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Sample records for butter fat

  1. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  2. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.; Kijroongrojana, K.; Chutong, T.

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB) and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO) at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100%) were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory propertie...

  3. Lipid metabolism in rats fed either butter or butter products as the fat source

    OpenAIRE

    Lalib, S.; Sitohy, M.; El-Massry, R.; El-Saadany, S.

    1991-01-01

    Albino rats were administered four different fat sources; corn oil, butter, samn and morta combined with corn oil. The butter rat group exhibited the highest rates of serum cholesterol, total lipids and triglycerides but the lowest one of phospholipid. The heart, liver and spleen organs of this group showed a similar trend. Both liver and renal functions of this group were impaired. Both samn and morta rat groups were close to the control in the distribution of lipid fractions either in serum...

  4. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.;

    2004-01-01

    8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  5. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.; Christensen, R.D.K; Sandstrøm, B.

    2004-01-01

    % of total energy from dairy fat, as either whole milk, mean (+/-SD) 2164 (+/-97) g, butter 93 ( 4) g, and hard cheese 305 (+/-45) g, which were served to 14 healthy young men for three periods of three weeks each, separated by washout periods, in a randomized, cross-over study with strictly controlled...... dietary intake. Fasting blood samples were taken at the end of the study periods. Measurements of the postprandial effect of the three different dairy test products (0.7 g of milk fat/kg body weight) were carried out on day 4 of each intervention period. Blood samples were taken before and at 2, 4, 6 and...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  6. Tropical vegetable fats and butters: properties and new alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Salas Joaquín

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fats and butters are characterized by their high contents of saturated fatty acids, which confer to them melting points and rheological properties adequate for the production of high valuable food commodities. We can distinguish 3 groups of tropical fats: those having medium chain fatty acids, like coconut or palm kernel oils, those rich in palmitic acid, like palm oil and its fractions, and those rich in stearic acid like cocoa butter. Modern biotechnology has provided with alternatives to these species in engineered common oil crops enriched in saturated fatty acids and processes aimed to enrich common oils in disaturated TAGs by enzymatic transesterification. The present and future of these new sources of saturated fats are discussed in this work.

  7. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  8. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

  9. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, L.B.; Luccas, V.; Kieckbusch, T.G.

    2011-07-01

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  10. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cap.'s fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 ml). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cap.'s fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polymorph. The addition of up to 30% cap.'s fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  11. Study on Color and Antioxidant Properties of Rambutan Seed Fat as Cocoa Butter Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Khairy. H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the color (whiteness, L*, a*, b* and antioxidant properties (radical scavenging activity, total phenolic compound of rambutan seed fat (RSF and its mixture with cocoa butter (CB were investigated. Different proportions were applied in preparing the samples between (RSF and (CB. The results showed that significant differences among samples in the whiteness, (L* and (a* value, whereas (b* value had no significant differences. With regard antioxidant activity the results showed that total phenolic compound (TPC of cocoa butter was (47.37±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat, while the other mixtures between (RSF and (CB showed (40.49±0.01-11.12±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH of cocoa butter valued (67.32±0.44 µmol trolox/100 g fat, similar to the mixture M1 (60.16±0.23. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture ratio up to 40% rambutan seed fat (RSF can benefit as a cocoa butter replacer whereas a higher ratio completely change original cocoa butter characteristics. Thus, there is the possibility of using the (RSF as replacer of (CB and could utilize by chocolate products.

  12. PRODUCTION OF COCOA BUTTER-LIKE FATS BY THE LIPASE-CATALYZED INTERESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL AND HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter-like fats were prepared from refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) and fully hydrogenated soy oil (HSO) by enzymatic interesterification at various weight ratios of substrates. The cocoa butter-like fats were isolated from the crude interesterification mixture by fractiona...

  13. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    -fat-based products, typically without presence of milk fat globules. The microstructure of milk fatbased products is strongly related to their structural rheology, hence applications. Structural behavior is not determined by one single parameter, but by the interactions between many. This complexity is reviewed here....... Parameters such as thermal treatment of cream prior to butter making, water content, and chemical composition influence not only crystal polymorphism, but also the number and sizes of fat crystals. The number of crystal–crystal interactions formed within the products is related to product hardness. During...... of the effective factors governing the structure of milk fat-based products. Today, 2 manufacturing techniques are available: the churning method and the emulsification method. The first is typically used for production of butter with a globular structure, which has become increasingly popular to obtain low...

  14. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, L. B.; Luccas, V.; T. G. Kieckbusch

    2011-01-01

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. Precrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount...

  15. Study on Color and Antioxidant Properties of Rambutan Seed Fat as Cocoa Butter Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Luma Khairy. H; Tajul A. Yang; Fered Saadoon. A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the color (whiteness, L*, a*, b*) and antioxidant properties (radical scavenging activity, total phenolic compound) of rambutan seed fat (RSF) and its mixture with cocoa butter (CB) were investigated. Different proportions were applied in preparing the samples between (RSF) and (CB). The results showed that significant differences among samples in the whiteness, (L*) and (a*) value, whereas (b*) value had no significant differences. With regard antioxidant activity the results ...

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GOAT FAT AND SHEA BUTTER BASED LIPOSPHERES OF BENZYL PENICILLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Nwakile et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipospheres of benzyl penicillin were formulated using the conventional thin film hydration technique. Five different combinations of shea butter, surfactant (Span 80 and goat fat were the key variables employed in the formulations. The resultant lipospheres were evaluated with respect to surface morphology, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vivo bioavailability and in vitro antimicrobial activity. Particle size was found to increase with increased drug loading, the average particle radius of the batches being 12.5 nm. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be high at all levels with encouraging values of 80.21 and 83.44 % for batch A and E respectively, with batch A containing shea butter and span 80 in the ratio of 1:1 and batch E containing shea butter, span 80 and goat fat in the ratio of 1:2:1. Batch A appear to exhibit sustained release in vitro with cumulative drug release being 60 % while batch E has a cumulative drug release of 98 % respectively. The presence of goat fat however seems to impact negatively on the in vivo stability of batch E liposphere. The test micro-organisms showed sensitivity to the two batches in marked contrast to the uncapsulated benzyl penicillin especially against the multiple-antibiotic resistant strains of S. typhi, P. vulgaris and P. aereuginosa used in the study.

  17. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.; Claro da Silva, R.; Gioielli, L. A.; de Almeida Gonçalves, M. I.; Grimaldi, R.; Gonçalves, L. A.G.; Guenter Kieckbusch, T.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resista...

  18. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quast, L. B.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w cupuassu fat were determined. Precrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL. Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the β polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter.

    Se han determinado las características físicas de mezclas binarias pre-cristalizadas de manteca de cacao (mezcla de Bahia + Indonesia con 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 y 30 % (m/m de grasa de cupuassu. La pre-cristalización se ha efectuado a escala de laboratorio utilizando un reactor de vidrio con camisa (700mL con agitación. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido, difracción de rayos- X, contenido en grasa solida y tensión de ruptura. Los valores de tensión de ruptura de las mezclas pre-cristalizadas disminuyeron con la incorporación de grasa de cupuassu, siendo este comportamiento observado también para el punto de fusión. Después de la pre-cristalización, manteca de cacao y grasa de cupuassu confirmaron la presencia de polimorfismo β, por medio de análisis de difracción de rayos-X. La adición de hasta 30% de grasa de cupuassu en la manteca de cacao no afecta de modo significativo en las propiedades físicas cuando son comparadas con la manteca de cacao pura.

  19. Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Nik Norulaini, N A; Sahena, F; Abedin, M Z; Mohamed, A; Mohd Omar, A K

    2014-07-01

    The blending effects of mango seed fat (MSF), extracted using supercritical fluid, and palm stearin (PS) to formulate hard cocoa butter replacers (CBRs), were investigated. The triglycerides (TG), thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC) of the formulated blends were determined using different chromatographic and thermal techniques. All the blends had three main TGs; namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) (8.6-17.7%), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) (12.6-19.6%), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) (37.2-31.4%), with SOS being the major component. The melting peak temperatures gradually increased and shifted towards higher temperatures with PS. The crystallization onset temperatures increased, while the offset decreased with PS. The SFC did not drop to 0% at 37.5°C, which was shifted to 0% at and above 40°C for some blends. The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries. PMID:24518349

  20. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra;

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...

  1. Comparison of Expansion During Fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Oil-Based and Butter Fat-Based Doughs

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane and Michio Kasai

    2010-01-01

    Expansion during fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols (MCT) oil-based doughs compared to butter fat-based doughs were studied, and the mechanism of fermentation accelerator of MCT oilbased in dough was also investigated. The results obtained as follows; the concentration of MCT oil-based accelerator on the fermentation of dough was confirmed maximum at 6.0%. The rate of expansion became the maximum a 60% of gluten contents at the dough with MCT oil-based. Mechanism of expansion of fe...

  2. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat. PMID:26246145

  3. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  4. Comparison of Expansion During Fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Oil-Based and Butter Fat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion during fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols (MCT oil-based doughs compared to butter fat-based doughs were studied, and the mechanism of fermentation accelerator of MCT oilbased in dough was also investigated. The results obtained as follows; the concentration of MCT oil-based accelerator on the fermentation of dough was confirmed maximum at 6.0%. The rate of expansion became the maximum a 60% of gluten contents at the dough with MCT oil-based. Mechanism of expansion of fermentation on MCT oil-based doughs was discussed. Gluten is formed of gliadin and glutenin. Gluten was denatured by MCT oil-based, which gluten molecule grows large. Fermentation is promoted by this phenomenon. This fact can provide new information to the bread-making industry.

  5. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fats have health risks. Some guidelines for healthier cooking: Use olive or canola oil instead of butter ... You should NOT use: Margarine, shortening, and cooking oils that have ... labels). Hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated fats (read ...

  6. Interesterification of butter fat by partially purified extracellular lipases from Pseudomonas putida, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabai, F; Kermasha, S; Morin, A

    1995-11-01

    Three extracellular lipases were produced by batch fermentation of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 795, Aspergillus niger CBS 131.52 and Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 34612 during the late phase of growth, at 72, 96 and 96 h, respectively. The lipases were partially purified by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation. The lipase of P. putida was optimal at pH 8.0 whereas those from A. niger and R. oryzae were optimal at pH 7.5. The A. niger lipase had the lowest V max value (0.51×10(-3) U/min) and R. oryzae the highest (1.86×10(-3) U/min). The K m values for P. putida, A. niger and R. oryzae lipases were 1.18, 0.97, and 0.98 mg/ml, respectively. Native PAGE of the partially-purified lipase extracts showed two to four major bands. The interesterification of butter fat by A. niger lipase decreased the water activity as well as the hydrolytic activity. The A. niger lipase had the highest interesterification yield value (26%) and the R. oryzae lipase the lowest (4%). In addition, A. niger lipase exhibited the highest decrease (17%) in long-chain hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0) at the sn-2-position; the P. putida lipase demonstrated the least favourable changes in specificity at the same position. PMID:24415019

  7. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  8. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen;

    1997-01-01

    Chinese vegetable tallow (CVT) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil fatty acids (FHSOFA) as substrates. CVT is a naturally-rich-in-POP vegetable fat containing 80% Sn-POP which is obtained from the outer covering of the seed of the Chinese tallow tree. The FHSOFA contained about 86% stearic acid. The....../w) 1.3-1.7/1, hexane/substrates(v/w): 1.0:1-1.2:1. Based on the pilot batch plant, the total process is following: substrates, drying, reaction, filtration, fractionation, neutralisation, de-solventization and drying, and product. The fractionation process reduced the free fatty acid content to 5...

  9. Effect of fractional crystallization on composition and thermal properties of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla seed fat and cocoa butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractional crystallization behaviors of cocoa butter (CB and enkabang fat (EF in acetone were investigated. Melted samples of CB and EF were mixed separately with acetone in 1:2 a (w/v ratio and partitioned into solid and liquid fractions under controlled temperature conditions. The isolated fractions were compared to their respective native samples with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as gas liquid chromatography (GLC, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. According to the results, partitioning of either CB or EF under solvent assisted crystallization conditions yielded a major solid and a minor liquid fraction. The solid and liquid fractions of both fats were found to display many similarities, but few differences with regard to their composition and thermal properties. While the solid fractions may be useful as a hard stock in hard margarine and cosmetic product formulation, the liquid fraction would be useful as an ingredient for food applications.Se investigan los comportamientos de una cristalización fraccionada de la manteca de cacao (CB y la grasa de enkabang (EF en acetona. Las muestras fundidas de CB y EF se mezclaron por separado con acetona en una relación 1:02 (w/v y se dividen en fracciones sólida y líquida bajo condiciones de temperatura controlada. Las fracciones aisladas se compararon con sus respectivas muestras nativas con respecto a diversos parámetros físico-químicos utilizando métodos químicos estándar, así como técnicas instrumentales, como la cromatografía gas-líquido (GLC, cromatografía líquida de fase inversa de alta resolución (RP-HPLC, y calorimetría de barrido diferencial (DSC. De acuerdo con los resultados, el fraccionamiento tanto de CB como EF bajo condiciones de cristalización asistida con disolvente produjo una fracción s

  10. Crystal Morphology of Cocoa Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, D. M.; Dimick, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The multiple melting points of triglycerides have been known and studied for more than a century by numerous workers. The ability of fat to undergo polymorphic changes is important mainly due to its effect on product texture and appearance. Polymorphic resolidification during storage of cocoa butter into higher melting forms can destroy the smooth glossy appearance of a confectionery product. This manuscript will review the polymorphic characteristics and composition of cocoa butter from Theo...

  11. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents. PMID:25363450

  12. Effect of Churning Process on Heavy Metals in Cream, Butter and Butter Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannaz Aminzadeh Vahedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are appropriate source of fat, protein and minerals for human, thus it is important to control the level of toxic elements in these products. The aim of this research was investigation about existence of some elements (lead, Cadmium, Copper and iron in different types of samples including pasteurized and local cream, butter, and butter milk. The amount of elements was determined using flame atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The butter milk was evaluated as the most contaminated products, significantly (p<0.05. By passing time, concentration of heavy metals was increased even higher than Maximum residue levels (MRLS. Results show that elements have more tendencies toward serum phase.

  13. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter colle

  14. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity. PMID:27555345

  15. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690 cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level and seven increasing concentrations of palm fats, up to 50% were fingerprinted and the calibration curve was obtained (n=19. In parallel, the validation was realized using different set of spiked butter samples ranging 1-44.4 % of palm fat (n=7. Finally, an independent set of commercial samples was analized (n=14.Partial least squares (PLS model was used for statistical data processing in accordance with standard method. The value of the correlation coefficient (R2= 0.977 between actual and predicted values was statistically significant (p<0.001, considering the superposition of  "actual vs predicted” curves. This combined FTIR-PLS evaluation revealed that 3 out of  samples of butter were suspected of adulteration with palm oil, presented values 14 ranging 4-12%.In conclusion, ATR-FTIR methodology may offer an rapid evaluation of  butter samples authenticity. The low value for detection limit (3%palm oil in butter and the low limit of quantification (9.8% palm oil in butter confirms that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy  is a sensitive method to identify the adulteration of butter with  palm oil.   

  16. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.; Roos, G. M.; Sekula, W.; Tuomainen, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption......,of cheese and butter (animal fat) for each study. FAO's food balance sheets were used to classify the countries according to consumption trends of these foodstuffs. Results: In all countries higher social classes used more cheese than lower classes. The results for butter were less consistent. In the Nordic...... countries higher social classes used less butter than lower ones. In the other countries an opposite pattern or no differences could be observed. However, in countries where the use of both butter and animal fats could be analysed, animal fats were used more by the lower social classes. Conclusions: Higher...

  17. butter fingers和a butter ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文成

    2000-01-01

    butter(黄油)fingers(手指), 是用手指来抠黄油吃?不是的。要是一个人的手指上沾了黄油,那他的手指就一定是很油腻、很滑,很难拿得住手里的东西。因此butter fingers是指那些笨手笨脚的人。例如,一个非常恼火的爸爸在谈论他的儿子: John is a rocket scientist and is supposed to be smart, but you are to see what a butter finger he is all around the house. For instance, if I asked him to wash the dishes he's sure to drop a dish or a cup. 约翰是个研究火箭的科学家,应该是很聪明的,可是你看看他在家里那笨手笨脚的样子。比如说,要是我让他洗盘子,他肯定会摔破一个盘子或摔破一个杯子。 butter ball(球),字面意思是一个黄油做成的球,但作为习惯用语它指很胖的人就象一个球一样。例如: Laura has a very beautiful face, but the way she keeps...

  18. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher...... significantly higher for rats fed the BDAG‐diet than for rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets. To conclude, the beneficial effects of DAG oil in reducing body fat accumulation cannot be observed in DAG oil containing butter blends, and the effect of DAG on bone health requires further investigation....

  19. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...... absorption was examined. Absorption was followed for 8 h after administration of 300 mg fat from the dairy products. Administration of cream and sour cream resulted in faster lymphatic fat absorption than cream cheese, butter, and mixed butter, and at 8 h the accumulated absorption of fat was significantly...... higher. The lymphatic absorption of fat after cream cheese administration was similar to the absorption after butter and mixed butter administration up to the 4-h time point; then it increased to a level between that of rats administered cream or sour cream and butter or mixed butter. Overall, these...

  20. DYNAMIC EFFECTS OF PEANUT BUTTER ADVERTISING ON PEANUT BUTTER DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Deodhar, Satish Y.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    1998-01-01

    Using error correction approach and nonlinear three-stage-squares, long-run and short-run effects of aggregate brand advertising on the U.S demand for peanut butter are estimated. Results indicate that demand for peanut butter is more responsive to advertising in the long-run. Moreover, demand is responsive to price only in the short-run.

  1. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  2. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled and... preservatives, and color additives are not suitable ingredients in peanut butter. Oil products used as...

  3. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  4. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  5. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    OpenAIRE

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-01-01

    Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Meth...

  6. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... in any changes in terms of crystal polymorphism, and all butters contained primarily β′-crystals with traces of α- and β-crystals. Despite the observed changes, small deformation rheology revealed no difference as a function of churning temperature or water content. During isothermal storage at 5 °C......, the solid fat content increased in all butters, but only butter churned at 10 °C showed an increase in hardness during storage. However, no difference in rheological behavior was observed among the butters. Thus it can be concluded that low temperature allows more water to be incorporated in the...

  7. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory prof...

  8. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan; Megahed, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en ...

  9. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    OpenAIRE

    Gioielli, L. A.; M. L. Medeiros; Lannes, S. C. S.

    2004-01-01

    Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss). In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae) is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those...

  10. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is...

  11. Effects of Peanut Butter on Ruminating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Katherine S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Effects of supplementary peanut butter on rumination behavior among five institutionalized mentally retarded adults were studied, by independently manipulating caloric density versus consistency of the peanut butter. Results showed an inverse relationship between rates of rumination and amount of peanut butter consumed, an effect primarily…

  12. Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

  13. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  14. Rheological Modification of Reduced Fat Chocolate Induced by the Addition of Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T.-A. Line; Vieira, Joselio; Hargreaves, Jeremy; Wolf, Bettina; Mitchell, John

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the addition of limonene, a low molecular weight hydrophobic compound, to chocolate, leads to a decrease in the viscosity of molten chocolate. Chocolate is a fat (cocoa butter) based dispersion of solids (sugar, cocoa and milk solids). We showed that, by mixing with cocoa butter, limonene decreases the viscosity of chocolate by decreasing the viscosity of its continuous phase, liquid cocoa butter. To understand the functionality of limonene in decreasing the viscosity of cocoa butter (triacylglyceride melt), additional mixtures of cocoa butter and limonene were prepared and their viscosity was measured. The dependence of the viscosity on the ratio of cocoa butter to limonene analyzed using Kay's equation seems to indicate that limonene mixes with and within the cocoa butter triacylglycerides, diluting the fat and leading to a decrease in the overall fat viscosity.

  15. Microbiological quality of karin butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokce, R.; Aslanalp, Y.; Nur Herken, E.

    2010-07-01

    Karin butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karin), is a traditional butter type. Karin used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karin butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karin butter samples was found to be poor in general. (Author)

  16. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... present in dietary fats was followed through absorption, chylomicron formation, and deposition in adipose tissue and in different liver lipids (triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil (BO), a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture...... 65:35 w/w (BR) or a randomized mixture of BR (tBR). Half of the animals were used for organ analysis, the rest for a postprandial study with the same fats and isolation of chylomicrons. The regiospecific distribution of the fatty acids present in the dietary fats was followed during metabolism by...

  17. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    present in dietary fats was followed through absorption, chylomicron formation, and deposition in adipose tissue and in different liver lipids (triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil (BO), a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture......Background The nutritional effect of the regiospecific distribution of fatty acids in edible fats is currently discussed due to an increased use of interesterification of fats for human consumption. However, disagreeing results have been reported which may be due to the varying composition of the...... dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...

  18. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Salmonella inoculated into creamy peanut butter with modified composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Tanya; Karwe, Mukund; Schaffner, Donald W

    2014-10-01

    Peanut butter has been associated with several large foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks. This research investigates the potential of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for inactivation of Salmonella in peanut butter of modified composition, both by modifying its water activity as well by the addition of various amounts of nisin. A cocktail of six Salmonella strains associated with peanut butter and nut-related outbreaks was used for all experiments. Different volumes of sterile distilled water were added to peanut butter to increase water activity, and different volumes of peanut oil were added to decrease water activity. Inactivation in 12% fat, light roast, partially defatted peanut flour, and peanut oil was also quantified. Nisaplin was incorporated into peanut butter at four concentrations corresponding to 2.5, 5.0, 12.5, and 25.0 ppm of pure nisin. All samples were subjected to 600 MPa for 18 min. A steady and statistically significant increase in log reduction was seen as added moisture was increased from 50 to 90%. The color of all peanut butter samples containing added moisture contents darkened after high pressure processing. The addition of peanut oil to further lower the water activity of peanut butter further reduced the effectiveness of HPP. Just over a 1-log reduction was obtained in peanut flour, while inactivation to below detection limits (2 log CFU/g) was observed in peanut oil. Nisin alone without HPP had no effect. Recovery of Salmonella after a combined nisin and HPP treatment did show increased log reduction with longer storage times. The maximum log reduction of Salmonella achieved was 1.7 log CFU/g, which was comparable to that achieved by noncycling pressure treatment alone. High pressure processing alone or with other formulation modification, including added nisin, is not a suitable technology to manage the microbiological safety of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter. PMID:25285482

  19. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe; Tholstrup, Tine; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...

  20. Changing the functionality of cocoa butter

    OpenAIRE

    De Clercq, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa butter is an essential ingredient in chocolate as it forms the continuous phase of chocolate. It’s therefore responsible for the gloss, texture and typical melting behaviour of ‘irresistible’ chocolate. The aim of this research was to change the functionality of cocoa butter by two different methods. In the first part, cocoa butter was modified by physical refining by using packed column steam refining with or without silica pretreatment. The physicochemical properties of the refined co...

  1. Microbiological quality of karın butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan GÖKÇE; Aslanalp, Yeşim; Nur Herken, Emine

    2010-01-01

    Karın butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karın), is a traditional butter type. Karın used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karın butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were eval...

  2. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon...... the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO2e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer...

  3. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  4. The role of mixing temperature on microstructure and rheological properties of butter blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that the rheological properties of butter blends can be modified by the applied mixing temperature. Blends were prepared by mixing 10 or 25% of rapeseed oil (RO) with butter, at three different temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C). Afterwards the blends were stored at 5 °C...... until analyzed. Microstructure, rheological properties, melting behavior and solid fat content (SFC) of the blends were examined. The viscoelastic properties of the blends were measured by rheological oscillation analysis. Mixing at 23 °C always resulted in the softest products, hence the lowest...... effect on the rheological behavior. The microstructure analysis showed that a high content of RO and high processing temperatures produce a less dense crystal network and a change in protein/water distribution. Furthermore, this study shows that the addition of RO to butter and the high mixing...

  5. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    OpenAIRE

    Yanty, N. A. M.; Marikkar, J. M. M.; Miskandar, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana), cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L.), palm oil (Elaeis guinensis) and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia) are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylgly...

  6. Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Sumner, S S; Herbein, J H

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation and firmness of butter and ice cream made with modified milkfat containing enhanced amounts of linoleic acid or oleic acid. The influence of the fatty acid profile of the HO milkfat relating to product properties as compared with the influence the fatty acid profile of the HL milkfat was the main focus of the research. Altering the degree of unsaturation in milkfat may affect melting characteristics and oxidation rates, leading to quality issues in dairy products. Three milkfat compositions (high-oleic, high-linoleic, and control) were obtained by modifying the diets of Holstein cows. Ice cream and butter were processed from milkfat obtained from cows in each dietary group. Butter and ice cream samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid profile and firmness. High-oleic milkfat resulted in a softer butter. Solid fat index of high-oleic and high-linoleic milkfat was lower than the control. Control ice cream mix had higher viscosity compared with high-oleic and high-linoleic, but firmness of all ice creams was similar when measured between -17 and -13 degrees C. Nutritional and textural properties of butter and ice cream can be improved by modifying the diets of cows. PMID:12613850

  7. Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

  8. Healthy Fats in Mediterranean Diet Won't Boost Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imply that unrestricted diets with high levels of unhealthy fats such as butter, processed meat, sweetened beverages, deserts or fast-foods are beneficial," Estruch added. The study included more ...

  9. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E.; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T.; Wright, David C.; McBride, Brian W.; Dyck, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. Methods CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared fro...

  10. Has Butter Gotten a Bad Rap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for those who love the spread, but some nutritionists remain wary To use the sharing features on ... disease for people who favored the spread. One nutritionist said her views on butter remain unchanged, however. " ...

  11. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed; Jensen, H; Sandström, Brittmarie

    1999-01-01

    grams of the fat content of the habitualdiets was replaced by either butter/grapeseed oil (90:10) (BG); butter oil and low erucic rapeseed oil (65:35) (BR) orbutter blended in a 1:1 ratio with a interesterified mixture of rapeseed oil and fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil (70: 30)(BS). SUBJECTS: Thirteen......: Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels.......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this present project was to evaluate a more satisfactory effect on plasma lipoprotein profile ofspreads based on dairy fat. DESIGN: This study was designed as a randomised cross-over experiment with athree-week treatment separated by a three-week wash-out period. Sixty five...

