetilo aumentó a 33,0 mg·g-1 hasta 40 días y se mantuvo constante

  8. Greening in sunflower butter cookies as a function of egg replacers and baking temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Amanda; Hahn, Lan; Pham, Vu; Were, Lilian

    2018-04-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) binding to proteins in alkaline conditions results in the production of green trihydroxy benzacradine (TBA) derivatives. The formation of TBA derivatives could decrease product quality due to the potential losses in soluble protein and antioxidants and the production of an undesirable green color. To determine how cookie formulation affected the formation of TBA derivatives in sunflower butter cookies, two egg replacers (chia and banana) and two baking temperatures (162.8 and 190.6 °C) were used. Moisture, greening intensity, CGA content and antioxidant capacity were measured. Cookies made with egg and baked at 162.8 °C had the highest moisture, internal greening intensity, and TBA derivative formation, in addition to lower CGA content and antioxidant capacity. Cookies made with banana baked at 190.6 °C produced the opposite outcome with 35, 4, and 23% less internal greening, moisture, and TBA derivatives, respectively, and 90 and 76% higher CGA and antioxidant capacity. Internal greening was positively correlated with moisture and adduct concentration, and negatively correlated with spread factor and CGA content. Moisture had a significant impact on greening, which indicates that baking temperature and cookie dough formulation can be modified to produce a less green cookie with more unreacted antioxidants and protein.

  9. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  10. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  11. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  12. In vitro Starch Hydrolysis Rate, Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Butter Cake Prepared Using Resistant Starch Type III Substituted for Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjanta, J; Utaipattanaceep, A; Naivikul, O; Piyachomkwan, K

    2008-09-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS III) derived from enzymatically debranched high amylose rice starch was prepared and used to make butter cake at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) in place of wheat flour. Physico-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, and in vitro starch hydrolysis rate of the developed butter cake were investigated. This study showed that the content of resistant starch in butter cake increased significantly (Pcake with RS III replacement had a significantly lower in vitro starch hydrolysis rate compared to the control cake (0% RS III). The rates of starch hydrolysis from 0 to 180 min digestion time for 0, 5, 10 15, and 20% RS III in place of wheat flour in butter cakes were 3.70 to 67.65%, 2.97 to 64.86%, 2.86 to 59.99%, 2.79 to 55.96 and 2.78 to 53.04% respectively. The physico-chemical properties of 5 to 10% RS III substituted with wheat flour in the butter cake were not significantly different from the control cake and were moderately accepted by panellists in the sensory evaluation test.

  13. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Estabilidade de pasta de amêndoa de castanha de caju Stability of cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a estabilidade de pasta de castanha de caju obtida pela moagem de amêndoas quebradas com açúcar, sal e lecitina de soja. A influência de diferentes embalagens (potes de vidro e de polipropileno e do uso de antioxidantes (BHA, BHT e tocoferóis na qualidade do produto também foi investigada. Características físico-químicas (atividade de água, índice de acidez, cor e textura instrumentais, microbiológicas (coliformes totais e fecais, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bolores e leveduras e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, foram acompanhadas durante 300 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28 °C. Foi observado aumento do índice de acidez, redução da maciez e descoloração. No entanto, essas alterações pouco afetaram a aceitação sensorial, que ficou entre "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei moderadamente", após os 300 dias de armazenamento. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram boa qualidade do produto, estando dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira: contagem de coliformes a 45 °C (fecais menor que 10 NMP.g -1 e ausência de Salmonella spp. em 25 gramas. Os resultados demonstraram que as pastas podem ser armazenadas nas condições e tempo testados, e que não houve influência dos materiais de embalagem utilizados e nem dos antioxidantes na estabilidade do produto.This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants (BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated. Physicochemical (water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeast and mold and

  15. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  17. The Study of Oils Consumption Pattern and Its Related Factors in east Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Jafari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Inappropriate use of fat in diets is a significant risk factor that can cause cardiovascular diseases, morbidity, and mortality in the world. This study was designed to determine the fat consumption pattern in east Tehran habitants. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 500 east Tehran habitants were evaluated. Data was collected by a questionnaire designed by the authors of the present study. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed in a pilot study. The Data was analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The average of family members was 3.9±1.4. The highest amount ofoil consumed was that of solid candy oil, while The lowest was animal oil. For cooking, 36.8% and 31% of samples were using liquid oil and solid candy oil, respectively. For fraying 33.8%, 20%, 32.4% of samples were using liquid oil, solid candy oil and frying oil, respectively. a relationship was found between higher educational level and mothers working out of the house and higher consumption of liquid oil, fraying oil and olive oil (p<0.001. High age, housekeeper mothers and higher family span were associated with the higher consumption of solid oils, butter and ghee (p<0.02. Conclusion: This study revealed that the significant portion of daily oil consumption of Tehran habitants consist of solid oils. It seems to be necessary to organize proper training programs to increase social awareness about the hazards of solid saturated fats.

  18. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  19. Information content of X-ray analyses characterizing the structural state of cocoa butter and their manufacturing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foersterling, G.; Kleinstueck, K.; Loeser, U.; Tscheuschner, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    Direct X-ray analyses performed on the model substance cocoa butter revealed a direct relation between the easily measurable quantities of the diffraction pattern (site, intensity and sharpness of the reflexes) and the characteristic parameters of the sample (lattice constants, 'perfection' and crystalline fraction), which can be derived from these measured quantities, on the one side, and the technological parameters of the manufacturing process (tempering regimen and storage conditions) on the other side. An automated X-ray diffractometer was used and an optimal measuring strategy was developed the measuring effects being sufficiently great as compared to the measuring errors and the characterization of one sample requiring only 30 - 60 minutes. (author)

  20. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedan, J.S.; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10 -7 M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  1. Clarifying the butter Boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, David; Frank, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    The butter boletes (Boletus s.l. sect. Appendiculati) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a yellow tube layer that often bruises blue, yellow reticulate stipe, mild flavor and firm yellow-tinged flesh that may or may not turn blue when exposed. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) place this group in a separate phylogenetic clade from Boletus sensu stricto. Here we establish a new genus, Butyriboletus, to accommodate 14 species of butter boletes that range from Asia to Europe, north Africa and North America. We recombine eight previously described butter bolete species and we describe six new species: four from western USA (Bu. persolidus, Bu. primiregius, Bu. autumnigius, Bu. querciregius) and two from Yunnan, China (Bu. yicibus, Bu. sanicibus). © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria from Sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter from sheep's milk: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Boudjerda, J.; Leghouchi, E.; Karam, N. E.

    2009-07-01

    Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep's milk in Jijel (East of Algeria). These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactic ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exo polysaccharide. (Author) 42 refs.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  4. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  5. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adahchour, M; Vreuls, R J; van der Heijden, A; Brinkman, U A

    1999-06-04

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water fraction are collected by off-line SPE on cartidges packed with a copolymer sorbent. After desorption with 500 microliters of methyl acetate, 1-microliter aliquots are quantified and/or identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was tested with respect to recovery, linearity and limit of detection in real-life samples using five polar model analytes. It allows the characterisation of polar flavour compounds in butter prior to and after heat treatment at 170 degrees C. From the five model compounds, vanillin, traces of diacetyl and maltol were found to be present in the butter samples. After heat treatment 500-1000-fold increased concentration of maltol, and substantial amounts of furaneol were detected.

  6. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoui, Tayeb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria. Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Esta es la primera vez que se describen las propiedades microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas y la composición en ácidos grasos de una mantequilla tradicional producida con leche de vaca del Este de Argelia. Cinco muestras de mantequilla fueron preparadas en el laboratorio siguiendo el método tradicional usado por la población del área de Jiels (Este de Argelia. Nuestros resultados muestran la presencia de ácido láctico, bacterias psicrotróficas y levaduras, mientras que stafilococos y bacterias lipolíticas no fueron detectadas. Importantes diferencias fueron encontradas en los valores químicos de las diferentes muestras de mantequilla. Los valores de pH variaron entre 4.64 y 5.53. La humedad e impurezas excedió el 17.5% y 9.19%, respectivamente. Los valores de índice de acidez, índice de peróxidos, índice de saponificación e índice de yodo variaron entre: 23.56-31.35 mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g, respectivamente. Finalmente

  7. Relationship between the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio in 99mTc myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihin Yusoff, M. N.; Zakaria, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the lung-heart ratio parameter can be used to identify the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter in 99m Tc myocardial SPECT imaging. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cardiac phantom system consisting of cardiac insert in which 1.10 cm cold defect was inserted into its myocardium wall and filled with 4.0 μCi/ml (0.148 MBq/ml) 99m Tc concentration. The cardiac insert was then put into a cylindrical tank which filled with six different 99m Tc concentrations as background. Thus, six target background concentrations ratios (T/B) were carried out. The lung-heart ratio was determined for every SPECT raw image obtained corresponding to each T/B. Then, 130 different combinations of filter parameters from Butter worth filter were utilized to reconstruct each SPECT raw image. The determination of count in myocardium, background, and defect regions of interest were performed for every reconstructed image. All the count values were then used to calculate contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and defect size. Each criterion was graded (1 to 100) and then summed together to obtain total grade. The optimum cut off frequency for each lung-heart ratio was determined from the total grade. The relation between optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio was established using linear regression. Results: There were good relationship between the optimum Butter worth cut off frequency and lung-heart ratio (R 2 = 0.864, p<0.01). The optimal cut off frequency correspond to the change in lung-heart ratio can be expressed by the equation: Optimum cut off frequency=0.715*lung-heart ratio + 0.227. Conclusion: This study suggests that the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter should be determined by referring to lung-heart ratio in each patient study.

  8. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0–C18:1–C16......, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability...... and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future....

  9. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    Full Text Available Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana, which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs, suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts

  10. Matrix effects on the crystallization behaviour of butter and roll-in shortening in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-06-01

    Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own. Both hydrogenated roll-in shortenings and butter experienced only minor changes, largely retaining their β' polymorphs, but the non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant conversion from β' to the β form. However, this conversion did not take place immediately upon cooling, but after approximately 24h of storage time. The fat contained within the croissants exhibited a significantly lower SFC than the same fats in bulk. Further, DSC results demonstrated that a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat in a croissant than the same fat in bulk, observed visually as broader peaks in the melting endotherms. Analysis of croissant firmness over storage time, measured as the maximum force required to cut a croissant was used as an indication of potential sensory consequences. Results suggested that only croissants prepared with non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant changes in firmness over one week of storage. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the shortenings and the ingredients of the croissant matrix, and given the differences observed between roll-in fats used, the extent of interaction is potentially influenced by the composition of the roll-in fat itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  13. Effects of fatty acids composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on textural properties of dough and cookie quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59.36%) and palmitic acid (42.14%), respectively. Microstructure size of all fats and oils ranged from 1 to 20 μm being the largest for coconut oil and the smallest for palm oil. In palm oil, small rod-shaped and randomly arranged microstructures were observed, whereas sunflower oil and groundnut oil possessed large, scattered ovule shaped microstructures. It was reported that sunflower oil produced the softest dough, the largest cookie spread and the hardest cookie texture, whereas hydrogenated fat produced the stiffest dough, the lowest spread and most tender cookies. Statistical analysis depicted that palmitic acid and oleic acid demonstrated a positive correlation with dough hardness. Linoleic acid exhibited positive link with cookie spread ratio (r = 0.836**) and breaking strength (r = 0.792**). Microstructure size showed a significant positive relationship with dough density (r = 0.792**), cookie density (r = 0.386*), spread ratio (r = 0.312*), and breaking strength (r = 0.303*).

  14. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  15. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  16. Biomodification of edible fats and oils by yeasts; Kobo ni yoru shokuyo yushi no seibutsugakuteki kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Endo, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-10-20

    Lipid-biomodification ability was examined for yeasts isolated from soil using culture medium containing beef tallow (2%). Some yeasts, e.g. Candida, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species were able to grow on fats and oils. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were modified in lipids of some strains. Candida sp. MIS-1 and YM1-1 preferentially produced oleic acid. Candida sp. MIS-1 had high level of triacylglycerol with a melting point like olive oil. Fatty acid composition of lipids in Candida lipolytica IAM4948 and Rhodotorula sp. AO3-5 was similar to that of cacao butter. Yeast oils obtained from C. lipolytica provided the melting characterization different from beef tallow. 30 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  18. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. Objective: We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. Methods: We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Results: Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults. PMID:26740685

  19. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P gravy (DP1), or butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults.

  20. Properties and Antioxidant Action of Actives Cassava Starch Films Incorporated with Green Tea and Palm Oil Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins; Conceição, Anderson Carlos de Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Juliana Caribé Pires; Assis, Denilson de Jesus; Souza, Carolina Oliveira; Druzian, Janice Izabel

    2014-01-01

    There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days) under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower) compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%), which was significantly different from that of the control (pstarch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products. PMID:25251437

  1. Production zones and systems, markets, benefits and constraints of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn butter processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bup Divine Nde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The shea tree is a multipurpose tree crop indigenous to Sub Saharan African. The tree is highly cherished for the oil that is extracted from its kernels and used nationally and internationally in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in chocolate formulations. The processing and sales represent significant income earning opportunities for rural women who are the main stakeholders in the production chain. Shea nuts and its products are listed among the top ten Non-Traditional Exports of Ghana. In Burkina Faso it is the fourth most important export crop after gold, cotton and livestock and makes a contribution of about 6 million USD to the national economy. Today the shea tree is the second most important oil crop in Africa after the palm nut tree. About 500 million shea trees grow in Africa which has the potential of producing shea nuts worth about 150 million USD yearly. This represents substantial earnings for the Sub-Saharan African economies when fully exploited. Shea trees grow in 21 Sub-Saharan African countries that can be grouped into 3 zones following their potentials for shea nut production per year: high production zone comprising of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda that have potentials of producing 70 000–300 000 tons per year; average production zone comprising of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Guinea Conakry, Senegal and Togo with potentials of 10 000–70 000 tons per year and low production zones made up of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Niger and Sierra Leone with yearly production potentials less than 10 000 metric tons. Though semi mechanized and some few fully mechanized productions methods are employed in the major shea producing countries of West Africa, most of the rural women still used traditional processing procedures. Major importers of shea are European Union, Japan and the USA. The sector is still constrained by lack of

  2. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods : Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30 and the control group olive oil (n = 30. Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL and water content of the epidermis (WCE on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60 of oils treatment. Results : The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023 and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001. The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01 and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity.

