WorldWideScience

Sample records for butter fat

  1. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  2. Analysis of chicken fat as adulterant in butter using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nurrulhidayah, A. F; Rohman, A; Amin, I; Shuhaimi, M; Khatib, A

    2013-01-01

    Butter may be adulterated with cheaper animal fats, such as chicken fat (CF). Thus, the detection and quantification of butter adulteration with CF was monitored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR...

  3. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further.......Objective: To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response. Design: The experiments were designed to provide 20...

  4. Tropical vegetable fats and butters: properties and new alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Salas Joaquín

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fats and butters are characterized by their high contents of saturated fatty acids, which confer to them melting points and rheological properties adequate for the production of high valuable food commodities. We can distinguish 3 groups of tropical fats: those having medium chain fatty acids, like coconut or palm kernel oils, those rich in palmitic acid, like palm oil and its fractions, and those rich in stearic acid like cocoa butter. Modern biotechnology has provided with alternatives to these species in engineered common oil crops enriched in saturated fatty acids and processes aimed to enrich common oils in disaturated TAGs by enzymatic transesterification. The present and future of these new sources of saturated fats are discussed in this work.

  5. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Alkylpyrazines in Regular- and Low-fat Commercial Peanut Butter Preparations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joo, K; Ho, C T

    1997-01-01

    A simple, modified version of the selective purge and trap method was applied for a quantitative analysis of the trace amount of pyrazines present in both regular- and low-fat commercial peanut butter preparations...

  7. Dairy fat in cheese raises LDL cholesterol less than that in butter in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, P J; Chronopulos, A; Cehun, M

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether dairy fat in cheese raises low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as much as in butter, since epidemiology suggests a different impact on cardiovascular disease. A randomised crossover trial testing the daily consumption of 40 g dairy fat as butter or as matured cheddar cheese, each of 4 weeks duration, was preceded by and separated by 2-week periods when dietary fat was less saturated. Free-living volunteers. A total of 14 men and five women of mean age 56+/-8 y, with mean total cholesterol of 5.6+/-0.8 mmol/l. Plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol and glucose. Saturated fat intake was significantly lower during the run-in than during the cheese and butter periods. Mean lipid values did not differ significantly between the cheese and run-in periods, but total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher with butter: total cholesterol (mmol/l): butter 6.1+/-0.7; run-in 5.6+/-0.8 (P cheese 5.8+/-0.6 (P > 0.05); median LDL-C (mmol/l): butter 3.9 (3.5-4.1) vs run-in 3.4 (3.0-4.1) (P cheese 3.7 (3.3-3.9) (P > 0.05). Among 13 subjects whose initial LDL-C was >4 mmol/l, the difference between butter (4.4+/-0.3 mmol/l) and cheese (3.9+/-0.3 mmol/l) was significant (P = 0.014). HDL-C was highest with butter and triacylglycerol with cheese (neither was significant). A total of 40 g dairy fat eaten daily for 4 weeks as butter, but not as cheese, raised total and LDL cholesterol significantly compared with a diet containing significantly less saturated fat. Dietary advice regarding cheese consumption may require modification.

  8. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, L.B.; Luccas, V.; Kieckbusch, T.G.

    2011-07-01

    The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w) cupuassu fat were determined. recrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL). Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the a-circumflex polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter (Author).

  9. Monitoring of butter and animal fat oxidation stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Sadadinović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of fat is one of the basic reactions which causes the depletion of butter and animal fat quality as well as other products containing them. Since the most of reaction products of fat oxidation are harmful for consumers' health, inadequate and scarce monitoring of edible fats and fat containing products quality, presents increased health risk as well as financial loss for the producers. In fat oxidation stability estimation, standard chemical methods were used (iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, anisidine number etc., which require time and chemical usage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis presents the simple and efficient way for butter and animal fats oxidation stability estimation. Laboratory investigations were performed to monitor oxidation stability of butter and animal fat in fresh state, as well as in spent phase, used in frying process. The results obtained were compared to the results of standard chemical analysis, and they confirmed the reproducibility and applicability of differential scanning calorimetry in oxidation stability of butter and animal fats monitoring.

  10. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, whi...

  11. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, Lene Normann; Christensen, Robin D K; Sandström, Brittmarie

    2004-04-01

    To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response. The experiments were designed to provide 20% of total energy from dairy fat, as either whole milk, mean (+/-SD) 2164 (+/-97) g, butter 93 (+/-4) g, and hard cheese 305 (+/-45) g, which were served to 14 healthy young men for three periods of three weeks each, separated by washout periods, in a randomized, cross-over study with strictly controlled dietary intake. Fasting blood samples were taken at the end of the study periods. Measurements of the postprandial effect of the three different dairy test products (0.7 g of milk fat/kg body weight) were carried out on day 4 of each intervention period. Blood samples were taken before and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p = 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet x time interaction). A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further.

  12. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    Butter and other milk fat-based products are valuable products for the dairy industry due to their unique taste, their textural characteristics, and nutritional value. However, an increased consumer demand for low-fat-based products increases the need for an increased essential understanding...... of the effective factors governing the structure of milk fat-based products. Today, 2 manufacturing techniques are available: the churning method and the emulsification method. The first is typically used for production of butter with a globular structure, which has become increasingly popular to obtain low......-fat-based products, typically without presence of milk fat globules. The microstructure of milk fatbased products is strongly related to their structural rheology, hence applications. Structural behavior is not determined by one single parameter, but by the interactions between many. This complexity is reviewed here...

  13. Industrial application of different heat treatments and cream fat contents for improving the spreadability of butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondhoosh, Arash; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    hardening of texture especially in winter. Methods: Firstly, Pasteurized cream with different fat contents (40 & 45% fat) was passed through heat treatments, and then it was injected to a continuous churn. Textural and melting behavior and fatty acid composition of butter were analyzed. Results: Increasing...... the fat content of cream (from 40 to 45 %) and holding time (from 3h to 5h) in mid-temperature (18 °C) and reducing the churning temperature (from 12 °C to 10 °C), resulted in soft butter texture and improved butter spreadability. Loss Tangent (tan δ) was increased from 0.11 to 0.74 (T=15 °C;f=1Hz......). The melting temperature of butter was decreased from 36°C to 32°C and total trans fatty acid content was decreased from 3.2 % to 1.87 %. Conclusion: It was concluded that such heating process (which has been studied and reported in patents) absorbs the low- SFC fats of the cream, integrates them...

  14. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpsted, Julie; Leedo, Eva; Tholstrup, Tine

    2011-12-01

    Despite its high content of saturated fatty acids, cheese does not seem to increase plasma total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations when compared with an equivalent intake of fat from butter. This effect may be due to the high calcium content of cheese, which results in a higher excretion of fecal fat. The objective was to compare the effects of diets of equal fat content rich in either hard cheese or butter or a habitual diet on blood pressure and fasting serum blood lipids, C-reactive protein, glucose, and insulin. We also examined whether fecal fat excretion differs with the consumption of cheese or butter. The study was a randomized dietary intervention consisting of two 6-wk crossover periods and a 14-d run-in period during which the subjects consumed their habitual diet. The study included 49 men and women who replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 13% of energy from cheese or butter. After 6 wk, the cheese intervention resulted in lower serum total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and higher glucose concentrations than did the butter intervention. Cheese intake did not increase serum total or LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the run-in period, during which total fat and saturated fat intakes were lower. Fecal fat excretion did not differ between the cheese and butter periods. Cheese lowers LDL cholesterol when compared with butter intake of equal fat content and does not increase LDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01140165.

  15. Effect of dietary alpine butter rich in conjugated linoleic acid on milk fat composition of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Collomb, Marius; Bee, Giuseppe; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Multiparous sows (n 17) were included in a controlled cross-over-study in order to investigate the influence of a natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (alpine butter) on the milk fatty acid composition of lactating sows (as an animal model for lactating women) and on the growth performance of their progeny. The usual fat source of a standard lactation diet was replaced by either CLA-rich alpine butter or margarine (control diet). Compared with the margarine diet, feeding the alpine butter-supplemented diet increased (P 0.05) affected. Growth performance of the progeny was similar for both dietary treatments. In summary, the findings show that adding alpine butter to the diet does not provoke a milk fat depression and does not alter the composition of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA in sow milk but increases its CLA concentration.