  12. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  13. Maternal dietary Alpine butter intake affects human milk: fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Isabelle; Collomb, Marius; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Folkers, Gerd; von Mandach, Ursula

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of CLA by lactating women affects the composition of their milk, but the pattern of the different CLA isomers is still unknown. We determined the effects of short maternal supplementation with CLA-rich Alpine butter on the occurrence of FA and CLA isomers in human milk. In an open randomized controlled study with a two-period cross-over design, milk FA and CLA isomer concentrations were measured on postpartum days > or = 20 in two parallel groups of lactating women before, during, and after consumption of defined quantities of Alpine butter or margarine with comparable fat content (10 d of butter followed by 10 d of margarine for one group, and vice versa in the other). In the 16 women who completed the study (8/group), Alpine butter supplementation increased the C16 and C18 FA, the sum of saturated FA, the 18:1 trans FA, and the trans FA with CLA. The CLA isomer 18:2 c9,t11 increased by 49.7%. Significant increases were also found for the isomers t9,t11, t7,c9, t11,c13, and t8,c10 18:2. The remaining nine of the total 14 detectable isomers showed no changes, and concentrations were <5 mg/100 g fat. A breastfeeding mother can therefore modulate the FA/CLA supply of her child by consuming Alpine butter. Further studies will show whether human milk containing this FA and CLA isomer pattern acts as a functional food for newborns. PMID:16149737

  14. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability. PMID:17954754

  15. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  16. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CULTURED BUTTER DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Мусій, Л. Я.; Цісарик, О. Й.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the stability of the cultured butter to oxidation during storage. Starter composition DVS (Chr. Hansen, Denmark) Flora Danica (FD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) were used for fermenting cream. Four groups cultured butter were produced : Group I (samples KW1, KW2, KW3 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - fermentation at 30 ºC; Group II (KW4, KW5, KW6 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - fermentation at 37 ºC; Group III (KW7, KW8, KW9 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) – physi...

  17. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.; Lichtenstein, A.H.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Bistrian, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    , single-blind, cross-over outpatient clinical trial that consisted of two 5-wk dietary phases. After baseline screening,subjects were instructed to follow individualized meal plans (weight maintenance diets with 36% of total energy from fat, half of which wasfrom a test oil) and randomized to receive...... either butter (B) or an interesterified mixture (IM) of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT),and safflower oils. Blood drawn during weeks 5 and 10 of feeding was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),LDL-C, and triacylglycerols (TAG). Mean plasma levels of.......96+/-0.86 mM, P <0.05). We conclude that an IM of B, MCT, and safflower oils as compared to native B has no appreciable effect onplasma cholesterol concentrations but is associated with a modest rise in plasma TAG....

  18. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if...... some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. 3. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique...... adjusting for the fact that no two assessors are alike. The output is a representation of the products in a low-dimensional space and an evaluation of differences between assessors. The technique may be used both when free-choice profiling and conventional profiling is applied. In this case we have used...

  19. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en diferentes proporciones. Sus propiedades y particularmente el índice de grasa sólida, ayudaron mucho en la selección de la mezcla más adecuada para la producción de chocolate local. Se encontró que las mezclas con el 10% o 15% de lllexao en manteca de cacao, dieron los resultados más satisfactorios con respecto a la palatabilidad, dureza y consistencia.

  20. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on...... saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils...

  1. Simulation of Crystallization of Cocoa Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsboe, Morten Levinsky; Lillevang, Liv Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The different crystal structures of cocoa butter are of great interest because it determines if chocolate have the right crunch, glossy look and melting temperature. The different crystal phases have different properties and therefore further knowledge on the subject is of interest. This paper addresses this field by use of molecular dynamics. By attempting to recreate a simulation model made by Sum et al. (2003), we try to look at the behavior of the three triacylglycerols POS, POP and SO...

  2. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Cuibus; Rubén Maggio; Vlad Mureșan; Zorița Diaconeasa; Oana Lelia Pop; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690) cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level...

  3. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    OpenAIRE

    Gioielli, L. A.; M. L. Medeiros; Lannes, S. C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae) is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of ...

  4. Pengaruh Komposisi Konsentrat Sirsak Dan Kacang Tanah Dan Banyaknya Emulsifier Terhadap Mutu Mentega Kacang Campuran (Mixed Peanut Butter)

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson, Natra

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed to investigate the effect of soursop concentrate and peanut composition and emulsifier concentration on the quality of mixed peanut butter. This research had been performed using factorial completely randomized design, with two factors i.e : soursop concentrate and peanut composition (K): 0%:100%, 10%:90%, 20%:80%, 30%:70%, and emulsifier concentration (G) : 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Parameters analyzed were water content, ash contend, fat content, vitamin C countent, stick...

  5. Polymorph identification studies on cocoa butter from Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study was to analyzed and examined the cocoa butter samples from Sabah. This work presence the crystal phases present in cocoa butter sample thus proved the existence of polymorph obtained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cocoa butter samples were extracted using a conventional method by Soxhlet Extraction method. Crystals were formed under controlled static and tempered conditions. Cocoa butter polymorphism demonstrates that it is the actual crystallization temperature, not the cooling rate that determines the polymorph that crystallizes. (author)

  6. Microbiological quality of karın butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe, Ramazan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Karın butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karın, is a traditional butter type. Karın used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karın butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karın butter samples was found to be poor in general.

    La mantequilla Karin, que se caracteriza por ser envasada en el rumen (karin de oveja o cabra, es un tipo de mantequilla tradicional. El karin, usado como un material de envasado en la produción de la mantequilla, es un importante factor para que la mantequilla sea mas aromática y deliciosa. En este estudio, muestras de mantequilla karin, que se recogieron del mercado local y de las factorias de producción, fueron investigadas con respectos las bacteria mesófilas aeróbicas, bacterias coliforme, Staphilococcus aureus y mohos- levaduras. Los resultados fueron evaluados con respecto a los acuerdos legales de Turquía y otros estudios científicos relacionados con el tema. La calidad microbiológica de las muestras de mantequilla karin fue encontrada pobre en general.

  7. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers. PMID:18237584

  8. Butter Sculptures:Art to Melt the Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAJIANQING

    2004-01-01

    Butter sculptures originated in the Tar Monastery in Qinghai Province. They form a kind of carving art, but the material used is butter mixed with mineral colors. The Tibetans think those who pay sacrifices to Buddha and Buddhist guardians will enjoy peace and happiness.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box 285, 2101 Constitution Ave... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common...

  10. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.; Nonboe, P.; Sejrsen, K.; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that ruminant trans fatty acids (FAs), such as vaccenic acid, do not increase the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the effects of ruminant trans FAs on risk markers of IHD have been poorly investigated. Objective: The objective was to investigate the...... effect of butter with a naturally high content of vaccenic acid and a concomitantly higher content of monounsaturated FAs on classic and novel risk markers of IHD. Design: In a double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study, 42 healthy young men were given 115 g fat/d from test butter that...... observed. Conclusions: Butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated FAs resulted in significantly lower total and HDL cholesterol than did the control butter with higher amounts of saturated FAs. It may be that the differences were due to the greater content of monounsaturated FAs and the lesser...

  11. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  12. Effects of dietary calcium soaps of unsaturated fatty acids on digestion, milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

    1997-05-01

    Dairy cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were utilized to investigate the effects of feeding with Ca soaps (CaS) of palm fatty acids (FA) and rapeseed FA. Diets compared were control diet based on maize silage and concentrate, and two diets with 40 g CaS of palm oil FA or rapeseed oil FA/kg diet, replacing part of the concentrates of the control diet. Total digestibilities of dry matter, fibre and fat, and ruminal fermentation were not significantly altered by giving CaS; the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation of total unsaturated C18 FA was significantly reduced by both CaS diets. Apparent intestinal digestibility of FA was not different among diets, although the amount of FA absorbed with the CaS diets was twice that with the control diet. No difference among diets was observed for milk production, or fat and protein contents. Giving CaS diets decreased the proportions of 4:0 to 14:0 FA in milk fat, and increased cis-18:1n-9, compared with control diet. The rapeseed diet lowered the content of 16:0, and increased the contents of 18:0 and trans-18:1n-7. CaS diets did not result in a marked increase of polyunsaturated FA content in milk fat. Butter from cows fed on the CaS diets contained more liquid fat at 6 and 14 degrees C than butter from the cows fed on the control diet. Incorporating CaS, particularly those from rapeseed, in dairy cows' diets increased C18 FA in milk and improved butter spreadability. PMID:9161912

  13. Butter, my love” Joy, Sorrow and Rehabilitation: Not simply Cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to his “love” for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of “cherry picking”, i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC, the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: “If you were to give

  14. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  15. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, C. R.; Grimson, M. J.; Smith, B. G.; Wills, P. R.

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  16. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.;

    2000-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of 4 different dietary fats (rapeseed oil (RO), rapeseed oil interesterified with decanoic acid (R/C10), olive oil (OO), and butter) after feeding a high-fat (30 wt-%) diet rich in trans-fatty acids (mainly trans-C18:1) for 3 weeks. The trans-fatty ac...

  17. Keeping the quality of cows' butter by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows' butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the Other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows' butter and increased its shelf life at 4 +/- 1degreeC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples) without any effects on its sensory properties

  18. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  19. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an O...

  20. Lingual lipase activity in the orosensory detection of fat by humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V.; Mattes, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Lingual lipase generates nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from dietary fats during oral processing by lipolysis. Lingual lipase in rodents has strong lipolytic activity and plays a critical role in oral detection of fats. The functional activity of lingual lipase during oral processing of high-fat foods in humans remains poorly characterized. Five commonly consumed high-fat foods varying in physical states and fatty acid composition (almond, almond butter, olive oil, walnut, and coconut) were...

  1. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners). PMID:24380619

  2. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...... results demonstrated different lymphatic absorption patterns of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Because the fatty acid composition of the dairy products differed only slightly, other factors such as viscosity, type of emulsion, particle size, and likely also protein content...

  3. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. T...

  4. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower...... oil, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends...

  5. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more. PMID:24680076

  6. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pproduct softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property. PMID:26868544

  7. Simple method for the quantification of milk fat content in foods by LC-APCI-MS/MS using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol as an indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Kojima, Koichi; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for the quantification of milk fat in foods using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PPBu) as an indicator of milk fat content by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The separation of the triacylglycerol positional isomer, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-butyroyl-glycerol (PBuP) and PPBu, was achieved using an octacocyl silylation (C28) column, and multiple reaction monitoring was employed. The milk fat contents in butter, butter-blended margarine, and butter cookies were quantified using two different sample preparation methods. In the first method (Method A), the lipid in the food was extracted with organic solvents and used for the preparation of a sample solution. In the other method (Method B), the sample solution was prepared by dissolving the food in organic solvents; the PPBu content in the fat and oil was corrected by the lipid content in the food obtained by the rapid NMR method. The calibration curve of standard PPBu was a first-order equation over the range of 1-250 µg/mL. The recovery rates of PPBu spiked into butter evaluated by Methods A and B were 99.9-105.0% and 106.5-110.1%, respectively. PBuP was not detected in milk fat. The milk fat contents in blends of butter and margarine determined by the method developed in this study were equivalent to the contents calculated with the butyric acid (Bu) method using GC-FID. The milk fat contents in butter-blended margarine analyzed by Methods A and B were almost the same. The PPBu content in blends of butter and margarine was correlated with the butter content. Thus, we succeeded in developing an efficient method for the rapid quantification of milk fat content and the detection of milk fat adulteration. PMID:23470438

  8. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  9. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  10. Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not

  11. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were...... in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical...... analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with...

  12. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (Characteristics of cashew nut butter with added chocolate and cinnamon were evaluated. Formulations were obtained by grinding ingredients onto a homogeneous paste, which was analyzed for moisture, pH, ash, protein, fat, acid value, water activity, texture and sensory acceptance. Products obtained showed low water activity (<0.32 as well as moisture content (<1.4%. Fat (45.3 to 49.1% and protein (15.4 to 16.3% content were high. Nut butter formulations showed good sensory acceptance (82.9 to 100.0% and purchase intent (60.0 to 80.0% by the tasters.

  13. Non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in butter sampled from the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, M; Obiedziński, M W; Szymczyk, K; Olkowski, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in butter available on the Polish retail market. A gas chromatography-based method was developed for the purpose of this study. An ion-trap mass spectrometer was used as a detection system with high-resolution chromatography. Recoveries of individual PCBs from spiked samples varied from 58% to 105% with a recovery relative standard deviation in the range 3-16%. Levels of eight non-dioxin-like and twelve dioxin-like congeners were determined. Toxic equivalent factors (TEQs) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) TEQs. The average concentration of the sum of six PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) was found to be 1561±728 pg g(-1) (fat) and the upper-bound concentrations of dioxin-like congeners were (1 standard deviation uncertainty) 0.441±0.384 pg PCB-TEQ g(-1) (fat). PMID:24785503

  14. DOES THE REDUCTION IN PEANUT PRICES BENEFIT PEANUT BUTTER CONSUMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Nadolnyak, Denis A.; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2004-01-01

    Using monthly data, we find evidence of both short- and long-run asymmetry of price transmission from peanut to peanut butter prices. This suggests that the asymmetry is more likely a result of imperfect competition than of competitive profit maximizing inventory management. Effects of producer support policy changes are discussed.

  15. Improvement in melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, R; McManus, W R; McMahon, D J

    2011-04-01

    Low-fat cheeses dehydrate too quickly when baked in a forced air convection oven, preventing proper melting on a pizza. To overcome this problem, low-fat Mozzarella cheese was developed in which fat is released onto the cheese surface during baking to prevent excessive dehydration. Low-fat Mozzarella cheese curd was made with target fat contents of 15, 30, 45, and 60 g/kg using direct acidification of the milk to pH 5.9 before renneting. The 4 portions of cheese curd were comminuted and then mixed with sufficient glucono-δ-lactone and melted butter (45, 30, 15, or 0 g/kg, respectively), then pressed into blocks to produce low-fat Mozzarella cheese with about 6% fat and pH 5.2. The cheeses were analyzed after 15, 30, 60, and 120 d of storage at 5°C for melting characteristics, texture, free oil content, dehydration performance, and stretch when baked on a pizza at 250°C for 6 min in a convection oven. Cheeses made with added butter had higher stretchability compared with the control cheese. Melting characteristics also improved in contrast to the control cheese, which remained in the form of shreds during baking and lacked proper melting. The cheeses made with added butter had higher free oil content, which correlated (R2≥0.92) to the amount of butterfat added, and less hardness and gumminess compared with the control low fat cheese. PMID:21426959

  16. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: A randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenquist Anna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs. Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs in plasma. Methods A randomized crossover design (n = 19 was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P Results No significant difference was seen in incremental area under the curve (iAUC plasma-TAG between the meals. ALA and oleic acid levels were significantly increased in plasma after ALA-rich oil and olive oil meals, respectively. Palmitic acid was significantly increased in plasma-TAG after the butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. Conclusions The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  17. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    cocoa butter as well as different structured lipids containing decanoic acid (10:0) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin. Overall, these fats had wide variations in fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol structures. Results: No statistically significant differences were...... observed in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p <0.05). The slower emptying of tri-10:0 could be caused by a lower caloric...

  18. Organochlorine pesticide residues in different Indian cereals, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphalia, B S; Takroo, R; Mehrotra, S; Nigam, U; Seth, T D

    1990-01-01

    A total of 244 samples of cereals (wheat flour, rice, and maize), pulses (arhar, moong, gram, lentil, and black gram), spices (turmeric, chili, coriander, and black pepper), vegetables (potato, onion, spinach, cabbage, brinjal, and tomato), fruits (mango, guava, apple, and grape), milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils (vegetable, mustard, groundnut, and sesame) collected from different cities of Northern Province (Utter Pradesh) were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) were detected in about 85% of the total samples of cereals, spices, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils analyzed in the present study. However, the residue levels were either very small (less than 0.06 ppm) or not detected at all in pulses, vegetables, and fruits as compared with very high concentrations in wheat flour (4.42 and 0.12 ppm), butter (1.19 and 4.85 ppm), mustard oil (1.26 and 2.42 ppm), Deshi ghee (1.10 and 3.84 ppm), vegetable oil (1.02 and 0.59 ppm), groundnut oil (0.51 and 1.49 ppm), and chili (0.48 and 1.92 ppm). The levels of HCH and DDT residues detected in rice, maize, turmeric, corlander, black pepper, and all the vegetables and fruits were also lower than those found in wheat flour, oil, and fat samples analyzed in the present study. These findings suggest that a restricted and controlled use of such persistent pesticides may be useful for decreasing their contamination levels in different food items. PMID:1698760

  19. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  20. Effects of hygiene-sanitary measures on microbiological safety of finished product in butter production plant

    OpenAIRE

    Memiši Nurgin; Škrinjar Marija; Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of investigations of the effects of hygienesanitary measures at critical points in the technological process of butter production on its quality and microbiological safety. With this object in mind, hygiene safety was checked using the swab method at the machine for churning and packing butter (125 g packages and bulk butter), the equipment, hands and clothing (work aprons) of employees directly engaged on the machines. The ev...

  1. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lup Dragomir; Flavia Pop

    2009-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC) storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for ...

  2. 健康食品花生酱%All Peanut Butters Healthy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Processed or Fresh, Peanut Butter Is Good Food无论是加工过还是新鲜的,花生酱都是好东西. Store-bought peanut butter is as good tor you as the fresh-ground-in-the-health-food-store variety, a study shows. That any kind of peanut butter is healthy seems too good to be true. But the lowly peanut is packed full of healthy oils and vitamin E.

  3. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  4. Polymorphic transition of solid-fats dispersed systems — its characterization by a novel method and scanning electron microscopy observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Norio; Ueda, Masahiro; Harano, Yoshio

    1994-08-01

    Solid-fats dispersed systems, such as margarine, butter and cacao-butter, were characterized by a novel method based on liquid permeation under pressure, for the simultaneous measurement of a solid-content ɛ p and an average diameter dp of solid particles (fats crystals) in them. Further, micro-structures of these systems were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). As the result, it has been clarified that the spherical fats crystals of several μm in size appeared in the initial solid-fats products are agglomerates of fine particles of ca. 0.1 μm and that these fine particles are uniformly redispersed during an annealing treatment accompanying the reduction of ɛ p and dp. It is strongly suggested that this phenomenon is caused by a transition of fat crystals into a more stable polymorph.

  5. Improved properties of lipstick formulation with engkabang fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Husin Norazlin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engkabang fats are known as an excellent cocoa butter equivalent. It is selected to be aimed as potential softening ingredient in waxy base of lipstick formulation that promotes moisturising protection for the lips. The formulation was prepared by mixing homogenously the base and colour intermediate at 70-80°C, moulded in casing, followed by cooling at-20°C.The optimum ratio of lipstick formulation containing engkabang fats and other waxes was (10:20 in percentage. The other ingredients used were oils (60% and colour agent (10%. The physico-chemical properties of formulations were determined including texture analysis, pH, melting point, colour intensity, stability and moisture content. From the results, engkabang fats exhibited a good softening and moisturising properties. Engkabang fats lipstick formulations showed better application on the lips compared lipstick without engkabang fats.

  6. Improved properties of lipstick formulation with engkabang fats

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Husin Norazlin; Basri Mahiran; Hashim Puziah; Abd Gani Siti Salwa

    2015-01-01

    Engkabang fats are known as an excellent cocoa butter equivalent. It is selected to be aimed as potential softening ingredient in waxy base of lipstick formulation that promotes moisturising protection for the lips. The formulation was prepared by mixing homogenously the base and colour intermediate at 70-80°C, moulded in casing, followed by cooling at-20°C.The optimum ratio of lipstick formulation containing engkabang fats and other waxes was (10:20) in percentage. The other ingredients used...

  7. Verification of the geographical origin of European butters using PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macatelli, M.; Akkermans, W.; Koot, A.H.; Buchgraber, M.; Paterson, A.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in combination with partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was evaluated as a method for the prediction of the origin of European butters. Eighty-three commercial butters from three European regions were subjected

  8. Contamination with Escherichia coli of fresh butter produced by cow’s milk in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENVER BAJRAMI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Processing of milk may produce undesirable effects and some microorganisms produce food infections carrying the pathogens that will increase the likelihood of infection of the consumer`s food. Contamination of milk and milk products is largely due to human factor and unhygienic conditions. Fresh butter is usually contaminated with different kinds and levels of pathogens. In Kosovo fresh butter is produced in home conditions and sometimes in not appropriate hygienic conditions. Sixty two butter samples were randomly collected from different localities of Kosovo for the isolation of E. coli a notorious contaminant. All the samples were inoculated on different bacteriological media and a number of biochemical tests were performed for the confirmation of the isolates. The results revealed that out of 62 fresh samples 22, 5% (16/62 showed growth of E. coli. The highest number of butter samples contaminated with E. coli is recorded from butter samples obtained from vending shops and houses. Among the 16 butter samples showed growth of E. coli the highest rate of contamination was found in butter samples collected in Ferizaj region. 5 butter samples collected in Ferizaj or 8% showed the values of E. coli from 10cfu/g to 100cfu/g

  9. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for butter content and hardness in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter is an important raw material for the chocolate, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The butter content and quality in cocoa beans are genetically controlled characteristics, and affect its commercial values and industrial applicability. In the present work, an F2 population derived...

  10. Aflatoxin M1 in white cheese and butter consumed in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Hasan; Yarsan, Ender; Sarimehmetoglu, Belgin; Cakmak, Omer

    2002-10-01

    We studied the occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 183 sample of white cheese and butter in Istanbul, Turkey in 2001. The incidence of AFM1 in white cheese and butter samples was as high as 65 and 81, respectively. The particularly high AFM,concentrations imply that more importance should be given to routine analysis of these dairy products. PMID:12361118

  11. The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on butter flavor and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butter is often stored for extended periods of time; therefore, it is important for manufacturers to know the refrigerated and frozen shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the sensory and physical characteristics of butter. ...

  12. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  13. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of shea butter under tropical climatic conditions. Five packaging materials traditionally used in shea butter value chain were tested for their efficacy in storing shea butter freshly produced. Total germs, yeasts and mould varied with packaging materials and storage duration. After 2 months of storage, moisture content of butter remained constant (5%) whereas acid value increased from 3.3 to 5.4 mg KOH/g, peroxide value from 8.1 to 10.1 meq O2/kg and iodine value dropped from 48.8 to 46.2 mg I2/100 g in shea butter irrespectively to the storage materials used. The basket papered with jute bag was the less effective in ensuring the quality of butter during storage while plastic containers and plastic bags seemed to be the best packaging materials. PMID:23572746

  14. Peanut Paste/ Butter Consumption Frequency in the Republic of Uganda: Count Data Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan-Nambiar, Padmanand; Florkowski, Wojciech J.

    2013-01-01

    Peanut paste/butter consumption frequency in the Republic of Uganda is analyzed using a household survey data. Estimation results from Zero-inflated Binomial regression conclude that education, household location, color of peanut paste, etc. are important. The ordinal logistic results conclude that peanut paste/butter consumption with vegetables is the most preferred option.

  15. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV)-light, a non-thermal technology, was used to treat both peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic potency of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated, using a X...

  16. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.; Corrêa Basso, R.; Gonçalves, L. A.G.; Gioielli, L. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, A.; Pavie Cardoso, L.; Guenter Kieckbusch, T.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial ...

  17. Ultrasonic wave propagation in cocoa butter during crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Rigolle, Annelien; Descheemaeker, Jan; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2012-01-01

    In the production of fat containing food products, insight in the crystallization behaviour of fats is of utmost importance to obtain the desired product functionality and product quality. The aim of this research is to study the potential of advanced ultrasonic techniques to monitor fat crystallization. For reasons of sensitivity and signal quality during the entire process, we concentrate on shear wave reflectivity measurements at the interface between a fat sample and ...

  18. Fat Polymorphism and Crystal Seeding Effects on Fat Bloom Stability of Dark Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Koyano, T.; Hachiya, I.; Sato, K

    1990-01-01

    The effects of seeding with fine crystal powders on the physical properties of dark chocolate are re viewed in terms of the polymorphism and crystallization behavior of cocoa butter (CBJ and of its major fat constituents. The polymorphic structure of four symmetric mixed acids saturated -oleic-saturated (Sat-0- Sat) triacylglycerols (TAGs I [POP (1 ,3-dipalmitoyl-2- oleoyl-glyceroll ;SOS I 1 ,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol); AOA (1 ,3-diarachidoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol); and BOB 11 ,3-dibehenoyl-...

  19. Multilevel systems biology modeling characterized the atheroprotective efficiencies of modified dairy fats in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Charles; Berton, Amélie; Ginies, Christian; Bott, Romain; Scheercousse, Pierre; Saddi, Alessandra; Gripois, Daniel; Landrier, Jean-François; Dalemans, Daniel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the atheroprotective efficiency of modified dairy fats in hyperlipidemic hamsters. A systems biology approach was implemented to reveal and quantify the dietary fat-related components of the disease. Three modified dairy fats (40% energy) were prepared from regular butter by mixing with a plant oil mixture, by removing cholesterol alone, or by removing cholesterol in combination with reducing saturated fatty acids. A plant oil mixture and a regular butter were used as control diets. The atherosclerosis severity (aortic cholesteryl-ester level) was higher in the regular butter-fed hamsters than in the other four groups (P < 0.05). Eighty-seven of the 1,666 variables measured from multiplatform analysis were found to be strongly associated with the disease. When aggregated into 10 biological clusters combined into a multivariate predictive equation, these 87 variables explained 81% of the disease variability. The biological cluster "regulation of lipid transport and metabolism" appeared central to atherogenic development relative to diets. The "vitamin E metabolism" cluster was the main driver of atheroprotection with the best performing transformed dairy fat. Under conditions that promote atherosclerosis, the impact of dairy fats on atherogenesis could be greatly ameliorated by technological modifications. Our modeling approach allowed for identifying and quantifying the contribution of complex factors to atherogenic development in each dietary setup. PMID:26071539

  20. Enzymatic treatment of peanut butter to reduce the concentration of major peanut allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzymatic treatment of peanut butter on two-major peanut allergens (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2). Home-made and commercial peanut butter samples were treated with alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin or the combination of these enzymes and incubated at room temperature for 24�h or at 37��C for 3�h. Treated peanut butter samples were sampled weekly for evaluation of total soluble proteins and extractable Ara h 1/Ara h 2. Data show that 1:1 alpha-chymotrypsin: trypsin at 0...

  1. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar; Nonboe, Pernille; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol......Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...