  3. Role of butter layer in low-cycle fatigue behavior of modified 9Cr and CrMoV dissimilar rotor welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qingjun; Lu, Fenggui; Cui, Haichao; Liu, Xia; Wang, Peng; Tang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified 9Cr–CrMoV dissimilar turbine rotor was successfully welded by NG-SAW. • LCF properties of both welded joints were approximate at smaller strain amplitude. • Tempered martensite with amounts of carbides in HAZ contributed to weakest zones. • Matched BL determined LCF properties of whole joint for dissimilar welded rotor. - Abstract: The present work aims at studying the role of butter layer (BL) in low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of modified 9Cr steel and CrMoV steel dissimilar welded joint. The significant difference of the chemical composition of base metals (BMs) makes it a challenge to achieve sound welded joint. Therefore, buttering was considered to obtain a transition layer between the dissimilar steels. The LCF tests of two kinds of specimens without and with butter layer were performed applying strain-controlled cyclic load with different axial strain amplitudes. The test results indicated that the number of cycles at higher strain amplitudes of welded joint without butter layer was greatly higher than that of the joint with butter layer, while the fatigue lifetime to crack initiation (2N f ) became closer to each other at low and middle strain amplitudes. The failure was in the tempered heat affected zone (HAZ) at the CrMoV side for specimens without BL, while the fracture occurred at the tempered HAZ in the BL for specimens with BL. The microstructure details of BM, BL, HAZ and weld metals (WMs) were revealed by optical microscopy (OM). It was found that the tempered martensite was major microstructure for welded joint and much more carbides were observed in tempered HAZ than other parts due to the repeated tempering. Microhardness test indicated a softest zone existing tempered HAZ of BL and also there was a softer zone in tempered HAZ at the CrMoV side due to repeated tempering during welding and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). And scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe the fractography. It was

  4. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  5. Biosorption of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution using activated carbon from shea butter seed shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, Folahan A.; Oba, Ismaila A.

    2017-10-01

    The efficiency of prepared activated carbon from shea butter seed shells (SB-AC) for the adsorption of formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of optimization parameters including initial concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and temperature of adsorbate solution on the sorption capacity were studied. The SB-AC was characterized for the following parameters: bulk density, moisture content, ash content, pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal conditions for the adsorption were established and the adsorption data for AA fitted Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm well, whereas FA followed Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic data were examined. It was found that pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to adequately explain the sorption kinetic of AA and FA from aqueous solution. It was again found that intraparticle diffusion was found to explain the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were estimated and the negative values of Δ G showed that the adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous in nature, while the negative values of Δ H indicate that the adsorption process was exothermic. It is therefore established that SB-AC has good potential for the removal of AA and FA from aqueous solution. Hence, it should find application in the regular treatment of polluted water in aquaculture and fish breeding system.

  6. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p0.05) between G3 on day 0 and 56 days for total cholesterol. Meanwhile, total plasma HDLcholesterol content of rats fed with C8:0 was significantly higher (pstructured lipids effectively altered the plasma cholesterol levels of experimental rats.

  7. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  8. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  9. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  10. 不同油脂熬制的火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化%Quality changes of oils in different kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽珠; 唐洁; 卢靖; 车振明

    2014-01-01

    Four kinds of hot pot soup stocks were made by mixed oils of palm olein and rapeseed oil(vol-ume ratio of palm olein of 5 degrees to palm olein of 8 degrees to rapeseed oil 3: 2: 3), mixed oils of palm stearin and butter(volume ratio of palm stearin to butter 1: 2), rapeseed oil and butter respectively, and the quality changes of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks during boiling were studied. The results showed that peroxide value, acid value and malondialdehyde content of oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks increased during boiling, and the quality of base oil of hot pot soup stock affected the quality of oil in hot pot soup stock directly during boiling;with the boiling time prolonging, the contents of unsat-urated fatty acids of the oils in the four kinds of hot pot soup stocks all decreased;the relative contents of trans fatty acids of oil in hot pot soup stocks made by rapeseed oil and mixed oils of palm olein and rape-seed oil increased significantly after boiling for 16 h.%对棕榈液油菜籽油复合油脂(5度棕榈液油、8度棕榈液油、菜籽油体积比3:2:3)、棕榈硬脂牛油复合油脂(棕榈硬脂与牛油体积比1:2)、菜籽油以及牛油熬制的火锅底料在熬煮过程中的油脂质量变化进行研究。结果表明:4种火锅底料在熬煮过程中油脂过氧化值、酸值和丙二醛含量均出现增长的趋势,火锅底料基础油脂质量直接影响火锅底料熬煮过程中的油脂质量;随着熬煮时间的延长,4种火锅底料中油脂不饱和脂肪酸含量均降低,棕榈液油菜籽油复合火锅底料、菜籽油火锅底料经熬煮16 h 后,其油脂中反式脂肪酸含量明显升高。

  11. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes; Bensouda, Yahya

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days' period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity.

  12. Essential oil-loaded lipid nanoparticles for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporito, Francesca; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Boselli, Cinzia; Icaro Cornaglia, Antonia; Mannucci, Barbara; Grisoli, Pietro; Vigani, Barbara; Ferrari, Franca

    2018-01-01

    Chronic wounds and severe burns are diseases responsible for severe morbidity and even death. Wound repair is a crucial process and tissue regeneration enhancement and infection prevention are key factors to minimize pain, discomfort, and scar formation. The aim of this work was the development of lipid nanoparticles (solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers [NLC]), to be loaded with eucalyptus or rosemary essential oils and to be used, as medical devices, to enhance healing of skin wounds. Lipid nanoparticles were based on natural lipids: cocoa butter, as solid lipid, and olive oil or sesame oil, as liquid lipids. Lecithin was chosen as surfactant to stabilize nanoparticles and to prevent their aggregation. The systems were prepared by high shear homogenization followed by ultrasound application. Nanoparticles were characterized for physical-chemical properties, bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward normal human dermal fibroblasts. Antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles was evaluated against two reference microbial strains, one of Staphylococcus aureus , the other of Streptococcus pyogenes . Finally, the capability of nanoparticles to promote wound healing in vivo was evaluated on a rat burn model. NLC based on olive oil and loaded with eucalyptus oil showed appropriate physical-chemical properties, good bioadhesion, cytocompatibility, in vitro proliferation enhancement, and wound healing properties toward fibroblasts, associated to antimicrobial properties. Moreover, the in vivo results evidenced the capability of these NLC to enhance the healing process. Olive oil, which is characterized by a high content of oleic acid, proved to exert a synergic effect with eucalyptus oil with respect to antimicrobial activity and wound repair promotion.

  13. The effect of natural antioxidants on the rate of accumulation of oxidation products in the fat phase of butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Voronina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes the main finishing prefabricated pastries and cakes-cream. Researched range of cream depending on the fruit components and method of production. Aim: to study the degree of oxidation cream with natural antioxidants from fruits and berries processing products, namely in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries. Outlines the process of oxidation of lipids, one of the fundamental processes of loss of quality food products. Describes the action of antioxidants as antioxidants on accumulation intensity concentrations of primary and secondary oxidation products, making the final product unsuitable for the consumer and the bounding its shelf life. Presents the results of a study of the contents of primary and secondary oxidation products in butter cream immediately after cooking, as well as samples, stored for five days with the addition of antioxidants in the form of concentrated juice of fruits and berries in the amount of 2–7% by weight of cream. As a control sample has been used cream with no additives. Quality indicators to characterize the degree of oxidation of the product: acid, peroxide, anizidin and tioburbit number. The study found that adding a concentrated juice of fruits and berries as antioxidant in recipe cream reduces the growth rate of the concentration of free fatty acids on the fifth day, as compared with the reference sample. Adding concentrated juice of fruits and berries slows down the process of dissolution of the fat molecules in fat fraction of cream with the formation of free fatty acids; intensity decay reaction of peroxides and hydroxides slows down and, consequently, decreases the formation of aldehydes, deteriorating the taste and smell of the cream; quantitatively reduced the growth of education malondial′degida.

  14. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), POS (C16:0-C18:1-C18:0), and SOS (C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). The storage lipids of yeasts, mainly TAGs, also contain relative high-level of C16 and C18 fatty acids and might be used as CB-like lipids (CBL). In this study, we cultivated six different yeasts, including one non-oleaginous yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D, and five oleaginous yeast strains, Trichosporon oleaginosus DSM11815, Rhodotorula graminis DSM 27356, Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, Rhodosporidium toruloides DSM 70398, and Yarrowia lipolytica CBS 6124, in nitrogen-limited medium and compared their CBL production ability. Under the same growth conditions, we found that TAGs were the main lipids in all six yeasts and that T. oleaginosus can produce more TAGs than the other five yeasts. Less than 3% of the total TAGs were identified as potential SOS in the six yeasts. However, T. oleaginosus produced 27.8% potential POP and POS at levels of 378 mg TAGs/g dry cell weight, hinting that this yeast may have potential as a CBL production host after further metabolic engineering in future.

  15. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  16. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccone, Eric J.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; Shimko, Michael J.; Wells, J.R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A.; Case, Shannon L.; Thompson, Janet A.; Fedan, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (R t ) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na + transport, without affecting Cl − transport or Na + ,K + -pump activity. R t was unaffected. Na + transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100–360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. - Highlights: • Butter flavoring vapor effects on human cultured airway epithelium were studied. • Na transport was reduced by a 6-h exposure to 25 ppm diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. • Na transport recovered 18 h after exposure. • > 60 ppm transepithelial voltage and resistance were abolished; cells were damaged. • Cells metabolized diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione into acetoin and 2-OH-3-pentanone.

  17. Migration of Epoxidized Soybean Oil (ESBO) and Phthalates From Twist Closures into Food and Enforcement of the Overall Migration Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Fankhauser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces...... and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO...... was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di...

  18. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  19. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (n 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (44 (20-56) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (FO). This double-blinded controlled 2 £ 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  20. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -supplementation on tissue fatty acid composition. Healthy young men (it 64) were randomized to capsules with FO or olive oil (control) (4-4 (2-0-5-6) ml/d) and to either sunflower oil and margarine (S/B) or rapeseed oil and a butter spread (R/K) to provide a high or a low 18: 2n-6 intake. Diet was measured by 4-d weighed......Dietary intake of 18: 2n-6 and 18: 3n-3 may affect endogenous production and incorporation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils (170). This double-blinded controlled 2 x 2-factorial 8-week intervention investigates the effects of high and low 18: 2n-6 intake in combination with FO...

  1. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    observed. Conclusions: Butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated FAs resulted in significantly lower total and HDL cholesterol than did the control butter with higher amounts of saturated FAs. It may be that the differences were due to the greater content of monounsaturated FAs and the lesser...... content of saturated FAs in the butter rich in ruminant trans FAs, rather than to the content of vaccenic acid per se.......Background: Evidence suggests that ruminant trans fatty acids (FAs), such as vaccenic acid, do not increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the effects of ruminant trans FAs on risk markers of IHD have been poorly investigated. Objective: The objective was to investigate...

  2. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  3. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  4. Properties and antioxidant action of actives cassava starch films incorporated with green tea and palm oil extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátya Karine Nery Carneiro Lins Perazzo

    Full Text Available There is an interest in the development of an antioxidant packaging fully biodegradable to increase the shelf life of food products. An active film from cassava starch bio-based, incorporated with aqueous green tea extract and oil palm colorant was developed packaging. The effects of additives on the film properties were determined by measuring mechanical, barrier and thermal properties using a response surface methodology design experiment. The bio-based films were used to pack butter (maintained for 45 days under accelerated oxidation conditions. The antioxidant action of the active films was evaluated by analyzing the peroxide index, total carotenoids, and total polyphenol. The same analysis also evaluated unpacked butter, packed in films without additives and butter packed in LDPE films, as controls. The results suggested that incorporation of the antioxidants extracts tensile strength and water vapor barrier properties (15 times lower compared to control without additives. A lower peroxide index (231.57%, which was significantly different from that of the control (p<0.05, was detected in products packed in film formulations containing average concentration of green tea extracts and high concentration of colorant. However, it was found that the high content of polyphenols in green tea extract can be acted as a pro-oxidant agent, which suggests that the use of high concentration should be avoided as additives for films. These results support the applicability of a green tea extract and oil palm carotenoics colorant in starch films totally biodegradable and the use of these materials in active packaging of the fatty products.

  5. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  6. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  7. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  8. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  9. USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Zouari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microorganisms synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Microbial surfactants are not yet a sustainable alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants seeing their potentially high production charges. This study highlights the use of low-cost agro-industrial raw material for fermentative production of biosurfactants. The Box–Behnken Design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of the ratio butter milk /distilled water, poultry-transforming wastes and inoculum size for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by B.subtilis SPB1 in submerged fermentation.The best production yield was about 12.61 ± 0.7 g/L of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant. It can be obtained when using a ratio butter milk /distilled water of 1.5, poultry-transforming wastes of 23g/L and an inoculum size of 0.12. In comparison to the highest biosurfactant production yield reported for Bacillus subtilis SPB1, three fold increases were obtained.