  16. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  17. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  18. High butter-fat diet and bisphenol A additively impair male rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapore, Pheruza; Hennessy, Max; Song, Dan; Ying, Jun; Ouyang, Bin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to xenoestrogens is a probable cause of male infertility in humans. Consumption of high-fat diets and exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is pervasive in America. Here, we test the hypothesis that gestational exposure to high dietary fats and/or BPA disrupt spermatogenesis in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10kcal% butter fat (AIN), 39kcal% butter fat (HFB), or 39kcal% olive oil (HFO), with or without BPA (25μg/kg body weight/day) during pregnancy. One group of male offspring received testosterone (T)- and estradiol-17β (E2)-filled implants or sham-implants from postnatal day (PND)70-210. Another group was naturally aged to 18 months. We found that adult males with gestational exposure to BPA, HFB, or HFB+BPA, in both the aged group and the T+E2-implanted group, exhibited impairment of spermatogenesis. In contrast, gestational exposure to HFO or HFO+BPA did not affect spermatogenesis. Sham-implanted, gestational exposed groups also had normal spermatogenesis. Loss of ERα expression in round spermatids and premature expression of protamine-1 in diplotene spermatocytes were features associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Compared with the single-treatment groups, the HFB+BPA group experienced more severe effects, including atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of partial replacement of butter fat with peanut oil (in infant formula) on erythrocyte fatty acids in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, K; Rao, S V

    1997-09-01

    Erythrocyte fatty acid composition was studied in infants fed with three different formulae: formula I containing 20% butter fat; formula II containing 10% butter fat and 10% peanut oil; and formula III containing 10% butter fat and 5% peanut oil with a fat content itself reduced to 15%. The linoleic acid levels were 2.5, 18 and 13% in formula I-III, respectively. Analysis of fatty acids at the time of birth, and 3 and 6 months thereafter, indicated that linoleic acid levels could be improved by supplementation with peanut oil. Arachidonic acid levels (20:4, n-6) did not show a proportional relationship with respect to linoleic acid intake. The other ratio such as triene/tetraene, oleic/linoleic, linoleic/arachidonic and arachidonic/linoleic were all within the normal range, indicating normal desaturase and elongase activity. Thus, our present study suggests that peanut oils could be used for enhancing the linoleic acid levels in infants.

  20. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB.

  1. Quantitative analysis of alkylpyrazines in regular- and low-fat commercial peanut butter preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, K; Ho, C T

    1997-01-01

    A simple, modified version of the selective purge and trap method was applied for a quantitative analysis of the trace amount of pyrazines present in both regular- and low-fat commercial peanut butter preparations. A total of 33 volatile compounds were identified, the three most abundant individual pyrazines being 2,5 (or 2,6)-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, and pyrazine which comprised 55-79% of the total pyrazine concentration. Minor or trace quantities of thiazoles, oxazoles, pyrroles, and pyridine were also identified in the sample.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and storage stability of clarified butter fat « smen » produced from pasteurized and non-pasteurized milk

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa Bali; Imen Ammar; Monia Ennouri; Hamadi Attia

    2017-01-01

    Smen is a milk fat isolated by ‘boiling-off’ water. Milk fat was first converted into butter and then into smen. Smen product is utilized for culinary cooking and frying of different food. Smen has better shelf-life than other indigenous dairy products due to its lower moisture content. However, it undergoes deterioration (lipolysis and oxidation of milk fat) causes flavor impairment, lowers nutritional quality and creates serious problems for storage stability. Objectives of this work were s...

  3. Physical properties of pre-crystallized mixtures of cocoa butter and cupuassu fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quast, L. B.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of pre-crystallized binary mixtures of cocoa butter (Bahia + Indonesian blend and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w cupuassu fat were determined. Precrystallization was carried out using a lab-scale agitated jacket vessel reactor (700 mL. Samples were submitted to differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray diffraction. The solid fat content and rupture force were also quantified. The snap values of the crystallized mixture decreased with an increase in the amount of alternative fat. A similar trend was observed with respect to the melting point values. The cocoa butter and cupuassu fat X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the predominant formation of the β polimorph. The addition of up to 30% cupuassu fat did not significantly affect the values of the physical properties when compared to pure cocoa butter.

    Se han determinado las características físicas de mezclas binarias pre-cristalizadas de manteca de cacao (mezcla de Bahia + Indonesia con 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 y 30 % (m/m de grasa de cupuassu. La pre-cristalización se ha efectuado a escala de laboratorio utilizando un reactor de vidrio con camisa (700mL con agitación. Las muestras fueron analizadas mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido, difracción de rayos- X, contenido en grasa solida y tensión de ruptura. Los valores de tensión de ruptura de las mezclas pre-cristalizadas disminuyeron con la incorporación de grasa de cupuassu, siendo este comportamiento observado también para el punto de fusión. Después de la pre-cristalización, manteca de cacao y grasa de cupuassu confirmaron la presencia de polimorfismo β, por medio de análisis de difracción de rayos-X. La adición de hasta 30% de grasa de cupuassu en la manteca de cacao no afecta de modo significativo en las propiedades físicas cuando son comparadas con la manteca de cacao pura.

  4. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...... oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian...

  5. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  6. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    Chinese vegetable tallow (CVT) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil fatty acids (FHSOFA) as substrates. CVT is a naturally-rich-in-POP vegetable fat containing 80% Sn-POP which is obtained from the outer covering of the seed of the Chinese tallow tree. The FHSOFA contained about 86% stearic acid....../w) 1.3-1.7/1, hexane/substrates(v/w): 1.0:1-1.2:1. Based on the pilot batch plant, the total process is following: substrates, drying, reaction, filtration, fractionation, neutralisation, de-solventization and drying, and product. The fractionation process reduced the free fatty acid content to 5......-8%. And about 90% of the present PPP and PPSt triglycerides were separated from the product. Under above parameters, the final pilot products had similar compositions to those of cocoa butter. In this research, IPPL showed initial interesterification activity at the similar level as Lipozyme IM from Novo...

  7. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction parameters of cocoa butter analogy fat from mango seed kernel oil using response surface methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Norulaini, Nik; Ferdosh, Sahena; Rahman, M Moklesur; Omar, A K. Mohd

    2015-01-01

    ...) yielding cocoa butter analogy fats from MSK. The pressure, temperature, and CO2 flow rate were considered as variables, where the linear and quadratic effect of the flow rate of CO2, quadratic effect of pressure, and interaction...

  8. Mango seed uses: thermal behaviour of mango seed almond fat and its mixtures with cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Fuentes, J A; Durán-de-Bazúa, M C

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the physicochemical characterization, including thermal behaviour, by differential scanning calorimetry of mango seed almond fat (MAF), alone and in mixtures with cocoa butter (CB). Results showed that mango almond seeds contain about 5.28-11.26% (dw) of fat. The refraction index is 1.466, the saponification index 189.0 and the iodine index 41.76. Fatty acids found in MAF are oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids (40.81%, 39.07% and 9.29% (w/w), respectively) as well as smaller amounts of linoleic, with arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, and linolenic acids, among others. Calorimetric analysis showed that MAF crystallizes between 14.6 and -24.27 degrees C with a DeltaHc of 56.06 J/g and melts between -17.1 and 53.8 degrees C, with fusion maxima at 18.54 degrees C and 40.0 degrees C for the alpha and beta polymorphic forms. Their fusion enthalpies are 70.12 and 115.7 J/g. The MAF solids content profile is very similar to that of CB, both in stabilized and non-stabilized samples. The mixing compatibility was analyzed using isosolids curves of mixtures of different compositions.