  2. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animal products, such as butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  3. Development of an offline bidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of stereospecific triacylglycerols in cocoa butter equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Le, Thien Trung; Dewettinck, Koen

    2013-08-21

    Acyl migration is a serious problem in enzymatic modification of fats and oils, particularly in production of cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymatic acidolysis reaction, which leads to the formation of non-symmetrical triacylglycerols (TAGs) from symmetrical TAGs. Non-symmetrical TAGs may affect the physical properties of final products and are therefore often undesired. Consequently, an accurate method is needed to determine positional isomer TAGs during the production of CBE. A bidimentional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with combination of non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC and silver ion HPLC joining with an evaporative light scattering detector was successfully developed for the analysis of stereospecific TAGs. The best separation of positional isomer standards was obtained with a heptane/acetone mobile-phase gradient at 25 °C and 1 mL/min. The developed method was then used in multidimensional determination of the TAG positional isomers in fat and oil blends and successfully identified the TAGs and possible isomers in enzymatically acidolyzed CBE. PMID:23931630

  4. COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF COCOA BUTTER MADE FROM THE PROCESSING OF THE IVORIAN COCOA BEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID KOFFI AKAKI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color of cocoa butters was measured using a CM-2002 Minolta Spectrocolorimeter. The results showed that the ‘’L’’ values (lightness varied from 73.11 to 84.76, the ‘’a’’ values (greenness varied from – 2.15 to – 1.08 and a redness of 4.99, and the ‘’b’’ values (yellowness varied from 28.63 to 41.11. Acidities of all typescocoa butters varied from 0.47 to 10.26. The best cocoa butters were obtained from staly and fully purple beans and cocoa beans of grades 4, 5, and 6. These butters had acidities of 0.48 and 0.56 for fully purple and staly beans and 2.41, 1.30, and 0.47 for grades 4, 5, and 6, respectively.

  5. Lactic acid bacteria from Jijel's traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Idoui, Tayeb; Karam, Nour-Eddine

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven (27) lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Jijel’s traditional butter. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum was the predominant species in this traditional butter. It appears that these strains have some interesting technological properties.Se aíslan veintisiete (27) bacterias acidolácticas de la mantequilla tradicional de Jijel. Éstas pertenecen a los géneros Lactococcus, Lactobacill...

  6. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter

    OpenAIRE

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical charac...

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter product during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Three types (A, B, and C) of peanut butter product with different water activities (0.18, 0.39, and 0.65 aw) inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation (⁶⁰Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. The inactivation of S. Typhimurium in the 3 types of treated peanut butter product over a 14 day storage period and the influence of storage temperature at 4 (refrigerated) and 25 °C (ambient), and peanut butter product formulation were investigated. Three types of peanut butter product inoculated with S. Typhimurium to a level of ca. 6.6 log CFU/g and subjected to gamma irradiation experienced significant (ppeanut butter product to undetectable levels was 14, 5, and 5 days at 25°C after exposure to 3 kGy for products A, B, and C, respectively, and 7 days at 25 °C following exposure to 2 kGy for product C. During storage at 4 and 25 °C, survival of S. Typhimurium was lowest in product C compared to products A and B. Water activity (a(w)) of peanut butter product was likely the most critical factor affecting pathogen survival. When a(w) is reduced, radiolysis of water is reduced, thereby decreasing antimicrobial action. Overall, death was more rapid at 25 °C versus 4 °C for all peanut butter products during 14 day storage. Following gamma irradiation, acid values of peanut butter product were not significantly different from the control, and general observations failed to detect changes in color and aroma, even though lightness observed using a colorimeter was slightly reduced on day 0. The use of gamma irradiation has potential in preventing spoilage of post-packaged food by destroying microorganisms and improving the safety and quality of foods without compromising sensory quality. PMID:24321602

  8. Crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter in the presence of sorbitan esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Podchong, Pawitchaya; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter crystallization in the presence of sorbitan mono- and triesters or canola oil was investigated. Solid-state surfactant esters accelerated early-stage cocoa butter solidification while suppressing later growth. Sorbitan tristearate showed the strongest effect, followed by sorbitan monostearate and sorbitan monopalmitate. Liquid-state surfactants suppressed cocoa butter crystallization at all time points, with sorbitan trioleate showing a stronger effect than sorbitan monooleate, which behaved in a similar fashion to canola oil. Via DSC, the palmitic and stearic-based surfactants only associated with cocoa butter's high-melting fraction, with the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola oil showing little influence. All sorbitan esters had little effect on polymorphism, whereas canola oil accelerated the form II-to-III-to-IV transition. The palmitic and stearic-based surfactants greatly reduced cocoa butter crystal size whereas the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola showed no notable effect. Overall, sorbitan esters impacted cocoa butter crystallization kinetics, though this depended on surfactant structure and concentration. PMID:27507503

  9. To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène

    2013-01-01

    countries is commercialised unprocessed. This paper examines the factors enabling and constraining the processing of shea nuts into shea butter in Burkina Faso. Our analysis is based on socio-economic survey data collected from 536 households in the Zoundwéogo and Cascades provinces of Burkina Faso, as well...... as qualitative interview data collected from 74 shea butter producers in the province of Sissili. The factors affecting the selection of shea butter production as a livelihood activity as well as the economic success of this activity are analysed using a Heckman selection model. Moreover, we study...... the effect of locality of residence, defined as place of residence along the rural–urban continuum, on shea butter processing and income. We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to...

  10. Milk fat globule membrane and buttermilks: from composition to valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderghem, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition in proteins and polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM. The aim of this review is to take stock of current buttermilk knowledge. Firstly, the milk fat globule membrane composition and structure are described. Secondly, buttermilk and its associated products are defined according to the milk fat making process. Structure and mean composition of these products are summarized from recent dairy research data and related to technological properties, especially the emulsifying properties provided by MFGM components. Finally, new applications are presented, leading to promising valorizations of buttermilk and its derivate products.

  11. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several fats and oils at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğba İnanç Horuz; Medeni Maskan

    2015-01-01

    Natural antioxidants recently have gained popularity since synthetic ones have toxic and carcinogenic effects. In the present study, effect of temperature (120, 150 and 180°C) and cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several oils (olive, hazelnut and palm oils) and fats (milkfat and butter) was examined. In order to compare the results with the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) was used at a concentration of 200 ppm. This level is the legal maximum limit allowed. Expe...

  12. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng;

    2008-01-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...... blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition. No...

  13. Effect of dietary fat on plasma glutathione peroxidase levels and intestinal absorption of 75Se-labeled sodium selenite in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of dietary fat on the availability of selenium was investigated in chicks fed either 4 or 20% butter, olive oil, rape oil, corn oil or sunflower oil in the diet for 3 weeks after hatching. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was used as an indicator of the body selenium status. In addition, the intestinal absorption of sodium selenite (75Se-labeled) was determined by using both the in vivo ligated loop procedure and oral administration of the isotope. The plasma GSH-Px levels increased with increasing proportion of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Increasing the amount of fat from 4 to 20% significantly enhanced the GSH-Px activity in the groups receiving butter or olive oil, but had no effect in animals fed the unsaturated fats. The absorption of [75Se]selenite from the ligated duodenal loops tended to be reduced in chicks fed corn oil or sunflower oil as compared to the animals receiving butter in their diet. On the other hand, the type of dietary fat did not appear to affect the absorption of the orally administered selenite. The present study demonstrates that the type of dietary fat can affect the plasma GSH-Px levels in chicks without altering the intestinal absorption of selenite. However, the results on the absorption of the intraduodenally injected sodium selenite suggest that dietary fat plays some role in the intestinal transport of selenium

  14. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Céline

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH features. Rats fed coconut (86% of saturated fatty acid or butter (51% of saturated fatty acid had an increased caloric intake (+143% and +30%. At the end of the study period, total lipid ingestion in term of percentage of energy intake was higher in both coconut (45% and butter (42% groups than in the standard (7% diet group. No change in body mass was observed as compared with standard rats at the end of the experiment. However, high fat fed rats were fattier with enlarged white and brown adipose tissue (BAT depots, but they showed no liver steatosis and no difference in triglyceride content in hepatocytes, as compared with standard rats. Absence of hepatic lipid accumulation with high fat diets was not related to a higher lipid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes (unchanged ketogenesis and oxygen consumption or hepatic mitochondrial respiration but was rather associated with a rise in BAT uncoupling protein UCP1 (+25–28% vs standard. Conclusion Long term high saturated fat feeding led to increased "peripheral" fat storage and BAT thermogenesis but did not induce hepatic steatosis and NASH.

  15. Effects of hygiene-sanitary measures on microbiological safety of finished product in butter production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigations of the effects of hygienesanitary measures at critical points in the technological process of butter production on its quality and microbiological safety. With this object in mind, hygiene safety was checked using the swab method at the machine for churning and packing butter (125 g packages and bulk butter, the equipment, hands and clothing (work aprons of employees directly engaged on the machines. The evaluation of the safety parameters, as well as of the hygiene of the production process itself, was carried out in keeping with the Regulations on general and special conditions of food hygiene at any stage of production, processing and trade (RS Official Gazette, No.72/2010. The results of the hygiene safety of swabs taken from the 125g-butter packing machine, after sanitation, showed an increased number of mesophilic bacteria (up to 90 cfu/cm2, as well as the presence of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae (4 cfu/cm2. The results of swabs taken from the hands of workers engaged on the line for wrapping the butter following the churning process and on the packing line reveal the presence of aerobic mesophilic sporogenic bacteria (20 cfu/cm2, while the presence of pathogenic microorganisms was not established. Butter samples packed into 125g portions present more risky forms of commercial packaging than bulk butter, which is a consequence of various handling activities and additional outside contamination that takes place during the production process if continuous production in the plant has not been ensured. Moreover, the established presence of certain microorganisms (aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, lipolytic bacteria, as well as fungi in packed butter during its shelf life, is largely a result of outside contamination and the hygienic condition of the equipment. The obatined results of the investigations indicate the need for special attention to be paid during the butter

  16. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Rozalli, N H; Chin, N L; Yusof, Y A; Mahyudin, N

    2016-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectively. The peanuts were ground using a high speed grinder for 2.5 and 3.0 min to produce peanut butter without addition of other ingredient. The natural peanut butter exhibited stability and had acceptable microbial count during storage. Storage at 10 °C gave similar textural quality with commercial product until week 8 and without appreciable loss in oxidative stability until week 12. At higher storage temperatures of 25 and 35 °C, oxidative stability was shortened to 4 weeks of storage. Among the factors of storage temperature and time, grinding time and peanut variety, storage temperature had the most significant effects on quality changes of natural peanut butter. PMID:26787989

  17. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Romestaing, Caroline; Piquet, Marie-Astrid; Bedu, Elodie; Rouleau, Vincent; Dautresme, Marianne; Hourmand-Ollivier, Isabelle; Filippi, Céline; Duchamp, Claude; Sibille, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH featur...

  18. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Romestaing, C.; PIQUET, MA; Bedu, E.; Rouleau, V.; Dautresme, M.; Hourmand-Ollivier, I.; Filippi, C.; Duchamp, C.; Sibille, B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods: 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results: MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH fea...

  19. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi Céline; Duchamp Claude; Hourmand-Ollivier Isabelle; Dautresme Marianne; Rouleau Vincent; Bedu Elodie; Piquet Marie-Astrid; Romestaing Caroline; Sibille Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NA...

  20. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  1. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  2. Monitoring of some organochlorine pesticide residues of butter in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamlioglu, Ferhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Kara, Huseyin; Dinc, Iffet

    2005-06-01

    Some organochlorine pesticide residues were investigated in the samples of all local commercial butter brands sold in the supermarket in Konya (Turkey). Some of the samples were found to have the DDT complex (DDT, DDD, DDE and isomers), total HCH complex (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH), aldrin, dieldrin and endosulfan (I and II). Nearly 94% of the butter samples were found to be contaminated. Endrin and heptachlorine were detected in three and two samples, respectively, while 87% of samples were contaminated by one or more HCH isomers. 78% of the organochlorine pesticide was DDT and/or its metabolites. These results confirmed that butters sold in Konya presented organochlorine pesticide residues indicating a human exposure. PMID:16334269

  3. Development and performance evaluation of frustum cone shaped churn for small scale production of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Adarsh M; Sahu, C; Agrawal, A K; Bisen, P; Chavhan, B B; Sinha, Geetesh

    2016-05-01

    The present research was intended to develop a small scale butter churn and its performance by altering churning temperature and churn speed during butter making. In the present study, the cream was churned at different temperatures (8, 10 and 12 °C) and churn speeds (35, 60 and 85 rpm). The optimum parameters of churning time (40 min), moisture content (16 %) and overrun (19.42 %) were obtained when cream was churned at churning temperature of 10 °C and churn speed of 60 rpm. Using appropriate conditions of churning temperature and churn speed, high quality butter can be produced at cottage scale. PMID:27407187

  4. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...

  5. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitore...

  6. Lactic acid bacteria from Jijel's traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoui, Tayeb

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven (27 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Jijel’s traditional butter. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc. The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum was the predominant species in this traditional butter. It appears that these strains have some interesting technological properties.Se aíslan veintisiete (27 bacterias acidolácticas de la mantequilla tradicional de Jijel. Éstas pertenecen a los géneros Lactococcus, Lactobacillus y Leuconostoc. Los resultados muestran que Lactobacillus plantarum es la especie predominante en dicha mantequilla. Diversas cepas presentan algunas propiedades tecnológicas interesantes.

  7. Fatty acid composition of cultured butter produced using mesophilic and probiotic cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Мусий, Любовь Ярославовна; Цисарык, Орыся Иосифовна; Голубец, Ольга Валерьевна; Шкаруба, Сергей Николаевич

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the possibility of modeling the composition of fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria in the production of cultured butter. For the cream culturing, fermenting compositions DVS (Chr.Hansen, Denmark) FloraDanica (FD) and Lbm. acidophilum La-5 (La-5) were used. Four groups of cultured butter were produced: I (samples K1, K2, K3 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - cream culturing at a temperature of 30ºC; II (K4, K5, K6 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - cream culturing at a tem...

  8. Influence of Decolourisation Condition on the Physicochemical Properties of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner F Butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Mohagir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, kinetics studies of adsorption of colour material of shea butter showed a peak at the wavelength 440 nm and the equilibrium time was found to be 30 min. Response surface methodology applying Doehlert experimental design was used to investigate decolourisation parameters of crude shea butter. The decolourisation process was significantly influenced by three independent parameters: contact time, decolourisation temperature and adsorbent dose. The responses of the process were oil loss, acid value, peroxide value and colour index. Response surface plots were successfully made to visualise the effect of the independent parameters on the responses of the process.

  9. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.;

    2003-01-01

    Background: This paper alms to analyse socioeconomic variation in the use of cheese and butter in Europe by reviewing existing dietary surveys. It explores whether socioeconomic differences in the intake of these foods follow a similar pattern in all countries. Methods: An overview of available...... studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption...

  10. Composition, characterization and atherogenic potential of oils, fats and other by products produced or marketed in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases are very common among Costa Rican people. They are related to diets high in lipids that cause arterial damage. The present study was undertaken to determine the quality of fats and oils consumed more frequently in our country. 15 different brands of butter and margarines (A, B, D1 to D11), 7 types of vegetable fat (E1 to E7) and 14 different brands of sunflower oil (EG1 to EG3), corn oil (EM1 to EM3), olive oil (EO1 to EO4), soy oil (ES1 to ES3) and palm oil (EV) were collected and identified. 67 percent of the products were made in Costa Rica, 33% were imported products. Using gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification number, average molecular weight, carbon-carbon double bond number, allyl and double aryl hydrogens were determined in the lipid fraction of the 36 different products. Two types of butter and one type of oil were found adulterated with triacylglycerols of different kind or source. Susceptibility of the products to lipid oxidation was determined only in terms of double bond number and allyl and double alryl hydrogens. Sunflower, corn and olive oils were the most susceptible products. Through polyunsaturated fatty acids / saturated fatty acids relation and atherogenic index the atherogenic potential of the products was evaluated. The findings were that 2 types of butter and 5 types of vegetable fat were the most injurious ones. (author)

  11. SINTESA POP FAT MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI DAN FRAKSINASI BERBAHAN MINYAK SAWIT DAN OLEIN SUPER TERHIDROGENASI [Synthesis of POP Fat via Interesterification and Fractionation Based on Plam Oil and Hydrogenated Super Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesterification of fat blends containing palm oil (RBDPO and hydrogenated super olein (HSOL at weight ratios of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 and fractionation was studied for production POP fat. POP fat is cocoa butter equivalent (CBE which contains high triglyceride of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP and its can be used as alternative fat for cocoa butter with the standard i.e. triglyceride composition of saturated-unsaturated-saturated (SUS more than 65% and melting point about of 32-35°C. Interesterification was conducted chemically using sodium methoxide. Then, interesterified product was fractionated two stages using hexane and acetone as solvent, respectively. Interesterification of the subtrates resulted change of triglycerides composition of PPP, PPS, POP, POS and POO which were showed with the concentration of several triglycerides were increased, some were decreased and several new triglycerides were formed. The change of triglyceride structure cause melting point and solid fat content were decreased. Fractionation 2 stages of interesterified product resulted fat containing high triglyceride of POP (above 62% and POS range of 10-17% and melting point about of 35-39°C. This product can be categorized as CBE which produced from the substrate of RBDPO to HSOL at weight ratio was 2:1 with characteristic i.e. POP 68.2%, POS 10.8 % and melting point of 35°C.

  12. Spatial biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Iran: a study using locally produced butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Amirali; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-07-01

    Butter is a readily collected, integrative and inexpensive sampling matrix for the spatial mapping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the national or regional scale. As air-plant-animal transfers generally supply the POPs reaching butter lipid, this study used butter for an initial evaluation of the occurrence, levels and distribution of POPs (selected organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in Iran, a country for which very little information on usage, emissions and environmental burdens of these compounds exists. Fifty samples from rural and urban areas, in the north, west and central regions of the country were collected from local farms in spring 2007. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE varied widely by a factor of approximately 1000 and approximately 370 (8450 pg g(-1) lipid and 46 800 pg g(-1) lipid on average). The highest levels, found mainly in urban areas in the centre of the country, were amongst the highest reported in the world. PCB concentrations (4320 pg g(-1) lipid on average) varied by a factor of approximately 160 and were highest close to urban centres and lowest in the rural northwest. Although Iran is not known for widespread PCB usage in the past, concentrations were higher than a 'global average' reported in a butter survey in 2001. This simple sampling approach could be adopted in other regions where cows graze, as part of an initial screening to help meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention. PMID:18688454

  13. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Miles, M. S.; Burton, T.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the us

  14. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

  15. Using phenolic compounds to reduce the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since phenolic compounds may form insoluble complexes with proteins, we determined that their interaction with peanut allergens leads to a reduction in the allergenic properties of peanut extracts and peanut butter slurries. Phenolics, such as, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ferulic acid were e...

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air–grass–yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p′-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air–butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. - Highlights: • Air, grass and butter POPs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were at the lower end of the global levels. • The pasture of the TP was found to be a “sink” of DDTs. • Bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the food chain: air–grass–yak. • The TFA:B was tested to be an excellent tool to predict air OCPs and PCBs in the TP. - Transfer and bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the terrestrial food chain: air–grass–yak (butter)

  17. Effects of low-fat or full-fat fermented and non-fermented dairy foods on selected cardiovascular biomarkers in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul J; Mellett, Natalie; Pally, Suzana; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Chris K; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor A; Meikle, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The association between consumption of full-fat dairy foods and CVD may depend partly on the nature of products and may not apply to low-fat dairy foods. Increased circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers after consumption of dairy product-rich meals suggest an association with CVD. In the present study, we tested the effects of low-fat and full-fat dairy diets on biomarkers associated with inflammation, oxidative stress or atherogenesis and on plasma lipid classes. Within full-fat dairy diets, we also compared fermented v. non-fermented products. In a randomised cross-over study, twelve overweight/obese subjects consumed during two 3-week periods two full-fat dairy diets containing either yogurt plus cheese (fermented) or butter, cream and ice cream (non-fermented) or a low-fat milk plus yogurt diet, with the latter being consumed between and at the end of the full-fat dairy dietary periods. The concentrations of six inflammatory and two atherogenic biomarkers known to be raised in CVD were measured as well as those of plasma F2-isoprostanes and lipid classes. The concentrations of six of the eight biomarkers tended to be higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet and the concentrations of two plasmalogen lipid classes reported to be associated with increased oxidisability were also higher on consumption of the low-fat dairy diet than on that of the fermented dairy diet (Pfermented dairy diet than on that of the low-fat dairy diet (Pproducts did not lead to a more favourable biomarker profile associated with CVD risk compared with the full-fat dairy products, suggesting that full-fat fermented dairy products may be the more favourable. PMID:23756569

  18. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination. PMID:25285504

  19. Studies of isothermal crystallisation kinetics of sunflower hard stearin-based confectionery fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Levin, Madeline; Martínez-Blanes, Jose M; Real, Concepción; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2013-08-15

    The crystallisation and polymorphic properties of three sunflower hard stearins (SHSs) and cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) formulated by blending SHSs and palm mid fraction (PMF) were studied and compared with those from cocoa butter (CB), to explore their possibilities as confectionery fats. The isothermal crystallisation kinetics of these fats were examined by pNMR and DSC at three different temperatures. All samples studied displayed a two-step crystallisation profile that could be fitted to an exponential-Gompertz equation. Stop-and-return DSC studies showed that SHSs and CBEs exhibited different crystallisation mechanisms according to their triacylglycerol composition, with a quick formation of metastable crystals, followed by a polymorphic transition to the more stable β or β' forms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the polymorphic forms of tempered SHSs and CBEs in the long term. In all cases the resulting fats displayed short spacing patterns associated with β polymorphism. These formulations based on SHSs and PMF met all the requirements to be considered as CBEs; therefore they could be used as an alternative to traditional confectionery fats. PMID:23561095

  20. 原料特性与花生酱品质间关系模型的建立%Establishment of Relationship Model Between Peanut Material Characteristics and Peanut Butter Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩阿娜; 刘红芝; 刘丽; 石爱民; 王强

    2016-01-01

    为解决“普通花生品种过多和原料过剩、专用加工品种和原料缺乏”的问题,本研究对26个品种花生的感官特性、理化与营养特性、加工特性与其花生酱品质之间的关系进行研究,建立原料特性与花生酱品质间的关系模型。以26个品种花生制备的花生酱为原料,分析各品种花生特性与花生酱品质间的关系,采用20个品种的原料特性数据构建评价模型,另外6个品种品质数据进行验证。结果显示,花生原料的百仁重、粗蛋白、粗脂肪、总维生素E、油酸/亚油酸等5个指标与花生酱品质在0.05水平上关系显著,采用统计学分析建立花生酱用花生原料特性评价模型,验证模型的R2为0.788。研究结果表明,花生的原料特性显著影响花生酱品质,粗蛋白、总维生素E与油酸/亚油酸等指标的含量越高,花生酱品质越好。该方法可为不同花生品种的加工利用和专用品种的选择提供依据。%In order to solve the adverse situation, which ordinary peanut varieties and ingredients are lack and special processing varieties and ingredients are surplus. This paper mainly discussed the relationship between peanut quality ( sensory quality, physicochemical quality and processing quality ) and peanut butter, and to establish the relationship model between peanut material characteristics and peanut butter quality. 26 peanut varieties were used to prepare the peanut butter, and the relationship between the characteristics of peanut and peanut butter was analyzed. 20 varieties were assigned to the calibration set, whereas the remaining 6 varieties constituted the validation set. The results showed that the characteristics of different peanuts varieties and its preparation peanut butter had significantly difference. Hundred ker﹣nel weight, the content of protein and fat, the total vitamin content and O/L ratio had significant relation﹣ships with peanut butter

  1. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  2. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey;

    2015-01-01

    The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role in the...... individuals, separated into 4 subgroups according to gender and insulin sensitivity/resistance. Adipose cell-size distribution changes in each individual are simulated with a dynamic model and parameters corresponding to lipid turnover and cell growth rates are determined for each subgroup to match the...... relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive...

  3. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Hung; Chi-Te Liu; I-Chen Peng; Chin Hsu; Roch-Chui Yu; Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and doc...

  4. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  5. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  6. High-pressure liquid chromatographic method for the determination of patulin in apple butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, G M

    1975-07-01

    Patulin is extracted from apple butter samples with ethyl acetate and the extract is cleaned up on a silica gel column, using benzene-ethyl acetate (75+25) as the eluant. High-pressure liquid chromatography, using a 25 cm ZorbaxSil column, isooctane-ethyl ether-acetic acid (750+250+0.5) as the mobile solvent, and a 254 nm ultraviolet detector, is used for the determinative step. Under these conditions, patulin is eluted before 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, a component of apple butter which interferes with other liquid chromatographic and thin layer chromatographic methods. Recoveries of patulin added at levels of 34.6, 138.4, and 276.8 mug/kg ranged from 89.0 to 112.1%. PMID:168176

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well. PMID:25342261

  8. Increased water activity reduces the thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Li, Ye; Salazar, Joelle K; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Increased water activity in peanut butter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the heat resistance of desiccation-stressed Salmonella enterica serotypes treated at 90 °C. The difference in thermal resistance was less notable when strains were treated at 126 °C. Using scanning electron microscopy, we observed minor morphological changes of S. enterica cells resulting from desiccation and rehydration processes in peanut oil. PMID:23728806

  9. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  10. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the gastric emptying upon administration of ten different fats in order to determine whether major differences in fatty acid profiles resulted in differences in gastric emptying. Methods: Gastric emptying was measured as the appearance of acetaminophen in plasma which represents...... an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p emptying of tri-10:0 could be caused by a lower caloric intake...

  11. 西藏两种来源酥油的脂肪酸和卫生品质分析%Analysis of fatty acid and health quality of butter from two sources in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪蕾; 霍贵成; 田辉

    2012-01-01

    The content of fatty acid and health quality of butter from two sources (famers and factory) in Tibet were evaluated by fatty acid composition,chemical and microbiological analysis.Chemical analysis involved moisture,fat,free fattyjicid and peroxide value.In microbiological analysis.the total bacteria count and the counts of moulds,coliforms and staphylococcus aureus were detected respectiveh/.The detection results showed that the major saturated fatty acid in butter was palmitic acid,the content of which was 13.21%-25.17%;the major unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid.the content of which was 11.26-46.01%;the quality analysis of butter from two sources was similar to the others and both of them have health safety problems in some degree and difference exists in the different regions from the same source;the moisture content、 acid value peroxide value and the total bacteria count were higher than normal,edible safety were lower,the production conditions of Tibet butter need to be further improved.%以西藏地区两种来源(农户及工厂)的酥油为研究对象,分别测定了其脂肪酸组成、理化指标和微生物指标,分析了西藏酥油的脂肪酸含量及卫生质量品质.结果表明:酥油中的主要饱和脂肪酸为棕榈酸,质量分数范围为13.21%~25.17%;不饱和脂肪酸为油酸,质量分数范围为11.26%~46.01%;两种来源的酥油卫生品质相似,且都存在一定程度的卫生安全问题,同种来源间存在地区差异性;12份样品其水分质量分数、酸价、过氧化值和茵落总数偏高,食用安全性较低,西藏地区酥油的生产条件有待于进一步提高.