  10. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  11. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  12. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de filme antimicrobiano na conservação de manteiga Development and evaluation of antimicrobial film on butter conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Robledo Fialho e Moraes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A indústria alimentícia, buscando atender a um mercado consumidor cada vez mais exigente, vem desenvolvendo embalagens ativas para proporcionar qualidade e segurança aos produtos acondicionados. Neste sentido, esta pesquisa objetivou desenvolver filmes ativos incorporados com agente antimicrobiano e avaliá-los na conservação de manteiga. Os filmes de base celulósica foram incorporados com 0% (controle e 7% (ácido sórbico. Teste de halo de inibição em presença de fungos mostrou um halo de 3,4 cm. Amostras de manteiga foram fatiadas e inoculadas com 1 x 10(8 UFC.mL-1 de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, previamente isolados de manteiga. As amostras foram envolvidas com o filme ativo, embaladas em papel alumínio e armazenadas sob temperatura de refrigeração. As análises microbiológicas da manteiga foram realizadas após 0, 10 e 20 dias de armazenamento à temperatura de 7 ± 2 ºC. A contagem inicial de fungos filamentosos com leveduras na manteiga foi de 3 x 10(6 UFC.g-1 e após 10 e 20 dias de estocagem observou-se redução de 1 ciclo log (9 x 10(5 UFC.g-1 e 2 ciclos log (8 x 10(4 UFC.g-1 para a manteiga embalada com filme incorporado com 7% de ácido sórbico, respectivamente. Os valores de espessuras foram de 22,5 ± 3 µm e 25 ± 5 µm, de carga máxima: 37,4 ± 7 N e 52,4 ± 7 N, e de alongamento 1,7 ± 0,7% e 2,3 ± 0,7%, para os filmes incorporados com 0 e 7% de ácido sórbico, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que o filme antimicrobiano apresentou maior resistência e alongamento, além de ter sido eficiente na redução de fungos filamentosos e leveduras em manteiga.Food industry aiming to attend consumer's requirements is developing active packaging to provide quality and safety for packed foods. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop active films incorporated with antimicrobial compounds and evaluate their efficacy in butter conservation. Celulosic based-films were incorporated with 0 (control and 7% of

  13. Influence of hydrogenated oil as cocoa butter replacers in the development of sugar-free compound chocolates: Use of inulin as stabilizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Baracco, Yanina; Lecot, Javier; Zaritzky, Noemi; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the addition of inulin as a surfactant or stability agent on white compound chocolate sweetened with sucralose and Stevia was studied. Samples were stored at 7, 15 and 30°C during 100days and the influence of inulin on rheological properties, sensorial attributes, shelf-life, physical properties such as melting, crystallization and blooming were analyzed. The shelf-life of the compound chocolate with the incorporation of inulin was higher than the control sample without replacement. Compound chocolate with inulin at 10%w/w showed a dense matrix structure, reducing the size and number of fat crystals formed during storage; furthermore they presented higher values of brightness and WI. This chocolate also showed less fracturability and improved thermal properties. DSC studies revealed increased values of onset and peak temperatures and enthalpy of melting of the polymorphic form V, at higher storage temperatures, achieving greater stability against degradation processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Windmills, Butter, and Bacon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In spite of ideological concerns due to N.F.S. Grundtvig’s reservations about the natural sciences and the traditional education of his day, the Grundtvigian movement and, especially, teachers at the People’s High Schools and the agricultural schools played an important role in the dissemination...... of scientific knowledge to the rural population in the decades around 1900. The diffusion of technological innovations such as a decentralized electricity supply system and an automatic cream separator for cooperative dairies had a profound and lasting impact on the development of modern Denmark. Hence......, the Grundtvigian movement contributed not only to political and cultural nation building but also to technological modernization and economic growth in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Denmark....

  15. Bread and Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2010-01-01

    Annual giving is the number one indicator that someone will make a major or planned gift. Annual funds are the meat and potatoes of fundraising. But if the annual fund has recently taken a backseat to major and megagifts, the recession made a bad situation even worse. Today, most annual fund performance indicators have plummeted. Virtually all…

  16. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  17. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  18. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  19. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  20. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccone, Eric J. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldsmith, W. Travis [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shimko, Michael J. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Wells, J.R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A.; Case, Shannon L.; Thompson, Janet A. [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Fedan, Jeffrey S. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance, we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity. We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (R{sub t}) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na{sup +} transport, without affecting Cl{sup −} transport or Na{sup +},K{sup +}-pump activity. R{sub t} was unaffected. Na{sup +} transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100–360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. - Highlights: • Butter flavoring vapor effects on human cultured airway epithelium were studied. • Na transport was reduced by a 6-h exposure to 25 ppm diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. • Na transport recovered 18 h after exposure. • > 60 ppm transepithelial voltage and resistance were abolished; cells were damaged. • Cells metabolized diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione

  1. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from traditional butter made from camel milk in arid regions (Sahara of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem, Kaid Harche

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains previously isolated from the traditional butter made from camel milk (shmen were evaluated for some probiotic criteria. Among 38 strains investigated for bile resistance, 14 were tolerant to 2% oxgall with survival percentages ranging from 69 to 75%. Out of these, only 4 strains (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 were sufficiently resistant to pH 2.0 for 2 to 6 h incubation periods. Only crude extracts of L. plantarum SH12 and L. plantarum SH24 were inhibitory against Lactococcus lactis B8, the strain used as indicator. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts was completely lost after treatment with α-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. L. plantarum SH12 and SH24 strains were susceptible to penicillin G, oxacillin, vancomycin and clindamycin, but resistant to tetracycline and kanamycin. These strains showed rapid acidification activity (0.921 and 1.075 mmol/l of lactic acid, respectively, a good proteolytic activity (5.45 and 3.49 mg/l tyrosine at 72 h, respectively and high survival percentage after freeze-drying. None of the strains produced polysaccharides or haemolysin in sheep blood.Se evalúan algunas características probióticas de cepas de Lactobacillus plantarum aisladas de la mantequilla tradicional elaborada a partir de leche de camello (shmen. De 38 cepas investigadas para resistencia biliar, 14 fueron tolerantes a un 2% oxgall con porcentajes de supervivencia entre 69 y 75%. De éstas, sólo 4 cepas (L. plantarum SH5, SH12, SH24 and SH32 fueron suficientemente resistentes a pH 2 con periodos de incubación entre 2 y 6 h. Únicamente los extractos crudos de L. plantarum SH12 y L. plantarum SH24 fueron inhibitorios frente a Lactococcus lactis B8, la cepa utilizada como indicador. La actividad antibacteriana de los extractos crudos se perdió completamente después de tratamiento con α-quimotripsina y proteinasa K. Las cepas SH12 y SH24 fueron susceptibles a la penicilina G, oxacilina

  2. Recovery of intertidal hardshelled clams in Prince William Sound from Exxon Valdez oiling and shoreline treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, J.P.; Lees, D.C.; Driskell, W.B.

    1994-01-01

    Native little neck (Protothaca staminea) and butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus) were quantitatively surveyed from 1989 through 1993 to evaluate effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Hydraulic washing of sand and gravel beaches altered beach morphology by transporting material down slope from upper elevations, often burying the lower beach in several centimeters of sediment having a relatively low content of fines and organic carbon. Hydraulically washed beaches showed significant reductions in clam densities in 1989 and 1990. Recruitment of clams was very limited on these beaches through 1993; as a result, clam densities on these hydraulically washed beaches remain very depressed compared to those on beaches that were unoiled or oiled but not washed. Littlenecks transplanted from a reference site to a heavily oiled but untreated site showed significant patterns of increased mortality, decreased growth, and increased bioaccumulation of PAH in response to a gradient in sediment PAH, This same heavily oiled site has consistently had among the highest rates of hardshelled clam recruitment of any of the sites sampled. Littlenecks also were transplanted to another heavily oiled beach that had been hydraulically washed and had little remaining hydrocarbons. These clams showed very high survival, yet this beach has had very little clam recruitment. It is hypothesized that recruitment at this site may be inhibited by the low level of finer sediments and low organic content remaining after washing

  3. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  4. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  5. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  6. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  7. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  8. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F-2 alpha concentration compared with the control, P...

  9. "When Does It Stop Being Peanut Butter?": FDA Food Standards of Identity, Ruth Desmond, and the Shifting Politics of Consumer Activism, 1960s-1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angie M

    This article uses a historical controversy over the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's standard of identity for peanut butter as a site for investigating three topics of high importance for historians of technology, consumption, and food activism: how new industrial food-processing technologies have become regulatory problems; how government, industry, and consumer actors negotiate standards development; and how laypeople try to shape technological artifacts in spaces dominated by experts. It examines the trajectory of consumer activist Ruth Desmond, co-founder of the organization the Federation of Homemakers. By following Desmond's evolving strategies, the article shows how the broader currents of the 1960s-70s consumer movement played out in a particular case. Initially Desmond used a traditional style that heavily emphasized her gendered identity, working within a grassroots organization to promote legislative and regulatory reforms. Later, she moved to a more modern advocacy approach, using adversarial legal methods to fight for consumer protections.

  10. High sugar and butter (HSB) diet induces obesity and metabolic syndrome with decrease in regulatory T cells in adipose tissue of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; Gonçalves, Juliana Lauar; Miranda, Mariana Camila Gonçalves; Martins, Vinícius Dantas; Horta, Laila Sampaio; Moreira, Thais Garcias; Godard, Ana Lucia Brunialti; Santiago, Andrezza Fernanda; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a novel diet based on standard AIN93G diet that would be able to induce experimental obesity and impair immune regulation with high concentrations of both carbohydrate and lipids. To compare the effects of this high sugar and butter (HSB) diet with other modified diets, male C57BL/6 mice were fed either mouse chow, or AIN93G diet, or high sugar (HS) diet, or high-fat (HF) diet, or high sugar and butter (HSB) diet for 11 weeks ad libitum. HSB diet induced higher weight gain. Therefore, control AIN93G and HSB groups were chosen for additional analysis. Regulatory T cells were studied by flow cytometry, and cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. Although HF and HSB diets were able to induce a higher weight gain compatible with obesity in treated mice, HSB-fed mice presented the higher levels of serum glucose after fasting and the lowest frequency of regulatory T cells in adipose tissue. In addition, mice that were fed HSB diet presented higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, hyperleptinemia, increased resistin and leptin levels as well as reduced adiponectin serum levels. Importantly, we found increased frequency of CD4(+)CD44(+) effector T cells, reduction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) and Th3 regulatory T cells as well as decreased levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in adipose tissue of HSB-fed mice. Therefore, HSB represents a novel model of obesity-inducing diet that was efficient in triggering alterations compatible with metabolic syndrome as well as impairment in immune regulatory parameters.

  11. Compositional Shift in Fatty Acid Profiles of Lipids Obtained from Oleaginous Yeasts upon the Addition of Essential Oil from Citrus sinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Bijaya K; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2017-12-01

    Tailoring lipids from oleaginous yeasts to contain specific types of fatty acid is of considerable interest to food, fuel, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the essential oil obtained from Citrus sinesus L. has been used to alter the fatty acid composition of two common oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium toruloides and Cryptococcus curvatus. With increasing levels of essential oil in the medium, the metabolic flux of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway shifted towards saturated fatty acid production. Essential oil reduced the activities of elongase and ∆9 desaturase. This made the lipid obtained from both these yeasts rich in saturated fatty acids. At certain specific concentrations of the essential oil in the medium, the lipid obtained from R. toruloides and C. curvatus cultures was similar to mahuwa butter and palm oil, respectively. Limonene is the major constituents of orange essential oil. Its effect on one of the oleaginous yeasts, R. toruloides, was also studied separately. Effects similar to orange essential oil were obtained with limonene. Thus, we can conclude that limonene in orange essential oil brings about compositional change of microbial lipid produced in this organism.

  12. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  13. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  14. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  16. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  17. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  18. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  19. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  20. Argan Oil Exerts an Antiatherogenic Effect by Improving Lipids and Susceptibility of LDL to Oxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ould Mohamedou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the effect of argan oil consumption on serum lipids, apolipoproteins (AI and B, CRP, and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients which are known to have a high level of cardiovascular risk due to lipid abnormalities and lipid peroxidation. For that, 86 type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia were randomized to one group consuming 25 mL/day of argan oil during 3 weeks and control group consuming 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. After argan oil intervention, serum triglycerides decreased by 11.84%, (P=0.001, total chol by 9.13%, (P=0.01, and LDL-chol by 11.81%, (P=0.02. However, HDL-chol and Apo AI increased (10.51%, P=0.01 and 9.40%,  P=0.045, resp.. Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by increasing of 20.95%, (P=0.038 in lag phase after argan oil consumption. In conclusion, we show for the first time that consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving lipids, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in type 2 diabetes patients with dyslipidemia, and can therefore be recommended in the nutritional management of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  4. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  5. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  6. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  7. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  8. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.

  9. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiraouani Boucetta K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta,1 Zoubida Charrouf,2 Hassan Aguenaou,3 Abdelfattah Derouiche,4 Yahya Bensouda1 1Research Team on Formulation and Biopharmacy, Research Center for Drug, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 2Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 3Mixed Unit of Research in Nutrition, ITU / CNESTEN, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco; 4Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco Background: During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity.Materials and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity, and the resonance running time (RRT at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application.Results: The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net elasticity of the skin (R5 (P<0.001, biological elasticity (R7 (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002. The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net

  10. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  11. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  12. Production of oil from Israeli oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givoni, D.