  9. Hard cocoa butter replacers from mango seed fat and palm stearin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Nik Norulaini, N A; Sahena, F; Abedin, M Z; Mohamed, A; Mohd Omar, A K

    2014-07-01

    The blending effects of mango seed fat (MSF), extracted using supercritical fluid, and palm stearin (PS) to formulate hard cocoa butter replacers (CBRs), were investigated. The triglycerides (TG), thermal properties and solid fat content (SFC) of the formulated blends were determined using different chromatographic and thermal techniques. All the blends had three main TGs; namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (POP) (8.6-17.7%), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearoyl-glycerol (POS) (12.6-19.6%), and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS) (37.2-31.4%), with SOS being the major component. The melting peak temperatures gradually increased and shifted towards higher temperatures with PS. The crystallization onset temperatures increased, while the offset decreased with PS. The SFC did not drop to 0% at 37.5°C, which was shifted to 0% at and above 40°C for some blends. The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Low-fat (41%) butter consumption decreases total energy and lipid intake in diabetic patients under acute conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, G; Rossi, F; Bellisle, F; Casassus, P; Fiquet, P; Chappuis, A S; Desplanque, N; Laffitte, A

    1995-10-01

    Decreasing fat intake in subjects at risk of cardiovascular diseases and particularly diabetics is a major issue. To investigate whether low-fat (41%) butter (LFB) is of any benefit compared to regular butter (RB), 97 hospitalized diabetics (41 insulin-dependent) were studied on four consecutive days. Breakfast (bread, butter and drink) was served at 0830 hrs, on successive mornings. LFB and RB were presented ad libitum, on alternate days. Satiety was assessed at 10 and 12 h, using line rating scales. At 1230 hrs lunch was served, with large servings corresponding to 130% of the recommended lunch intake, so that carry-over effects from the breakfast manipulation could be measured. At breakfast, LFB was consumed in higher amounts, 27 vs. 21 g, F(1,96) = 33.24, p F(1,96) = 158.3, p = 0.0001. Hunger at 10 h but not at 12 h was affected by breakfast conditions. Lunch intake was comparable following LFB and RB breakfasts. In conclusion, LFB utilization under acute conditions seems to benefit diabetics by reducing caloric and fat intake.

  11. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  12. MELTED BUTTER TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Melted butter is made from dairy butter by rendering the fat phase. It has specific taste and aroma, high-calorie content and good assimilability. Defects of butter which appeared during the storage causes by the development of microbiological processes or by the chemical oxidation. On the development of these processes influence quality and composition of fresh butter, its physical structure, content of the increased amount of gas phase and content of heavy metals, storage conditions. Microbiological spoilage of butter occurs generally due to damage of plasma which is good environment for the development of microorganisms. Defects of microbiological origin include: unclean, sour, moldy, yeasty, cheesy, bitter taste. Defects of test and smell chemical origin are formed due to hydrolytic digestion of lipids. It's prevailed at long storage of butter in the conditions of freezing temperatures. It's picked out the following main processes of spoiling: souring, acidifying and sallowness. Often these processes take place simultaneously.It has been investigated melted butter with lactated additive. The latter improves the microbiological and toxicological safety, prolongs the storage condition of the products. Technological efficiency of the additives is achieved by a multilayer products formation from the inactive bound water, preventing microorganisms growth and by the barrier layer with lactate inhibiting hydrolytic reactions. Oil samples were obtained with the batch-type butter maker application, then they were melted and after that lactated additive were supplemented. It has been studied organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the melted butter samples. The fatty-acid composition of melted butter were studied. Comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of cow's milk fat and produced melted butter has shown their similarity. Also in the last sample there is increased weight fraction of linoleic and linolenic acids. The obtained

  13. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resistance properties, hardness characteristics, as well as technological adequacies and potential use in regions with tropical climates.

    En este trabajo se presenta un estudio comparativo de las propiedades primarias de mantecas de cacao, representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de diferentes zonas geográficas de Brasil. Las muestras fueron evaluadas de acuerdo a la composición de ácidos grasos, composición de triglicéridos, distribución de los ácidos grasos en las moléculas de triglicéridos, punto de fusión, contenido de grasa sólida y consistencia. Los resultados permitieron diferenciar las muestras por su composición química, propiedades de resistencia térmica, características de dureza, así como en materia de adecuaciones tecnológicas y los usos potenciales en las regiones de clima tropical.

  14. Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jessie; Collins, Brian; Wolf, Patricia G; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Zhong, Wei; Cooney, Paula; Cockrell, Chase; Chang, Eugene; Gaskins, H Rex; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if consuming table grapes reduces adiposity and its metabolic consequences and alters gut microbiota in mice fed a high-fat (HF), butter-rich diet. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat (LF) diet or HF diet with 3% or 5% grapes for 11weeks. Total body and inguinal fat were moderately but significantly reduced in mice fed both levels of grapes compared to their controls. Mice fed 5% grapes had lower liver weights and triglyceride levels and decreased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpat1) compared to the 5% controls. Mice fed 3% grapes had lower hepatic mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, sterol-CoA desaturase 1, fatty-acid binding protein 4 and Gpat1 compared to the 3% controls. Although grape feeding had only a minor impact on markers of inflammation or lipogenesis in adipose tissue or intestine, 3% of grapes decreased the intestinal abundance of sulfidogenic Desulfobacter spp. and the Bilophila wadsworthia-specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene and tended to increase the abundance of the beneficial bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to controls. In addition, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Allobaculum and several other genera correlated negatively with adiposity. Allobaculum in particular was increased in the LF and 3% grapes groups compared to the HF-fed controls. Notably, grape feeding attenuated the HF-induced impairment in epithelial localization of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens. Collectively, these data indicate that some of the adverse health consequences of consuming an HF diet rich in saturated fat can be attenuated by table grape consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Butter and butter oil classification by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Araghipour, N.; Rozijn, M.; Baltussen, M.A.H.; Wisthaler, A.; Mark, T.D.; Frankhuizen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a tool for classification of milk fats was evaluated in relation to quality and authentication issues. Butters and butter oils were subjected to heat and off-flavouring treatments in order to create sensorially defective

  16. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  17. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  18. Effect of fractional crystallization on composition and thermal properties of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla seed fat and cocoa butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractional crystallization behaviors of cocoa butter (CB and enkabang fat (EF in acetone were investigated. Melted samples of CB and EF were mixed separately with acetone in 1:2 a (w/v ratio and partitioned into solid and liquid fractions under controlled temperature conditions. The isolated fractions were compared to their respective native samples with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as gas liquid chromatography (GLC, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. According to the results, partitioning of either CB or EF under solvent assisted crystallization conditions yielded a major solid and a minor liquid fraction. The solid and liquid fractions of both fats were found to display many similarities, but few differences with regard to their composition and thermal properties. While the solid fractions may be useful as a hard stock in hard margarine and cosmetic product formulation, the liquid fraction would be useful as an ingredient for food applications.Se investigan los comportamientos de una cristalización fraccionada de la manteca de cacao (CB y la grasa de enkabang (EF en acetona. Las muestras fundidas de CB y EF se mezclaron por separado con acetona en una relación 1:02 (w/v y se dividen en fracciones sólida y líquida bajo condiciones de temperatura controlada. Las fracciones aisladas se compararon con sus respectivas muestras nativas con respecto a diversos parámetros físico-químicos utilizando métodos químicos estándar, así como técnicas instrumentales, como la cromatografía gas-líquido (GLC, cromatografía líquida de fase inversa de alta resolución (RP-HPLC, y calorimetría de barrido diferencial (DSC. De acuerdo con los resultados, el fraccionamiento tanto de CB como EF bajo condiciones de cristalización asistida con disolvente produjo una fracción s

  19. Butter vs. Margarine: Which Is Better for My Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made from vegetable oils, so it contains unsaturated "good" fats — polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. These types of fats help reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad," cholesterol when substituted for saturated fat. Butter, on ...

  20. Identification of the characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A J; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2007-05-01

    This study identified and explored the sensory characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter. A trained descriptive panel evaluated 27 commercial butters using a defined sensory language. Two focus groups were conducted with butter consumers to gain an understanding of consumer use and consumption habits. Six representative butters and 2 vegetable oil spreads were selected for consumer acceptance testing. Both internal and external preference mapping techniques were applied to interpret consumer data. Key discriminating sensory characteristics of butters included color intensity; diacetyl, cooked, grassy, and milk fat flavors; and salty taste. From focus groups and quantitative consumer testing, the key butter features were a desirable flavor and a natural image. Negative aspects included price and cholesterol. Five consumer clusters with distinct butter and spread flavor likes and dislikes were identified. Butter is a desirable product to consumers. Sensory expectations of butter vary among consumers, and butters with specific sensory characteristics could be marketed to specific target market segments.