  12. Antioxidation activity of natural cocoa butter and its application in skin cream%天然可可脂的抗氧化活性及其在护肤霜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠玲; 李晨晨; 俞苓

    2015-01-01

    The vitro antioxidation activity of cocoa butter was evaluated by the determination of scavenging ratio of DPPH free radicals and ABTS+ free radicals,as well as oil peroxide value (POV). Results showed that the cocoa butter polyphenols display good antioxidation activity,the half maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) value of DPPH free radicals and ABTS+ free radicals is 11.61 and 10.59 mg/L respectively,which are better than that of vitamin C and vitamin E. Natural cocoa butter can effectively restrain the oxidation of oils and fats, and the effect is directly correlated with the dosage. Adding natural cocoa butter into cosmetic creams can effectively raise the moisturizing performance,upgrade the whitening effect and improve the skin elasticity. Meanwhile,it is safe for human skin and no skin irritation displays.%通过DPPH自由基和ABTS+自由基清除率以及油脂过氧化值的测定,对可可脂体外抗氧化能力进行评价,并将可可脂应用于护肤霜中,对其功效进行评价。结果表明:可可脂多酚具有很好的抗氧化活性,其清除DPPH自由基和ABTS+自由基的半数效应浓度(EC50)分别为11.61和10.59 mg/L,优于维生素C和维生素E;天然可可脂能有效抑制油脂的氧化,效果与用量呈正相关;添加可可脂能有效提高护肤霜的保湿性,增强美白效果,改善皮肤弹性,对皮肤安全、无刺激性。

  13. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  14. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these high fatty products. A gas chromatograph with MSD (HP 5973) detector was used for the determination of pesticides such as α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. The examined products had diverse concentrations of the analyzed compounds. Visible was the division based on the origin of the product, which might be composed of animal or vegetable fats. The research has revealed the presence of OCP residues in all examined spreads. Quantities of organochlorine compounds did not pose an immediate danger to the consumers' health. Human and environmental health risk assessment was carried out by the estimation of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and non-carcinogenic health hazard quotient (HQ). Total estimated LADD ranged between 1.3 × 10(-5) and 3.1 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for butter, and 1.9 × 10(-6) and 4.6 × 10(-6) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for margarine and mix spread. The HQ ranged between 1.1 × 10(-4) and 3.7 × 10(-4) for butter, and 1.4 × 10(-5) and 9.0 × 10(-6) for margarine and mix spread for adults. These estimated HQs were within the safe acceptable limits, indicating a negligible risk to the residents of the study area. PMID:25310807

  15. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  16. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  17. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  18. Lipocytes (fat cells) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to energy output, there is no expansion of fat cells (lipocytes) to accommodate excess. It is only when more calories are taken in than used that the extra fat is stored in the lipocytes and the person ...

  19. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of servings you eat in one sitting. Many fast food restaurants use solid oils with trans fat for ... frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and margarine Nondairy ...

  20. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter cracker sandwiches by radio-frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kim, Sung-Youn; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    A multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium recently occurred in the USA, which was traced back to various food products made with contaminated peanut butter. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to inactivate S. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter cracker sandwiches using creamy and chunky commercial peanut butter and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color changes and sensory evaluation. Samples were treated for a maximum time of 90 s in a 27.12 MHz RF heating system. Samples were prepared in the form of peanut butter cracker sandwiches and placed in the middle of two parallel-plate electrodes. After 90 s of RF treatment, the log reductions of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were 4.29 and 4.39 log CFU/g, respectively, in creamy peanut butter. RF treatment of chunky peanut butter for 90 s also significantly (P peanut butter and crackers were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that RF heating can be applied to control pathogens in peanut butter products without affecting quality. PMID:23498191

  1. Effects of green tea (camellia sinensis on liver histology of mice on high fat diet: a morphometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effects of green tea on liver histology of mice on high fat diet. Study Design: Analytical experimental randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Pathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad. Twelve weeks study. Material and Methods: Sixty adult mice, Balb-c, strain were selected and divided into three groups. The control group was given standard laboratory diet throughout the study. In experimental group A, the study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, hepatic steatosis was induced by high fat diet containing 4 percent cholesterol powder and 40 percent butter fat for six weeks. In the second phase, experimental group was given normal diet with 1 percent green tea over a period of next six weeks. The experimental group B was given high fat diet containing 4 percent cholesterol powder and 40 percent butter fat with 1 percent green tea over a period of twelve weeks. Ten mice in each group were sacrificed at six weeks and remaining ten were sacrificed at twelve weeks.Results: High fat diet for six weeks produced significant hepatic steatosis, evident on histological analysis. When experimental group A (induction phase) with high fat diet was compared with the (reversal phase) on normal diet and green tea, statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was noted in terms of liver histology. Green tea reverted all parameters in experimental group B, which though reduced never reached the control value and remained somewhat elevated. Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that green tea protects against the development of hepatic steatosis and reduces hepatic injury in mice. (author)

  2. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p extraction process were established as: sample weight of 30.04 g, solvent volume of 346.04 ml and extraction time of 40 min, which gave 66.90 % yield of SB. Furthermore, the result of the physico-chemical properties obtained for the shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil. PMID:26787993

  3. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wrong” kinds of fats can trigger additional health hazards. “Some fats are better for our bodies than ... ingredients. “Low-fat and fat-free yogurt and milk still contain the important proteins and minerals found ...

  4. MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE:"China Won't Let her Bread and Butter in Others' Hands"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yumei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Grain production: strategic industry to maintain socical stability Q: What is the grain issue of China? A: I'd like to answer this question with two sentences.First,grain production is a strategic industry to maintain social stability of China; our government should always consider feeding a population of 1.3 billion as the major priority and can never overlook this issue.Second,China,a heavily-populous nation,must stick to the principle of"relying mainly on her own to achieve self-sufficiency"to ensure food security;China cannot let her bread and butter be held in others' hands.

  5. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin;

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether...... differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals, such...

  6. Assessment of indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin east local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the indigenous methods of processing shea butter among women in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study made use of well-structured questionnaire to collect data from 180 respondents by means of four-stage random sampling technique. Analytical tools used include frequency, percentage and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Findings showed that the majority of respondents had no formal education (73.3%, were middle aged (52.2%, and married (81.1%. The indigenous processing techniques commonly used by the respondents include: picking/harvesting of fruits, washing of fruits, de-pulping, drying, seed selection, seed cracking, roasting of kernels, milling of kernels, boiling of ground kernels, kneading, mixing, filtration, solidification and packaging. The majority (75% of sources for information on indigenous shea butter processing came from family members. Factors limiting the majority of respondents were: inadequate water supply (95%, inadequate processing equipment (86.1% and inadequate credit facilities (81.7%. Correlation analysis results revealed that age (-0.153, p<0.05 and the years of experience (-0.270, p<0.01 of respondents showed a significant relationship with the indigenous techniques of processing shea butter. It was concluded that indigenous methods of processing shea butter are widespread among respondents, knowledge is acquired through family members and that they are faced with several challenges. Among others, the study recommends the need for extension agents to be posted to rural areas to educate rural women and build on their indigenous knowledge of processing shea butter in order to produce high quality butter.

  7. Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntakatsane, M P; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

    2013-04-01

    This study assessed the potential application of fluorescence spectroscopy in detecting adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil and characterizing the samples according to the source of the fat. Pure butterfat was adulterated with different vegetable oils at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40%). Nonfat and reduced-fat milk were also adulterated with vegetable oils to simulate full-fat milk (3.2%). The 2- and 3-dimensional front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and gas chromatography were used to obtain the fluorescence spectra and fatty acid profile, respectively. Principal component analysis and 3-way partial least squares regression analysis were applied to analyze the data. The pure and adulterated samples were discriminated based on the total concentration of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids, and also on the 3 major fluorophores: tryptophan, tocopherols, and riboflavin. Fluorescence spectroscopy was able to detect up to 5% of adulteration of vegetable oil into the butterfat. The saturated fatty acids showed higher predictability than the unsaturated fatty acids (R(2) = 0.73-0.92 vs. 0.20-0.65, respectively). The study demonstrated the high potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to rapidly detect adulteration of milk fat with vegetable oil, and discriminate commercial butter and milk according to the source of the fat. PMID:23415535

  8. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the...... dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  9. Churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk alone and blending it with goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleme Asresie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the churning efficiency of milk sample for buttermaking from camel milk by blending it with goat milk and microbiological quality of butter made at different blending levels were assessed. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with five treatments: T1 (100% camel milk, T2 (75% camel and 25% goat milk, T3 (50% camel and 50% goat milk, T4 (25% camel and 75% goat milk and T5 (100% goat milk. The churning efficiency and microbiological quality of the milk and butter samples were analyzed following standard procedures. The fermentation time (11.33 days, churning time (121.7 min and churning temperature (28°C of T1 were significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other milk samples. T1 had significantly (P < 0.001 lower churning pH (4.13 and butter yield (49.3 g/L than the other samples. T3 and T4 had significantly (P < 0.001 higher butter yield than the other milk samples. The fermentation time, churning time and churning temperature of T5 were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than the rest and T5 required significantly (P < 0.001 higher churning pH than the other milk samples. The coliform count (CC, enterobacteriaceae count (EBC, lipolytic bacteria count (LBC and yeast and mould count (YMC of T1 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other butter samples. The CC, EC and total bacteria count (TBC of T5 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than T2, T3 and T4 and it had significantly (P < 0.001 lower TBC than the others. The results showed that blending camel milk with goat milk improved churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk at different blending levels. Although butter can be made from pure camel milk, it took longer churning time and fermentation time. Thus, research is needed in order to reduce the churning time, improve the yield of butter and microbial quality made from pure and blended camel milk by manipulating the operating parameters viz., pH of the milk, churning

  10. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw; Osamu Saito; Kazuhiko Takeuchi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP) that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of inp...

  11. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DE MANTEIGAS TIPO EXTRA COMERCIALIZADAS NO ESTADO DO RIO DE JANEIRO QUALITY EVALUATION OF BUTTERS COMMERCIALIZED IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanilda M. AUGUSTA

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A manteiga é um produto gorduroso onde a fase aquosa está dispersa na fase oleosa formando emulsão do tipo água/óleo. As análises físicas e químicas revelam se a fase oleosa apresenta alterações decorrentes de hidrólise, rancificação ou adulteração. A adição de outras gorduras na manteiga provoca alterações em seus índices físicos e químicos. Para avaliar a qualidade de manteigas tipo extra com sal comercializadas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, cinco marcas nacionais e duas importadas, totalizando 66 amostras, foram submetidas às análises de acidez, índice de peróxidos, índice de iodo, teor de umidade, teor de cloreto de sódio e composição em ácidos graxos por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução. A acidez das amostras variou de 0,76 a 2,03 ml SN%; o índice de peróxidos de 0,15 a 3,82 meq peróxidos/kg gordura; o índice de iodo de 20,76 a 53,46 g I2/100g gordura; o teor de umidade de 11,3 a 20,3%; o teor de cloreto de sódio de 0,14 a 2,21%; a composição em % dos principais ácidos graxos foi C14:0 (9,7-12,1%; C16:0 (22,0-26,1%; C18:0 (9,6-11,7% e C18:1 (21,9-24,2%. Os resultados das amostras foram comparados com o RIISPOA (1952 e com a Portaria n0. 146/96 do MAARA. Todas as amostras analisadas estavam com a acidez dentro dos padrões; 85,5% estavam com índice de peróxidos acima do permitido; 15,2% estavam fora dos limites de índice de iodo; 34,8% estavam com excesso de umidade e 7,5% estavam com o teor de cloreto de sódio acima do permitido. A composição em ácidos graxos estava dentro dos padrões.Butter is a fatty product where the aqueous phase is dispersed in oil phase forming a water/oil emulsion. The physical and chemical analysis determine the occurrence of hidrolysis, rancification or adulteration in the oil phase. The improper addition of other fats in butter formulation, in order to reduce costs, causes a modification of the oil phase physical and chemical characterisitics. Five brazilian

  13. Lactic acid bacteria from "Sheep's Dhan", a traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep’s Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep’s milk in Jijel (East of Algeria. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exopolysaccharide.

    Veintiséis bacterias lácticas fueron aisladas de “Sheep´s Dhan”, una mantequilla tradicional hecha con leche de oveja en Jijel (al Este de Argelia. Estas cepas pertenecen a tres géneros: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc y Lactobacillus. Los resultados mostraron que Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis fue la especie predominante en esta mantequilla tradicional. Los resultados de la evaluación de la aptitud tecnológica indican que la principal cepa tiene una buena aptitud de acidificación, algunas de ellas mostraron una buena actividad proteolítica y únicamente Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum fue capaz de producir exopolisacárido.

  14. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.; Lichtenstein, A.H.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Bistrian, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    either butter (B) or an interesterified mixture (IM) of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT),and safflower oils. Blood drawn during weeks 5 and 10 of feeding was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),LDL-C, and triacylglycerols (TAG). Mean plasma levels of...... TC (B, 6.98+/-1.06 mM; IM, 7.09+/-1.20 mM), HDL-C(B,1.30+/-0.35 mM; IM, 1.29+/-0.34 mM), and LDL-C (B, 4.91+/-0.95 mM; IM, 4.92+/-1.10 mM) were not significantly differentbetween the two dietary treatments. Mean TAG levels were higher for the interesterified B-MCT mixture (B, 1.75+/-0.72 mM; IM,1.......96+/-0.86 mM, P <0.05). We conclude that an IM of B, MCT, and safflower oils as compared to native B has no appreciable effect onplasma cholesterol concentrations but is associated with a modest rise in plasma TAG....

  15. ‘Don't play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V.; Ryan, Mark H.; Vanderbilt, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don't play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don't play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years. PMID:27095009

  16. ‘Don’t play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don’t play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don’t play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  17. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years. PMID:27095009

  18. Determination of Trace Elements in Ghanaian Shea Butter and Shea Nut by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Alhassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the concentrations of trace elements in Ghanaian shea nut and shea butter. As part of the study, measurements of the elemental composition of shea butter and shea nut samples were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA using the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1. Samples collected from local markets in the Northern region of Ghana and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM 1547 Peach leaves were irradiated at the GHARR-1 facility. Validation of the method was done using NIST SRM Orchard Leaves (1571 under the same experimental conditions. Six trace elements (Na, Mn, Al, Cl, Ca and K were detected with maximum concentration of Na found to be 15±1 mg/kg in SN5, Mn; 7.4±0.8 mg/kg in SN6, Al; 259±3 mg/kg in SN1, Cl; 666±27 mg/kg in SN1, Ca; 0.21±0.04 wt.% in SN4, K; 2.0±0.04 wt.% in SN1, Ce; 3.2±0.06 mg/kg in SN2, Se; 0.12±0.004 mg/kg in SN4, and Sc; 0.40±0.02 mg/kg in SN2 . The concentrations of the trace elements were within the limit laid down for safe human consumption.

  19. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 oC under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s-1 and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material

  20. A rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic protocol for detection of adulteration in ghee (clarified milk fat) with vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anupama; Sharma, Vivek; Arora, Sumit; Lal, Darshan; Kumar, Anil

    2015-04-01

    Detection of milk fat adulteration with foreign fats/oils continues to be a challenge for the dairy industry as well as food testing laboratories, especially in the present scenario of rampant adulteration using the scientific knowledge by unscrupulous persons involved in the trade. In the present investigation a rapid reversed-phase thin layer chromatographic (RP-TLC) protocol was standardized to ascertain the purity of milk fat. RP-TLC protocol did not show any false positive results in the genuine ghee (clarified butter fat) samples of known origin. Adulteration of ghee with coconut oil up to 7. 5 %, soybean oil, sunflower oil and groundnut oil up to 1 %, while, designer oil up to 2 % level could be detected using the standardized RP-TLC protocol. The protocol standardized is rapid and convenient to use. PMID:25825547

  1. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

  2. utilization of some plant oils in production of butter substitutes and keeping their quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of using a blend of RBD palm oil and RBD stearin production of butter substitute free from cholesterol and trans fatty acids (formed due to hydrogenation of oils which is used for production of butter substitutes or margarine) by blending, and to study the possibility of using safe gamma irradiation doses for keeping the quality of the product in comparison to the use of sodium benzoate a preservative.Tow parts of butter substitute samples were prepared. Samples of the first part consisted of 58.31% RBD palm oil, 24.91% RBD stearin, 0.25% emulsefir, 12.4% boiled water, 2.4% dried skim milk, 1.5% sodium chloride, 0.3% sodium benzoate, 100 ppm of antioxidant ( T.B.H.Q.) and butter flavour 2 m1/kg. while samples of the second part were prepared from the same constituents without the addition of sodium benzoate. Then, samples of the second part were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 2,4,6 and 8 kGy (except some samples to serve as control samples)

  3. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration. PMID:26678129

  4. Perception of fatness

    OpenAIRE

    Jałkiewicz, Małgorzata

    1997-01-01

    The study’s objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between bodily fatness traits described with anthropometric measurements and the assessment of the physical attractiveness of people with different degree of fat deposition. Furthermore, an attempt was made to answer the question whether we perceive the physique of another man as a whole or if we pay more attention to certain parts of the body and whether there is a stereotype of desirable fat deposition.

  5. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  6. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets. PMID:27132833

  7. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  8. The Evolution of Shea Butter's "Paradox of paradoxa" and the Potential Opportunity for Information and Communication Technology (ICT to Improve Quality, Market Access and Women's Livelihoods across Rural Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bello-Bravo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shea trees grow across 4 million km2 of sub-Saharan Africa. Shea parklands provide a sustainable source of edible fat (shea butter that, in terms of volume, is currently second only to cocoa butter as a vegetal source of stearic acid in the multi-billion dollar chocolate and cosmetic sectors. However, in terms of international trade, shea has been opaque to consumers of edible products (where the majority of shea exports end their global journey and actually only well-known in western markets as a cosmetic ingredient. The millions of women collectors have been disconnected from global supply chains, as the majority of their sheanuts are factory processed, supplied by traders who, in many cases, do not understand quality issues nor share knowledge with their village-based collectors—this is the “Paradox of paradoxa”. This review provides the background to this issue by contextualizing the industry and describing how weak post-harvest quality control impacts the shea supply chain. The paper then explains how this knowledge was incorporated into a 3D animation available for free transmission to rural African audiences and viewing on portable devices like video capable mobile phones. This tool offers the potential of low-cost multiple benefits to users, which we term here a win-cubed [win3] opportunity, where women collectors can receive free knowledge of using less resources to produce higher quality shea kernels which in turn offer higher extraction yields, lowering production costs, of a better and more marketable product.

  9. Bees wax and its unsaponifiables as natural preservative for butter and cottonseed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag, R. S.

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Simple model systems consisting of butter oil or refined cottonseed oil mixed with melted bees wax and its unsaponifiables were designated to study their hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity during storage. Whole bees wax at 0,5 and 1% levels possessed significant pro-hydrolytic activity whilst its unsaponifiables at 0,25 and 0,5% exhibited antihydrolytic effect on butter oil. The addition of whole bees wax at 0,5 and 1 % caused no effect on peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of butter oil. However, bees wax unsaponifiables significantly reduced both peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of stored butter oil. Bees wax unsaponifiables added to refined cottonseed oil had no effect on the acid value, whilst whole bees wax possessed significant prohydrolytic activity. The data for peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values of refined cottonseed oil demonstrated that both whole bees wax and its unsaponifiables had approximately the same antioxidant efficacy. The effectiveness of the added materials on the secondary oxidation products of refined cottonseed oil can be ranked according to its inhibition activity as follows: BHT (200 ppm > bees wax (1% > bees wax (0,5% > bees wax unsaponifiables (0,5% > bees wax unsaponifiables (0,25% > control.

    aceites de semilla de algodón Sistemas modelo simples consistentes en aceite de mantequilla o aceite de semilla de algodón refinado mezclado con cera de abeja derretida y su insaponificable fueron diseñados para estudiar su rancidez oxidativa e hidrolítica durante el almacenamiento. La cera de abeja íntegra a niveles del 0,5 y 1% tuvo una actividad pro-hidrolítica significativa, mientras que su insaponificable al 0,25 y 0,5% exhibió efecto antihidrolítico sobre el aceite de mantequilla. La adición de cera de abeja íntegra al 0,5 y 1% no causó efecto sobre el índice de peróxido y ácido tiobarbitúrico del aceite de mantequilla. Sin embargo, el insaponificable de cera de abeja redujo

  10. Leaf area determination of shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Mbah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available . Linear dimensions (length and width and adaxial area of shea butter leaves obtained from 13 month old seedlings were measured. Correlation analysis revealed highly significant (P < 0.01 positive relationship between leaf area (LA, leaf length (L, leaf width (W and the product of the leaf length and width (LW. By means of regression analysis, the following model was developed to estimate the adaxial leaf area: LA = 4.41+1.14LW (P < 0.001; r2 = 95.2%, where LA is adaxial leaf area (cm2 and LW is the product of the linear measurement of the leaf length and width. This method of leaf area estimation is simple, cheap and could enable repeated in-situ measurements of leaf area of the plant since it is non-destructive.

  11. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with higher amounts of polyunsaturated fats include: Walnuts Sunflower seeds Flax seeds or flax oil Fish, such as salmon, mackerel, herring, albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to replace unhealthy fats with healthy ...

  12. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  13. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat a mix of foods — some with higher percentages of fat and some with lower percentages — so that you ... and they insulate nervous system tissue in the body. So fat is not the enemy, but you'll want ...

  14. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Granular cell tumors Fat necrosis and oil cysts Mastitis Duct ectasia Other non-cancerous breast conditions Summary ... References Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens ...

  15. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  16. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Understanding and refining the molecular-scale processes involved in the manufacture of structured materials such as long-chain hydrocarbon compounds is important in many commercial areas such as the petrochemical, biochemical, food, pharmaceutical and soap industries. In such processes crystallisation is an important separation, purification and preparation technique. Despite this our knowledge of the crystallisation process itself is surprisingly limited. In order to improve the crystallisation of confectionery fats, the crystallisation of it's main component, cocoa butter fat, must be properly understood. Cocoa butter fat can exhibit up to 6 polymorphic forms of different crystallographic structures with melting points varying from 17.3 deg C to 36.3 deg C. During the production of chocolate it is essential to control the polymorphic form of fats present, in order to produce a final product with the correct physical and rheological properties. Both shear rate and temperature are thought to play a crucial role in this process. The most widely used method for studying polymorphism is X-ray diffraction. Typical X-ray diffraction patterns of fats exhibit two groups of diffraction lines corresponding to the long and short spacings. The long spacings correspond to the planes formed by the methyl end groups and are dependent on the chain length and the angle of tilt of the component fatty acids of the glyceride molecules. The short spacings refer to the cross sectional packing of the hydrocarbon chain and are independent of the chain length. The relationship between crystallisation rate, polymorphic form, shear and the fat composition has for the first time been quantified, which will enable more accurate control of the polymorhic form in chocolate production. This has been achieved by developing an improved in-situ cell for X-ray studies. The X-ray studies are necessary for the examination of on-line studies under well controlled conditions of temperature

  17. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  18. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana, cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L., palm oil (Elaeis guinensis and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG compositions, and melting and solidification behaviors. Although plant fats are completely different from lard with respect to fatty acid and TAG compositions, they share some common thermal features with lard. Based on thermal analysis, lard and plant fats, except cocoa butter, are found to have thermal transitions in both low (< 0 °C and high (> 0 °C melting regions of their cooling and melting curves. According to pulse NMR data, mee fat and lard are found to display closely similar solidification profiles in the temperature range of 0-25 °C, while palm oil and lard are found to have similar solidification profiles in the temperature range between 25-40 °C. Hence, the thermo-physical property comparison between plant fats and lard may be useful to formulate a fat blend which simulates the thermal properties of lard.

    La comparación de las propiedades térmica y mecánicas de la manteca de cerdo y la de determinadas grasas de plantas, podría ayudar a formular sustitutos alternativos de las grasas para aplicaciones alimentarias. En este estudio, basado en materias grasas vegetales como, aguacate (Persea americana, manteca de cacao (Theobroma cacao L., palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis y grasa de mee (Madhuca longifolia se comparan con la manteca de cerdo con respecto a parámetros físico-químicos, composiciones en ácidos grasos y triglicéridos (TAG, y comportamientos de los parámetros de fusión y de solidificación. Aunque las grasas de plantas

  19. Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of krabok (Irvingia Malayana ) and rambutan seed fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of fats extracted from the seeds of krabok (Irvingia Malayana) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) trees grown in Thailand were studied and compared with cocoa butter (CB). The krabok seed fat, KSF, consisted of 46.9% lauric and 40.3% myristic acids. It exhibited the highest saponification value and slip melting point but the lowest iodine values. The three fats displayed different crystallization behavior at 25°C. KSF crystallized into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' structures with a one-step crystallization curve and high solid fat content (SFC). The fat showed simple DSC crystallization and melting thermograms with one distinct peak. The rambutan seed fat, RSF, consisted of 42.5% arachidic and 33.1% oleic acids. Its crystallization behavior was more similar to CB than KSF, displaying a two-step crystallization curve with SFC lower than that of KSF. RSF solidified into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' before transforming to β after 24 h. The large spherulitic microstructures were observed in both KSF and RSF. According to these results, the Thai KSF and RSF exhibited physicochemical, thermal characteristics and crystallization behavior that could be suitable for specific applications in several areas of the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23196867

  20. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (pTFA content of edible oils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised. PMID:27374582

  1. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  2. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306 U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7 mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2 days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48 h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412

  3. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were stron...

  4. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/24723079 . Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard, JD, Hubbard VS, de Jesus JM, Lee IM, ... modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 2012;5:CD002137. PMID: 22592684 ...

  5. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisors Press Releases Annual Reports Donations Privacy Policy Advertising Site Map Adults Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing Childhood Obesity Pediatric BMI Assessment Overweight Assessment: A Parent's Guide ...

  6. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fat Include: Canola Oil Sardines Corn Oil Sesame Seeds Cottonseed Oil Soybeans Flaxseeds Soybean Oil Herring Sunflower Oil Mackerel ... facts label) Palm or Palm Kernal Oil Canola oil Poultry Skin Poultry without the skin Red Meat White meat ...

  7. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body plans for times when food might be scarce. Fat gives food flavor and texture, but it's ... Eating Well While Eating Out Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend Reprint Guidelines Share this ...

  8. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific nutritional deficiencies in, for example, iron or vitamin B12 . A qualitative fecal fat may be ordered as ... Chronic pancreatitis Pancreatic cancer Cystic fibrosis (affects the function of the pancreas) Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Diseases and ...