    1993-01-01

    Oil shale can be utilized in two-ways: direct combustion to generate steam and power or retorting to produce oil or gas. PAMA has been developing both direct combustion and retorting processes. Its main effort is in the combustion. An oil shale fired steam boiler was erected in the Rotem industrial complex for demonstration purposes. PAMA has also been looking into two alternative retorting concepts - slow heating of coarse particles and fast heating of fine particles. The present paper provides operating data of oil shale processing in the following scheme: (a) retorting in moving bed, pilot and bench scale units, and (b) retorting in a fluidized bed, bench scale units. (author)

  13. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  14. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  15. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K.; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A.; Kreil, Katherine R.; Melka, David C.; Boden, William D.; Dion, Jamie L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B.; Zink, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods. A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results. Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions. Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels. PMID:26389125

  16. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  18. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  19. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  20. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  1. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  2. Cardio-metabolic and immunological impacts of extra virgin olive oil consumption in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozati, Mitra; Barnett, Junaidah; Wu, Dayong; Handelman, Garry; Saltzman, Edward; Wilson, Thomas; Li, Lijun; Wang, Junpeng; Marcos, Ascensión; Ordovás, José M; Lee, Yu-Chi; Meydani, Mohsen; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2015-01-01

    Both aging and obesity are related to dysregulated immune function, which may be responsible for increased risk of infection and also chronic non-infectious diseases. Dietary lipids have been shown to impact immune and inflammatory responses and cardio-metabolic risk factors. No information on the impact of olive oil on immune responses of overweight and obese older adults is available. We aimed to determine the effect of replacing oils used in a typical American diet with extra virgin olive oil for 3 months on immune responses and cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese older adults. This was a randomized, single-blinded and placebo-controlled trial in 41 overweight or obese participants (aged ≥ 65) who consumed a typical American diet. Participants in the control (CON, n = 21) group were provided with a mixture of corn, soybean oil and butter, and those in the olive oil (OO, n = 20) group, with extra virgin olive oil, to replace substitutable oils in their diet. At baseline and 3 months, we measured blood pressure, biochemical and immunological parameters using fasting blood, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin response. Compared to the CON group, the OO group showed decreased systolic blood pressure (P groups. Our results indicate that substitution of oils used in a typical American diet with extra virgin olive oil in overweight and obese older adults may have cardio-metabolic and immunological health benefits. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01903304.

  3. A new oil crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, R.C.G.; Van Herpt, I.R.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the oil market are discussed, focusing on the causes of recent price increase, expectations for the near future, why previous oil crises resulted into a recession, and the expected consequences of the oil price increase for the economic growth and inflation. The negative consequences of the high oil price for the European economy can be limited under the condition that claims for higher wages are moderate. 2 refs

  4. Oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, Philip

    1997-01-01

    The role of the International Energy Agency's (IEA) ''OiMarket Report'' is described in terms of its response to and support for oil companies seeking to monitor short-term global oil market developments. The document is increasingly used for reference both by industry and governments. Data is compiled from oil companies, consultants, and government, and OECD countries provide supply/demand oil balance data by product grade on a monthly basic. (UK)

  5. The oil distribution file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A series of articles addresses the recent evolutions of the French domestic fuel oil market, the development of the Argos oil company (a Dutch group) on this market, the situation and the recent evolution of the German oil product market in 2007 and 2008, the problem faced by the mandatory introduction of biofuels in Belgium and in Spain, the evolution of the Italian oil product market, and the mandatory introduction of biofuels in the United Kingdom in 2008

  6. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  7. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  8. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  9. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  10. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  11. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  12. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  13. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  14. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  15. New round for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamarche, Myrtille

    2018-01-01

    After three years of crisis, oil companies are now strongly reinvesting, while oil prices are stabilizing at a reasonable long-term level, notably due to a rising demand from developing countries. Examples of new investments made by majors such as Total, Shell or Exxon but also by national companies and junior companies, are given. Oil price evolution as well as cost reductions (thanks notably to the digitalisation of the sector, leading to a decrease in exploration costs) are analyzed. The importance of the US oil production, and particularly shale oil production, is pinpointed

  16. Recovery of hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-02-10

    A process is disclosed for recovery of hydrocarbon oils, especially lubricating oils or diesel oils, through pressure hydrogenation of distillation, extraction of hydrogenation products from coal or coaly materials or from oils such as mineral oils or tars in liquid phase by use in a reaction vessel of fixed-bed catalysts, characterized in that as starting material is employed material which has been freed of asphaltic and resinous material by hydrogenation refining, vacuum-steam distillation, treatment with hydrogen-rich hydrocarbons (hydroforming), or sulfuric acid.

  17. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  18. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  19. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  20. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  1. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  2. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  3. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  5. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction by Box-Behnken design for determination of acetoin in butter followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Mostafa; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-10-15

    A novel approach, ultrasound-assisted reverse micelles dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (USA-RM-DLLME) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for selective determination of acetoin in butter. The melted butter sample was diluted and homogenised by n-hexane and Triton X-100, respectively. Subsequently, 400μL of distilled water was added and the microextraction was accelerated by 4min sonication. After 8.5min of centrifugation, sedimented phase (surfactant-rich phase) was withdrawn by microsyringe and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. The influence of effective variables was optimised using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with desirability function (DF). Under optimised experimental conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 0.6-200mgL(-1). The detection limit of method was 0.2mgL(-1) and coefficient of determination was 0.9992. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5% (n=5) while the recoveries were in the range of 93.9-107.8%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Reduced fat mass in rats fed a high oleic acid-rich safflower oil diet is associated with changes in expression of hepatic PPARalpha and adipose SREBP-1c-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shan-Ching; Huang, Ching-Jang

    2006-07-01

    PPARs and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREPB-1c) are fatty acid-regulated transcription factors that control lipid metabolism at the level of gene expression. This study compared a high oleic acid-rich safflower oil (ORSO) diet and a high-butter diet for their effect on adipose mass and expressions of genes regulated by PPAR and SREPB-1c in rats. Four groups of Wistar rats were fed 30S (30% ORSO), 5S (5% ORSO), 30B (29% butter + 1% ORSO), or 5B (4% butter plus 1% ORSO) diets for 15 wk. Compared with the 30B group, the 30S group had less retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT) mass and lower mRNA expressions of lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and SREBP-1c in the RWAT, higher mRNA expressions of acyl CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A, fatty acid binding protein, and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in the liver (P 2 fold those of the 30B group (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the smaller RWAT mass in rats fed the high-ORSO diet might be related to the higher tissue 18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6). This in turn could upregulate the expressions of fatty acid catabolic genes through the activation of PPARalpha in the liver and downregulate the expressions of lipid storage and lipogenic gene through the suppression of SREBP-1c in the RWAT.

  7. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Eshita

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  8. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Eshita [The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, New Delhi 110 003 (India)

    2008-03-15

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  9. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  10. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  11. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol...

  12. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  13. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  14. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  15. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  16. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Transformer oil maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. [A.F. White Ltd., Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    Proactive treatment is required in the case of transformer oil, since the oil degrades over time, which could result in the potential failure of the transformer or costly repairs. A mineral-based oil is used for transformers because of its chemical properties and dielectric strength. Water and particulate are the main contaminants found in transformer oil, affecting the quality of the oil through reduced insulation. Acid that forms in the oil when reacting with oxygen is called oxidization. It reduces the heat dissipation of the transformer as the acid forms sludge which settles on the windings of the transformer. The first step in the preventive maintenance program associated with transformer oil is the testing of the oil. The base line is established through initial testing, and subsequent annual testing identifies any changes. The minimal requirements are: (1) dielectric breakdown, a measure of the voltage conducted by the oil; (2) neutralization/acid number, which detects the level of acid present in the oil; (3) interfacial tension, which identifies the presence of polar compounds; (4) colour, which displays quality, aging and the presence of contaminants; and (5) water, which decreases the dielectric breakdown voltage. The analysis of the gases present in the oil is another useful tool in a maintenance program for the determination of a possible fault such as arcing, corona or overheated connections and is accomplished through Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). Remediation treatment includes upgrading the oil. Ideally, reclamation should be performed in the early stages of the acid buildup before sludging occurs. Onsite reclamation includes Fuller's earth processing and degasification, a process briefly described by the author.

  18. Geopolitics of oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liscom, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Geopolitics can inject a great deal of uncertainty and cause fundamental shifts in the overall direction of oil markets, which would otherwise act in a fairly predictable and stable manner. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the response of the USA were definitely linked with oil, and the aftermath of the invasion left four geopolitical issues affecting world oil markets. The provision authorizing $1.6 billion in Iraqi oil exports under the United Nations sanctions was imposed with little concern about the potential impact of these exports on the oil market; Iraq could export as much as 1 million bbl/d and it is unlikely that exports would be stopped once the $1.6 billion limit is reached. By making up most of the supply shortfall during the Kuwait crisis, Saudi Arabia suddenly became the producer of over a third of OPEC oil supplies and now dominates OPEC. The Saudis have indicated it will swing production according to world demand, irrespective of what OPEC wants, so that world oil demand will return strongly and remain. Middle East politics in general will determine the stability of oil supplies in the region for many of the countries. A producer-consumer dialogue at the high governmental level has started, with a view to some type of multilateral understanding in the light of mutual interests in secure oil supplies. This is not likely to have a big impact on oil markets without participation and support from the USA. The recent changes in the Soviet Union have potential impacts in regard to the attraction of that market for Western investment, in particular to assist exports. The worldwide environmental movement will also play a geopolitical role in the world oil market due to its influence on oil taxation policies

  19. Separating oil from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C

    1991-04-11

    The technology available to deal with oil spills has assumed many new faces in recent years. Methods of dealing with small-scale pollution in the process industries and vast oil slicks such as that in the Gulf have developed in parallel. The progress being made in finding new means of separating oil from water is reported and the relative merits of bioremediation, hydrocylones, horizontal separators and gas flotation are discussed. (author).

  20. How Butter Beats the Guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Yanovskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing share of defence in total government expenditures reflects the fundamental choices about state functions. The main hypothesis of the research is: decreasing priority of military spending could cause lower quality of defence. The case study shows, how “punishment for military success” strategy undermines incentives for army officers. Historical data (military spending and rise of new military justice support the main hypothesis.

  1. Treating oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbear, S H

    1921-01-04

    Oil shale is treated for the separation of the valuable organic compounds, with a view to economy in subsequent destructive distillation, by grinding to powder, mixing with water to form a pulp, adding a small quantity of an oil liquid and aerating the mixture to form a froth containing the organic compounds. If the powdered shale contains sufficient free oil, the addition of oil to the pulp may be dispensed with. In some cases an electrolyte such as sulfuric acid may be added to the pulp.

  2. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  3. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  4. Process for extracting oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-08-22

    A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil (byproduct of woodspirit rectification), if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot.

  5. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  6. Oil shale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail

  7. Argan oil prevents prothrombotic complications by lowering lipid levels and platelet aggregation, enhancing oxidative status in dyslipidemic patients from the area of Rabat (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Masrar, Azelarab; Chraibi, Abdelmjid; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2013-07-20

    It is now established that patients with hyperlipidemia have a high risk of atherosclerosis and thrombotic complications, which are two important events responsible for the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. In the context of managing dyslipidemia by means of dietary advice based on the consumption of argan oil, we wanted to investigate the effect of virgin argan oil on plasma lipids, and for the first time, on the platelet hyperactivation and oxidative status associated with dyslipidemia. This study concerns patients recruited in the area of Rabat in Morocco. 39 dyslipidemic (79% women) patients were recruited for our study in the area of Rabat in Morocco. They were randomly assigned to the two following groups: the argan group, in which the subjects consumed 25 mL/day of argan oil at breakfast for 3 weeks, and the control group in which argan oil was replaced by butter. After a 3-week consumption period, blood total cholesterol was significantly lower in the argan oil group, as was LDL cholesterol (23.8% and 25.6% lower, respectively). However, the HDL cholesterol level had increased by 26% at the end of the intervention period compared to baseline. Interestingly, in the argan oil group thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was lower, and oxidative status was enhanced as a result of lower platelet MDA and higher GPx activity, respectively. In conclusion, our results, even if it is not representative of the Moroccan population, show that argan oil can prevent the prothrombotic complications associated with dyslipidemia, which are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  8. Descriptive and consumer preference of Omashikwa , traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Once it is fermented, it is shaken or agitated in the calabash for hours to churn into butter. Butter granules are removed and either made into butter or boiled to make Ghee or butter oil known as Omazeothung'ombe by the Herero community and the remaining liquid is the fermented buttermilk or Omashikwa, Consumers of ...