  1. The Immunomodulating Effect of a Diet Consisting of Green Vegetables, Beef, Whole Milk and Full-Fat Butter for Children with Non-Specific Elevated IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Ellen Jose; Forbes, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific elevated IgE and allergies are common in children, and their prevalence is increasing. Dietary changes could be an explanation for this increase. Zinc, iron, vitamins A, C and E, and polyunsaturated fatty acids all play possible roles in the etiology and possible treatment of allergies due to their numerous immunomodulating properties. To investigate the immunomodulating effect of recommending a nutrient-rich diet consisting of green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter. We conducted a case-controlled, non-randomized, retrospective study. Children between the ages of 1 and 18 years with non-specific elevated IgE were included. Baseline and follow-up measurements of serum total IgE and clinical outcomes were retrospectively collected and compared for 49 children who received the dietary advice (to eat green vegetables, beef, whole milk and full-fat butter) and 56 children who did not. The initial analysis showed a significantly greater decrease in IgE in the intervention group compared to the control group; a 9.2 kU/l versus a 0.1 kU/l decrease, respectively (P = 0.02). When supplement (vitamin D) use was taken into account, however, no significant difference was produced by the dietary effect alone (unstandardized coefficient = 71.3 kU/l, P = 0.16). 53.2 % of participants in the intervention group reported considerable improvement in symptoms versus 28.6 % in the control group (P < 0.001). Overall, the effects of nutrients and vitamins on the decrease in IgE are promising. The separate contributions of dietary advice and/or supplements need to be investigated in the future.

  2. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents.

  3. An increase in liver PPARγ2 is an initial event to induce fatty liver in response to a diet high in butter: PPARγ2 knockdown improves fatty liver induced by high-saturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Shiraishi, Sayaka; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2011-06-01

    The effects of a diet rich in saturated fat on fatty liver formation and the related mechanisms that induce fatty liver were examined. C57BL/6J mice were fed butter or safflower oil as a high-fat (HF) diet (40% fat calories) for 2, 4, 10, or 17 weeks. Although both HF diets induced similar levels of obesity, HF butter-fed mice showed a two to threefold increase in liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration compared to HF safflower oil-fed mice at 4 or 10 weeks without hyperinsulinemia. At 4 weeks, increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), CD36, and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) mRNAs were observed in HF butter-fed mice; at 10 weeks, an increase in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was observed; at 17 weeks, these increases were attenuated. At 4 weeks, a single injection of adenoviral vector-based short hairpin interfering RNA against PPARγ2 in HF butter-fed mice reduced PPARγ protein and mRNA of its target genes (CD36 and ADRP) by 43%, 43%, and 39%, respectively, with a reduction in liver TG concentration by 38% in 5 days. PPARγ2 knockdown also reduced mRNAs in lipogenic genes (fatty-acid-synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1) without alteration of SREBP-1c mRNA. PPARγ2 knockdown reduced mRNAs in genes related to inflammation (CD68, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). In conclusion, saturated fatty acid-rich oil induced fatty liver in mice, and this was triggered initially by an increase in PPARγ2 protein in the liver, which led to increased expression of lipogenic genes. Inactivation of PPARγ2 may improve fatty liver induced by HF saturated fat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of butter grains on physical properties of butter-like emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Buldo, Patrizia; Mortensen, Kell; Andersen, Ulf; Knudsen, Jes C; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Milk fat exists as globules in its natural state in milk. The potential of using globular fat to modulate the rheological properties and crystallization behavior in butter-like emulsions was studied in the present work. We conducted a comparative study of butter-like emulsions, with a fat phase consisting of 0, 10, 25, 50, or 100% anhydrous milk fat (AMF), the remaining fat being butter grains, and all samples containing 20% water, to obtain systematic variation in the ratio of globular fat. All emulsions were studied over 4wk of storage at 5°C. By combining small and large deformation rheology, we conducted a detailed characterization of the rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions. We applied differential scanning calorimetry to monitor thermal behavior, confocal laser scanning microscopy for microstructural analysis, and low-field pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to measure solid fat content. By combining these techniques, we determined that increasing the fraction of globular fat (by mixing with butter grains) decreases the hardness of butter-like emulsions up to an order of magnitude at d 1. However, no difference was observed in thermal behavior as a function of butter grain content, as all emulsions containing butter grains revealed 2 endothermal peaks corresponding to the high (32.7°C ± 0.6) and medium (14.6°C ± 0.1) melting fractions of fatty acids. In terms of microstructure, decreasing the amount of butter grains in the emulsions resulted in formation of a denser fat crystal network, corresponding to increased hardness. Moreover, microstructural analysis revealed that the presence of butter grains resulted in faster formation of a continuous fat crystal network compared with the 100% AMF sample, which was dominated by crystal clusters surrounded by liquid oil. During storage, hardness remained stable and no changes in thermal behavior were observed, despite an increase in solid fat content of up to 5%. After 28d of storage, we

  5. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter

  6. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67....67 Use of nutrient content claims for butter. (a) Claims may be made to characterize the level of nutrients, including fat, in butter if: (1) The claim complies with the requirements of § 101.13 and with...

  7. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity. PMID:27555345

  8. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  9. PRODUCTION OF MELTED BUTTER WITH INCREASED STORAGE STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on melted butter preservation research. It has been conducted analysis of the components applied and their positive impact on the butter storage. To last belong sodium chloride staying the formation of free fatty acids and also additionally contributable lactatecontaining additive. Laboratory studies were carried out in a certain way. A half of each batch of butter were remelted in two versions with the addition of sodium chloride up to 4 % by weight of the butter to precipitate proteins and without the addition of the salt. Food additive with the properties of animal origin products shelf life increase were supplemented into the melted butter. The rest manufacturing operations were performed by the traditional method of melted butter production. It was evaluated the organoleptic characteristics and investigated fat phase acidity and fat peroxide number in the samples of melted butter with a month interval. Also were determinated the transparency of test samples. All test samples in molten state were transparent, they didn't contain suspended particles. Results of the score were summarized and on the base of the total assessment were determinated quality of the product. The carried out researches of samples of melted butter have shown the full conformance with requirements of GOST R 52971 on physicochemical parameters: the weight fraction of fat – 99 %, the weight fraction of moisture – 1 %. It was established that in the samples without food additive maximum values of acid number were received in a month of storage; and in the samples with additive - in 3 months of storage. It was determinated that in samples of butter rented without salting peroxide number increases more intensively than in other test samples. It has been determined increased storage stability of melted butter with salt and food additive.

  10. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by eating less trans fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. Sources of saturated fat • bacon and bacon grease • high-fat dairy products, • butter such as cheese, cream, • chitterlings ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk, ...

  11. Polymorphism, microstructure and rheology of butter. Effects of cream heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2012-12-01

    The effect of cream heat treatment prior to butter manufacturing, fluctuating temperatures during storage and presence of fat globules vs. no fat globules was examined in laboratory scale produced butter. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry was used to study crystallization behaviour and nuclear magnetic resonance to measure solid fat content and water droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the crystal structure was linked to the rheological properties and microstructure of the butter using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Butter produced from non-matured cream mainly formed α- and β'-crystals with minor traces of β-crystals. Maturing of the cream caused a transition from α- to β'- and β-form. The rheological behaviour of slow cooled butter deviated from the matured ones by having a lower elastic modulus, caused by a weaker crystal network. Presence of fat globules did not affect the rheological properties significantly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Cuibus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690 cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level and seven increasing concentrations of palm fats, up to 50% were fingerprinted and the calibration curve was obtained (n=19. In parallel, the validation was realized using different set of spiked butter samples ranging 1-44.4 % of palm fat (n=7. Finally, an independent set of commercial samples was analized (n=14.Partial least squares (PLS model was used for statistical data processing in accordance with standard method. The value of the correlation coefficient (R2= 0.977 between actual and predicted values was statistically significant (p<0.001, considering the superposition of  "actual vs predicted” curves. This combined FTIR-PLS evaluation revealed that 3 out of  samples of butter were suspected of adulteration with palm oil, presented values 14 ranging 4-12%.In conclusion, ATR-FTIR methodology may offer an rapid evaluation of  butter samples authenticity. The low value for detection limit (3%palm oil in butter and the low limit of quantification (9.8% palm oil in butter confirms that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy  is a sensitive method to identify the adulteration of butter with  palm oil.   

  13. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption......,of cheese and butter (animal fat) for each study. FAO's food balance sheets were used to classify the countries according to consumption trends of these foodstuffs. Results: In all countries higher social classes used more cheese than lower classes. The results for butter were less consistent. In the Nordic...... countries higher social classes used less butter than lower ones. In the other countries an opposite pattern or no differences could be observed. However, in countries where the use of both butter and animal fats could be analysed, animal fats were used more by the lower social classes. Conclusions: Higher...

  14. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. Objective: To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter Methods: A total of 60 random ...

  15. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  16. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...