  9. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several fats and oils at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba İnanç Horuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants recently have gained popularity since synthetic ones have toxic and carcinogenic effects. In the present study, effect of temperature (120, 150 and 180°C and cinnamaldehyde on oxidative stability of several oils (olive, hazelnut and palm oils and fats (milkfat and butter was examined. In order to compare the results with the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT was used at a concentration of 200 ppm. This level is the legal maximum limit allowed. Experiments were conducted by using a PetroOxy device, a rapid small scale oxidation stability test. According to induction time values obtained by PetroOxy device, the stability of oils drastically decreased with increasing temperature. Cinnamaldehyde had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on all fat and oil samples compared to control (no antioxidant added and BHT added samples. BHT significantly increased induction times of all fat and oil samples at lower temperatures. However, it was not effective at 180°C (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that cinnamaldehyde could not be considered as a good alternative to BHT for preservation of fats and oils at high temperatures.

  10. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (Pcoconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response. PMID:27102847

  11. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  12. Edible oils and fats

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Bauer, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Edible oils and fats are biological mixtures of plant origin consisting of ester mixtures derived from glycerol with chain of fatty acids. The rate of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in edible oils and fats is very important for human nutrition. While high levels of saturated fatty acids is desirable to increase oil stability, on the other hand nutritionally they become undesirable, because high levels of saturated fatty acids are frequently considered to have influence in increasing...

  13. Cocoa Butter Saturated with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Measurements and Modelling of Solubility, Volumetric Expansion, Density and Viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Calvignac, Brice; Rodier, Elisabeth; Letourneau, Jean-Jacques; Almeida dos Santos, Pedro Miguel; Fages, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The use of supercritical carbon dioxide technology for lipid processing has recently developed at the expense of traditional processes. For designing new processes the knowledge of thermophysical properties is a prerequisite. This work is focused on the characterization of physical and thermodynamic properties of CO2-cocoa butter (CB) saturated mixture. Measurements of density, volumetric expansion, viscosity and CO2 solubility were carried out on CB-rich phase at 313 and 353 K and pressures ...

  14. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    in epidemiological studies, where the typical fatty acid composition of milk-fat, i.e. a high level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been correlated to increased insulin-resistance. It is therefore essential to characterize the impact of milk......Background: In several recent studies, it has been shown that markers of milk-fat intake, are strongly correlated to a low fasting-insulin level, indicating a positive correlation between milk-fat intake and improved glucose-tolerance [1, 2]. This is in contradiction to the general findings...

  15. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Benhamada, N.; Leghouchi, E.

    2010-07-01

    This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria). Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Antioxidant activity of date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifra L.) extract for oxidative stabilisation of butter oil at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, long term preservation of butter oil was achieved through ethanolic extract of date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Butter oil was supplemented with date palm fruit extract (DPFE) at three different concentrations i.e. 250, 500 and 750 ppm (T 1, T/sub 2/ and T/sub 3/) and compared with a control. Total phenolic content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation of the DPFE was 5.19 GAE, 74.2 and 81%, respectively. IC/sub 50/ value of date extract for the inhibition of DPPH and linoleic acid peroxidation was 2.45 and 0.82 mg/mL, respectively. The loss of oleic acid and linoleic acid in control after six months of storage was 16 and 52% as compared to T/sub 3/ which was 4% and 14%.T/sub 3/ yielded the lowest concentration of primary and secondary oxidation products with no effect on sensory attributes. DPFE can be used to enhance the shelf life of butter oil at ambient temperature. (author)

  17. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial potential for use in tropical regions.

    En este trabajo se presenta el comportamiento de la microestructura y la cristalización de mantecas de cacao representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de tres regiones geográficas diferentes de Brasil. Las muestras se evaluaron de acuerdo a la microestructura, la cinética de cristalización y el comportamiento polimórfico. La evaluación de estos parámetros nos permite establecer relaciones entre la composición química y el comportamiento de la cristalización de las muestras, así como las diferencias sobre la adecuación del potencial tecnológico e industrial para su aplicación en las regiones tropicales.

  18. Preparation on the low-fat ice cream of pumpkin%南瓜低脂冰淇淋的生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马川兰; 崔惠玲

    2012-01-01

    Fresh mellow pumpkin was chosen as the raw material of producing low-fat ice cream, while part milk fat was replaced by artificial butter. At the same time, with the sensory quality and expansion rate as evaluation targets, the best formula of the healthy low- fat ice cream was obtained by the orthogonal experiment method: which was the whole milk powder 12%, the pumpkin pulp 20%, CMC 0.15%, xanthan gum 0.10%, artificial butter 3.5%, the white sugar 13%.%选取新鲜成熟南瓜为原料,以人造奶油代替部分乳脂,依据感官质量及膨胀率作为评价指标,通过正交实验获得南瓜保健冰淇淋的最佳配方为:全脂乳粉12%,南瓜浆20%,CMC0.15%,黄原胶0.10%,人造奶油3.5%,白砂糖13%。

  19. Oxidation and Textural Characteristics of Butter and Ice Cream with Modified Fatty Acid Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Sonia

    2001-01-01

    Milk fat composition determines specific rheological, sensory and physicochemical properties of dairy products such as texture, melting point, flavor, color, oxidation rates, and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that milkfats containing higher levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have lower melting points and decreased solid fat contents which leads to softer-textured products. An increased risk of higher oxidation rates can be a disadvantage of high levels of polyunsaturate...

  20. Low Dietary c9t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake from Dairy Fat or Supplements Reduces Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Dietary cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fed at 0.5 % w/w was previously shown to attenuate inflammation in the murine collagen-induced (CA) arthritis model, and growing evidence implicates c9t11-CLA as a major anti-inflammatory component of dairy fat. To understand c9t11-CLA's contribution to dairy fat's anti-inflammatory action, the minimum amount of dietary c9t11-CLA needed to reduce inflammation must be determined. This study had two objectives: (1) determine the minimum dietary anti-inflammatory c9t11-CLA intake level in the CA model, and (2) compare this to anti-inflammatory effects of dairy fat (non-enriched, naturally c9t11-CLA-enriched, or c9t11-CLA-supplemented). Mice received the following dietary fat treatments (w/w) post arthritis onset: corn oil (6 % CO), 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 % c9t11-CLA, control butter (6 % CB), c9t11-enriched butter (6 % EB), or c9t11-CLA-supplemented butter (6 % SB, containing 0.2 % c9t11-CLA). Paw arthritic severity and pad swelling were scored and measured, respectively, over an 84-day study period. All c9t11-CLA and butter diets decreased the arthritic score (25-51 %, P CLA- and EB-fed mice. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 were increased in arthritic CO-fed mice compared to NA mice but were reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice through day 42. In conclusion, 0.125 % c9t11-CLA reduced clinical arthritis as effectively as higher doses, and decreased arthritis in CB-fed mice suggested that the minimal anti-inflammatory levels of c9t11-CLA might be below 0.125 %. PMID:27270404

  1. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed press-cake

    OpenAIRE

    Radočaj Olga F.; Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly ...

  2. Simultatenous determination of diacetyl and acetoin in traditional turkish butter stored in sheep’s rumen (Karinyagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce, R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Karinyagi (traditionally named karin is made of cows’ milk cream and is produced by filling butter in cleaned sheep’s rumen. The effect of butter storage in sheep’s rumen on the production of diacetyl and acetoin was investigated. These compounds were determined by GC-MS and they are the typical butter flavor commonly found in fermented dairy products. The modified method for the simultaneous extraction of diacetly and acetoin from butter samples was accurate and precise. The recoveries of diacetyl and acetoin were 94.7 and 110.8%, respectively, while the detection limits were 1.83 and 0.51 mg·L-1, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the monitoring of aroma compounds in Karin butter samples during different time intervals. The concentration of acetoin remained stable through 0–50 days while the concentration of diacetyl increased to 33.0 μg·g-1 up to 40 days and remained constant through 40–50 days.El Karinyagi comercial (nombre tradicional Karin está hecho de crema de leche de vaca, y producido llenando con mantequilla el rumen limpio de ovejas. Se ha investigado el efecto del almacenamiento de la mantequilla en el rumen de ovejas sobre la formación de diacetilo y acetoína. Estos compuestos son el típico flavor a mantequilla que se detecta comúnmente en los productos lácteos fermentados y han sido determinados mediante GC-MS. El método modificado para la extracción simultánea de diacetilo y acetoína en mantequilla resultó ser exacto y preciso y las recuperaciones de 94,7 y 110,8 % respectivamente, mientras que los límites de detección fueron 1.83 y 0,51 mg·L-1, respectivamente. El método propuesto se aplicó al control de compuestos aromáticos en Karin y muestras de mantequilla, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. La concentración de acetoína se mantuvo estable entre 0–50 días mientras que la concentración de diacetilo aumentó a 33,0 mg·g-1 hasta 40 días y se mantuvo constante

  3. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg-1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  4. Fat Embolism Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullin М.М.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fat embolism syndrome (FES, and the complications occurring in fractures of long bones or pelvic bones are considered. Clinical picture classically develops after “lucid space“, then appear pulmonary and neurological manifestations combined with petechial hemorrhage. Basic theories of FES pathophysiology are analyzed. Early signs are likely to be caused by mechanic vascular occlusion by fat globules. Vascular occlusions in FES are frequently temporary or partial as fat globules block capillary blood flow incompletely due to their flowability and deformity. The diagnosis is made based on clinical presentations using A.R. Gurd’s criteria (1970. Laboratory and instrumental methods are used for clinical diagnosis confirmation or therapy monitoring. The treatment is aimed mainly at supporting respiratory function and hemodynamics stabilization. Prevention, early diagnosis and adequate symptomatic treatment are of primary importance.

  5. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Fat and Calorie Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut butter, commercial peanut butter, homemade Cordials and liqueurs: Amaretto, Cointreau®, crème de menthe, Grand Marnier® Irish Cream liqueur Corn: whole kernel cream-style on the cob, ...

  6. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P < 0.05) and the run-in period (P < 0.005 and P < 0.05, respectively) and increased HDL cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P < 0.05). No difference in effects was...

  7. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of < 32 mg/kg in cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, < 27 mg/kg, in cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin. PMID:19007497

  8. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  9. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  10. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    OpenAIRE

    Katan, M B

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  11. Bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

  12. Estabilidade de pasta de amêndoa de castanha de caju Stability of cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a estabilidade de pasta de castanha de caju obtida pela moagem de amêndoas quebradas com açúcar, sal e lecitina de soja. A influência de diferentes embalagens (potes de vidro e de polipropileno e do uso de antioxidantes (BHA, BHT e tocoferóis na qualidade do produto também foi investigada. Características físico-químicas (atividade de água, índice de acidez, cor e textura instrumentais, microbiológicas (coliformes totais e fecais, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bolores e leveduras e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, foram acompanhadas durante 300 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28 °C. Foi observado aumento do índice de acidez, redução da maciez e descoloração. No entanto, essas alterações pouco afetaram a aceitação sensorial, que ficou entre "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei moderadamente", após os 300 dias de armazenamento. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram boa qualidade do produto, estando dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira: contagem de coliformes a 45 °C (fecais menor que 10 NMP.g -1 e ausência de Salmonella spp. em 25 gramas. Os resultados demonstraram que as pastas podem ser armazenadas nas condições e tempo testados, e que não houve influência dos materiais de embalagem utilizados e nem dos antioxidantes na estabilidade do produto.This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants (BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated. Physicochemical (water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeast and mold and

  13. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  14. A Matter of Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Philip C

    2015-09-01

    Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) is a common complication of critical illness, associated with significant morbidity, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, and increased mortality. Inflammation plays a central role in ARDS, with inflammatory eicosanoid mediators produced from the ω-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, such as leukotriene B4, being involved. The ω-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, including decreasing production of inflammatory eicosanoids from arachidonic acid. The ω-3 fatty acids are effective in models relevant to ARDS. Several randomized controlled trials of enteral formulas rich in ω-3 fatty acids, often in combination with other bioactive substances, have been conducted in patients with ARDS. Four of these trials reported marked clinical benefits, 2 reported no effect, and 1 reported a negative impact. A systematic review and meta-analysis of these 7 trials identified no overall effect on ventilator-free days or on ICU-free days. There was a small reduction in ICU length of stay and no overall effect on mortality. However, the authors formally identified that trials that used high fat in both treatment and control groups showed a significant reduction in mortality, while trials that used a high, or higher, fat treatment and a low-fat control group showed a trend toward an increase in mortality. It is concluded that differences in outcome reported among these studies largely relate to the relative fat contents of the treatment and control formulas. Further, it is concluded that high-fat enteral formulas should not be used in this patient group. PMID:25533963

  15. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  16. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10-7 M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  17. Information content of X-ray analyses characterizing the structural state of cocoa butter and their manufacturing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct X-ray analyses performed on the model substance cocoa butter revealed a direct relation between the easily measurable quantities of the diffraction pattern (site, intensity and sharpness of the reflexes) and the characteristic parameters of the sample (lattice constants, 'perfection' and crystalline fraction), which can be derived from these measured quantities, on the one side, and the technological parameters of the manufacturing process (tempering regimen and storage conditions) on the other side. An automated X-ray diffractometer was used and an optimal measuring strategy was developed the measuring effects being sufficiently great as compared to the measuring errors and the characterization of one sample requiring only 30 - 60 minutes. (author)

  18. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyu Salihu; Muntari Bala; Bala, Shuaibu M.

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween...

  19. Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Petry, Nicolai; Walther, Barbara; Bütikofer, Ueli; Luginbühl, Werner; Gille, Doreen; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François P; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-28

    Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:25990454

  20. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  1. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  2. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  3. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  4. Get the fat out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatenko, Natalia A; Gerner, Eugene W

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of a number of cancers in humans, but the mechanism(s) responsible for these associations have not been established. It is estimated that 68% of adults are overweight or obese and that obesity may be causative in 4% to 7% of cancers in the United States. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the association between obesity and cancer including adipose-directed signaling (e.g., mTOR, AMPK), production of factors (e.g., insulin growth factor 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and/or chronic inflammation associated with obesity. Huffman and colleagues used surgical methods to determine if visceral fat was causally related to intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(1638/N+) mouse in a manner independent of confounding factors such as caloric restriction. They found that caloric restriction could extend survival in both male and female Apc(1638/N+) mice but found that surgical removal of visceral fat was only effective in reducing macroadenomas in females. The results of this study do not identify the specific mechanism of association between visceral fat and intestinal carcinogenesis in female mice but do support the rationale for future cancer prevention trials that evaluate pharmacologic and behavioral strategies to reduce abdominal obesity in humans. Cancer Prev Res; 6(3); 161-4. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23466814

  5. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  6. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2012-01-01

    measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure......Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...

  7. Isothermal Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter at 17 and 20 °C with and without Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolle, Annelien; Goderis, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2016-05-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation were used to elucidate isothermal cocoa butter crystallization at 17 and 20 °C in the absence and presence of different limonene concentrations. At 17 °C, a three-step crystallization process was visible for pure cocoa butter, whereby first an unknown structure with long spacings between a 2L and 3L structure was formed that rapidly transformed into the more stable α structure, which in turn was converted into more stable β' crystals. At 20 °C, an α-mediated β' crystallization was observed. The addition of limonene resulted in a reduction of the amount of unstable crystals and an acceleration of polymorphic transitions. At 17 °C, the crystallization process was accelerated due to the acceleration of the formation of more stable polymorphic forms, whereas there were insufficient α crystals for an α-mediated β' nucleation at 20 °C, resulting in a slower crystallization process. PMID:27066807

  8. Binding of iron, zinc, and lead ions from aqueous solution by shea butter (Butyrospermun Parkii) seed husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eromosele, I.C.; Otitolaye, O.O. (Federal Univ. of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria))

    1994-08-01

    Several workers have reported on the potential use of agricultural products as substrates for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. These studies demonstrated that considerable amounts of metal ions can be removed from aqueous solutions by cellulosic materials. The merit in the use of the latter is their relative abundance and cheapness compared to conventional materials for the removal of toxic metal ions from waste-waters. In some of the studies, chemical modification of cellulosic materials significantly enhanced their ion-binding properties, providing greater flexibility in their applications to a wide range of heavy metal ions. Shea butter plant (Butyrospermun Parkii) normally grows in the wild within the guinea-savana zone of Nigeria. The seeds are a rich source of edible oils and the husks are usually discarded. The husk is thus available in abundance and, hence, there is reason to examine its ion-binding properties for its possible application in the removal of toxic metal ions from industrial waste-waters. This paper reports on preliminary studies of the sorption of iron, zinc and lead ions from aqueous solution by modified and unmodified shea butter seed husks. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    The still growing obesity epidemic is a major risk for our society, as it is associated with the development of the so called metabolic syndrome, which is a clinical diagnosis correlated to development of metabolic disorders. Lack of physical activity, excess energy intake, and nutritional factors...... disorders. Dairy fat is the most complex type of fat occurring in the nature, with more than 400 identified fatty acids. Several of these fatty acids that occur in low amounts have been suggested to have beneficial properties with regard to metabolic disorders. The concentrations of certain of these minor...... e.g. fatty acid composition of the diet, are important factors with regard to development of metabolic syndrome. There is a controversy between the fact that several studies has shown that intake of saturated fatty acids are strongly correlated to the development of metabolic related diseases...

  10. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2011-01-01

    percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute......Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population......-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a...

  11. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza; Bruno Tavares Apgaua; João Daniel Milhomens; Francisco Tadeu Motta Albuquerque; Luiz Antônio Carneiro; Márcio Henrique Mendes; Tiago Carvalho Garcia; Clerisson Paiva; Felipe Ladeia; Deiler Célio Jeunon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to b...

  12. Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta Rai; Marsland, Alexander M; Vishal Madan

    2014-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

  13. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Morrison

    Full Text Available As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats, as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals.ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON containing cocoa butter (15% w/w and cholesterol (1% w/w for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF or virgin (VIR pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content.Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity.Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin

  14. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  15. Effect of cocoa butter replacement with a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid (C-trim30) on the rheological and tribological properties of chocolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter in chocolates was replaced with C-trim30 (5, 10, 15% by weight), a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid containing elevated amount of beta-glucan (32%, db). Then, the effects of the C-trim30 on the rheological, tribological, and textural properties of chocolates were investigated. The viscos...

  16. Dietary Fats and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Ristic-Medic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet can have important effects on prevention and/or improvement clustering metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Fatty acids as food ingredients regulate cholesterol homeostasis and concentrations of blood lipoproteins, and affect the levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors, such as blood pressure, haemostasis, and body weight, through various mechanisms. There is convincing evidence that exchanging dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated fat produces beneficial effects on metabolic control, i.a. it lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations, improves the postprandial lipid profile and lowers the blood pressure. Serum fatty acid composition mainly reflects dietary fat intake, but also endogenous fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by desaturases. Furthermore, high fat intake and serum fatty acid profile may influence the progression of obesity and insulin sensitivity. This review highlights current dietary guidance of fats quality recommendation in health and cardio metabolic risk.

  17. Fat embolism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A G; Mettler, F A; Christie, J H; Gordon, R E

    1986-07-01

    The fat embolism syndrome is clinically evident in approximately 0.5-2.0% of patients with long bone fractures. The clinical signs and symptoms are evident in 60% of patients within 24 hours and 85% of patients within 48 hours after trauma. A patient is reported who complained of dyspnea and hemoptysis approximately 72 hours after sustaining a fracture to the distal tibia and fibula. Radionuclide ventilation/perfusion imaging was obtained to rule out pulmonary thromboemboli. Perfusion imaging demonstrated the characteristic diffuse, subsegmental ("mottled") appearance of fatty emboli to the lung. PMID:3731649

  18. Effect of growth on the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg in peanut butter, measured by a new thin-layer thermal death time device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A; Fleischman, Gregory J; Chirtel, Stuart J; Grove, Stephen F

    2012-06-01

    In published data the thermal destruction of Salmonella species in peanut butter deviates from pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reasons for such deviation are unknown. This study examined both the method used to measure the thermal destruction rate and the method of growth of the microorganisms to explain variations in destruction kinetics. Growth on a solid matrix results in a different physiological state that may provide greater resistance to adverse environments. In this study, Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg were grown for 24 h at 37°C under aerobic conditions in broth and agar media to represent planktonic and sessile cell growth, respectively. Peanut butter was held at 25°C and tested for Salmonella levels immediately after inoculation and at various time intervals up to 2 weeks. Thermal resistance was measured at 85°C by use of a newly developed thin-layer metal sample holder. Although thermal heat transfer through the metal device resulted in longer tau values than those obtained with plastic bags (32.5 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 1.9 s), the bags have a relative variability of about 15 % compared with about 3 % in the plates, allowing improved uniformity of sample treatment. The two serovars tested in the thin-layer device showed similar overall thermal resistance levels in peanut butter regardless of growth in sessile or planktonic states. However, thermal destruction curves from sessile cultures exhibited greater linearity than those obtained from planktonic cells (P = 0.0198 and 0.0047 for Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Tennessee, respectively). In addition, both Salmonella serovars showed significantly higher survival in peanut butter at 25°C when originally grown on solid media (P = 0.001) with a environment such as peanut butter. PMID:22691482

  19. [Posttraumatic fat embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Y; Guillaume, C; Perrot, D; Delafosse, B; Motin, J

    1984-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1982, fifty cases of post-traumatic fat embolism were treated in a general intensive care unit. Average age of patients was 25.5 +/- 13 years; there was no male majority. Mean free interval was 39 +/- 27 h. 12 cases (24%) had single fractures and 38 (76%) multiple fractures. Forty-four patients had a fractured femur. Thirty-two patients presented the complete clinical syndrome with general, respiratory, neurological and cutaneous signs. Thrombocytopaenia and hypocholesterolaemia were the biological signs most often seen. In forty-four patients, orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization, usually with traction. Twenty-six patients were reoperated on: intramedullary nail for twenty patients, plate for the other six. Fat embolism appeared in spite of surgery in six cases; it worsened after surgery in six others. Seven patients had per- or postanaesthetic problems. Fourteen per cent of patients died. The decrease in mortality was mainly due to an improvement in mechanical ventilation techniques. Early surgical fixation remained the rule if there was no serious respiratory distress or haemodynamic instability, although it did not seem to change the mortality rate in this group of patients. PMID:6497076

  20. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoui, Tayeb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria. Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    Esta es la primera vez que se describen las propiedades microbiológicas y fisicoquímicas y la composición en ácidos grasos de una mantequilla tradicional producida con leche de vaca del Este de Argelia. Cinco muestras de mantequilla fueron preparadas en el laboratorio siguiendo el método tradicional usado por la población del área de Jiels (Este de Argelia. Nuestros resultados muestran la presencia de ácido láctico, bacterias psicrotróficas y levaduras, mientras que stafilococos y bacterias lipolíticas no fueron detectadas. Importantes diferencias fueron encontradas en los valores químicos de las diferentes muestras de mantequilla. Los valores de pH variaron entre 4.64 y 5.53. La humedad e impurezas excedió el 17.5% y 9.19%, respectivamente. Los valores de índice de acidez, índice de peróxidos, índice de saponificación e índice de yodo variaron entre: 23.56-31.35 mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g, respectivamente. Finalmente

  1. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B;

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat ox...

  2. The effect of fat removal on glucose tolerance is depot specific in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifei; Strader, April D; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Energy is stored predominately as lipid in white adipose tissue (WAT) in distinct anatomical locations, with each site exerting different effects on key biological processes, including glucose homeostasis. To determine the relative contributions of subcutaneous and visceral WAT on glucose homeostasis, comparable amounts of adipose tissue from abdominal subcutaneous inguinal WAT (IWAT), intra-abdominal retroperitoneal WAT (RWAT), male gonadal epididymal WAT (EWAT), or female gonadal parametrial WAT (PWAT) were removed. Gonadal fat removal in both male and female chow-fed lean mice resulted in lowered glucose levels across glucose tolerance tests. Female lean C57BL/6J mice as well as male and female lean FVBN mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, indicated by decreased areas under glucose clearance curves. For the C57BL/6J mice maintained on a high-fat butter-based diet, glucose homeostasis was improved only in female mice with PWAT removal. Removal of IWAT or RWAT did not affect glucose tolerance in either dietary condition. We conclude that WAT contribution to glucose homeostasis is depot specific, with male gonadal EWAT contributing to glucose homeostasis in the lean state, whereas female gonadal PWAT contributes to glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice. These data illustrate both critical differences among various WAT depots and how they influence glucose homeostasis and highlight important differences between males and females in glucose regulation. PMID:17652151

  3. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  4. The Quality of Milk Chocolate Bars by Substitution of Cocoa Butter, Milk Powder and Lecithin Soya – A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasni Dian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk chocolate is most important products of confectionary that are well-known for its consumer, and a precious ended product in entirely value added chain in cacao. In chocolate industry, each ingredient plays an important role in product quality. This research aims to assess the possibility of substitution of cocoa butter and its impact on physiological appearance and sensory quality hedonically, to formulate optimum formulation of palm oil as cocoa butter substitute (0%; 10%; 20%, milk powder (0%; 10%; 20% and lechitin (0.5%; 1%; 1.5%. Melting point and attribute preferences test were conducted for aroma, texture and flavour. Melting point were indicated that interaction within palm oil replacement and milk powder had significant impact to lowering the melting point of milk chocolate, whilst addition of lechitin up to 1% also decreased the melting point range. Attribute preference test from 40 untrained panellists evaluated that palm oil replacement up to 20% had improved the panellists preferences for aroma whereas it had contradiction effect for texture. For taste, additional milk powder up to 20% definitely enhances the taste preferences. Partial Least Regression shows that palm oil replacement had negative effect on aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, whereas it has positive impact on texture. The increase of additional of milk powder plays an negative impact as well to panellist perceptions towards aroma, flavour and texture. Lechitin as emulsifier influences significantly towards the aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, but not for texture. Sensory evaluation revealed that milk chocolate made from 10% palm oil substitution, 10% milk powder and 1% lechitin as more accepted hedonically as conventional milk chocolate.

  5. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    Full Text Available Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana, which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs, suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts

  6. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana), which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs), suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts during future

  7. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Tchkonia, T.; Morbeck, D.E.; Zglinicki, T. von; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lustgarten, J.; Scrable, H.; Khosla, S.; Jensen, M.D.; Kirkland, J L

    2010-01-01

    Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat ablation and certain mutations affecting fat increase life span. Fat cells turn over throughout the life span. Fat cell progenitors, preadipocytes, are abundant, closely related to macrophages, and dys...