  9. Evaluation of quality of butter from different provenance Avaliação da qualidade de manteigas de diferentes procedências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Donato Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Butter samples were evaluated for free fatty acids, peroxide value, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition focusing on the trans isomer and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Sixty six samples were analyzed. Thirty six were collected in Brazil, eighteen in France, and twelve in Argentina. Samples were evaluated by free fatty acids, peroxide value, total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The free fatty acid content varied from 0.16 to 0.46 g.100 g-1 and the peroxides value levels from 0.35 to 1.80 meq.kg-1. The cholesterol content varied from 192.8 to 226.3 g.100 g-1 and the total lipid content varied from 81.8 to 86.8 g.100 g-1. The levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids varied from 43.86 to 52.74, from 21.65 to 23.34, and from 2.11 to 2.89 g.100 g-1, respectively. The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content varied from 0.56 to 0.86 g.100 g-1 and the levels of total trans isomer varied from 2.18 to 3.81 g.100 g-1.As amostras de manteigas foram avaliadas através das análises de ácidos graxos livres, índice de peróxidos, colesterol e composição em ácidos graxos. Foram analisadas 66 amostras, sendo 36 de procedência brasileira, 18 francesas e 12 argentinas. As amostras brasileiras foram provenientes dos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Goiás. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto aos teores de ácidos graxos livres, índices de peróxidos, lipídeos totais, colesterol e composição em ácidos graxos livre. Os teores de ácidos graxos livres variaram de 0,16 a 0,46 g.100 g-1 e os índices de peróxidos de 0,35 a 1,80 meq.kg-1. Os teores de colesterol variaram de 192,8 to 226,3 g.100 g-1 e os lipídios totais de 81,8 a 86,8 g.100 g-1.Os teores de ácidos graxos saturados, monoinsaturados e poli-insaturados variaram de 43,86 a 52,74, de 21,65 a 23,34 e de 2,11 a 2,89 g.100 g-1, respectivamente. Os teores de CLA variaram de 0,56 a 0,86 g.100 g-1 e os isômeros trans de 2

  10. Características de identidade, qualidade e estabilidade da manteiga de garrafa. Parte II - estabilidade The stability of a Brazilian regional butter "Manteiga de Garrafa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Lygia Burgos Ambrósio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com vistas a estabelecer o tempo de vida útil da manteiga de garrafa, duas marcas deste produto (A e B de ampla comercialização na cidade do Recife foram avaliadas quanto a estabilidade durante o armazenamento a 25ºC a intervalos de 0, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias através da determinação do índice de peróxido, acidez, análise cromatográfica de ácidos graxos e análise sensorial. Segundo os resultados, a acidez apresentou uma elevação acentuada nos primeiros 30 dias de armazenamento estabilizando-se a seguir até 120 dias. O índice de peróxido aumentou ao longo do tempo sendo acompanhado pela intensificação do "flavour" de ranço para ambas amostras que a partir dos 90 dias de armazenamento foi referido como extremamente forte por 50% dos provadores. Quanto aos ácidos graxos, foi constatada diminuição do percentual do linoléico (18:2 na manteiga A embora nenhuma mudança tenha ocorrido no conteúdo de ácidos graxos trans para as duas manteigas. Os resultados demonstram que o tempo de armazenamento não exerce influência significativa e que a manteiga de garrafa apresenta uma curta vida-de-prateleira face a oxidação lipídica que a torna inadequada para consumo após 60 dias a partir da data de fabricação.Trying to establish the time of shelf-life of "manteiga de garrafa" (a kind of regional Brazilian butter, two brands of this product (A and B of wide commercialization in the city of Recife were analyzed as the stability during the storage at 25ºC to intervals of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days through the determination of the peroxide value,% free fattty acid, fatty acid composition and sensorial evaluation. According to the results, acidity increased in the first 30 days of storage being stabilized up to 120 days, the peroxide value increased along the time being accompanied by the intensification of the "flavour" of rancidity for both samples that it was referred as extremely strong for 50% of the panelists starting from the

  11. Manitoba oil activity review, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  12. Manitoba oil activity review, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report is the annual review of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included

  13. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  14. Purifying oils, cracking oils, catalysts. [British Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-05

    Hydrocarbon oils are refined by treating while substantially in the liquid phase between 200/sup 0/ and 400/sup 0/C with a phosphoric acid catalyst deposited on metallurgical coke, a suitable blast furnace slag, silica gel or other carrier with similar properties, until the objectionable components are converted into innocuous substances by polymerization cracking, isomerization and/or alkylation. By this treatment the bromine number is reduced, the end-point of the A.S.T.M. distillation is increased, the octane number is raised, mercaptans are converted to hydrogen sulphide and olefines, thioethers and thiophenes are converted to mereaptans, and the initial boiling point is lowered. The process is applicable to gasoline, cracked distillate, kerosine and lubricating oil, obtained by distilling or cracking petroleum, shale and hydrogenated oils; and is particularly applicable for stabilizing cracked distillates.

  15. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  16. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  17. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  18. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  19. Heavy oils clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collitt, R.

    1997-01-01

    High production, transport and refining costs have long led oil companies to shun heavy crude oils. Advances in the technology of upgrading heavy oils, however, are likely to reduce transport costs and improve the refinery output. Research and development by Venezuela's state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), has resulted in a process called Aquaconversion which permits the upgrading of heavy crude oils using a catalyst and the hydrogen from steam. This may be carried out at the wellhead in small low-pressure and relatively inexpensive units. In addition, higher distillate yields of higher value could be produced by revamping the thermal cracking units of refineries to incorporate the new technology. This has generated considerable interest in Venezuela's large extra-heavy crude oil reserves and has led multinational oil companies along with PDVSA to pledge $17 billion to their development. Even at a $2 to $3 per barrel upgrading cost, Venezuela's extra heavy crudes are competitive with lighter oils from other countries. Other major markets for the new technology are likely to be China and Russia, given their own large heavy crude reserves. (UK)

  20. Origin of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, W G

    1923-01-01

    The theory by Jones was questioned. Oil shales do not contain partly decomposed vegetable matter, and, where particles of vegetation are identified, they do not prove that kerogen was formed in its place. Some shales do contain free oil that can be extracted with solvents.

  1. Process of deparaffining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1941-03-05

    This process comprises centrifuging in the presence of a solvent which dissolves the oil and precipitates the paraffins, with the addition of an auxiliary liquid whose surface tension with respect to the oil solution does not exceed 50 dynes/cm.

  2. Improvements in petroleum oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohle, S

    1909-10-12

    A process for treating oils of the kind described is disclosed, which consists in adding to the oil an alkaline solution containing salines, and a vegetable saponaceous substance with or without iodides and with or without sulfuric acid. The salines and iodides are added in the form of a mucilage prepared from seaweed.

  3. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  4. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  5. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  6. Iranian-Oil-Free Zone and international oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Raeisian Parvari, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market

  7. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  8. Oil and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    1988-06-01

    The secondary oil recovery due to microorganisms and the production of useful substances from oil distillates using microorganisms are described as examples to solidify the relationship between oil and biotechnology. The secondary crude-oil recovery has been carried out due to the microorganism drive process, which includes the on-the-ground and underground processes. Although the microorganism drive process has been investigated for many years, the selection of the microorganisms is not completely established. Many uncertainties still remain regarding the technical and economic aspects. The single cell protein (SCP) is an example of industrial success in the production of useful substances from the oil. Rumania has produced SCP from normal paraffin and the U. K. from the methanol and the products are used as the protein source for animals. Remarkable progress in the functional efficiency of microorganisms is expected due to the biotechnology for both applications. (4 tabs)

  9. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  10. Dynamic international oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linde, C.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic International Oil Market Developments and Structure 1860-1990 discusses the logic of changing market structures of the international oil industry. The market structures have, in the course of time, oscillated between competition and oligopoly, as the oil market expanded, matured, stagnated, and expanded again. This book provides a dynamic interpretation of the intensifying struggle among producer, and consumer governments, and oil companies, over the distribution of economic rents and profits. In particular, it shows the shifting fortunes of the governments and companies as they try to control the recurring capacity constraints between the upstream and downstream sectors, generated by the instability of the oil market. The first part of the book examines market conditions and developments between 1860 and 1990; the second part analyzes market structures after 1945

  11. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R; MacIvor, W

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  12. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: fhmo@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  13. [The effect of palm oil and safflower oil in the feed of parent fattening hens on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, I

    1999-01-01

    The aim of two experiments with broiler breeder hens was to evaluate the effect of diets containing palm butter or safflower oil (25 g and 50 g/kg feed, resp.) on fertility, hatchability and growth of progeny. Especially the incorporation of oleic and linoleic acid in egg yolk reflected the dietary fatty acid source. Eggs were collected and stored in the incubator at a hen age of 31, 40, 50, and 60 weeks. Hatched chicks were reared over 5 weeks. The number of fertile eggs (Experiment 1 and 2, 75 and 88%, resp.) differed between the experiments (P < or = 0.05). Neither embryonic mortality nor hatchability (Experiment 1 and 2, 76 and 78%, resp.) were significantly affected by fatty acid composition of yolk. No clear maternal dietary effect was recorded on chicken weight at hatching (Experiment 1 and 2, 43.3 g and 43.7 g, resp.) and at 35 days of age (Experimental 1 and 2, 1676 g and 1764 g, resp.) The fatty acid composition in the analysed egg yolk sac of chicks showed a different fatty level but corresponded to fatty acid composition of breeding eggs before incubation. According to a decreased level of docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk due to increased incorporation of linoleic acid, the content of this fatty acid was also diminished in phospholipids of the brain of chicken on days 1 and 5 after hatching.

  14. The Evolution of Shea Butter's "Paradox of paradoxa" and the Potential Opportunity for Information and Communication Technology (ICT to Improve Quality, Market Access and Women's Livelihoods across Rural Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bello-Bravo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shea trees grow across 4 million km2 of sub-Saharan Africa. Shea parklands provide a sustainable source of edible fat (shea butter that, in terms of volume, is currently second only to cocoa butter as a vegetal source of stearic acid in the multi-billion dollar chocolate and cosmetic sectors. However, in terms of international trade, shea has been opaque to consumers of edible products (where the majority of shea exports end their global journey and actually only well-known in western markets as a cosmetic ingredient. The millions of women collectors have been disconnected from global supply chains, as the majority of their sheanuts are factory processed, supplied by traders who, in many cases, do not understand quality issues nor share knowledge with their village-based collectors—this is the “Paradox of paradoxa”. This review provides the background to this issue by contextualizing the industry and describing how weak post-harvest quality control impacts the shea supply chain. The paper then explains how this knowledge was incorporated into a 3D animation available for free transmission to rural African audiences and viewing on portable devices like video capable mobile phones. This tool offers the potential of low-cost multiple benefits to users, which we term here a win-cubed [win3] opportunity, where women collectors can receive free knowledge of using less resources to produce higher quality shea kernels which in turn offer higher extraction yields, lowering production costs, of a better and more marketable product.

  15. Oil slick skimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karterman, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    A craft for removing an oil slick from a body of water is described comprising: a pair of spacedly arranged paralleled positioned elongated floats, a platform mounted on and extending between said floats, a weir mounted on said platform between said floats and being movable independently and substantially vertical of the longitudinal axis of said floats to a position below the surface of said body of water, a submersible oil receiving and storage means detachedly mounted to said platform between said floats and having an inlet port at one level and comprising a substantially enclosed oil accumulator having an outlet port at a lower level, said weir comprising a sluice gate constructed and arranged to admit into said inlet port of said oil receiving and storage means under the effects of gravity a portion of an oil stick comprising a water and oil mixture skimmed from said body of water, and a first pump connected to said outlet port of said accumulator to control the movement of water from the inside lower level of said accumulator out of said accumulator to thereby control the amount of the oil slick flowing into said accumulator

  16. Oil and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, F

    1974-10-01

    The shift in world income due to the increase in oil prices has resulted in a world economy that has been thrown off balance. Nine papers are presented that explore the background and the main implications of this ''watershed'' in international relations, particularly the extent to which it will affect the development prospects of poor countries and the climate of trade between poor and rich nations in the next few years. Two papers, ''Diary of Events in the Oil Market 1971--1974'' and ''Statistical Background,'' provide information on the financial changes implied by the price increase; some of the figures should be treated as preliminary estimates only. ''Large International Firms in the Oil Industry'' examines the part played by the major oil companies in developments in the oil market leading up to the events of 1973. Two papers, ''Can OPEC Maintain Current Prices'' and ''OPEC As a Model for Other Mineral Exporters,'' present optimistic conclusions, from the viewpoint of developing countries, on their future capability for controlling their own destinies in trade. ''A Note on Some Issues Raised for Science and Technology Policy by the Increase in Oil Prices'' looks at options open to producers and consumers of raw materials. ''Assessing the Economic Impact on Developing Countries and Some Policy Suggestions,'' ''A Note on the Implications of the Oil Price Increases for British Aid Policy,'' and ''Confrontation Versus Co-operation'' are three papers concerned with difficulties of developing countries and particularly India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. (MCW)

  17. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  18. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  19. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  20. Big russian oil round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Beer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The departure of Mikhail Khodorkovsky has brought an end to the idyllic times of supplies of Russian oil to the MOL-Slovnaft group. The group used to purchase oil directly from Yukos. But now brokers have again entered the Central European oil business. And their aim is to take control over all of the oil business. The Russians demonstrated the changed situation to Slovakia last autumn: you will either accept the new model, or there will be problems with oil deliveries. Consumers got the message. The main brokers of Russian oil in Central Europe are the Swiss companies Glencore and Fisotra. Little information is available regarding these commodity brokers. But the information available is sufficient to indicate that these are not small companies. Glencore undertakes 3% of all international oil trades. With an annual turnover of 72 billions USD, it was the biggest Swiss company by turnover in 2004. Fisotra also has an extensive product portfolio. It offers financial and commercial services and does not hide its good relations with Russian oil companies. Between 1994 and 1998, it managed their financial operations with major western companies such as BP, Cargill, Elf, Exxon, Shell, Total, and Mutsubishi and also with Glencore. Fisotra states that some of its clients achieved an annual turnover of 1.5 billions USD. At present, the Swiss brokers receive a fee of 1 to 1.5 USD per barrel. The Russian political elite must be aware of these brokerage services as the oil transport through the transit system is closely monitored by the state owned company Transneft. (authors)

  1. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  2. Modelling oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of oil exploration models in this paper is developed in four parts. The way in which exploration has been dealt with in oil supply models is first described. Five recent models are then looked at, paying particular attention to the explanatory variables used when modelling exploration activities. This is followed by a discussion of the factors which have been shown by several empirical studies to determine exploration in less developed countries. Finally, the interdependence between institutional factors, oil prices and exploration effort is analysed with a view to drawing conclusions for modelling in the future. (UK)

  3. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  4. Oil spill clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material

  5. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  6. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  7. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  8. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  9. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. Crude oil market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Falling demand for refined products and an excess of production capacity are driving world oil prices down further. Competitive price cutting, notably by Mexico, Britain, and the Soviet Union, has left Saudi Arabia the only guardian of a costly pricing discipline in terms of crude oil sales. The current crisis is limited to the producers of crude oil. Refineries are now deciding what, where, and how to buy crude in order to meet the requirements of a slack market place. Saudi Arabia could precipitate a price collapse below $20 per barrel by increasing production volume, but that seems unlikely. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Challenge - oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogler, O.