  17. The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on butter flavor and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A J; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Dean, L L; Drake, M A

    2008-02-01

    Butter is often stored for extended periods of time; therefore, it is important for manufacturers to know the refrigerated and frozen shelf life. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the sensory and physical characteristics of butter. Fresh butter was obtained on 2 occasions from 2 facilities in 113-g sticks and 4-kg bulk blocks (2 facilities, 2 package forms). Butters were placed into both frozen (-20 degrees C) and refrigerated storage (5 degrees C). Frozen butters were sampled after 0, 6, 12, 15, and 24 mo; refrigerated butters were sampled after 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 mo. Every 3 mo, oxidative stability index (OSI) and descriptive sensory analysis (texture, flavor, and color) were conducted. Every 6 mo, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFV), fatty acid profiling, vane, instrumental color, and oil turbidity were examined. A mixed-model ANOVA was conducted to characterize the effects of storage time, temperature, and package type. Storage time, temperature, and package type affected butter flavor, OSI, PV, and FFV. Refrigerated butter quarters exhibited refrigerator/stale off-flavors concurrent with increased levels of oxidation (lower oxidative stability and higher PV and FFV) within 6 mo of refrigerated storage, and similar trends were observed for refrigerated bulk butter after 9 mo. Off-flavors were not evident in frozen butters until 12 or 18 mo for quarters and bulk butters, respectively. Off-flavors in frozen butters were not correlated with instrumental oxidation measurements. Because butter is such a desirable fat source in terms of flavor and textural properties, it is important that manufacturers understand how long their product can be stored before negative attributes develop.

  18. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of milk, butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the physicochemical, microbial load and sensory properties of milk, butter with or without garlic was carried out using fresh milk from white Fulani cow for eight weeks of the lactation. The milk used was milked manually by the Fulanis early in the morning. Fat content was highest in milk (4.13±0.16) and least in ...

  19. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher...... protein content than rats fed the BDAG and OTAG‐diets, and the fat content was significantly lower in rats fed the ODAG‐diet as compared to rats fed the OTAG and BDAG‐diets. A significantly higher content of ash was observed in rats fed the two TAG diets. The ratio of abdominal fat weight/body weight...

  1. Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids unfavorably affects blood lipoproteins. As margarines are a major source of trans, claims for the advantages of margarines over butter need to be scrutinized. Here we review dietary trials that directly compared the effects of butter and margarine on blood lipids. We

  2. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  3. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whipped butter. 58.346 Section 58.346 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.346 Whipped butter. (a) The quality requirements for whipped butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Whipped Butter for U.S. Grade...

  4. 21 CFR 164.150 - Peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peanut butter. 164.150 Section 164.150 Food and... § 164.150 Peanut butter. (a) Peanut butter is the food prepared by grinding one of the shelled and... preservatives, and color additives are not suitable ingredients in peanut butter. Oil products used as optional...

  5. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby... produce chunky style almond butter, almond chunks or pieces may be added up to a maximum of 25 percent by...

  6. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  7. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  8. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other animal products, such as butter and cheese. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in baked goods you buy at the store. Eating too much saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the chance of getting heart ...

  9. Lipídeos séricos e morfologia hepática de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, gordura de peixe e porco, margarina e manteiga Serum lipids and hepatic morphology of rats fed different lipid sources (soybean oil, fish fat and lard, margarine and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elisa Ferreira de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as alterações lipídicas séricas e morfológicas hepáticas de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, gordura de peixe e porco, margarina e manteiga. MÉTODOS: Os 50 ratos Wistars utilizados no estudo foram divididos em cinco grupos, que durante 28 dias receberam dietas semissintéticas com diferentes fontes lipídicas: óleo de soja, gordura de porco, manteiga, margarina e gordura de peixe. Foram avaliados os pesos corporais, o consumo alimentar e o coeficiente de eficiência alimentar; a atividade da lipase lipoproteica; as concentrações séricas de colesterol total e de lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triacilgliceróis e albumina, bem como a histologia dos tecidos hepático e cardíaco. RESULTADOS: O tipo de fonte lipídica não influenciou o consumo alimentar, o ganho de peso, o coeficiente de eficiência alimentar dos animais, nem a atividade da lipase lipoproteica, porém promoveu alterações nas concentrações séricas de colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade - colesterol, triacilgliceróis e albumina. Todos os grupos apresentaram gotículas lipídicas nas paredes coronarianas e nos capilares cardíacos, sendo caracterizada como esteatose a deposição de gordura no fígado dos animais que receberam óleo de soja, gordura de peixe, de porco e manteiga. CONCLUSÃO: A fonte lipídica que apresentou os melhores resultados foi o óleo de soja, enquanto o consumo de gordura do peixe causou efeito sérico e tecidual semelhante ao encontrado para as outras fontes lipídicas (gordura de porco, manteiga e margarina, as quais podem contribuir para o surgimento e a progressão das doenças cardiovasculares.OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed serum lipids and hepatics morphological changes in rats fed different lipid sources (soybean oil, fish fat and lard, margarine and butter. METHODS: Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups. They were given semi-synthetic diets with

  10. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life......, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO2e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO2e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence......, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses...

  11. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter. 58.345 Section 58.345 Agriculture Regulations... Official Identification § 58.345 Butter. The quality requirements for butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Butter for U.S. Grade AA, U.S. Grade A, or U.S. Grade B, respectively...

  12. How nut and seed butters are processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's food processing column follows the theme "How Is It Porcessed?". It will explore how nut and seed butters are processed. In recent years a variety of new nut and seed butters have entered the marketplace. Their predecessor, peanut butter, as well as these new products and the process...

  13. Optimization of cocoa butter analog synthesis variables using neural networks and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Tikani, Reza; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2014-09-01

    Cocoa butter analog was prepared from camel hump fat and tristearin by enzymatic interesterification in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (Lipozyme TL IM) as a biocatalyst. Optimal process conditions were determined using neural networks and genetic algorithm optimization. Response surfaces methodology was used to design the experiments to collect data for the neural network modelling. A general regression neural network model was developed to predict the response of triacylglycerol (TAG) distribution of cocoa butter analog from the process pressure, temperature, tristearin/camel hump fat ratio, water content, and incubation time. A genetic algorithm was used to search for a combination of the process variables for production of most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter. The combinations of the process variables during genetic algorithm optimization were evaluated using the neural network model. The pressure of 10 MPa; temperature of 40 °C; SSS/CHF ratio of 0.6:1; water content of 13 % (w/w); and incubation time of 4.5 h were found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the most similar cocoa butter analog to the corresponding cocoa butter.

  14. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma......Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil...... into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden...

  15. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... N09 Version 5.0 Page 2 of 3 Harmful Dietary Fats Saturated Fat High-fat cuts of meat (beef, lamb, pork) Chicken with the skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- ...

  16. Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G

    2009-01-01

    Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

  17. Evaluation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower hard stearins for cocoa butter equivalent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2012-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are produced from vegetable fats by blending palm mid fraction (PMF) and tropical butters coming from shea, mango kernel or kokum fat. In this regard, high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower hard stearins from solvent fractionation can be used in CBE production since their compositions and physical properties are similar to those found in the above-mentioned tropical butters. In this work, three sunflower hard stearins (SHS) ranging from 65% to 95% of disaturated triacylglycerols and a shea stearin (used as reference) were blended with PMF to evaluate their potential use in CBEs formulation. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of PMF/SHS showed eutectic formation for SHS 65 and SHS 80, but monotectic behaviour with softening effect for SHS 95. Three CBEs from SHS and shea stearin were formulated according to phase behaviour diagrams and solid fat content data at 25 °C. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of these CBEs with cocoa butter showed no eutectic behaviour. Therefore, CBEs elaborated from SHS exhibited full compatibility with cocoa butter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. From margarine to butter: predictors of changing bread spread in an 11-year population follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prättälä, Ritva; Levälahti, Esko; Lallukka, Tea; Männistö, Satu; Paalanen, Laura; Raulio, Susanna; Roos, Eva; Suominen, Sakari; Mäki-Opas, Tomi

    2016-06-01

    Finland is known for a sharp decrease in the intake of saturated fat and cardiovascular mortality. Since 2000, however, the consumption of butter-containing spreads - an important source of saturated fats - has increased. We examined social and health-related predictors of the increase among Finnish men and women. An 11-year population follow-up. A representative random sample of adult Finns, invited to a health survey in 2000. Altogether 5414 persons aged 30-64 years at baseline in 2000 were re-invited in 2011. Of men 1529 (59 %) and of women 1853 (66 %) answered the questions on bread spreads at both time points. Respondents reported the use of bread spreads by choosing one of the following alternatives: no fat, soft margarine, butter-vegetable oil mixture and butter, which were later categorized into margarine/no spread and butter/butter-vegetable oil mixture (= butter). The predictors included gender, age, marital status, education, employment status, place of residence, health behaviours, BMI and health. Multinomial regression models were fitted. Of the 2582 baseline margarine/no spread users, 24.6% shifted to butter. Only a few of the baseline sociodemographic or health-related determinants predicted the change. Finnish women were more likely to change to butter than men. Living with a spouse predicted the change among men. The change from margarine to butter between 2000 and 2011 seemed not to be a matter of compliance with official nutrition recommendations. Further longitudinal studies on social, behavioural and motivational predictors of dietary changes are needed.