  8. Processing and phosphorylation of the Fat receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yongqiang; Irvine, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila tumor suppressors fat and discs overgrown (dco) function within an intercellular signaling pathway that controls growth and polarity. fat encodes a transmembrane receptor, but post-translational regulation of Fat has not been described. We show here that Fat is subject to a constitutive proteolytic processing, such that most or all cell surface Fat comprises a heterodimer of stably associated N- and C-terminal fragments. The cytoplasmic domain of Fat is phosphorylated, and this...

  9. Signal transduction by the Fat cytoplasmic domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Guohui; Feng, Yongqiang; Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A.; Sun, Gongping; Huff, Matthew; Rauskolb, Cordelia; Irvine, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The large atypical cadherin Fat is a receptor for both Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. Here we investigate the molecular basis for signal transduction downstream of Fat by creating targeted alterations within a genomic construct that contains the entire fat locus, and by monitoring and manipulating the membrane localization of the Fat pathway component Dachs. We establish that the human Fat homolog FAT4 lacks the ability to transduce Hippo signaling in Drosophila, but can trans...

  10. Research on Complex Emulsifiers-thickeners and its Application in Peanut Butter Protein Milk%乳化增稠剂的复配及其在花生酱蛋白饮料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申利娟; 郑海平; 朱锡忠; 朱宵鹏

    2012-01-01

    Peanut protein milk was produced by using peanut butter, milk powder, and sugar as the main materials. The stability of the peanut protein milk was investigated after added with complex emulsifiers-thickeners and then subjected to a range of 10 to 50 MPa for homogenization. It indicated when added complex emulsifiers-thickeners 0.46% (polyglycerol esters of fatty acids 0.10%, sodium stearoyl lactylate 0.03%, CMC 0.03%,biopolymer cellulose 0.25%, k-carrageenan 0.05%), and the pressure of homogenization is 40 MPa at 70°C, its stability was satisfactory. No precipitation or obvious fat-floating of the samples were found after a 6-month constant temperature storage.%以花生酱、奶粉、白糖等原辅料制成的花生蛋白饮料为试样,进行不同均质压力,乳化增稠剂组合试验,考察其体系的稳定性.结果表明:采用均质温度70℃,均质压力40 MPa,添加复配乳化增稠剂0.46%(聚甘油脂肪酸酯0.10%,硬脂酰乳酸钠0.03%,羧甲基纤维素钠0.03%,微晶纤维素0.25%,卡拉胶0.05%)时,产品的稳定效果最好.经常温贮存6个月观察,试样无沉淀,无明显脂肪上浮.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of autologous fat grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 30-year-old female patient with isolated facial lipodystrophy underwent two sessions of fat injection. MR signals of injected fat at different injection ages were compared to native fat. Native T1 signal was smaller for transplant fat, probably due to a slightly lower fat content and/or fibrosis or due to higher perfusion. T2 signal of transplants was significantly higher than that of native fat. T1 post-contrast was also higher, and contrast uptake of transplanted fat increased slightly with transplant age, which could be explained by an increasing perfusion. This study demonstrates the differences and MR signal time changes of native and transplanted fat. (orig.)

  12. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. PMID:23800269

  13. Studies of fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties, and crystallization behavior of mango kernel fats from various Thai varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    Mango kernel fat (MKF) has received attention in recent years due to the resemblance between its characteristics and those of cocoa butter (CB). In this work, fatty acid (FA) composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of MKFs obtained from four varieties of Thai mangoes: Keaw-Morakot (KM), Keaw-Sawoey (KS), Nam-Dokmai (ND) and Aok-Rong (AR), were characterized. The fat content of the mango kernels was 6.40, 5.78, 5.73 and 7.74% (dry basis) for KM, KS, ND and AR, respectively. The analysis of FA composition revealed that all four cultivars had oleic and stearic acids as the main FA components with ND and AR exhibiting highest and lowest stearic acid content, respectively. ND had the highest slip melting point and solid fat content (SFC) followed by KS, KM and AR. All fat samples exhibited high SFC at 20℃ and below. They melted slowly as the temperature increased and became complete liquids as the temperature approached 35°C. During static isothermal crystallization at 20°C, ND displayed the highest Avrami rate constant k followed by KS, KM and AR, indicating that the crystallization was fastest for ND and slowest for AR. The Avrami exponent n of all samples ranged from 0.89 to 1.73. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that all MKFs crystallized into a mixture of pseudo-β', β', sub-β and β structures with β' being the predominant polymorph. Finally, the crystals of the kernel fats from all mango varieties exhibited spherulitic morphology. PMID:24919475

  14. Dining centers cut trans fats

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Dining Services has pulled ahead of the pack in cutting trans fat from its menus--surpassing restaurants like Burger King, KFC, Taco Bell, and others who have announced that they also will be making the change this spring.

  15. MRI of Hoffa's fat pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa is commonly injured but rarely discussed in the radiological literature. Abnormalities within it most commonly are the consequences of trauma and degeneration, but inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the synovium can be confined to the fat pad. The commonest traumatic lesions follow arthroscopy, but intrinsic signal abnormalities can also be due to posterior and superior impingements syndromes and following patellar dislocation. Infrapatellar plica syndrome may also be traumatic in aetiology. The precise aetiology of ganglion cysts is not understood; the principal differential diagnosis is a meniscal or cruciate cyst. Hoffa's fat pad contains residual synovial tissue, meaning that primary neoplastic conditions of synovium may originate and be confined to the fat pad. Inflammatory changes along the posterior border of the pad may also be used to help differentiate effusion from acute synovitis on unenhanced MR examinations. (orig.)

  16. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  17. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter. PMID:27554151

  18. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter. PMID:27296427

  19. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  1. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  2. Effects of Development Interventions on the Productivity and Profitability of Women Shea Butter Processors in the West Gonja District of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afishata Mohammed Abujaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of development agencies’ interventions on productivity and profitability of women shea butter processors in contributing to the development of the shea nut industry in Northern Ghana. A survey of 114 women shea butter processors, comprising of 57 each of both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of development interventions in the West Gonja District were sampled and interviewed with a semi structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also held to obtain qualitative data. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA conducted at 5% level of significance found that labour productivity of beneficiaries of development interventions by way of training, equipment and machinery provisions do not differ significantly from that of respondents who had never benefited from such interventions. Similar results were found with regard to average monthly profit made by beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Market sourcing was identified as a major problem affecting women shea butter processors in the district. The study therefore recommends that development agencies programs should highlight follow-up trainings, monitoring and supervisions to ensure the sustainability of projects so that they can continue to yield expected impacts. Also, development agents should include market sourcing opportunities in rural enterprise improvement interventions since that remains a challenge to the realization of development interventions

  3. Corticosteroids for fat embolism after multiple fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huai-sheng; ZHANG Qing-mei; WEN Jun-min; WEN Shun-kang; YI Jing; ZHOU Zhi-qiang; WU Sheng-nan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fat embolism is a common complication of multiple fractures. Corticosteroids are usually prescribed in prophylactic and treatment of fat embolism. A case of fat embolism followed multiple fractures was hospitalized, and we searched best evidences about corticosteroids for fat embolism so as to provide best therapeutics for the patient.

  4. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration. PMID:26604397

  5. Effects of convective and microwave roasting on the physicochemical properties of cocoa beans and cocoa butter extracted from this material

    OpenAIRE

    Krysiak, W.

    2011-01-01

    The cocoa beans of the Ivory Coast variety were convectively and microwave roasted. The effects of roasting conditions on the principal physicochemical attributes (water and fat contents, total and volatile acidity) of roasted cocoa beans and the properties of fat extracted from this material (acidity, saponification index, iodine index, peroxide value, light refraction coefficient, polar fraction content, and Fatty Acid profile, absorbancy of 1 and 10% solution in hexane) were examined. The ...

  6. Epicardial fat volume assessment in cardiac CT

    OpenAIRE

    Coppini, Giuseppe; Favilla, Riccardo; Moroni, Davide; Salvetti, Ovidio; D'Errico, Luigina; Salituri, F; Ciardetti, Marco; Schlueter, Mathis; Faggioni, Luca; Coceani, Michele; Mazzarisi, Alessandro; M. Bianchi; Bartolozzi, C; Marraccini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Epicardial fat, as other visceral fat localizations, is correlated with car- diovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. However, many concerns remain about the method for measuring epi- cardial fat, its regional distribution on the myocardium, as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. At present, dedi- cated software procedures to assess epicardial fat are lacking. On the other hand, manual fat segmentation requires a huge and tedious oper...

  7. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  8. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  9. Role of butter layer in low-cycle fatigue behavior of modified 9Cr and CrMoV dissimilar rotor welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Modified 9Cr–CrMoV dissimilar turbine rotor was successfully welded by NG-SAW. • LCF properties of both welded joints were approximate at smaller strain amplitude. • Tempered martensite with amounts of carbides in HAZ contributed to weakest zones. • Matched BL determined LCF properties of whole joint for dissimilar welded rotor. - Abstract: The present work aims at studying the role of butter layer (BL) in low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of modified 9Cr steel and CrMoV steel dissimilar welded joint. The significant difference of the chemical composition of base metals (BMs) makes it a challenge to achieve sound welded joint. Therefore, buttering was considered to obtain a transition layer between the dissimilar steels. The LCF tests of two kinds of specimens without and with butter layer were performed applying strain-controlled cyclic load with different axial strain amplitudes. The test results indicated that the number of cycles at higher strain amplitudes of welded joint without butter layer was greatly higher than that of the joint with butter layer, while the fatigue lifetime to crack initiation (2Nf) became closer to each other at low and middle strain amplitudes. The failure was in the tempered heat affected zone (HAZ) at the CrMoV side for specimens without BL, while the fracture occurred at the tempered HAZ in the BL for specimens with BL. The microstructure details of BM, BL, HAZ and weld metals (WMs) were revealed by optical microscopy (OM). It was found that the tempered martensite was major microstructure for welded joint and much more carbides were observed in tempered HAZ than other parts due to the repeated tempering. Microhardness test indicated a softest zone existing tempered HAZ of BL and also there was a softer zone in tempered HAZ at the CrMoV side due to repeated tempering during welding and post weld heat treatment (PWHT). And scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to observe the fractography. It was

  10. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Žgur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %. Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05 subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut / total fat in the cut in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05 in shoulder than Brown bulls.

  11. [Renal ultrasound in fat necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizki, S; Lasry, F; Elftoiki, F Z; Hadj Khalifa, H; Itri, M; Khadir, K; Benchikhi, H

    2013-07-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis is an uncommon disease that may be complicated with potentially fatal hypercalcemia or with nephrocalcinosis. We report on the case of a patient with a history of significant perinatal asphyxia, hospitalized for a urinary tract infection. Lesions of subcutaneous fat necrosis were noted, with asymptomatic hypercalcemia at 3.9mmol/L. A renal ultrasound was performed and showed echogenic medullary pyramids bilaterally, consistent with nephrocalcinosis and left nephrolithiasis. The treatment of hypercalcemia included hyperhydration, a diuretic and corticosteroids. Progression was characterized by the total regression of skin lesions and normalization of serum calcium. Hypercalcemia is a rare complication of subcutaneous fat necrosis. It develops within days to weeks after the appearance of skin lesions. Nephrocalcinosis appears after several weeks or months. Hypercalcemia must be treated in due time to avoid the impact on the kidney. PMID:23726682

  12. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  13. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures or plastic surgery (liposuction, compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45 min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH = 7.21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEq L-1, and lactate = 6.0 mmol L-1. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP = 55 mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF = 60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24 h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale = 3. A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72 h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction. The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis.

  14. Effect of storage on fatty acid profile of butter from cows fed whole or ground flaxseed with or without monensin Efeito do armazenamento sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos da manteiga de vacas alimentadas com dietas contendo linhaça inteira ou moída, com ou sem monensina sódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina da Silva-Kazama

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight Holstein cows with body weight 570 ± 43 kg and 60 ± 20 lactation days were distributed in a double Latin square design with four 21-day periods to determine the effects of feeding ground or whole flaxseed with or without monensin supplementation (0.02% on a dry matter basis on fatty acid profile of butter stored for 15 and 45 days. Ground flaxseed supply, in comparison to whole flaxseed, reduced relative percentages of 16:0, cis7-16:1, 17:0, and cis10-17:1 but it increased those of cis9,trans11-18:2, cis3-18:3, and omega 3 fatty acids in butter fat, reducing relative percentage of medium-chain fatty acids and increasing the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation with monensin increased relative percentages of cis9,trans11-18:2 and tended to increase relative percentage of 17:0 and decrease that of saturated fatty acids in butter. Butter from cows fed diet with monensin presented lower relative percentages of cis 6-20:4. Relative percentages of cis 9-16:1, cis10-17:1, 18:0, trans11-18:1, cis9-18:1, cis3-18:3, cis6-20:4 in butter stored for 15 days were higher than those stored for 45 days and the relative percentages of cis3-20:5 tended to decrease with the increase of storage period. As a result, relative percentages of saturated fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids increased with storage time, while those of monounsaturated and long-chain fatty acids decreased. Butter enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a shorter shelf life due to the negative effect of storage on fatty acid profile which may cause oxidation and rancidity.Oito vacas da raça Holandesa com 570 ± 43 kg de peso vivo e 60 ± 20 dias de lactação foram distribuídas em delineamento quadrado latino duplo, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, para avaliar o fornecimento de linhaça inteira ou moída, com ou sem suplementação de monensina sódica (0,02% na MS, sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos da manteiga armazenada por 15 e 45 dias. O

  15. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed;

    1999-01-01

    : Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P <0.05) lower total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed after theBR and BS period, compared to BG. The effect of BR and BS did not differ. BG and BR...

  16. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in...

  17. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth;

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or...

  18. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  19. Hump behind the shoulders (Dorsocervical fat pad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalo hump; Dorsocervical fat pad ... Cause of dorsocervical fat pad includes any of the following: Certain medicines used to treat HIV or AIDS Long-term use of certain glucocorticoid medicines, ...

  20. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the...... types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore...

  1. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  2. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  3. Production of 1, 3 Regiospecific Lipase From Bacillus sp. RK-3: Its Potential to Synthesize Cocoa Butter Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bacillus sp. RK-3 isolated from soil initially produced 3.28 IU/mL of 1, 3 regiospecific lipase in medium containing 1.0% olive oil. After process optimization, 10.56 IU/mL of lipase was produced in medium containing sunflower oil 1.5 %, tryptone 2 %, Ca2+ 20 mM using 3 % inoculum in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 mL of the medium at pH 7.0, 250 rpm and 30 °C for 36 h. Scale up in 10 L bioreactor with 7.5 L of the optimized medium yielded 16.41 IU/mL in 30 h resulting in net 6.0 fold increase in enzyme units as against initial units of 3.28 IU/mL obtained under unoptimized conditions. The productivity in 10 L bioreactor is 0.547 IU/mL/h as against initial of 0.091 IU/mL/h. The lipase exhibited 95.12 % stability in hexane, followed by THF (75.83 % and petroleum ether (73.85 % after 24 h of incubation. Cocoa butter substitute (CBS synthesis was attempted in a reaction containing 1.2 IU/mg of lipase using palm oil and methyl stearate in hexane. The reaction product being formed was analyzed qualitatively using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and quantified by gas chromatography (GC which showed 83.17 % conversion efficiency for CBS in 24 h.

  4. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method ...

  5. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  6. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  7. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchkonia, T.; Morbeck, D.E.; Zglinicki, T. von; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lustgarten, J.; Scrable, H.; Khosla, S.; Jensen, M.D.; Kirkland, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat abla

  8. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  9. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Seven, Serap; Özcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). In the kernels an...

  10. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keshava Munegowda; Dr. G T Raju; Veera Maninkandanraju

    2014-01-01

    The File Allocation Table (FAT) file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS). Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD) and Hard disk Drives (HDD). The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT) to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontroll...

  11. School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat. In addition to old standbys, such as peanut butter and jelly, try pitas or wrap sandwiches stuffed ... crackers filled with low-fat cream cheese or peanut butter and jelly) peanut butter and celery sticks veggie ...

  12. Milk fat triacylglycerols and their relations with milk fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, and milk production traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzompa-Sosa, D A; van Valenberg, H J F; van Aken, G A; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-05-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerols (TAG) determine the physical and functional properties of butter and products rich in MF. To predict these properties, it is necessary to understand the variability of fatty acids, TAG, their associations, and their effect on milk productive traits, days in milk (DIM), and genes related to fat synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the variability of TAG using MF from individual cows and to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, DIM, and milk production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) on MF TAG profile in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. Large differences in MF TAG profiles were seen among cows. We showed that the variability of TAG is highest for low and high molecular weight TAG [TAG with carbon numbers (Cn) 26-30 and Cn52-54, respectively] and lowest for TAG with Cn38, which was the most abundant TAG. Saturation index (saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid) and the ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 showed significant effects on TAG Cn34, Cn36, Cn52, and Cn54: TAG Cn34 and Cn36 increased as the saturation index and ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 increased, whereas the opposite was seen for TAG Cn52 and Cn54. Moreover, the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism significantly affected TAG Cn38. We showed that the relative concentration of TAG with Cn38 was higher in cows with DGAT1 KK genotype. Production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) and DIM had no significant effect on TAG profile. This is a relevant observation because considerable increases of milk yield and fat content have been seen in the Netherlands over the last 60 yr. The large differences shown between individual cows in MF TAG profile imply differences in physical properties of MF. PMID:26971154

  13. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvester Žgur; Marko Čepon

    2007-01-01

    Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed) were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight ...

  14. Use of Extrusion Technology and Fat Replacers to Produce High Protein, Low Fat Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Amrita

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of extrusion technology and fat replacers to produce high protein, low fat Cheddar cheese. In chapter 3, four different fat replacers were tested at the highest concentration level of each, as recommended by the manufacturers for low fat cheese, to investigate the change in cheese texture and optimize extruder conditions. In addition, the press time/pressure combinations of the extruded cheeses were optimized. The fat replacers and extruder conditions that w...

  15. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. PMID:26566569

  16. Low fat meat products - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366

  17. Silencing FAT10 inhibits metastasis of osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengbin; Zhang, Zhiyu; Cui, Yan; Yuan, Hongmou; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis is the main challenge of osteosarcoma treatment. Herein, we first reveal the oncogenic role of FAT10 in metastasis of osteosarcoma. FAT10 was upregulated in osteosarcoma, especially in metastatic osteosarcoma. High level of FAT10 was associated with poorer prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. Moreover, Transwell and Matrigel assays revealed that silencing FAT10 significantly inhibited the invasive and migratory abilities of osteosarcoma cells. Metastasis assay in vivo showed that silencing FAT10 decreased the number of mice with distant metastasis. We also found that FAT10 may act its oncogenic functions through regulating HOXB9. Collectively, the results suggested that FAT10 may be a novel therapeutic target for osteosarcoma patients. PMID:27279480

  18. USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Zouari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microorganisms synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Microbial surfactants are not yet a sustainable alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants seeing their potentially high production charges. This study highlights the use of low-cost agro-industrial raw material for fermentative production of biosurfactants. The Box–Behnken Design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of the ratio butter milk /distilled water, poultry-transforming wastes and inoculum size for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by B.subtilis SPB1 in submerged fermentation.The best production yield was about 12.61 ± 0.7 g/L of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant. It can be obtained when using a ratio butter milk /distilled water of 1.5, poultry-transforming wastes of 23g/L and an inoculum size of 0.12. In comparison to the highest biosurfactant production yield reported for Bacillus subtilis SPB1, three fold increases were obtained.

  19. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Todd L. Richards; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  20. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Munegowda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The File Allocation Table (FAT file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS. Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD and Hard disk Drives (HDD. The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontrolled power loss or abrupt storage device removable from the computer system, during file system update, causes corruption of file system meta data and hence it leads to loss of data in storage device. This paper implements the Logging and Committing features to FAT and ExFAT file systems and ensures that the file system meta data is consistent across the abrupt power loss or device removal from the computer system.

  1. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K;

    2012-01-01

    ). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF......), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM...

  2. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  3. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  4. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw; Wichuk, Stephanie; Østergaard, Mikkel; Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...... an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the...... localization and phenotypic diversity of fat lesions in patients with axial SpA....

  5. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was moderate. Long chain fatty acids had moderate heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd was high. Several genomic regions (QTL) with effect on short and medium chain, long chain, or both types of fat...

  6. Elasticity, viscosity, and deformation of orbital fat

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, Ivo; Hoefnagel, Pepijn; Mastenbroek, Tom; Kolff, Cornelis; Schutte, Sander; van der Helm, Frans; Picken, Stephen; Gerritsen, Anton; Wielopolski, Piotr; Spekreijse, Henk; Simonsz, Huib

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. For development of a finite element analysis model of orbital mechanics, it was necessary to determine the material properties of orbital fat and its degree of deformation in eye rotation. METHODS. Elasticity and viscosity of orbital fat of eight orbits of four calves and two orbits of one rhesus monkey were measured with a parallel-plate rheometer. The degree of deformation of orbital fat was studied in two human subjects by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) through the o...

  7. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) Ice cream Cheese Lard Trans Fat Commercially baked pastries, cookies, doughnuts, muffins, cakes, pizza dough, pie crusts Packaged snack foods (crackers, microwave ...

  8. Windmills, Butter, and Bacon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In spite of ideological concerns due to N.F.S. Grundtvig’s reservations about the natural sciences and the traditional education of his day, the Grundtvigian movement and, especially, teachers at the People’s High Schools and the agricultural schools played an important role in the dissemination ...... Grundtvigian movement contributed not only to political and cultural nation building but also to technological modernization and economic growth in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Denmark.......In spite of ideological concerns due to N.F.S. Grundtvig’s reservations about the natural sciences and the traditional education of his day, the Grundtvigian movement and, especially, teachers at the People’s High Schools and the agricultural schools played an important role in the dissemination of...... scientific knowledge to the rural population in the decades around 1900. The diffusion of technological innovations such as a decentralized electricity supply system and an automatic cream separator for cooperative dairies had a profound and lasting impact on the development of modern Denmark. Hence, the...

  9. Bread and Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiConsiglio, John

    2010-01-01

    Annual giving is the number one indicator that someone will make a major or planned gift. Annual funds are the meat and potatoes of fundraising. But if the annual fund has recently taken a backseat to major and megagifts, the recession made a bad situation even worse. Today, most annual fund performance indicators have plummeted. Virtually all…

  10. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  11. 代可可脂花生夹心糖制作工艺优化%Optimization of Ingredient Composition for Cocoa Butter Substitute/Peanut Bonbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆梅; 靳靖; 魏春燕; 吴聪; 黄博英

    2012-01-01

    以花生糖为糖芯,代可可脂为主要包衣材料,制作代可可脂巧克力花生夹心糖。利用响应面分析法优化糖芯制作工艺。根据Box-Behnken中心组合试验设计原理对工艺条件进行优化,在分析各因素显著性及其交互作用的基础上,得出花生糖芯口感最佳配方为:糖芯的最佳配料为白糖-淀粉糖浆-花生粉末-猪油(添加量质量配比为3.33:4.02:7.24:1),包衣材料的最佳配料为白糖30%、乳化剂0.5%、代可可脂-可可粉8:1(m/m);包衣厚度1.4mm,包衣温度50℃。%In this study,cocoa butter substitute/peanut bonbons were made with peanut sugar as the core and cocoa butter substitute as the main coating material.Response surface methodology was used to optimize the ingredient composition of bonbon core and coating based on a central composite design.According the results of significance analysis of various variables and their interactions,the optimal bonbon core was composed of sugar,starch syrup,peanut powder and lard at a mass ratio of 3.33:4.02:7.24:1,and the optimal bonbon coating was composed of 30% sugar,0.5% emulsifier,and cocoa butter substitute:cocoa powder at a mass ratio of 8:1,1.4 mm in thickness,and formed at 50 ℃.

  12. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  13. 低脂低糖曲奇饼的研制%Development of low-fat and low-sugar cookies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钊; 谢浩鹏

    2016-01-01

    以蔗糖酯和菊粉混合物代替部分油脂,以甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇混合物代替部分白砂糖,以降低曲奇本身的油脂量和糖量。研究结果表明,当面粉100 g,白砂糖15 g,黄油48 g,油脂替代物12 g,蔗糖替代物7 g,得到的曲奇饼干质量最佳,口感和风味与传统曲奇接近,其中油脂替代物中菊粉和蔗糖酯的混合物比例为4∶6,蔗糖替代物中甜菊糖和赤藓糖醇的混合物比例为1∶30。%In this paper,using the mixture of sucrose ester and inulin to replace part of fat, stevioside and erythritol to replace part of sugar, in order to reduce the amount of fat and sugar in the cookies. The results show: it will get the best quality of cookies when 100 g flour adding 15 g sugar,48 g butter,12 g fat substitutes,7g sucrose substitutes,the taste and flavor of cookies are close to the traditional one. The ratio of the inulin and sucrose ester is 4∶6 in the fat substitutes , the ratio of stevioside and erythritol is 1∶30 in the sucrose substitutes.

  14. Sequelae of Fat Grafting Postmastectomy: An Algorithm for Management of Fat Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Doren, Erin L.; Parikh, Rajiv P.; Laronga, Christine; Hiro, Matthew E.; Sun, Weihong; Lee, Marie Catherine; Smith, Paul D; Fulp, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fat grafting is used to improve the reconstructed breast. Local recurrences following mastectomy present as palpable subcutaneous nodules; fat necrosis/oil cysts, a sequelae of fat grafting, also present as subcutaneous nodules. Our objective was to examine the frequency and factors associated with fat necrosis in the postmastectomy reconstructed breast and propose an algorithm for management. Methods: A retrospective review of a breast reconstruction database was conducted to iden...

  15. Comparison of fat maintenance in the face with centrifuge versus filtered and washed fat

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asilian; Amir Hossein Siadat; Razieh Iraji

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autogenous fat injection of the face is a viable and lasting remedy for soft tissue loss and has become a mainstay in facial rejuvenation. Fat transfer as either a stand-alone technique or as an adjunct to other filler technique and lifting depending on patient needs. Although soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat transfer has been increasingly used by esthetic surgeon, but there is no agreement concerning the best way of processing the harvested fat before injection. This ...

  16. Function and cancer genomics of FAT family genes

    OpenAIRE

    KATOH, MASARU

    2012-01-01

    FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are human homologs of Drosophila Fat, which is involved in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity (PCP). FAT1 and FAT4 undergo the first proteolytic cleavage by Furin and are predicted to undergo the second cleavage by γ-secretase to release intracellular domain (ICD). Ena/VAPS-binding to FAT1 induces actin polymerization at lamellipodia and filopodia to promote cell migration, while Scribble-binding to FAT1 induces phosphorylation and functional inhibition of YA...

  17. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov;

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA...