    1981-01-01

    After a short survey on recent developments of energy supply the risks of future energy supply and its effects are discussed. The parameters of dependence on oil-producing countries are studied and an evaluation is given on the measures which have to be taken by the Western industrialized countries in response to the dependence on oil. Further subjects are: mechanism of oil distribution in case of crisis, long-term cooperation of producer countries, measures on international level in the USA and Japan, and the energy-importing countries in the conflict area between OPEC- and industrialized countries. (UA) [de

  12. Oil-leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa Viera, D.; Fierard, P.; Bacchiani, L.; Lions, N.

    1967-01-01

    This apparatus is designed to set off an alarm when the oil level in a reservoir exceeds or falls short of a given value. The detection system consists of a condenser whose plates are separated by air or by oil, the condenser being immersed or non-immersed. A very small change in capacity (of the order of 1 pF for a height of oil of 1 cm) should be detected with respect to the high capacity of the connecting cable. An application for a patent has been made for this apparatus which makes it possible to detect small changes in capacity. (authors) [fr

  13. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Metal working oils. Cutting oils, rolling oils, quenching oils, rust preventive oils; Kinzoku kakoyu. Sessakuyu, atsuenyu, yakiireyu, boseiyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    With the demand against complicating working techniques for a background, foundations of the consideration for each of the lubricants in future are outlined. 1. Cutting oils: From the standpoint of speeding up and fireproofing, share of water-soluble type has come up to 30-40%. In this type, emulsifying dispersants and preservatives are combined. 2. Rolling oils: According to thinning of the standard thickness of steel plates, pressure of contacting surfaces has come up to 300 kg/mm{sup 2}(max.) and slip speed has increased too. In stainless steel plates, in order to get rid of the heat-streak (baking streak originated from wearing-out of oil film) shifting from neat oil to emulsion type is required. 3. Quenching oils: Following two systems are recent tendencies, the mineral oil system having excellent thermostability or the water system containing polyalkylneglycol etc., but the latter is expected from the viewpoint of fireproofing. 4. Rust preventive oils: As this oils do not aim at the rust prevention for long term, degreasing property is required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Effect of argan and olive oil consumption on the hormonal profile of androgens among healthy adult Moroccan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Jafri, Ali; Driouch, Issam; El Khasmi, Mohammed; Adlouni, Ahmed; Benajiba, Nada; Bamou, Youssef; Saile, Rachid; Benouhoud, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of virgin argan oil (VAO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVO) on the hormonal profile of androgens and anthropometric parameters among healthy adult Moroccan men during a controlled nutritional intervention. The study was carried out on 60 young and healthy male volunteers aged between 23 and 40 years old. During a stabilization period of 2 weeks they consumed butter. The group was then randomized into two categories, the first one consuming VAO and the second EVO for 3 weeks. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS) serum concentrations were measured at the beginning of the study and at the end of each period. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the two groups (VAO and EVO) during each step of the study. Differences in androgens and anthropometric parameters between the baseline and after 3 weeks of the diet in the VAO and EVO groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. T and LH serum concentrations significantly increased after the intervention period. T levels increased by 19.9% and 17.4% (p consumption of AVO and EVO might be the origin of a positive action on the androgen hormonal profile of men.

  16. Influence of Garlic Oil and/or Taurine Intake on Modulating the Quantity and Quality of Murine Platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that enhanced platelets reactivity associated with hyperlipidaemia plays a role in the formation of atherosclerosis. Thus, platelet count, platelet aggregation in response to the agonists ADP, collagen and thromboxan B2 (TxB 2 ) were investigated in the normal and hyperlipidaemic rats to elucidate the role of some antioxidants, as modulating factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Serum concentrations of the major lipid classes, thyroid hormones, serum glutathione as well as platelet count and aggregation were determined in normal lipidemic rats (control) and compared with their corresponding levels in hyperlipidaemic ones. Hyperlipidaemia was induced by feeding rats with diet enriched with 20 g cow milk butter/100 g diet for 8 weeks. Garlic oil (200 mg/kg b.w.) and/or taurine (500 ml/kg b.w.) were peritoneal injected from the beginning of the 9th week for 15 consecutive days. Incorporation of extra fat in diet of rats for long term led to a significant (p 2 levels. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol, serum glutathione (GSH), and T 3 and T 4 hormones level were significantly (p 2 level also showed a significant decrease. Conversely, serum HDL, T 3 , T 4 and GSH levels were significantly increased. These results denote that garlic oil and/or taurine may decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombus formation associated with hyperlipidaemia through modulating the quantity and quality of platelets in male rats

  17. Chemical profiling of gaharu oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Mohd Fajri Osman; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Shaiful Azuar Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil from Aquilaria agallocha and Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk has been reported to contain different phytochemicals components (Ishihara et al., 1993). There are also differences reported by gaharu oil suppliers. The differences suggested they originate from varied of sources of gaharu wood, oleoresin maturity and extraction technology employed. In this study, gaharu oil purchased from different sources were initially analysed and later cross-examined against chemical components of oil extracted from wood sources systematically graded. The gaharu oil components obtained from this work will be presented and discussed. Initiative to profile oil provides impetus to database development and standardisation of gaharu oil. (Author)

  18. Evening Primrose Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Evening Primrose Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... fact sheet provides basic information about evening primrose oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  19. Time of expensive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roset, C.

    2006-01-01

    Consumer information, energy conservation and the development of renewable energies are the axis on which French authorities have based their new policy to face constant high oil prices. It seems possible to increase France's hydro-energy potential by 40% without putting at risk environmental policy. In 2005 the ratio of France's energy independence descended below 50% .In 2005 despite high oil prices the tax on oil products yielded 212 million euros less than it was expected in the budget. Saudi-arabia has been asked by the G 7 group to make the necessary investment to bring its oil production up to 12.5 million barrels a day by 2010. (A.C.)

  20. The oil finder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a geologist becomes convinced that oil cannot occur in an area and finally says he will drink all the oil found there. When this happens, he should ask for a transfer. He has been in the area too long. Negative thinking never found a barrel of oil. This paper reports that a good geologist should critically examine and challenge the statements and theories of others in his own mind. He should follow up with positive actions based on his ideas and sell them to management. By so doing, he will be a creator of fires instead of a fire fighter. It is the creator who has the most to gain and obtains the bulk of the oil reserves

  1. Radium in diesel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulich, J.

    1977-05-01

    In order to determine the addition of radon and radium to the air in mines, originatiny from the combustion of petroleum, measurements of the content of radium in diesel oil have been performed. Knowing the radium content theradon content can easily be calculated. The procedures used for the chemical analysis of radium is desribed. The ash remaining after combustion of the diesel oil is soluted in water and radium is precipiated as sulphate. The radium is detected by a ZnS (Ag) detector. The diesel oils from different petroleum companies contained between o.019-0.5pCi radium - 226. The conclution is that the consumption of diesel oils in motors used in mines does not contribute to the radium - 226 content at the air move than permissible according to norms.(K.K.)

  2. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  3. Oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The plan outlined in this document specifies the actions that the Canadian Wildlife Service Atlantic Region is mandated to take in the event of an oil spill, or on discovering oiled migratory birds in terrestrial, fresh water, marine and inter-tidal habitats. In addition to describing the role and responsibilities of the Canadian Wildlife Service, the document also describes response plans of other agencies for dealing with all wildlife species affected by oil spills. Reporting paths, the lead agency concept, shared responsibilities with other Canadian Wildlife Service regional offices, provincial agencies, Heritage Canada, non-government wildlife response agencies, oil spill response organizations, and international organizations are outlined. An overview of the reporting and communications process is also provided

  4. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  5. Oil shale highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The low prices of crude oil have continued to retard the commercial development of oil shale and other syn fuels. Although research funds are more difficult to find, some R and D work by industry, academia, and governmental agencies continues in the United States and in other parts of the world. Improvements in retorting technology, upgrading oil-shale feedstock, and developing high-value niche-market products from shale oil are three notable areas of research that have been prominent for the past several years. Although the future prices of conventional crude cannot be predicted, it seems evident that diminishing supplies and a burgeoning world population will force us to turn to alternate fossil fuels as well as to cleaner sources of non-fossil energy. (author)

  6. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    and palm kernel oil exhibiting similar results in the control of the pest. ... the use of chemical pesticide in the protection of both field and stored crops is .... obtained by different methods and neem powder for the management of Callosobruchus.

  7. Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about flaxseed and flaxseed oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  8. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durousset, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents todays economical and strategic realities of the oil market. According to the author, petroleum will remain a vital energy source essentially supplied by the Middle-East with strong increasing and decreasing demand changes. (J.S.)

  9. Uncertainty in oil projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limperopoulos, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents an oil project valuation under uncertainty by means of two well-known financial techniques: The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and The Black-Scholes Option Pricing Formula. CAPM gives a linear positive relationship between expected rate of return and risk but does not take into consideration the aspect of flexibility which is crucial for an irreversible investment as an oil price is. Introduction of investment decision flexibility by using real options can increase the oil project value substantially. Some simple tests for the importance of uncertainty in stock market for oil investments are performed. Uncertainty in stock returns is correlated with aggregate product market uncertainty according to Pindyck (1991). The results of the tests are not satisfactory due to the short data series but introducing two other explanatory variables the interest rate and Gross Domestic Product make the situation better. 36 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  11. Oil and entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majbouri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that rents produced from natural resources, especially oil and gas, can increase opportunities for entrepreneurship, but they may also reduce engagement in entrepreneurial activities as they change incentives towards rent-seeking. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) annual surveys, this study provides empirical evidence that more per capita profit from oil and gas reduces entrepreneurship only in corrupt environments. The more the corruption is, the larger is the impact. The results have important implications for policy makers, especially in resource rich developing countries. - Highlights: •Profits from oil and gas have positive and negative impacts on entrepreneurship. •This study explains these impacts and provides empirical evidence on them. •It uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and WB Subsoil and Forest rents datasets. •It employs a dynamic panel data estimation with country fixed effects. •It shows that the negative impact dominates as corruption and oil and gas rents increase.

  12. Recovering oil from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahey, T; Wilson, H

    1920-11-13

    To recover oil free from inorganic impurities and water, and utilize the oil vapor and tarry matter for the production of heat, shale is heated in a retort at a temperature of not less than 120/sup 0/C. The vapors pass by a pipe into a water jacketed condenser from which the condensate and gas pass through a pipe into a chamber and then by a pipe to a setting chamber from where the light oils are decanted through a pipe into a tank. The heavy oil is siphoned through a pipe into a tank, while the gas passes through a pipe into a scrubber and then into a drier, exhauster and pipe to the flue and ports, above the fire-bars, into the retort. Air is introduced through a pipe, flue, and ports.

  13. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  14. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  15. Olive oil and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.; Abia, Rocío; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Pacheco, Yolanda M.; López, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon)-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decre...

  16. Oil Origin and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barenbaum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of oil age is discussed on the basis of the biosphere concept of oil and gas formation. It considers oil and gas deposits as underground carbon traps circulating through the Earth’s surface in the three main cycles of the circulation. A theoretical model has been developed that makes it possible to explain from these positions the phenomenon of replenishment of oil and gas deposits in the process of field development. The model provides a balance between carbon flows on the ascending and descending branches of its circulation through the Earth’s surface. In this model, the ascending flow of carbon is represented by the products of subsoil degassing (СН4, СО2 and extracted by the person from the depths of oil, gas and coal. A descending flow is an organic matter and carbonates that are submerged in the subsoil in the processes of sedimentation and subduction of lithospheric plates, as well as atmospheric COsub>2, entering the Earth’s surface with meteoric waters in the process of their climatic circulation. Since the fields are filled with hydrocarbons formed in cycles of carbon with widely differing circulation times, instead of the term ‘age of oil’, it is suggested to use the terms ‘trap formation time’ and ‘hydrocarbon life time in the trap’. This approach to the question of oil age in the biosphere concept leads to a number of conclusions, from which it follows that: 1 the ‘old’ petroleum of biogenic genesis is extracted at the initial stage of the development of deposits, whereas in the depletion stage the ‘young’ hydrocarbons of abiogenic synthesis prevail; 2 the age of industrial accumulations of oil on our planet is hardly older than the Pleistocene, while gaseous, liquid and bituminous fractions of oil have different lifetimes in traps.