  19. Microbiological quality of karin butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokce, R.; Aslanalp, Y.; Nur Herken, E.

    2010-07-01

    Karin butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karin), is a traditional butter type. Karin used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karin butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karin butter samples was found to be poor in general. (Author)

  20. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  1. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    oleic acid sunflower oil, and a diet based on grape-seed oil with high amount of linoleic acid, in diet induced obese mice. Second, we investigated phytanic acid effects on similar parameters in obese mice, both as dose response in butter based diets, and in grape-seed oil based diets with and without...... intervention in mice Obesity was induced in mice, by addition of sucrose to the drinking water, and giving high fat diets, based on butter from either grazing or conventional fed cattle, high oleic acid (monounsaturated fatty acid) sunflower oil, or finally from grape-seed oil with high content of the n-6 poly......, with different amounts of phytanic acid ethyl-esters added to either butter or grape-seed oil based diets, to investigate the effects from phytanic acid intake, on parameters similar to those in the fat type intervention. We saw that PA intake have aggravating effect on glucose homeostasis in dosages of 1...

  2. Physicochemical Analysis of Margarine, Butter and Butter Oil Samples of Iran’s Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhila Shabani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Butter, margarine and butter oil are three products which consume daily by Iranian’scommunity. Detection of type and existence of synthetic antioxidants (SAs quantities in the margarine, butter and butter oil samples is so important in point of view of the safety. For this purpose, peroxide value (PV, oxidative stability (OS, iodine value (IV, fatty acid analysis (FA, type and amount of SAs, and its antioxidant activity (AA% of the samples was determined as described methods of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO documents including ISO numbers: 3960, 6886, 3961, 5509, AOCS Ce 6-86, and DPPH assay, respectively. The direct relationship between the quantities of OS, SA and AA% was observed in the samples. It was observed that many of butter oil samples were without SA. In margarine samples, the amount of IV was higher than that of in butter and butter oil samples (P<0.05. The SAs quantities in margarine samples were estimated higher than those of butter and butter oil samples (P<0.05. The AA% was observed in the most of butter and butter oil samples that SA was not detected in them by HPLC which may be depending on the existence of natural bioactive materials including phospholipids having antioxidant activity in butter and butter oil samples.Results showed that propyl gallate (PG was detected in all samples of margarine and the amount of SA in the all samples was lower than that of specified in Iranian National Standards Organization (INSO.

  3. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef governorate-Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshref, A M S

    2010-06-01

    Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter A total of 60 random samples of cooking butter, were collected from different farmers' houses in different villages, Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Cooking butter samples were examined for psychrotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and molds and yeasts counts. Additionally examination for the presence of pathogenic bacteria like E.coli, S.aureus and Ps.aeruginosa were also performed. The microbiological examination revealed that 100, 100, 36.7, 31.7, 31.7 and 23.3% of the examined samples were contaminated by psychrotrophic bacteria, molds and yeasts, coliforms, faecal coliforms, E.coli and S.aureus, respectively. None of the examined cooking butter samples contained Ps.aeruginosa. The means values of sodium chloride and titratable acidity were 0.57 ± 0.05 % and 0.20 ± 0.013%, respectively. The present study showed that cooking butter is produced under unhygienic condition and without good manufacturing practice. The Public health significance and suggestive control measures are discussed.

  4. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    of the dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... 65:35 w/w (BR) or a randomized mixture of BR (tBR). Half of the animals were used for organ analysis, the rest for a postprandial study with the same fats and isolation of chylomicrons. The regiospecific distribution of the fatty acids present in the dietary fats was followed during metabolism...

  5. Changing the functionality of cocoa butter

    OpenAIRE

    De Clercq, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa butter is an essential ingredient in chocolate as it forms the continuous phase of chocolate. It’s therefore responsible for the gloss, texture and typical melting behaviour of ‘irresistible’ chocolate. The aim of this research was to change the functionality of cocoa butter by two different methods. In the first part, cocoa butter was modified by physical refining by using packed column steam refining with or without silica pretreatment. The physicochemical properties of the refined co...

  6. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gajera, H P; Kapopara, M B; Patel, V H

    2010-01-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property...

  7. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Pcoconut and safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (Pcoconut diets. These data suggest that cholesterol synthesis is lower during diets rich in coconut fat and safflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  8. Comparative utilization of shea butter cake and palm kernel cake by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization of Shea butter cake (SBC), a by-product of fat extraction from Sheabutter nuts (Butyrospemium parodoxum) was compared with Palm Kernel Cate (PKC) to establish its potential as a poultry feedstuff. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment combining two factors, SBC and PKC at three levels of inclusion (5%, 10% and ...

  9. Production and quality of kefir cultured butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Karaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream is the main raw material for the butter production and reflects its properties into butter quality. Maturation of cream with appropriate starter culture is important for butter quality, sensory properties and shelf life of the end product. Kefir grains contain important probiotics for healthy nutrition including lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts in high numbers. The aim of this research was to determine the properties of butter produced using natural kefir culture during a 21-day cold storage. Determination of microbial, chemical and sensory properties of butter samples was carried out. Control sample (KOTE had 6.64 log CFU g-1 Lactococcus spp. while kefir cultured butter samples had 8.58 log CFU g-1. Kefir cultured butter contained 5.24 log CFU g-1 L. acidophilus at Day 1, while control samples did not have L. acidophilus. Acetaldehyde content of kefir cultured butter was significantly higher from the uncultured butter. According to sensory evaluation performed by 12 panelists, KKTE samples had better sensory properties than those observed in the KOTE samples.

  10. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 American

  11. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate...... if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. 3. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique...

  12. Effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins in persons with moderately elevated cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Mann, J; Sutherland, W; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1995-08-01

    The physiological effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins have been compared in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals. Twenty eight participants (13 men, 15 women) followed three 6-week experimental diets of similar macronutrient distribution with the different test fats providing 50% total dietary fat. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P coconut oil diet (6.4 +/- 0.8; 4.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l) when levels were significantly higher (P coconut oil (157 +/- 17 mg/dl) and on butter (141 +/- 23 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (132 +/- 22 mg/dl). Apolipoprotein B was also higher on butter (86 +/- 20 mg/dl) and coconut oil (91 +/- 32 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (77 +/- 19 mg/dl). However gender differences were apparent. In the group as a whole, high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly on the three diets whereas levels in women on the butter and coconut oil diet were significantly higher than on the safflower oil diet. Triacylglycerol was higher on the butter diet than on the safflower and coconut oil diets but the difference only reached statistical significance in women. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity was significantly higher on butter than safflower oil in the group as a whole and in women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The role of mixing temperature on microstructure and rheological properties of butter blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that the rheological properties of butter blends can be modified by the applied mixing temperature. Blends were prepared by mixing 10 or 25% of rapeseed oil (RO) with butter, at three different temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C). Afterwards the blends were stored at 5 °C...... until analyzed. Microstructure, rheological properties, melting behavior and solid fat content (SFC) of the blends were examined. The viscoelastic properties of the blends were measured by rheological oscillation analysis. Mixing at 23 °C always resulted in the softest products, hence the lowest...... the effect on the rheological behavior. The microstructure analysis showed that a high content of RO and high processing temperatures produce a less dense crystal network and a change in protein/water distribution. Furthermore, this study shows that the addition of RO to butter and the high mixing...