  18. Detecting Fat Content of Food from a Distance: Olfactory-Based Fat Discrimination in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, befor

  19. Determination of Chlorinated Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Edible Oils and Fats using MSPD Extraction and Freeze Lipids-Filtration Cleanup with GC-ECD Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have numerous adverse effects on human health. Although their use have been banned or restricted, residues of these compounds can be found in foods, especially those with high fat content. The purpose of this study was to establish a rapid and simple analytical method for the determination of these compounds in edible oils and fats. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for the simultaneous extraction and purification of analytes from samples using an acetonitrile - acetone (19:1, v/v) mixture as eluting solvent. Lipids remaining in the extract were removed by freezing-lipid filtration, prior to analytes re-extraction with n-hexane. The measurement was performed using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Spiking experiments were carried out to determine the recovery, precision and limits of detection (LODs) of the method. Recoveries were higher than 70% and detection limits were in the range of 20 ng/g to 90 ng/g. These LOD values are lower than the maximum permissible limit which makes this method useful for the purpose intended. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of vegetable oils and butters sampled from the market. (Author)

  20. "When Does It Stop Being Peanut Butter?": FDA Food Standards of Identity, Ruth Desmond, and the Shifting Politics of Consumer Activism, 1960s-1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angie M

    2016-01-01

    This article uses a historical controversy over the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's standard of identity for peanut butter as a site for investigating three topics of high importance for historians of technology, consumption, and food activism: how new industrial food-processing technologies have become regulatory problems; how government, industry, and consumer actors negotiate standards development; and how laypeople try to shape technological artifacts in spaces dominated by experts. It examines the trajectory of consumer activist Ruth Desmond, co-founder of the organization the Federation of Homemakers. By following Desmond's evolving strategies, the article shows how the broader currents of the 1960s-70s consumer movement played out in a particular case. Initially Desmond used a traditional style that heavily emphasized her gendered identity, working within a grassroots organization to promote legislative and regulatory reforms. Later, she moved to a more modern advocacy approach, using adversarial legal methods to fight for consumer protections. PMID:26971728

  1. Cladodes from prickly pear as a functional ingredient: effect on fat retention, oxidative stability, nutritional and sensory properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaddak, Lotfi; Siala, Rayda; Fakhfakh, Nahed; Ayadi, M A; Nasri, Moncef; Zouari, Nacim

    2015-01-01

    The stems of Opuntia ficus-indica known as cladodes are rich source of bioactive and functional substances, which make them important candidate for the production of health-promoting food. Cladodes powder was incorporated at different levels of substitution (2.5%, 5% and 7.5%) in cookies (butter/wheat flour: 55/100 m/m). Substitution of wheat flour by cladodes powder improved dietary fiber, ash, potassium, magnesium and calcium contents of enriched cookies. The results also revealed that cladodes supplementation increased hardness; however, it decreased a* and b* values and reduced exudate loss of cookies during storage. Moreover, rising levels of cladodes powder contribute to the increase of antioxidant activity of cookies and decreased their oxidative degradation. Sensory evaluation showed that cladodes supplementation at 5% level remained acceptable at 5-point hedonic scale. The present study suggested that cladodes supplementation in high-fat cookies not only added nutritional value to food, but also improved its functional characteristics. PMID:26460166

  2. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  5. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice.

  6. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  7. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  8. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  9. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantia nigra, producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers. PMID:24093671

  10. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  11. Fat ful′fill′ment: A review of autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjot Marwah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to utilise fat for the treatment of tissue deficiencies and contour abnormalities. Autologous fat transplantation for soft-tissue augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years. The popularity of tumescent liposuction has brought renewed interest and accessibility of fat for transplantation. Newer techniques and approaches to augmentation have provided more predictable and reproducible results. Fat augmentation has become an effective, safe and reliable method for restoring volume and correcting the atrophy that accompanies senescence. In this review, the authors have described their approach to fat transplantation.

  12. A fat gluino in disguise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  13. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of exotic fat based cosmeceuticals for skin repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandawgade S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango butter was explored as a functional, natural supplement and active skin ingredient in skin care formulations. A foot care cream was developed with mango butter to evaluate its medicinal value and protective function in skin repair. Qualitative comparison and clinical case studies of the product were carried out. Wound healing potential of foot care cream was investigated on the rat excision and incision wound models. Results of the clinical studies demonstrated complete repair of worn and cracked skin in all the human volunteers. Furthermore, foot care cream exhibited significant healing response in both the wound models. The project work could be concluded as establishment of high potential for mango butter to yield excellent emolliency for better skin protection. Improving the product features and medicinal functionality further validate mango butter as a specialty excipient in development of cosmeceuticals and has an immense value for its commercialization.

  15. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. PMID:26667758

  16. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  17. Transconjunctival subperiosteal fat reposition for tear trough deformity: pedicled fat redraping versus septal reset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seungki; Shin, Jong In; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Fat-preserving lower blepharoplasty techniques are increasingly common, but to date there has been insufficient data comparing the results of fat repositioning and septal reset. The authors compared the aesthetic results of the 2 methods using statistical analysis. A total of 120 patients, who had undergone transconjunctival subperiosteal fat repositioning from February 2008 to April 2009, were included. Group 1 (71 patients) underwent fat reposition with pedicled infraorbital fat redraping. Group 2 (49 patients) underwent septal reset to reposition the underlying fat. Documentation of the results with grading (grade 0-III) by 2 surgeons was done, and the results were evaluated for clinical improvement.Septal reset showed statistical significance on grade improvement compared to direct fat manipulation methods in the patients with grade II and grade III deformities. Septal reset also showed a trend for a higher degree of improvement compared to the latter. There were no major postoperative complications. PMID:23722575

  18. Oxidation of fats and possibility of its inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing on the inhibition of oxidation of fats are discussed. Thermal, microwave, photo-initiated and singlet oxygen oxidation of fats were studied. Additives of the rosemary or sage (0.1 mass %) inhibited oxidation of fats

  19. Effects of convective and microwave roasting on the physicochemical properties of cocoa beans and cocoa butter extracted from this material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysiak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cocoa beans of the Ivory Coast variety were convectively and microwave roasted. The effects of roasting conditions on the principal physicochemical attributes (water and fat contents, total and volatile acidity of roasted cocoa beans and the properties of fat extracted from this material (acidity, saponification index, iodine index, peroxide value, light refraction coefficient, polar fraction content, and Fatty Acid profile, absorbancy of 1 and 10% solution in hexane were examined. The characteristics of roasted and raw cocoa beans and their lipid fractions were compared. Results of analyses showed that convective roasting for 35 min at 135°C, air flow rate 1.0mxs-1 and relative humidity RH of 0.45% caused the least advanced changes in fat quality while microwave roasting promoted oxidation of lipids although the quality of roasted cocoa beans was the best.

    Granos de cacao de la variedad Costa de Marfil se han sometido a tostado mediante convección y microondas. Se ha estudiado el efecto de las condiciones de tostado sobre los atributos físico-químicos principales (contenido de agua y grasa, acidez total y volátil del cacao en grano tostado y las propiedades de la grasa extraída de este material (Acidez, índice de saponificación, índice de peróxidos, índice de yodo, índice de refracción, contenido de fracción polar, perfil de ácidos grasos, absorbancia de una solución al 10% en hexano. Se han comparado las características de los granos de cacao tostados y crudos y sus fracciones lipídicas. Los resultados de los análisis mostraron que el tostado mediante convección durante 35 minutos a 135°C, con un caudal de aire de 1,0 m s-1 y HR de 0,45 causó los menores cambios en la calidad de grasa mientras que el tostado mediante microondas promovió en mayor medida la oxidación de los lípidos aunque la calidad de los granos de cacao tostado fue mejor.

  20. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  1. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of AN on accumulation of marrow fat in spine and femur using 1H-MRS and the relationship between marrow fat, BMD, and body composition in subjects with AN and normal-weight controls. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted at a referral center. Patients: Patients included 10 women with AN (29.8 ± 7.6 yr) and 10 normal-weight age-matched women (29.2 ± 5.2 yr). Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcomes Measure: Marrow fat content of the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur measured by 1H-MRS. BMD of spine and hip measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Subjects with AN had higher marrow fat at the fourth lumbar vertebra and femur compared with controls (P = 0.004–0.01). There was an inverse correlation between marrow fat of L4 and femur and BMD of the spine and hip (r = −0.56 to −0.71, P = 0.01–0.0002) and body mass index and sc adipose tissue of the thigh (r = −0.49 to −0.71, P = 0.03–0.0007). There was an inverse correlation between femur marrow fat and sc and total abdominal adipose tissue (r = −0.53 to −0.67, P = 0.003–0.03). Conclusion: Women with AN have greater lumbar and femoral marrow fat than controls, and marrow fat correlates inversely with BMD. This paradoxical increase in marrow fat at a time when sc and visceral fat are markedly reduced raises important questions about functional consequences of this process. PMID:19318450

  2. Fat intake, diet variety and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, I; Freisling, H

    2005-01-01

    Different epidemiological studies indicated that the optimization of diet and nutrition combined with healthy life style can decrease the risk and even lead to amelioration of various noncommunicable diseases. Promising food-based dietary guidelines have been recommended in order to improve the nutritional and health status. One of the most popular recommendations is related to the amount (less fat and fat-rich foods) and type of the dietary fat component (less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower n-6:n-3 ratio). An overview on the nutrient intake among different age groups in Austria shows that the general consumption of some food groups--especially those rich in carbohydrates--is too low and that the intake of fat is far beyond the recommended amount of 30% of total energy (E%). The results of the 24-hour recall made among Austrian adults (n = 2,585) showed that about 18% of this population group had a fat intake of 30-35 E%, whereas 60% had an intake higher than 35 E%. Only 24% of the female and male adults had a fat intake lower than 30 E%. A result of this high proportion of fat--in the form of foods rich in fat--in the average total energy consumption is a too low intake of carbohydrates, and foods rich in carbohydrates, respectively. An increasing fat intake is associated with an increasing intake of some nutrients such as vitamin A, E, calcium and zinc, but a decreasing intake of other nutrients like vitamin C, folate, carotenoids and others. The diversity of foods consumed during a day increases with decreasing amount of fat in the diet of adults. People with a high amount of fat in their daily diet show a lower intake of vegetables and fruit, cereal products, carotenoids, folates and dietary fibers, but a higher intake of meat and meat products, milk and milk products, sweets and flummeries as well as saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol. Of course, a higher variety of food items in the daily diet should not be associated with a

  3. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  4. Fat absorption is not complete by midgut but is dependent on load of fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H C; Zhao, X T; Wang, L

    1996-07-01

    Since the intubation study of B. Borgstrom, A. Dahlqvist, and G. Lundh (J. Clin. Invest. 36: 1521-1536, 1957) in humans, the completion of fat absorption within the proximal small intestine has been widely accepted. Based on this report, it has been assumed that the distal small intestine is exposed to fat only in the setting of pathology. This concept may be flawed, since completeness of fat absorption was calculated from the recovery of a water-soluble marker but the aqueous phase is now known to move independently from fat. To reexamine the question of whether fat absorption is complete by midgut, we measured the recovery of a fat-specific marker, 99mTc-thiocyanate, in a canine model equipped with duodenal and midgut fistulas. The fistulous output allowed for the measurement of the amount of fat entering the small intestine and the amount of fat entering the distal one-half of the small intestine. Emulsion meals containing 15 or 60 g of corn oil were tested. The importance of fat exposure of the distal one-half of the small intestine was further confirmed by comparing the fistulous fat recovery under two different patterns of exposure [allowing (ALL) or denying (150 cm) access to the distal small intestine]. We found that fat recovery depended on 1) the dose of fat (15 vs. 60 g; P recoverable from the midgut fistulous output after the 15-g meal, a much larger amount, 17.1 +/- 5.6 g of fat, was recoverable and therefore not absorbed by the proximal one-half of the small intestine after the 60-g meal. The amount of fat recovery at each fistula was reduced when chyme was allowed access to the whole gut (by triggering fat-induced ileal brake). We conclude that the intestinal length required for fat absorption depends on the load of fat in the meal so that, even after usual meals, absorption of fat is not complete by midgut. PMID:8760108

  5. Effects of fat preparation methods on the viabilities of autologous fat grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Kyung-Won; Min, Kyung-Hee; Chang, Hak; Kim, Sukwha; Heo, Eun-Ju

    2010-10-01

    Fat grafts are commonly used in plastic surgery, but their unpredictable absorption rates are a considerable disadvantage. Furthermore, no agreement has been reached regarding the method that best enables fat graft survival. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different preparation methods on fat graft viability. Fat tissue was harvested from the remnants of transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flaps by syringe aspiration. Harvested fat tissue was prepared using three different methods: centrifugation, metal sieve concentration, and cotton gauze concentration. To evaluate the viabilities of fat cells, XTT assays were performed. For the study, 18 nude mice were allocated to three groups: the centrifugation, metal sieve, and cotton gauze groups (6 mice per group). Prepared fat (1 ml) was injected into the nuchal area of the mice, and 12 weeks later, grafts were dissected to determine graft survival rates and subjected to histologic analysis. No significant differences were observed in graft survival rates and histologic findings (necrosis and vascularity) between the three groups. However, histologic analysis found the metal sieve group to have significantly lower fat cell viability and more inflammation than the other two groups. The findings suggest that the closed centrifugation technique has no advantage over the open cotton gauze technique in terms of fat graft viability, and that the metal sieve concentration method is deficient as a preparation method because it can cause grafted fat degradation. PMID:20442997

  6. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  7. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...... only slightly increased the amount of free fatty acids and hydrolysis took place at all temperatures from 14°C to 27°C. The strain liberates the fatty acids in a nonspecific way, in about the same proportions as those in which they occur in the pork fat....

  8. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  9. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  10. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  11. Investigations into the changes of IR and UV spectral characteristics and the formation of geometric and position isomers in the case of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses (104, 106 and 107) of gamma rays (C0 60) and the after-effect on the change in the IR and UV spectra of sunflower oil, lard and butter. The formation of conjugated dienes (cis-trans and trans-trans) in sunflower oil and lard and of conjugated trienes in sunflower oil at 107 Rad on the one hand and the partial or complete destruction at 106 and 107 Rad in the case of butter on the other hand. What is found is a comparatively good correlative connection between the peroxide content and the increase in differentiated absorption in sunflower oil and lard during storage after exposure to rays. (orig.)

  12. Effect of apple pomace fiber and pork fat levels on quality characteristics of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-06-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat level from 30 to 25 and 20% by partially substituting pork fat with 1 and 2% apple pomace fiber were investigated based on the evaluation of physicochemical properties and textural properties of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages. Increased fat level resulted in decreased moisture content, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and yellowness of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages, whereas, an increase in fat content, caloric energy, pH, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness was observed. The results showed that uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausage samples with increased apple pomace fiber level had lower cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, pH, and redness. The results from this study show that inclusion of apple pomace fiber in the formulation will successfully reduce fat content in emulsion sausages, while improving quality characteristics relative to regular-fat (30%) control. PMID:27030694

  13. Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serotype Tennessee Strain CDC07-0191, Implicated in the 2006-2007 Multistate Food-Borne Outbreak Linked to Peanut Butter in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiangyu; Salazar, Joelle K; Frezet, Stephanie; Maccannell, Duncan; Ribot, Efrain M; Fields, Patricia I; Fricke, W Florian; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee strain CDC07-0191 was isolated from the 2006-2007 multistate food-borne outbreak linked to peanut butter in the United States. Here we report a high-quality draft assembly of the genome sequence of this strain, derived from a patient. This is the first reported high-quality draft genome sequence for S. enterica serotype Tennessee, which will enable in-depth studies of its transmission and virulence. PMID:23704182

  14. [Cerebral fat embolism after closed leg injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiel, E; Fleyfel, M; Onimus, J; Godefroy, O; Leclerc, X; Adnet, P

    1997-01-01

    A 21-year-old man sustained a closed fracture of the leg from an industrial accident, without associated head trauma. The orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization by setting leg in plaster. Two hours after admission, the Glasgow coma scale score was 10. Four hours after admission he developed a coma (Glasgow coma scale score = 7) with repetitive seizures. No lesion was visible on cerebral CT scan. Chest X-ray was unremarkable. Petechiae on the anterior chest wall and abdomen with bilateral mydriasis occurred. Thrombocytopenia with prothrombine time increase were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging, 27 hours after admission, showed high-intensity areas on T2 weighted views due to fat embolism. Retinal haemorrhages were observed. The bronchoalveolar lavage showing fat staining of tracheal aspirates confirmed the diagnosis of fat embolism. This case report emphasizes the possibility of predominant neurologic manifestations of a fat embolism and the diagnostic help of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:9750647

  15. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  16. Pulmonary imaging in fat embolism syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H M; Ducret, R P; Brindley, D C

    1986-07-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scanning can be used to effectively detect fat embolism following skeletal trauma. Typical ventilation/perfusion findings may be present when the chest radiograph is normal, and clinical findings are equivocal. PMID:3731656

  17. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  18. Autologous Fat Graft in the Reconstructed Breast: Fat Absorption Rate and Safety based on Sonographic Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hong Youl; Jung, Bok Ki; Lew, Dae Hyun; Lee, Dong Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Autologous fat graft has become a useful technique for correction of acquired contour deformity in reconstructed breasts. However, there remains controversial regarding the efficacy and safety of the practice for reconstructive breast surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed on 102 patients who had secondary fat grafting after breast reconstruction. Fat harvest, refinement and injection were done by Coleman's technique. All patients were followed up postoperatively wit...

  19. Fat Graft Viability in the Subcutaneous Plane versus the Local Fat Pad

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan S. Constantine, BA; Bridget Harrison, MD; Kathryn E. Davis, PhD; Rod J. Rohrich, MD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fat grafting has been increasingly utilized in both aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedures, yet the basic scientific understanding of fat grafting has lagged behind the pace of clinical innovation and utilization. This lack of basic scientific understanding has perhaps manifested itself in the wide range of graft viability reported across the literature. This study attempts to further the underlying mechanisms of fat graft take and viability through the comparison of the...

  20. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez, Odunayo Ibraheem; Meintjes, Roy; Chamunorwa, Joseph Panashe

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link ...

  1. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  2. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    OpenAIRE

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Trevor A. Mori; Beilin, Lawrence J; Charlotte Wilson; Katherine Hafekost; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Rae Chi Huang; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860...

  3. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O’Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09 per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90 per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995 and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03; these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  4. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  5. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all the nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids, the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with

  6. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  7. FATS: Feature Analysis for Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Nun, Isadora; Sim, Brandon; Zhu, Ming; Dave, Rahul; Castro, Nicolas; Pichara, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the FATS (Feature Analysis for Time Series) library. FATS is a Python library which facilitates and standardizes feature extraction for time series data. In particular, we focus on one application: feature extraction for astronomical light curve data, although the library is generalizable for other uses. We detail the methods and features implemented for light curve analysis, and present examples for its usage.

  8. The impact of liposuction on body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarasso, A; Kim, R W; Kral, J G

    1998-10-01

    Routine liposuction has very low perioperative complication rates and is thus considered to be innocuous. Some authors have even proposed that large-volume liposuction could be therapeutic. However, because subcutaneous adipose tissue has nutritional and thermodynamic metabolic functions proportional to the absolute amount and the distribution of fat, it is possible that removal of subcutaneous adipose tissue might be detrimental. We measured the amount of fat removed by large-volume (>1000 cc) liposuction and expressed the results in terms of absolute and relative changes in total body fat and in visceral adipose tissue (nonsubcutaneous adipose tissue) in 63 normal weight to mildly obese women (n = 51) and men (n = 12). Aspiration of 1.5 +/- 0.7 kg (mean +/- SD) of lipid in women removed 9.2 +/- 3.2 percent of body fat or 10.5 percent of subcutaneous adipose tissue corresponding to a 12-percent increase in the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue. One third of the women (n = 17) had a mean increase of 16 percent (range 13 to 21 percent) in the proportion of visceral fat. In the 12 men, aspiration of 1.7 +/- 0.6 kg of lipid removed 9.8 +/- 2.9 percent of body fat or 12.7 +/- 3.6 percent of subcutaneous adipose tissue, resulting in a 14-percent increase in the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat. The correlation between aspirate and body mass index was 0.57 (p removed relatively little body fat, it led to significant increases in the proportion of visceral adipose tissue. Because the proportion of visceral adipose tissue is a risk factor for metabolic complications of obesity, the metabolic effects of large-volume liposuction need to be evaluated. PMID:9774031

  9. Coming out as fat: Rethinking stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Saguy, AC; Ward, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups, have facilitated the migration of this cultural narrative. Second, we find that the different, embodied context of body size and sexual orientation le...

  10. Sympathetic hyperactivity syndrome following cerebral fat embolization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been no reports of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity syndrome (PSHS) associated with cerebral fat embolization. We describe the case of a young male who developed acute brain injury and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to significant fat embolization following a traumatic femur injury. Our patient demonstrated episodes of significant hypertension, tachycardia, fever and extensor posturing. Extensive evaluation lead to the diagnosis and appropriate ...

  11. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Di Felice; Felicia Farina; Luigi Rizzuto; Patrizia Catanese; Francesco Carini; Rosario Barone; Filippo Macaluso

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Prelimi...

  12. Giardia intestinalis and fecal fat analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ÜSTÜN, Şebnem; ORUÇ, Nevin; İLTER, Tankut

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Malabsorption patients in whom fecal fat analysis was performed were also investigated for Giardia intestinalis. Materials and Methods: Fecal fat tests were studied in 75 malabsorption patients who had applied to the Gastroenterology Department of Ege University Medical Faculty in the period 2009-2010. In addition, stools were examined by parasitological methods in terms of Giardia intestinalis. Results: As a result of stool examination of 75 malabsorption cases, Giar...

  13. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...

  14. Macular Pigment and Percentage of Body Fat.

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Nolan, Dr.; O'Donovan, O.; Kavanagh, Heather; BEATTY, S

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. To Investigate the relationship between percentage of body fat and macular pigment (MP) optical density. Methods. One hundred healthy subjects of ages between 22 and 60 years volunteered to participate in this study. MP optical density was measured psychophysically, serum lutein and zeaxanthin were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body fat was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (D...

  15. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed. PMID:25979504

  16. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  17. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  18. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.

    1987-11-01

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body fat is above normal range, we talk about sarcopenic obesity. In order to evaluate presence of sarcopenic obesity, a group of 140 normal weight students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad were measured. Apart from standard anthropometrical parameters the amount of body fat was also determined by using the method of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed in 25.71% of examined students. By using body mass index values this type of obesity cannot be diagnosed, and knowing that a higher amount of body fat in normal weight persons can lead to complications, especially metabolic, it is of great importance to evaluate the amount of body fat accurately.

  1. Hyaluronic acid fat graft myringoplasty vs fat patch fat graft myringoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Musaed; Saliba, Issam

    2015-08-01

    We aim to compare the hyaluronic acid to fat graft myringoplasty (HAFGM) technique to a recently described modified-FGM (M-FGM) in the repair of tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). We also aim to evaluate the hearing level improvement postoperatively. We conducted a prospective study in an adult tertiary care center between 2012 and 2013. Adult patients presenting with simple TMP were operated on randomly using either HAFGM or M-FGM under local anesthesia in outpatients' settings. Success was considered when complete closure is achieved. Audiometric parameters were evaluated pre and postoperatively. Twenty-four patients were included in the study (HAFGM: 10 patients and M-FGM: 14 patients). Complete closure was achieved in 80 % in HAFGM vs 42.8 % in the M-FGM (p = 0.03). The study was abandoned due to the low success rate in first 14 patients of the M-FGM group. The pure tone audiometry was improved postoperatively in the HAFGM only. The study was aborted because of the unsatisfactory obtained results using the MFGM. It also shows the beneficial effect of hyaluronic acid application to FGM for a successful TMP repair. PMID:24633245

  2. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  3. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Bredella, Miriam A

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (-100.1 to -46.7 HU vs -117.6 to -61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0-62.8 cm(2) vs 5.5-185.9 cm(2), P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = -0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = -0.34 to -0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42-0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = -0.44 to -0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat composition, with

  4. The influence of a high-fat meal on fat taste thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lisa P; Torres, Susan J; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Keast, Russell S J

    2016-06-01

    A high-fat diet for four weeks has been shown to attenuate fat taste sensitivity in healthy weight individuals. However, there is minimal evidence as to whether a single high-fat meal immediately prior to fat taste threshold testing has an effect on thresholds. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of a high-fat meal immediately prior to detection threshold testing for oleic acid (C18:1). Thirty-two participants (15 males, 17 females, aged 39.1 ± 3.1 years, Body Mass Index 23.1 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) attended three laboratory sessions. In each session, participants were randomly assigned to one of three different types of breakfast: a high-fat (60% energy from fat), or low-fat (20% energy from fat) or macronutrient balanced (33% energy from fat) frittata. Fat taste thresholds were evaluated using ascending forced choice triangle tests on two occasions each day; once one-hour post breakfast and then one-hour post the completion of the first threshold test. There was no effect of breakfast type on fat taste detection thresholds for the first testing session of each day (P = 0.288), or the second testing session of each day (P = 0.754). There was also no effect of breakfast within each day (day 1: P = 0.198, day 2: P = 0.199, day 3: P = 0.125). There was no effect of macronutrient composition on the ability of participants to rank the level of fat in food (P = 0.345), or preference for the level of fat in food (P = 0.187-0.868). This study provides preliminary evidence that the composition of the meal consumed by a participant immediately prior to testing does not affect fat taste thresholds. PMID:26964689

  5. Parametrial fat tissue from high fat diet-treated SKH-1 mice stimulates transformation of mouse epidermal JB6 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jamie J.; Lou, You-Rong; Peng, Qing-Yun; Li, Tao; Vakil, Priyal R.; Ding, Ning; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Dong, Zigang; Conney, Allan H.; Lu, Yao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that decreasing visceral adipose tissue by surgical removal of the parametrial fat pads inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), but not a low fat diet (LFD) indicating that the parametrial fat tissue from mice fed a HFD played a role in skin carcinogenesis.

  6. FAT: The Good, the Bad and the Trans Fat Truth and How it Applies to People with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the good and bad things about body fats as well as the truth behind trans fat. Fat has some important roles in the body. It allows for efficient energy storage and is also important for proper growth and development and maintenance of good health. In this article, the author discusses various categories of food fats and…

  7. Transcriptional Control of Brown Fat Determination by PRDM16

    OpenAIRE

    Seale, Patrick; Kajimura, Shingo; Yang, Wenli; Chin, Sherry; Rohas, Lindsay; Uldry, Marc; Tavernier, Geneviève; Langin, Dominique; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1α, UCP1 and type 2 deiodinase expression, and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgeni...