  17. Global oil company profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)

  18. Oil troubles waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The sea provides a vast array of natural resources for thousands of local communities in the tropics. But the presence of the oil industry has significant social and environmental impacts, both from accidents and from routine activities like seismic exploration, drilling and the generation of polluting wastes. When accidents occur, sessile life (species attached to surface such as rocks or the seabed) is the first to be affected; its mortality increases as oil accumulates, although certain organisms, like gastropods, tolerate it better

  19. Alberta's new oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforuk, A.

    1997-01-01

    A massive expansion of Canada's oil sands and the oil-mining business is underway. The prediction is that within five years there will be at least three, possibly six, huge new open pit mines north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It was suggested that within 20 years, possibly half of Canada's oil supply will come from the oil sands industry which has already attracted $10 billion worth of developments. Unlike conventional crude, the oil sands contain bitumen, water, clay, minerals and lots of sands. Shallow deposits are mined like coal. Deeper formations make use of in-situ thermal recovery techniques. Extraction costs are presently at $15 per barrel, aiming for $12 by 1999. Return on investment is in double digits. Estimates of reserves in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca deposits go as high as 1.7 trillion barrels, or about twice as much as Saudi Arabia's conventional crude reserves. Syncrude has built a $5 billion production facility and two pipelines have already been proposed to transport the oil sands crude to midwestern US refineries. US refineries prize synthetic crude as excellent mixing stock. The major problem with oil sands is that unlike conventional oil, these reserves require an enormous amount of energy to exploit, which in turn means lots of foul air and greenhouse gases. There are many environmental unknowns, and without a clear management framework in sight the addition of two or three Syncrude-size operations has the potential to create a real and significant acid rain problem in the Western Canada Basin

  20. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  1. Oil is killing Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa, with its mining and petroleum resources, is still the object of covetous desires from developed countries. The Gulf of Guinea is a promising area and probably the future battlefield of the 21. century. The fighters of this war are the African people and the big powers, the USA and China at the head, who call upon mercenaries to get their share of this fabulous treasure. Oil was a chance for Africa, but now oil is killing it

  2. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  3. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  4. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  5. Process optimization and oxidative stability of omega-3 ice cream fortified with flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Avinash; Sharma, Vivek; Goyal, Ankit; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit

    2018-05-01

    Microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP) was supplemented for the fortification of α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3 fatty acid) in ice cream. Processing parameters were optimized in terms of the stage of homogenization of ice-cream mix, level of fortification (3, 4 and 5%) and flavors (vanilla, butter scotch and strawberry). Data revealed that free fatty acids increased significantly during first 15 days in all the samples and then remained constant. Peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value first increased up to 30 and 45 days, respectively; and then decreased followed by a gradual increase up to 120 days. Fatty acids profile showed 18.74-21.38% decrease in ALA content in fortified ice creams after 120 days. A serving of 100 g of freshly prepared functional ice cream was able to meet ~ 45% of the RDA (1.4 g ALA/day), which reduced to 35.37-36.56% on the end of storage i.e. 120 days. Overall, it can be concluded that MFOP was oxidative stable in ice-cream throughout the storage, which could be fortified successfully at 4% (w/w) level.

  6. Stability and dynamic rheological characterization of spread developed based on pistachio oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousazadeh, Morad; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; HadiNezhad, Mehri; Rahmati, Naghmeh

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of formulation variables (pistachio oil (PO, 7.5 and 15%, w/w), Cocoa butter (CB, 7.5 and 15%, w/w), xanthan gum (XG, 0 and 0.3%, w/w), and distillated monoglyceride (DMG, 0.5 and 1%, w/w)) on the rheological properties and emulsion stability of spreads. Power law and Herschel-Bulkley models were used for modeling shear-thinning behavior of samples. The power law model was found to describe the flow behavior of spreads better than Herschel-Bulkley model. All the rheological properties were increased by adding XG to the spreads whereas increasing PO content caused to decrease them. The DMG had positive effect on apparent viscosity and elastic behavior but had negative effect on viscose behavior. Apparent viscosity was increased by adding CB while rheological modules were not significantly (p DMG improved stability of emulsion. The best spread formulation with optimum rheological properties was 15% PO, 7.5% CB, 0.3% XG and 1% DMG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.; Siner, M.; Tijdhof, B.

    2003-01-01

    The title study regarding the functioning of the oil market during an oil crisis is carried out with particular reference to the strategic behaviour of oil companies. Section 2 identifies major oil supply disruptions since 1951 and describes some important changes in the market that have occurred in recent decades; Section 3 reviews the economic literature of the functioning of oil markets during disruptions and models of oil supply disruptions; Section 4 examines the response of oil markets to recent supply disruptions; Section 5 examines the incentives and scope for strategic behaviour; Section 6 considers the implications of our analysis for the design of policy responses to oil supply disruptions; Appendix A describes the background to the four recent oil supply disruptions; Appendix B discusses the relationship between spot and futures prices for a storable commodity; and Appendix C is the bibliography

  8. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  9. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammat...

  10. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  11. Mobil Oil Canada : Kearl Oil Sands Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The upgrader design at Mobil's Kearl Oil Sands Mine were described. Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.S. refineries that are equipped to process the material. The Kearl Oil Sands Mine upgrading facility will likely use a combination of coker/hydrotreating, which is a well proven process for high value products that has been used in all five of Mobil's refineries in the U.S., and visbreaker/deasphalting, which has shown promise in bench-scale testing, but at present still has some potential commercial difficulties. Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs., 9 figs

  12. Petrochema looks for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2006-01-01

    Petrochema Dubova has announced mass redundancies. The company managers, however, keep stressing that this does not mean the end of this Central Slovak refinery. Company management is searching intensely for low-sulphur oil that would help to bring back life to their fractionating column and start up production of light fuels and oils. The company has not used its equipment to produce products directly from oil for over two years. It used to specialise in the sale of oil products it purchased from other producers. About three months ago, the ownership of Petrochema changed once again. Petroinvest Bratislava became the new 100-percent owner of the company. It invested 35 mil. Sk (945-thousand EUR) in Petrochema's registered capital. The new owner has relations with people who used to cooperate with the Slovak investment group, Istrokapital. They bought Petrochema from the Czech company, Annectis. The new owners are talking about restructuring. 'We have not entered into any agreements on the purchase of oil as we did not know what the technical condition of the refinery was. Currently, we are looking for oil that meets the technological parameters of the technology used at Dubova,' said a member of the supervisory board of Petrochema, Miroslav Remeta. It is quite difficult to purchase oil for the company as the technology used for processing dates back to the first half of the last century. It requires low-sulphur oil with minimum paraffin content. In the past, the most suitable raw material used to come from Nafta Gbely. Later, the company started cooperation with Kazakhstan. 'We have to find a long-term partner to make the operation of the fractionating column profitable,' said M. Remeta. The company can process about 12-thousand tons a month. That is about 12 trainloads. In order to launch production it needs to have enough supply to cover for unreliable deliveries from unpredictable countries. 'Funds for the purchase of the oil are available from private sources

  13. Process for complete conversion of coal oils, shale oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P

    1911-07-08

    A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil, shale oil, and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

  14. Manitoba oil activity review, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explanations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1992, 28 wells were drilled, compared to 54 in 1991. Oil production was down ca 8% from 1991 levels, to 656,415 m 3 ; the value of the oil produced decreased 4% to ca $86.3 million; and provincial revenues from the oil industry decreased by 24%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $58 million, down 16% from 1991. As of 4 January 1993, there were 11 oil fields and 120 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. Crude oil prices fluctuated throughout the year. In 1992, Manitoba's average crude oil price was $20.89/bbl, compared with 1991's average of $20.14/bbl. Manitoba Energy and Mines amended the Drilling Incentive Program to provide a 10,000 m 3 holiday volume for horizontal wells. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Manitoba oil activity review, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explanations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1993, 87 wells were drilled, compared to 28 in 1992. Oil production was down ca 3% from 1992 levels, to 634,561 m 3 ; the value of the oil produced decreased 10% to ca $77.5 million; and provincial revenues from the oil industry decreased by 4%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $73 million, up 26% from 1992. As of 4 January 1994, there were 11 oil fields and 120 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. Crude oil prices fluctuated throughout the year, between $15.12 and $21.50/bbl. In 1993, Manitoba's average crude oil price was $19.40/bbl, compared with 1992's average of $20.89/bbl. Manitoba Energy and Mines amended the Drilling Incentive Program to provide a 10,000 m 3 holiday volume for horizontal wells. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  16. Outlook for Saskatchewan heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youzwa, P.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the heavy oil industry in Saskatchewan are discussed from a government perspective. By the end of September 1993, 220 heavy oil wells were drilled in the province, and 26% of the land sales in 1993 were in heavy oil areas. About 41% of the wells drilled in heavy oil areas were horizontal oil wells. Of the total horizontal wells drilled in Saskatchewan, 48% are for heavy oil, and horizontal well production averages 85 bbl/d. Initial trends suggest that horizontal wells both accelerate production and contribute to ultimate recovery. Total heavy oil production in 1992 reached 28.9 million bbl and recoverable reserves in 1991 were 262.3 million bbl, or 1.5% of total oil in place. The low recovery is not only due to technical factors such as high viscosity but also to low investment in the heavy oil sector due to poor economics. It is hoped that lower interest and exchange rates, the success of horizontal wells and the provincial royalty structure will maintain the recent increase in heavy oil activity. The provincial government recently launched a comprehensive energy strategy in which development of a heavy oil strategy is an important component. Total heavy oil reserves exceed those of light and medium oil and have significant development potential. The Saskatchewan government wishes to adopt a cooperative and partnership approach in its dealings with the heavy oil industry to help realize this potential. 9 figs

  17. Oil price prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toalster, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, four different, popular approaches to the analysis of oil price movements will be considered and an alternative method will be proposed. Whilst we await the development of a rigorous theoretical framework within which to evaluate the phenomenon of oil price movements some progress may be effected by an amalgam of approaches, with the traditional supply and demand model being supplemented by observations regarding political and social developments in particular countries or regions, together with an assessment of emerging and prospective technological achievements. In this way it should be possible to identify the critical influences at work, from which it should also be possible to select either the single most important variable or combination of variables, affecting the oil price. Moreover, it is my belief that the crucial variables influencing the oil price almost certainly, are more likely to be political and social, rather than economic. In this context and notwithstanding the fact that there is only a minimal level of surplus productive capacity in the world oil industry at present (perhaps 1-2 million b/d albeit rising rapidly), it is reasonable to conclude that oil prices will average around $18-19 a barrel for North Sea Brent in 1992 and 1993, with oscillations of $2-4 a barrel either side, rising slightly in 1994 to $19-20 a barrel and to $20-21 a barrel in 1995. Thereafter, the most likely outcome is for a rise in line with inflation (say $ a barrel/annum) with no prospect of an upward spike, because demand will be weaker than most commentators expect up to the year 2000, whilst OPEC oil supplies will be substantially higher than the consensus forecast. (author)

  18. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  19. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  20. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  1. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tar, and oils containing powdered coal, coke or peat, sulphur in suspension, is effected by passing air or other oxygen-containig gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air, the pressure being at or below atmospheric pressure.

  2. The determinants of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelier, J-P.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, swings in oil prices have been of unprecendented severity and frequency. Three factors work together to determine the price of oil: in the short term, the balance between supply and demand; in the medium term, the structure of the oil industry; and in the long term, the marginal production cost consistent with world oil demand. An oil price forecast is presented based on these considerations, and it is predicted that in the year 2000, oil prices will not be significantly different from those of today. 28 refs

  3. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The two major political events of 1991 produced a much less dramatic reaction in the global oil industry than might have been expected. The economic dislocation in the former USSR caused oil production to fall sharply but this was largely offset by a concurrent fall in demand. Within twelve months of the invasion of Kuwait, crude oil prices had returned to their pre-invasion level; there was no shortage of supply due to the ability of some producers to boost their output rapidly. Details are given of world oil production and developments in oil demand. Demand stagnated in 1991 due to mainly to the economic chaos in the former USSR and a slowdown in sales in the USA; this has produced problems for the future of the refining industry. By contrast, the outlook for the natural gas industry is much more buoyant. Most clean air or carbon emissions legislation is designed to promote the use of gas rather than other hydrocarbons. World gas production rose by 1.5% in 1991; details by production on a country by country basis are given. (UK)

  4. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. International oil law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkzad, B.

    1997-01-01

    The 1973 energy crisis demonstrated that the international petroleum industry is not totally free. Very often it has been the object of an organization, even during the domination of international oil companies which have established a petroleum international system with a system of concession rights. This system is based on an oligopolistic structure which had the characteristics of a monopoly. This vertically integrated structure of the world petroleum industry during the 1920-1950 era was more or less locked up by the system of concessions. The incompatibility of this system of excessively long concession contracts with the economical development needs of oil exporting countries has led to their abolishment. They have been replaced by new agreements. As soon as the creation of stable and permanent international oil organizations (OPEC, OAPEC, IEA), an institutional right has been established which has generated international rights and principles governing the contractual relations between oil exporting and oil importing countries. This international petroleum right is both original and specific, it is evolutive, contractual and normative. (J.S.)

  6. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  7. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  8. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progenies. Benoit Constant Likeng-Li-Ngue, Joseph Martin Bell, Georges Franck Ngando-Ebongue, Godswill Ntsefong Ntsomboh, Hermine Bille Ngalle ...

  9. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  10. Manitoba oil activity review, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, exports to other provinces and the USA, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explainations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1991, 54 wells were drilled, compared to 79 in 1990. Oil production was down ca 3% from 1990 levels, to 712,792 m 3 , the value of the oil produced decreased 21% to ca $90.3 million, and provincial revenues from the oil industry declined by 15%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $69 million, down 9% from 1990. As of the end of 1991, there were 11 oil fields and 118 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. The forecast for 1992 indicates that exploration activity will increase in response to new incentive programs. Crude oil production is expected to decline slightly to about 667,000 m 3 . 9 figs., 17 tabs

  11. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  12. Oil intensities and oil prices : evidence for Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alaimo, Veronica; Lopez, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    Crude oil prices have dramatically increased over the past years and are now at a historical maximum in nominal terms and very close to it in real terms. It is difficult to argue, at least for net oil importers, that higher oil prices have a positive impact on welfare. In fact, the negative relationship between oil prices and economic activity has been well documented in the literature. Ye...