  14. Environmental impacts of milk powder and butter manufactured in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, William; Goggins, Jamie; Clifford, Eoghan; Zhan, Xinmin

    2017-02-01

    The abolition of the milk quota system that was in place in Europe was abolished in 2015, which instigated an immediate increase in milk production in many European countries. This increase will aid in addressing the world's ever growing demand for food, but will incur increased stresses on the environmental impact and sustainability of the dairy industry. In this study, an environmental life cycle assessment was performed in order to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of milk powder and butter in the Republic of Ireland. A farm gate to processing factory gate analysis, which includes raw milk transportation, processing into each product and packaging, is assessed in this study. Operational data was obtained from 5 dairy processing factories that produce milk powder (4 of which also produce butter). Results for each environmental impact category are presented per kilogram of product. Energy consumption (raw milk transportation and on-site electrical and thermal energy usage) contributes, on average, 89% and 78% of the total global warming potential, for milk powder and butter respectively, for the life cycle stages assessed. Similarly, energy consumption contributes, on average, 86% and 96% of the total terrestrial acidification potential for milk powder and butter respectively, for these life cycle stages. Emissions associated with wastewater treatment contribute approximately 10% and 40% to the total freshwater eutrophication potential and marine eutrophication potential, respectively, for both milk powder and butter production. In addition, packaging materials also has a significant contribution to these environmental impact categories for butter production. Results were also presented for three milk powder products being manufactured by the factories surveyed: skim milk powder, whole milk powder and full fat milk powder. The analysis presented in this paper helps to identify opportunities to reduce the environmental impacts

  15. Robust new NIRS coupled with multivariate methods for the detection and quantification of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Abbas, Ghulam; Jabeen, Farah; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hamaed, Ahmad M; Hussain, Javid; Al-Nabhani, Mahmood; Al Shukaili, Maryam S; Khan, Alamgir; Manzoor, Suryyia

    2018-01-15

    Cows' butterfat may be adulterated with animal fat materials like tallow which causes increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels upon consumption. There is no reliable technique to detect and quantify tallow adulteration in butter samples in a feasible way. In this study a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was developed to detect as well as quantify the level of tallow adulterant in clarified butter samples. For this investigation the pure clarified butter samples were intentionally adulterated with tallow at the following percentage levels: 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% and 20% (wt/wt). Altogether 99 clarified butter samples were used including nine pure samples (un-adulterated clarified butter) and 90 clarified butter samples adulterated with tallow. Each sample was analysed by using NIR spectroscopy in the reflection mode in the range 10,000-4000 cm -1 , at 2 cm -1 resolution and using the transflectance sample accessory which provided a total path length of 0.5 mm. Chemometric models including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and partial least-squares regressions (PLSR) were applied for statistical treatment of the obtained NIR spectral data. The PLSDA model was employed to differentiate pure butter samples from those adulterated with tallow. The employed model was then externally cross-validated by using a test set which included 30% of the total butter samples. The excellent performance of the model was proved by the low RMSEP value of 1.537% and the high correlation factor of 0.95. This newly developed method is robust, non-destructive, highly sensitive, and economical with very minor sample preparation and good ability to quantify less than 1.5% of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

  16. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done...

  17. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    , the solid fat content increased in all butters, but only butter churned at 10 °C showed an increase in hardness during storage. However, no difference in rheological behavior was observed among the butters. Thus it can be concluded that low temperature allows more water to be incorporated in the system......The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... content from 44% to 49.5% was observed when decreasing the churning temperature. Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.5 μm to 18.5 μm and less water could be incorporated into the butter during mixing. Using...

  18. Butter feeding enhances TNF-alpha production from macrophages and lymphocyte adherence in murine small intestinal microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Yoichi; Hokari, Ryota; Miura, Soichiro; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Oyama, Tokushige; Kurihara, Chie; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2007-11-01

    Dietary fat is known to modulate immune functions. Intake of an animal fat-rich diet has been linked to increased risk of inflammation; however, little is known about how animal fat ingestion directly affects intestinal immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of butter feeding on lymphocyte migration in intestinal mucosa and the changes in adhesion molecules and cytokines involved in this effect. T-lymphocytes isolated from the spleen were fluorescence-labeled and injected into recipient mice. Butter was administered into the duodenum, and villus microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa were observed under an intravital microscope. mRNA expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines in the intestinal mucosa were determined by quantitative PCR. The effect of butter feeding on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression of intestinal macrophages was also determined. Intraluminal butter administration significantly increased lymphocyte adherence to intestinal microvessels accompanied by increases in expression levels of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1. This accumulation was significantly attenuated by anti-MAdCAM-1 and anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Butter administration significantly increased TNF-alpha in the lamina proprial macrophages but not interleukin-6. Anti-TNF-alpha treatment attenuated the enhanced expression of adhesion molecules induced by butter administration. T-lymphocyte adherence to microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa was significantly enhanced after butter ingestion. This enhancement is due to increase in expression levels of adhesion molecules of the intestinal mucosa, which is mediated by TNF-alpha from macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria.

  19. Is the metabolic syndrome inversely associates with butter, non-hydrogenated- and hydrogenated-vegetable oils consumption: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hydrogenated- (HVOs) and non-hydrogenated vegetable oils (non-HVOs) and butter and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) after 3-years of follow-up in adults. This study was conducted between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011 within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1582 adults, aged 19-84 years. Intakes of HVOs, non-HVOs and butter were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Based on the consumption of food rich in fat including HVOs, non-HVOs and butter, participants were categorized to consumers and non-consumers. Of 1582 participants during a 3-year follow-up, 15.2% developed MetS. Non-consumption of butter was associated with lower MetS risk compared with its consumption. Among consumers of food rich in fat, intake of HVOs and butter were associated with an increased risk of MetS; ORs in the final multivariate model were 2.70 (95% CI: 1.52-4.78) for HVOs and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.20-3.41) for butter, in the highest, compared to the lowest category of dietary intakes. Intake of non-HVOs was not associated with risk of MetS. Consumption of HVOs and butter were positively associated with an increase risk of MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Julie; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Mette Behrmann; Guo, Zheng; Mu, Huiling

    2007-09-05

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues.

  1. Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes: Fat and Calorie Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat added grits no fat added fat added oatmeal no fat added fat added Cereal party mix, ... 1/2" squares lady fingers Lemon Coolers® macaroons oatmeal, homemade Oreo® Oreo Double Stuff® peanut butter sandwich ...

  2. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  3. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    Cheese intake has been shown to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations when compared to butter of equal fat content. An untargeted metabolite profiling may reveal exposure markers of cheese but may also contribute with markers which can help explain how the intake of cheese...... affects cholesterol concentrations. Twenty-three subjects collected 2 × 24 h urine samples after 6 weeks of cheese and 6 weeks of butter intake with equal amounts of fat in a cross-over intervention study. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS. A two-step univariate data analysis approach using linear...... mixed model was applied separately for positive and negative ionization mode: In the first step a total of 44 features related to treatment were identified and in the second step 36 of these features were related to total cholesterol concentrations. Cheese intake resulted in increased urinary indoxyl...

  4. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Gajera,H. P.; Kapopara, M. B.; Patel, V. H.

    2010-01-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property. Saturated fatty acids like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids were higher in control biscuits (100% vanaspati), which decreased with increasing proportion of PB in the experimental biscuits. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were lowest in control biscuits and it gradually inc...

  5. Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pimpin

    Full Text Available Dietary guidelines recommend avoiding foods high in saturated fat. Yet, emerging evidence suggests cardiometabolic benefits of dairy products and dairy fat. Evidence on the role of butter, with high saturated dairy fat content, for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the association of butter consumption with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in general populations.We searched 9 databases from inception to May 2015 without restriction on setting, or language, using keywords related to butter consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Prospective cohorts or randomized clinical trials providing estimates of effects of butter intake on mortality, cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, or diabetes in adult populations were included. One investigator screened titles and abstracts; and two reviewed full-text articles independently in duplicate, and extracted study and participant characteristics, exposure and outcome definitions and assessment methods, analysis methods, and adjusted effects and associated uncertainty, all independently in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by a modified Newcastle-Ottawa score. Random and fixed effects meta-analysis pooled findings, with heterogeneity assessed using the I2 statistic and publication bias by Egger's test and visual inspection of funnel plots. We identified 9 publications including 15 country-specific cohorts, together reporting on 636,151 unique participants with 6.5 million person-years of follow-up and including 28,271 total deaths, 9,783 cases of incident cardiovascular disease, and 23,954 cases of incident diabetes. No RCTs were identified. Butter consumption was weakly associated with all-cause mortality (N = 9 country-specific cohorts; per 14g(1 tablespoon/day: RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.03, P = 0.045; was not significantly associated with any