  8. Image Analysis to Determine Intramuscular Fat in Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, T.; Cassens, R. G.; Scheller, K. K.; Arp, S. C.; Schaefer, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The area of intramuscular fat in Holstein steer longissimus was determined using an image analyzing system. Slaughter weights of 500, 636 and 773 kg differed (p < 0.05) for intramuscular fat area, marbling score, and ether extractable lipid . Repeated measurements of intramuscular fat area in a given section showed high accuracy . However, comparing two sections from the same sample, there was often a large difference in fat content between the sections. Fat content determined by the imaging ...

  9. Effect of cheese as a fat replacer in fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Hüdayi ERCOŞKUN

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beef fat substitution with kashar cheese were studied in traditional Turkish fermented sausage; sucuk. Six sucuk formulations were prepared by replacing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of beef fat was substituted with kashar cheese. The fat substitution of fat with kashar cheese decreased fat content and increased protein content of the product that affected the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of products. Saturated fatty acid content increased and unsaturated, mono-...

  10. STUDY ON BODY FAT DENSITY PREDICTION BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanth Reddy Ainala,; Nawaf Aljohani; Kaushik Roy; Xiaohong Yuan; Huiming A. Yu

    2015-01-01

    For a human body to function properly it is essential to have a certain amount of body fat. Fat serves to manage body temperature, pads and protects the organs. Fat is the fundamental type of the body's vitality stockpiling. It is important to have a healthy amount of body fat. Overabundance of fat quotient can build danger of genuine wellbeing issues. Anthropometry is a broadly accessible and basic strategy for the appraisal of body composition. Anthropometry measures are weight,...

  11. Analysis of Oil Components of Mango Seed Butter and Its Penetration Enhancing Effect in Vitro%芒果脂油脂成分分析和体外促渗作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文澜; 梁菊; 董亚南; 陈姗

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the oil components of mango seed butter were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that the six main components of mango seed butter are hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, 11 -dodecenoicacid, arachidic acid,behenic acid, and tetracosanoic acid. The mass fraction of these components are 15.235% , 78. 041% ,0.425% ,4.681% ,0.674% ,0.549% respectively. Skin penetration experiments in vitro show that the oil components of mango seed butter can significantly increase the transdermal penetrance of lidocaine. The accumulated permeation amounts of azone group and mango seed butter group are 794. 84 u,g and 1208. 7 g respectively,while the accumulated permeability are 7.95% and 12.8%. Penetration enhancing effect of mango seed butter in vitro for lidocaine is superior to azone in some degree.%利用气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)分析了芒果脂所含的油脂成分.分析结果显示,芒果脂的6个主要成分及其质量分数分别是:棕榈酸为15.235%,油酸为78.041%,11-二十碳烯酸为0.425%,花生酸为4.681%,山俞酸为0.674%,木质素酸为0.549%.体外经皮渗透试验显示,芒果脂能够显著增加经皮给药制剂的皮肤透过率,氮酮组和芒果脂组对利多卡因的累积透皮量分别为794.840μg和1208.700μg,累积透皮率分别为7.95%和12.80%,芒果脂对模型药利多卡因的体外促渗作用一定程度上优于氮酮.

  12. Autologous Fat Grafting for Whole Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. L. Howes, MBBS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This is the first reported case of a patient who had a single-stage large-volume breast reconstruction with autologous fat grafting, following rotation flap approach (RoFA mastectomy. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the viability of reconstruction of the breast by autologous fat grafting alone, in the context of RoFA mastectomy. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal interval loss of autologous fat on the whole breast reconstruction side. Right RoFA mastectomy was used for resection of an invasive primary breast cancer and resulted in the right breast skin envelope. Eleven months later, the patient underwent grafting of 400 ml of autologous fat into the skin envelope and underlying pectoralis major muscle. Outcome was assessed by using a validated 3D laser scan technique for quantitative breast volume measurement. Other outcome measures included the BREAST-Q questionnaire and 2D clinical photography. At 12-month follow-up, the patient was observed to have maintenance of volume of the reconstructed breast. Her BREAST-Q scores were markedly improved compared with before fat grafting, and there was observable improvement in shape, contour, and symmetry on 2D clinical photography. The 2 new techniques, RoFA mastectomy and large-volume single-stage autologous fat grafting, were used in combination to achieve a satisfactory postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Novel tools for measurement of outcome were the 3D whole-body laser scanner and BREAST-Q questionnaire. This case demonstrates the potential for the use of fat grafting for reconstruction. Outcomes in a larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Sensory and instrumental characterization of low-fat and non-fat cream cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janhoj, T.; Frost, M.B.; Prinz, J.; Ipsen, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored relationships between physical/chemical and sensory properties using a set of 20 low-fat and non-fat cream cheeses. High correlations were found between several descriptors; hand resistance (i.e., tactile firmness) was best predicted by squeezing flow viscometry (r = 0.90) and fo

  14. Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the measuremen

  15. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...

  16. Drying of sweet whey using drum dryer technique and utilization of the produced powder in French-type bread and butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, L; Alsaed, A K; Al-Domi, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to dry sweet liquid whey using drum dryer and to utilize the whey powder in French-type bread and cookies as a sugar substitute. The sweet whey powder was characterized chemically for ash, moisture, water activity, protein, salt, acidity and lactose contents. Optimization parameters including drying temperature, drum speed and starch addition for whey drying by drum dryer were tested to produce the best powder characteristics. The optimum temperature was 140°C at a drum speed of 20 rpm with a corn starch level of 2% (weight per weight). Sweet whey powder produced was used as a sugar replacer in French-type bread and butter cookies at substitution levels of 25, 50 and 75% of total sugars. The developed products were analyzed chemically and sensorially. The two developed products were relatively high in protein, ash, lactose and salts compared to the control samples. Regarding the sensory evaluation, the results showed that the sugar substitution of 25 and 50% in bread and cookies were significantly (p<0.05) better than the control. It can be concluded that sweet whey powder can significantly improve the quality of the studied bakery items. PMID:26035954

  17. Alternative method of oral administration by peanut butter pellet formulation results in target engagement of BACE1 and attenuation of gavage-induced stress responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Zaleska, M M; Riddell, D R; Atchison, K P; Robshaw, A; Zhou, H; Sukoff Rizzo, S J

    2014-11-01

    Development of novel therapeutic agents aimed at treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases require chronic and preferentially oral dosing in appropriate preclinical rodent models. Since many of these disease models involve transgenic mice that are frequently aged and fragile, the commonly used oro-gastric gavage method of drug administration often confounds measured outcomes due to repeated stress and high attrition rates caused by esophageal complications. We employed a novel drug formulation in a peanut butter (PB) pellet readily consumed by mice and compared the stress response as measured by plasma corticosterone levels relative to oral administration via traditional gavage. Acute gavage produced significant elevations in plasma corticosterone comparable to those observed in mice subjected to stress-induced hyperthermia. In contrast, corticosterone levels following consumption of PB pellets were similar to levels in naive mice and significantly lower than in mice subjected to traditional gavage. Following sub-chronic administration, corticosterone levels remained significantly higher in mice subjected to gavage, relative to mice administered PB pellets or naive controls. Furthermore, chronic 30day dosing of a BACE inhibitor administered via PB pellets to PSAPP mice resulted in expected plasma drug exposure and Aβ40 lowering consistent with drug treatment demonstrating target engagement. Taken together, this alternative method of oral administration by drug formulated in PB pellets results in the expected pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics with attenuated stress levels, and is devoid of the detrimental effects of repetitive oral gavage. PMID:25242810

  18. Abdominal CT scanning with fat-density oral contrast medium (''fatCAT'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of inadequate mixing of gastrointestinal contents and conventional high-density oral contrast agents is well known in abdominal CT. The authors recently introduced an animal model which is utilized for CT imaging of the gastrointestinal wall. A fat density oral contrast agent (''fatCAT'') consisting of 12.5% corn oil emulsion was used. They have been evaluating ''fatCAT'' in patients who require abdominal CT scans. The agent has been well tolerated by patients and healthy volunteers. It has consistently produced fat density throughout the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract with exquisite mural visualization. Preliminary calculations suggest that corn oil in the intestinal lumen reduces the local absorbed dose to the mucosa produced by photoelectrons emitted from the high atomic number (barium or iodine) oral contrast agents. Methodology and clinical utility of ''fatCAT'' are presented

  19. Development of low fat UF cheese technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Miočinović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production procedure of low fat cheeses produced from ultrafiltered milk (UF cheese was developed in this study. The production procedure, that includes utilization of UF milk with 2 % of lactose, addition of 1.5 % inulin and salting with 2 % of mixed salt (NaCl/KCl in ratio 3:1 was defined based on the investigation that included the influence of coagulation parameters, different lactose content of UF milk, different inulin content, and different salt type and content on the properties of low fat UF cheeses. Presented production procedure enables the production of a product with satisfactory dietetic and functional properties. Reduced lactose content of UF milk contributes to stabilisation of pH value at an adequate level and achievement of acceptable texture properties of low fat UF cheeses. Defined inulin content (1.5 % improved cheese texture, as well as its functional properties, enabling the cheese produced to be marked as a “good source of fibre”. Reduced sodium content, due to partial substitution of NaCl with KCl, also contributes to the improvement of dietetic properties of cheeses. Low fat UF cheeses, produced according to defined production procedure, were analysed during 8 weeks of ripening and storage periods. Composition, pH values and proteolytic pattern were typical for brined cheeses. Uniform microstructure and acceptable sensory properties, especially the texture, confirm the validity of the developed production procedure of low fat UF cheeses from UF milk.

  20. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  1. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  2. Lipolytic Markers, Insulin and Resting Fat Oxidation are Associated with Maximal Fat Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S L; Chambers, E S; Fletcher, G; Wallis, G A

    2016-07-01

    The maximal capacity to oxidize fat during exercise (MFO) is associated with 24-h fat balance and insulin sensitivity. Understanding factors that influence MFO could have implications for metabolic health. We investigated relationships between selected plasma metabolites, hormones and overnight-fasted resting fat oxidation rates (Resting), with MFO. Resting fat oxidation and MFO was measured in 57 men with blood collected at rest and during exercise. Plasma glycerol (R=0.39, P=0.033), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA: R=0.27, P=0.030) and insulin (R=- 0.36, P=0.007) measured at MFO correlated with MFO; only glycerol remained correlated when controlled for resting concentrations (R=0.36, P=0.008). The change in glycerol from rest to MFO correlated with exercise-induced fat oxidation (R=0.32, P=0.012). V˙O 2max correlated with resting fat oxidation (R=0.44, P=0.001) and MFO (R=0.52, PV˙O 2max (R=0.41, P=0.001). This study reports weak-to-moderate, albeit significant, relationships between plasma lipolytic markers, insulin and resting overnight-fasted fat oxidation with MFO and shows the plasma glycerol response to uniquely reflect exercise-induced fat oxidation. V˙O 2max correlates with fat oxidation but the relationship can be dissociated. Interventions to increase fat oxidation for optimal metabolic health would benefit from, but are not reliant on, increases in V˙O 2max. PMID:27116342

  3. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  4. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy. PMID:26142421

  5. Aetheroleum and fat oxidation of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 The quality of meat changges during storage. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens COBB 500. Chickens were fed by feed mixture with   aetheroleum. Premix of aetheroleum  contained  aetheroleum from Origanum vulgare L. (30 g, Thymus vulgaris L. (10 g and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (10 g. The carcass was stored at -18 °C in a freezer box. Acid number of fat in chicken meat was ranged from 4.74 to 14.57 mg KOH/g fat after 9 months and after 12 months was ranged from 5.75 to 9.11 mg KOH/g fat.doi:10.5219/267   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  6. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    and oils. This assessment was done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2009 until December 2011.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on...... saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...

  7. The fat embolism syndrome. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D

    1990-12-01

    While fat embolism occurs in most (more than 90%) patients with traumatic injury, the fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurs in only 3%-4% of patients with long-bone fractures. FES involves multiple organ systems and can cause a devastating clinical deterioration within hours. The major clinical features of FES include hypoxia, pulmonary edema, central nervous system depression, and axillary or subconjunctive petechiae. Improvements have been made in supporting the respiratory compromise and adult respiratory distress syndrome that these patients develop. Aggressive measures to improve the pulmonary function, i.e., positive pressure ventilation and effective fluid management, are important and expedite fixation of bone fractures. PMID:2245559

  8. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina;

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the...... physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY...

  9. Fat balance in obese subjects: role of glycogen stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrauwen, P; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. In a previous study, we showed that lean subjects are capable of rapidly adjusting fat oxidation to fat intake on a high-fat (HF) diet when glycogen stores are lowered by exhaustive exercise. However, it has been proposed that obese subjects have impaired fat oxidation. We therefore studied the effect of low glycogen stores on fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat (RF) diet to an HF diet in obes...

  10. Dietary Fat Intake among Urban, African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Di NOIA, JENNIFER; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food items:...

  11. Dietary fat and obesity: lack of an important role*

    OpenAIRE

    Willett, Walter C.

    2003-01-01

    The percentage of dietary energy from fat has been suggested to be an important determinant of body fat, and this presumed effect has been used to promote low-fat diets. In short-term randomized trials, a small reduction in body weight is typically seen in individuals randomized to diets with a lower percentage of calories from fat. However, in trials lasting for 1 year or longer, fat consumption within the range of 18-40% of energy had consistently had little if any effect on body fatness. T...

  12. Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, André Nathan; Mendes, Daniel Melo; Toufen, Carlos; Arrunátegui, Gino; Caruso, Pedro; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures. PMID:18797748

  13. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  14. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  15. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H. L. Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD, only fed a high-fat diet (HFD, or fed low-fat diet (LFD for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.

  16. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  17. Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrauwen, P; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; SARIS, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. One of the candidate factors for determining the increase of fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet is the size of the glycogen storage. Therefore, we studied the effect of low glycogen stores on fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet. Twelve healthy, nonobese males and females (age: 22 +/- 1 yr, body mass index: 21.0 +/- 0.7, maximal power output: 254 +/- 11 ...

  18. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar;

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol...

  19. Peripancreatic fat necrosis mimicking pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, M.M.; Schima, W.; Turetschek, K.; Thurnher, S.A. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Fuegger, R. [Dept. of Surgery, University of Vienna (Austria); Oberhuber, G. [Dept. of Pathology, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2001-06-01

    A case of peripancreatic fat necrosis, after an episode of acute pancreatitis, which mimicked pancreatic cancer with lymph node metastases, is presented. We describe the imaging findings with helical CT scanning and with unenhanced and mangafodipir-enhanced MR imaging, with special emphasis on the differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  20. Fat necrosis of the breast: Sonographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the ultrasonographic (US) features of us necrosis of breast. The authors retrospectively reviewed US findings of 12 patients (all females, mean age: 54 years) with histopathologically (n=9) or clinically (n=3) proven fat necorsis of the breast. On US, size, depth/width (D/W) ratio, shape, margin, location, echogenicity and retrotumoral echo (enhancement/attenuation), pattern of the superficial fascia, and skin change were analyzed by two radiologists in agreement. On US, size of the lesion ranged between 0.9 and 4.0 cm in the greatest diameter (mean: 2.2 cm). The D/W ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.7 (mean: 0.55). The shapes of the lesions were oval in all cases. The margins of the lesions were ill-defined in 9 cases. All lesions were located in the subcutaneous fat layer and the echogenicity was hyperechoic in all cases. Nine patients showed inhomogeneous internal echogenicity. Five cases demonstrated posterior acoustic shadowing. In all cases, the lesions displaced the superficial fascia without disruption. Mild-skin thickening was associated in 6 cases. Fat necrosis of the breast had characteristic US features of heterogeneously high echogenic mass in subcutaneous fat layer.

  1. Extraction of fat-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-11-23

    An overview of the different extraction procedures of fat-soluble vitamins from human fluids, foods and pharmaceutical preparations is presented. Methods using organic solvent extraction (both liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction), supercritical fluid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the different types of both vitamins and matrices are discussed. PMID:11762782

  2. GPR119 as a fat sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    acting through, for example, GPR40, but is also probably mediated in large part through the luminal formation of 2-monoacylglycerol acting on the 'fat sensor' GPR119. In the pancreas GPR119 may also be stimulated by 2-monoacylglycerol generated from local turnover of pancreatic triacylglycerol. Knowledge...

  3. Peripancreatic fat necrosis mimicking pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of peripancreatic fat necrosis, after an episode of acute pancreatitis, which mimicked pancreatic cancer with lymph node metastases, is presented. We describe the imaging findings with helical CT scanning and with unenhanced and mangafodipir-enhanced MR imaging, with special emphasis on the differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  4. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  5. Fat May Not Hike Heart Attack Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... department of community medicine and rehabilitation at Umea University. "Lifestyle factors that decrease the amount of fatness may not ... medicine and director of preventive cardiology at the University of Chicago. If someone is overweight, other factors are involved in the risk for heart disease, ...

  6. Fat necrosis of the breast: Sonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhim, Soo A; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Kyu Ho [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To describe the ultrasonographic (US) features of us necrosis of breast. The authors retrospectively reviewed US findings of 12 patients (all females, mean age: 54 years) with histopathologically (n=9) or clinically (n=3) proven fat necorsis of the breast. On US, size, depth/width (D/W) ratio, shape, margin, location, echogenicity and retrotumoral echo (enhancement/attenuation), pattern of the superficial fascia, and skin change were analyzed by two radiologists in agreement. On US, size of the lesion ranged between 0.9 and 4.0 cm in the greatest diameter (mean: 2.2 cm). The D/W ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.7 (mean: 0.55). The shapes of the lesions were oval in all cases. The margins of the lesions were ill-defined in 9 cases. All lesions were located in the subcutaneous fat layer and the echogenicity was hyperechoic in all cases. Nine patients showed inhomogeneous internal echogenicity. Five cases demonstrated posterior acoustic shadowing. In all cases, the lesions displaced the superficial fascia without disruption. Mild-skin thickening was associated in 6 cases. Fat necrosis of the breast had characteristic US features of heterogeneously high echogenic mass in subcutaneous fat layer.

  7. Improving growth of shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. seedlings using mineral N, P and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianda M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For the successful cultivation of most undomesticated fruit trees such as shea butter tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn., there is a need to identify their nutrient requirements and optimal growth conditions. Responses of shea seedlings to combined N and P fertilization, and to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi was investigated. Six months old shea seedlings were transplanted into pots and grown for six months using a sterile nutrient-deficient soil. The seedlings were inoculated with the AM fungus Glomus intraradices Schenk & Smith. The fertilization treatments consisted of a factorial combination of three levels of N supplied as NH4NO3-N and P supplied as Ca(H2PO42. Fertilization stimulated plant height, collar diameter and dry weights (DWs compared with non-fertilized treatments. These improvements were associated with an increase in total shoot N and C uptake (33% increase whereas P and K contents were not affected. There was significant N x P interaction on DWs and total shoot N and C contents, suggesting that seedling N responses were influenced by P rates. Consistent N responses in DWs, and total shoot N and C uptake were significant at the lowest P rate. P increases promoted growth and total shoot nutrient contents in low N-treated seedlings, while reducing growth in higher N rates. The combined application of medium and high rates of N and P fertilizers showed relatively low impact on seedling growth presumably because of suboptimal N:P ratios. Mycorrhizal root colonization was generally low (≤ 12% and was not affected by any of the treatments. There was also no response to inoculation with AM fungi probably because the established mycorrhizal association was ineffective. The potential use of both mineral fertilizers and AM fungi to promote growth performance of shea seedlings are discussed.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter improved memory and up-regulated phospholipase A2 encoding-genes in rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Marco A S; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mury, Fábio B; Lopes, Fernando C F; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2015-10-01

    Reduced phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity has been reported in blood cells and in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and there is evidence that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates the activity of PLA2 groups in non-brain tissues. As CLA isomers were shown to be actively incorporated and metabolized in the brains of rats, we hypothesized that feeding a diet naturally enriched in CLA would affect the activity and expression of Pla 2 -encoding genes in rat brain tissue, with possible implications for memory. To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were trained for the inhibitory avoidance task and fed a commercial diet (control) or experimental diets containing either low CLA- or CLA-enriched butter for 4 weeks. After this period, the rats were tested for memory retrieval and killed for tissue collection. Hippocampal expression of 19 Pla 2 genes was evaluated by qPCR, and activities of PLA2 groups (cPLA2, iPLA2, and sPLA2) were determined by radioenzymatic assay. Rats fed the high CLA diet had increased hippocampal mRNA levels for specific PLA2 isoforms (iPla 2 g6γ; cPla 2 g4a, sPla 2 g3, sPla 2 g1b, and sPla 2 g12a) and higher enzymatic activity of all PLA2 groups as compared to those fed the control and the low CLA diet. The increment in PLA2 activities correlated significantly with memory enhancement, as assessed by increased latency in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task after 4 weeks of treatment (rs = 0.69 for iPLA2, P PLA2 activity in AD brains, the present findings suggest that dairy products enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA may be useful in the treatment of this disease. PMID:25913570

  9. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A; Kreil, Katherine R; Melka, David C; Boden, William D; Dion, Jamie L; Miller, Zachary A; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B; Zink, Donald L

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production information from Retail Chain A's sole supplier of PB, Company A. The PB samples collected from case-patients and Company A were tested for Salmonella. Results.  Forty-two case-patients from 20 states were identified. Of 33 case-patients from whom food exposure information was obtained, 25 (76%) shopped at Retail Chain A and 25 (100%) purchased Company A PB. Three state health departments isolated the outbreak strain from opened jars of PB collected from case-patients. The FDA investigators identified multiple deficiencies in current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) in Company A's manufacturing facility and determined that internal controls were insufficient to prevent shipment of contaminated product. The FDA isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney from implicated product collected at the firm and the environment of the firm's food production facility. Conclusions.  Timely laboratory, investigational, and epidemiologic data led to the voluntary recall of PB by Company A. The FDA suspended Company A's food facility registration, prohibiting the firm from introducing food into interstate commerce. This outbreak underscores the need for effective preventive controls, including robust internal environmental monitoring programs, appropriate action in response to contamination findings, and an improved understanding of food safety at the managerial and corporate levels. PMID:26389125

  10. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents. PMID:25748819

  11. Correlates, causes, and consequences of fat talk: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Amy; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    Fat talk is a term used to describe self-disparaging remarks made to other people about one's weight or body. Fat talk has been both causally and correlationally linked to a number of negative body image-related variables including low body esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, body-related cognitive distortions, and perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin. As such, body image researchers and clinicians would benefit from increased awareness of the current literature concerning fat talk. A narrative synthesis approach is used to summarize all research containing the keywords fat talk, body talk, or weight talk that was published from 1994 to 2014 inclusive. The measures used to study fat talk, outcomes and correlates associated with fat talk, theories that may help explain these findings, and the purpose served by fat talk are reviewed and discussed. In addition, directions for future research on fat talk, including intervention strategies, are examined. PMID:26479947

  12. Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158813.html Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies ... HealthDay News) -- Babies born to mothers who had gestational diabetes may be more likely to carry excess fat ...

  13. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption of......It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...

  14. Epicardial Fat Thickness and Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, G; Petramala, L; Marinelli, C; Calvieri, C; Zinnamosca, L; Concistrè, A; Iannucci, G; De Toma, G; Letizia, C

    2016-04-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and left ventricle (LV) changes. Given its peculiar biomolecular and anatomic properties, excessive epicardial fat, the heart-specific visceral fat depot, can affect LV morphology. Whether epicardial fat can be associated with aldosterone and LV mass (LVM) in patients with PA is unknown. We performed ultrasound measurement of the epicardial fat thickness (EAT) in 79 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with PA, 59 affected by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (IHA), 20 aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), and 30 patients with essential hypertension (low renin hypertension) (EH). The 3 groups did not differ by age, sex distribution, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or blood pressure values. EAT showed a trend of increase in both APA and IHA groups when compared to patients with EH (8.3±1.8 vs. 7.9±1.3 vs. 7.8±2 mm, respectively). EAT was significantly correlated with indexed LVM in the IHA group (r=0.35, p<005), better than BMI or WC were. Interestingly, EAT was highly associated with plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC) and PAC/plasma renin activity (PRA) (PAC/PRA) in the APA group (p=0.58, p=0.37, p<0.01, for both), whereas BMI and WC were not. EAT was also correlated with PRA in the IHA group (p=-0.28, p<0.05). Our study indicates a novel and interesting interaction of EAT with PA, independent of obesity, abdominal fat and blood pressure control. EAT can locally affect LVM, at least in patients with IHA. Further studies in larger population will be required to confirm these findings. PMID:26983926

  15. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  16. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline) on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Y L; Sylla, M S; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-06-01

    Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades) of Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) and Carapa procera (gobi) were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 +/- 37.0 mn and 74.6 +/- 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti) are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 +/- 30.0 mn and 60.8 +/- 33.9 mn). On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8% and 35.9% for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7% and 47.4% against An. gambiae). Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less) than the vaseline's. PMID:12847928

  17. THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR ANIMAL FATS DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Pop; Cornel Laslo

    2009-01-01

    In this article the chemical composition for 3 types of animal fats (pork fat, beef tallow and buffalo tallow), following the variation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids proportion during freezing storage was studied. Determination of chemical composition of animal fats is important in establishing organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, the variation of them in time, nature and proportion of fatty acids conferring specific characteristics to them. For pork fat was determined the...

  18. Consuming Bodies: Fatness, Sexuality, and the Protestant Ethic

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Lesleigh J.

    2007-01-01

    For those readers who spent their entire lives up till today in a secluded bomb shelter or an abandoned cave in some nearby woods, allow me to share a secret with you: fat persons are stigmatized. As I will discuss, and explore, below, fatness has come to represent a slew of undesirable social identities or traits. Fatness also represents some of the rather scary and perplexing contradictions characterizing many Western, industrialized citizens. Fat people often bring to mind -- as well as pr...

  19. Prediction Equation for Calculating Fat Mass in Young Indian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu; Gupta; Shenoy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Accurate measurement or prediction of fat mass is useful in physiology, nutrition and clinical medicine. Most predictive equations currently used to assess percentage of body fat or fat mass, using simple anthropometric measurements were derived from people in western societies and they may not be appropriate for individuals with other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We developed equations to predict fat mass from anthropometric measurements in young Indian adul...

  20. MRI Findings of Pericardial Fat Necrosis: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Hyeok; Ryu, Dae Shick; Jung, Sang Sig; Jung, Seung Mun; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dae Hee [Gangneung Asan Hospital, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Pericardial fat necrosis is an infrequent cause of acute chest pain and this can mimic acute myocardial infarction and acute pericarditis. We describe here a patient with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pericardial fat necrosis and this was correlated with the computed tomography (CT) findings. The MRI findings may be helpful for distinguishing pericardial fat necrosis from other causes of acute chest pain and from the fat-containing tumors in the cardiophrenic space of the anterior mediastinum.