  13. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  14. Distilling oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W G

    1913-08-13

    Oils and other products are distilled continuously from materials containing or charged with hydrocarbons, such as coal, shale, absorbent materials containing oil, or metal turnings covered with oil, in a vertical or inclined combustion chamber supplied continuously or intermittently with a small quantity of air, and continuously with a large quantity of gases from the condenser admitted below the combustion zone. If desired, steam may also be supplied to the combustion chamber. In the apparatus shown are the combustion chamber, the air inlet, the gas-inlet pipe, the gas-outlet pipe, the condenser, and a mechanical separator which preferably also acts as a fan. A pair of slides is provided at the bottom of the combustion chamber to discharge the residue without admitting air, or a water seal may be used.

  15. Shale oil combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-dabbas, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    A 'coutant' carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs

  16. The oil world war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21. century, a war has started between the USA, China and India. The USA, first oil consuming and importing country in the world, has now to take into account the increasing energy consumption of China and India. China is now, just behind Japan, the third oil importing country and India ranked number seven. From the Gulf of Guinea to the Arabic peninsula, from the Orenoque basin to the Caspian sea banks, Washington, Beijing and New Delhi covet the same oil fields. This rivalry exacerbates the political tensions in many regions of the Earth and already provokes a latent food crisis. This black gold war is changing the World's face and should provoke serious armed conflicts. (J.S.)

  17. Shale oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-dabbas, M A

    1992-05-01

    A `coutant` carbon steel combustion chamber cooled by water jacket was conslructed to burn diesel fuel and mixlure of shale oil and diesel fuels. During experimental work nir fuel ratio was determined, temperaturces were measured using Chromel/ Almel thermocouple, finally the gasous combustion product analysis was carricd out using gas chromatograph technique. The constructed combustion chamber was operating salisfactory for several hours of continous work. According to the measurements it was found that: the flame temperature of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was greater than the flame temperature of diesel fuel. and the sulfer emissious of a mixture of diesel and shale oil fuels was higher than that of diesel fuel. Calculation indicated that the dry gas energy loss was very high and the incomplete combustion energy loss very small. (author). 23 refs., 35 figs.

  18. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  19. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  20. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  1. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  2. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  3. The third oil shock: The effects of lower oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J

    1983-01-01

    This book assesses how oil prices have affected other elements of the economy and assesses the costs and benefits that could result from lower oil prices for different groups of countries. The book also analyses the extent of OPEC's influence, the consumers countries' needs for energy security and the altered role of the oil industry.

  4. The oiling of ICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The incident command system (ICS) works for oil spills. It should be the industry standard and some will argue that it already is. But there are a number of temptations to fiddle with it. Fueling these inclinations is the fundamental difference between oil spills and natural disasters: Oil spills make the perpetrator fix the problem - under heavy oversight. Add to this difference the public outcry that attends oil spills and the dual role of government as both helper and prosecutor. From these conditions emerge adaptations of ICS which both weaken and strengthen it. The benefits of ICS are diminished by deputy incident commanders who block unified commanders from access to section chiefs, over-zealous crisis managers who displace command post decisions or its information office, separate press offices with party line slants, government law enforcement activity mixed into spill response, nonstandard operations terminology and structure involving open-quotes containment and clean upclose quotes or open-quotes salvage,close quotes and the commingling of public and private response funds. ICS's application to oil spill response is strengthened by the use of trained unified commanders, deputy incident commanders who operate as staff rather than line, crisis managers who support on-scene objectives, joint information centers, and heavy involvement of skilled, prepared environmental assessment teams in the planning section who generate priorities, strategies, and (operationally coordinated) tactics. Technically, not all these points constitute alterations of ICS, but most do and the others come close. This mixed bag of strengthening and weakening tweaks to oil spill ICS provides an opportunity to take a new look at this faithful friend to the crisis responder

  5. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab-Eldin, A.; Lounnas, R.; Brennand, G.

    2001-01-01

    The OPEC Conference in 2000 developed a price band target of 22-28 US dollars per barrel for the Basket of OPEC crudes, in a bid to stabilise prices. This decision was made in the wake of a 12-month period that had seen tremendous fluctuations, with prices ranging from below 10/b US dollars to above 30/b US dollars. It was expected that the identification of the new price band would play a major role in stabilising oil prices, to the benefit of both producer and consumer. The assessment of potential medium-to-long-term prospects for the oil market, contained herein, are intimately related to these important developments in international oil markets, as well as our understanding of evolving fundamentals. Part 1 of this article, developed using OPEC's World Energy Model (OWEM), describes the reference case. From the demand side, a detailed analysis of both economic growth and intensity movements is used to project the growth of oil demand that can reasonably be expected over the next two decades. A resource-based approach is used to determine feasible longer-term production, utilising the latest data made available last year by the US Geological Survey. The rest of the article deals with various scenarios. The price scenario section considers the impact of high prices, beyond 30/b US dollars, and questions their sustainability. The next section deals with tax scenarios, and shows the extent to which oil demand has been reduced by historical developments in oil product taxation. Finally, a slow growth scenario explores the implications of a pessimistic view of economic growth over the coming years. (author)

  6. Business cycles in oil economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, N.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the impact of oil price shocks on output fluctuations of several oil-exporting economies. In most studies of business cycles, the role of oil price is ignored; the few studies that use oil price as one of the variables in the system focus on modeling oil-importing economies. The vector autoregression (VAR) technique is used to consider the cases of Norway, Nigeria, and Mexico. Both atheoretical and 'structural' VARs are estimated to determine the importance of oil price impulses on output variations. The study reports two types of results: variance decomposition and impulse response functions, with particular emphasis on the issues of stationarity and co-integration among the series. The empirical results suggest that shocks to oil price are important in explaining output variations. In most cases, shocks to oil price are shown to explain more than 20% of the forecast variance of output over a 40-quarter horizon

  7. Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    non-petroleum oils are also regulated under CFR 112. Like petroleum oils, they can cause devastating physical effects, be toxic, destroy food supplies and habitats, produce rancid odors, foul shorelines and treatment plants, be flammable, and linger.

  8. kernel oil by lipolytic organisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Rancidity of extracted cashew oil was observed with cashew kernel stored at 70, 80 and 90% .... method of American Oil Chemist Society AOCS (1978) using glacial ..... changes occur and volatile products are formed that are.

  9. The new oil politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodado Noriega, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    With a varied menu of adjustments, Colombia looks for to improve the range of international competitiveness and to attract the elusive private investment of risk for the future development of the oil sector. Colombia has just given to its oil sector the biggest rolling in the last decades. A series of measures of diverse class looks for to assign to the country a bigger range of competitiveness international and better exploration indicators that it assures in the time the auto supply of hydrocarbons and the export of surpluses

  10. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  11. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, William N

    2009-09-01

    A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. Popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), rose (Rosa damascena), orange (Citrus sinensis), bergamot (Citrus aurantium), lemon (Citrus limon), sandalwood (Santalum album), clary sage (Salvia sclarea), Roman chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). This review discusses the chemical constituents and CNS effects of these aromatherapeutic essential oils, as well as recent studies on additional essential oils with anxiolytic activities.

  12. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  13. Future of oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatermann, R.; Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the section 'Future of oil and gas': one ('Baltic strained by oil traffic') on the growing risks of accidents in maritime traffic in the Baltic region, and one ('Angola wants bigger piece of the pie') on the importance of the oil production in Angola to energy supplies in Europe and the USA. It appears that national oil company Sonango wants to have a greater part of the profits

  14. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  15. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  16. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  17. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation from...

  18. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  19. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Palm nut shell is an aggregate replacement material in concrete production [1]. It is also an economically and ... requirements amongst the machine parameters of vegetable oil expellers. A manually-operated screw ... using such indices as feed rate, capacity, percentage oil recovery, machine efficiency, and oil yield.

  20. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  1. Analysing oil-production subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblik, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how subsidies affect fossil-fuel investment returns and production is crucial to commencing new reforms. New analysis on the impact of subsidies on US crude-oil producers finds that, at recent oil prices of around US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new oil investments into profitability.

  2. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  3. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  4. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  5. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  6. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  7. Kicking the oil addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenchik, Yaakov; Peled, Emanuel; Andelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Few people were left unaffected by the soaring oil prices of summer 2008. Motorists were the hardest hit as the price at the pumps reached an all time high, but nobody could avoid paying more for their food as higher transport costs were passed on from the retailer to the consumer.

  8. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  9. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  10. Between Oil and Reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulaeva, S.; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research provides insight into various modes of benefit-sharing agreements between oil and gas companies and indigenous people in the Russian Arctic and Subarctic regions. We indicate three main modes of benefit sharing, as follows: (1) paternalism, (2) corporate social responsibility, and (3)

  11. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  12. Oils; destructive hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1928-03-01

    Coals, oil-shales, or other carbonaceous solids are dissolved in or extracted by solvents at temperatures over 200/sup 0/C, and under pressure, preferably over 30 atmospheres, in presence of halogens, hydrogen halides, or compounds setting free the halogen or halide under the conditions.

  13. Oil ''rig'' disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the environmental impacts of disposing of the Brent Spar oil platform on land and at sea is presented, with a view to establishing the best decommissioning option in the light of recent controversy. The document is presented as an aid to comprehension of the scientific and engineering issues involved for Members of Parliament. (UK)

  14. Producers and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, W.

    1993-01-01

    This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

  15. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knottenbelt, H W

    1910-04-13

    An improved process of treating petroleum and shale oils is disclosed consisting in separating by distillation fractions suitable after treatment as a substitute for turpentine and for illuminating purposes respectively such treatment consisting in separating any tar bodies that may be present and subjecting the fractions to the action of a solution of ammonia carrying litmus, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

  16. World oil market simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a recursive simulation model of the world oil market - the World Oil Market Simulation Model (WOMS). The objective was to construct a computationally simple model which provides a transparent view of the workings of the oil market. In the event WOMS has a number of features which distinguish it from other published models: the effect of exchange rate movements is incorporated in the supply and demand functions; both demand and supply functions are dynamic; the non-OPEC supply functions account for the geological as well as the economic aspects of supply; oil prices can be determined either by OPEC setting prices (as normally included in this type of model) or by OPEC setting volumes and market forces determining the price; and consistency checks on consumers' and producers' behaviour are incorporated to confirm the plausibility of model projections. The paper commences with an outline of the model structure followed by an examination of the choice of the appropriate data. The main sections of the paper discuss the estimation of the demand and non-OPEC supply functions. Finally the modelling of OPEC's behaviour is addressed. Comparisons are made throughout with other published work. As the model was estimated using data covering 1960 to 1985, brief comments are also made comparing the events of 1986 with model determined values. (author)

  17. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    1992-01-01

    The basic argument presented is that the oil price is set in an administrated market. The administration is undertaken by the controllers of excess capacity to produce crude oil. The extent to which the administrated price matches the market price is a function, first, of the strength and effectiveness of the market controller and, secondly, of the state of supply and demand and expectations in the market. Currently, the market is operating close to capacity, what limited excess capacity exists is located mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabians appear to be following a low price objective. While the Saudi Arabians pursue volume, the short term project, in the balance of a political upheaval, is that oil prices will remain below the $21 per barrel agreed in July 1990. There is a view that Saudi Arabia would take quick action to reverse a price collapse, but attention is drawn to previous miscalculations with respect to price collapse. Should political circumstances allow the return of Iraq to the oil market, then excess capacity within the Gulf members of OPEC will return and control will be much more difficult. (UK)

  18. Enterprise Oil gets going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Priscilla.

    1996-01-01

    Enterprise Oil is a mature United Kingdom independent oil exploration and production company. In its early years, with the success of the Nelson platform in the North Sea, the company had been well rated by financial analysts in the City of London. Enterprise was floated as an independent company on the International Stock Exchange in London in 1984 having previously been part of the establishment being formed by the Government from the oil and production interests of British Gas on the UK Continental shelf. Relationships with the City suffered, however, as a result of the unsuccessful outcome of moves by the company to take over Lasmo, the only other UK independent oil company of comparable magnitude. Pedestrian financial results and poor exploration results led to Enterprise dividends being stuck in a rut from 1992 onwards. This report, however, shows how that situation is changing so that the company's share price has been reaching new highs. Enterprise has been adding quantitative value to the company through swaps, farm-in deals and licensed acquisitions and now has interests in core income producing areas in the UK, Norway, Denmark and Italy. (UK)

  19. Mineral oil; Mineraloel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [German] Das beherrschende Thema im Weltenergiemarkt war der Absturz des Rohoelpreises in 2014. Von 115 US-$/bbl im Juni sank er auf unter 50 US-$/bbl im Januar 2015. Damit hat die Schieferoelrevolution den kraeftigen Einfluss auf die Weltenergiesituation gehabt, der an dieser Stelle seit drei Jahren vorhergesagt wurde. Zwar konnte niemand die exakte Hoehe des Rueckgangs des Oelpreises prognostizieren, aber mit Oel als Leitwaehrung fuer alle anderen Energietraeger hat es nicht nur Einfluss auf den Gas- und Kohlepreis gehabt, sondern andere Rohstoffe, wie zum Beispiel Kupfer, haben ebenfalls nachgegeben. Ueber Ursache und Wirkung gibt es viele Spekulationen - nicht alle sind von Weisheit getragen.

  20. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J

    1871-08-11

    An apparatus is illustrated. It consists of a cistern of stone in which an inclined diaphragm is situated. The acid passes in below the inclined diaphragm by the pipe, and having acted upon the oil beneath the diaphragm any unabsorbed portion escapes through the opening at its highest end.