  6. Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, Laura; Wu, Jason H Y; Haskelberg, Hila; Del Gobbo, Liana; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend avoiding foods high in saturated fat. Yet, emerging evidence suggests cardiometabolic benefits of dairy products and dairy fat. Evidence on the role of butter, with high saturated dairy fat content, for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the association of butter consumption with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in general populations. We searched 9 databases from inception to May 2015 without restriction on setting, or language, using keywords related to butter consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Prospective cohorts or randomized clinical trials providing estimates of effects of butter intake on mortality, cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, or diabetes in adult populations were included. One investigator screened titles and abstracts; and two reviewed full-text articles independently in duplicate, and extracted study and participant characteristics, exposure and outcome definitions and assessment methods, analysis methods, and adjusted effects and associated uncertainty, all independently in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by a modified Newcastle-Ottawa score. Random and fixed effects meta-analysis pooled findings, with heterogeneity assessed using the I2 statistic and publication bias by Egger's test and visual inspection of funnel plots. We identified 9 publications including 15 country-specific cohorts, together reporting on 636,151 unique participants with 6.5 million person-years of follow-up and including 28,271 total deaths, 9,783 cases of incident cardiovascular disease, and 23,954 cases of incident diabetes. No RCTs were identified. Butter consumption was weakly associated with all-cause mortality (N = 9 country-specific cohorts; per 14g(1 tablespoon)/day: RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.03, P = 0.045); was not significantly associated with any cardiovascular disease (N

  7. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Sayma Akhter; Morag A. McDonald; Ray Marriott

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that...

  8. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    Background: In several recent studies, it has been shown that markers of milk-fat intake, are strongly correlated to a low fasting-insulin level, indicating a positive correlation between milk-fat intake and improved glucose-tolerance [1, 2]. This is in contradiction to the general findings...... in epidemiological studies, where the typical fatty acid composition of milk-fat, i.e. a high level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been correlated to increased insulin-resistance. It is therefore essential to characterize the impact of milk......-fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or usual name for the triglyceride 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearin is “cocoa butter substitute primarily...

  10. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and shall...

  11. Technological changes in shea butter production in Ghana: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated technological changes in shea butter production in the Yendi District of Ghana and how processing could further be improved. A qualitative research and analysis of six communities and 36 shea butter processors in the Yendi District indicated that shea butter processors have changed from roasting ...

  12. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  13. Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Claus; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Bconcentrations. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, plasma cholesterol ester and platelets was alsodetermined. RESULTS: Significantly (P ...: Partially replacing milk fat with rapeseed oil seems to yield amore healthy spread. Stearic acid had a HDL-C lowering effect compared to milk fat, but did not affect LDL-Csignificantly. The addition of stearic acid did not improve the plasma lipoprotein profile for young men with lowcholesterol levels....... grams of the fat content of the habitualdiets was replaced by either butter/grapeseed oil (90:10) (BG); butter oil and low erucic rapeseed oil (65:35) (BR) orbutter blended in a 1:1 ratio with a interesterified mixture of rapeseed oil and fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil (70: 30)(BS). SUBJECTS: Thirteen...

  14. Comprehensive analysis of polar and apolar constituents of butter and margarine by nuclear magnetic resonance, reflecting quality and production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Jan

    2008-04-23

    The separation of butter or margarine into polar (soluble in water) and apolar fractions (soluble in chloroform) and subsequent analysis of these fractions by (1)H NMR permits a comprehensive analysis of its constituents. In the polar fraction the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid, the organic acids citric, lactic, butyric, acetic, and formic acid, and, furthermore, the carbohydrate lactose were quantified. In the apolar fraction the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) rumenic acid, diglycerides, and linoleic acid were quantified. Rumenic acid is a characteristic component of ruminant fats and was found in all butter samples. The levels varied between 0.50 and 1.08%. Ten brands of Brazilian butter were investigated as was one brand from Norway. Also, two brands of margarine were investigated for comparison. A large variation in especially polar constituents was found between the butter samples, revealing the presence of preservatives in five brands of butter from Brazil, remarkable because these additives are legally not allowed. Furthermore, the levels of organic acids and lactose permitted conclusions about the production process and quality; for example, the presence of higher levels of free butyric acid indicate lipolysis, leading to a lower quality, and low levels of lactose indicate that after churning the residual milk fluids have been removed by an additional washing step in the production process.

  15. Value assignment of nutrient and aflatoxin concentrations in standard reference material 2387 peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Phinney, Curtis S; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2003-11-05

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2387 peanut butter was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient and aflatoxin concentrations is reported herein. Values were assigned using data provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and collaborating laboratories. SRM 2387 is intended for use as a primary material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for measurements in peanut butter and similar high-fat matrixes. SRM 2387 lies in sector 3 of AOAC International's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle. With the addition of SRM 2387, NIST now offers materials within-or on the borders between-all sectors of the triangle. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2387 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as several vitamins, amino acids, and aflatoxins, for which labeling is not required. (Aflatoxin levels in peanut butter are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.)

  16. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  17. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum

  18. Effect of processed oils and fats on cholesterol metabolism. III. ; Comparison of the effects of palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. Kako yushi no cholesterol taisha ni oyobosu eikyo. (3). ; Palm yu to koka daizuyu oyobi cacao abura tono eikyo no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.; Chimi, K.; Kanematsu, H.; Niiya, I. (Japan Institute of Oils and Fats, Other Foods Inspection, Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)); Shimura, M. (Japan Margaruibe, Shortening and Lard Industries Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizutani, H. (Ueda Oils and Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Kobe (Japan)); Hirai, C. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology)

    1991-09-20

    Effects on cholesterol contained in serum lipids, levers and feces of rats and the metabolism were compared between palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. In addition, the relations to the physical and chemical properties of these oils were also studied. In the case of cacao butter, saturated triglyceride of high fusing point was not contained at all and the main component is 2-oleo-1,3-disaturated glycerides. This component was the main cause for cacao butter to show the unique behavior. Concerning the cholesterol concentrations in lever, the hardened soybean oil group tended to be lower than other 3 groups and this tendency agreed approximately with that in serum. Cholesterol in the feces was also analyzed. Cholesteol content in the case of cacao butter was higher than those for the hardened soybean oil group and palm oil group, and much higher than that of the soybean oil group. But the lathosterol content did not show any significant difference compared with that of palm oil group, and the coprostanol content showed the lower value, which had the significant difference. 14 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    , a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective: To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design: In a double......-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed......There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid...

  20. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en diferentes proporciones. Sus propiedades y particularmente el índice de grasa sólida, ayudaron mucho en la selección de la mezcla más adecuada para la producción de chocolate local. Se encontró que las mezclas con el 10% o 15% de lllexao en manteca de cacao, dieron los resultados más satisfactorios con respecto a la palatabilidad, dureza y consistencia.

  1. ASIDOLISIS ENZIMATIK FRAKSI TENGAH MINYAK SAWIT DENGAN ASAM STEARAT UNTUK SINTESIS COCOA BUTTER EQUIVALENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenar Soekopitojo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic acidolysis of palm midfraction (PMF with stearic acid for the synthesis of cocoa butter equivalents (CBE. CBE have chemical and physical pro­per­ties compatible with those of cocoa butter (CB and can be used to replace CB in chocolate confectionery product formulation. The main analysis were triacylglycerol (TAG composition, solid fat content (SFC and slip melting point (SMP. Enzymatic acidolysis of the substrates resulted in the formation of a complex mixture of acylgly­ce­rols and free fatty acids. Concentration of several TAG were increased, some were decreased, and several new TAGs were formed. Synthesis of target TAG (POS, SOS increased with increasing proportion of stearic acid to 5:4 weight ratio in the subs­trates. The resulting changes in the TAG composition of the substrates were reflected in the SFC profiles and SMP values. The SFC values could be predicted from the proportion of MMM, StStM and StStD TAG groups, either single or combined. Asidolisis Enzimatik Fraksi Tengah Minyak Sawit dengan Asam Stearat untuk Sintesis Cocoa Butter Equivalents (CBE. CBE mempunyai sifat-sifat kimia dan fisik yang kompatibel dengan cocoa butter (CB dan dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti CB dalam formu­lasi produk cokelat confectionery. Analisis utama meliputi komposisi triasilgliserol (TAG, solid fat content (SFC dan slip melting point (SMP. Asidolisis enzimatik dari substrat menghasilkan terbentuknya campuran kompleks asilgliserol dan asam lemak bebas (ALB. Konsentrasi beberapa TAG meningkat, beberapa menurun dan beberapa TAG baru terbentuk. Sintesis TAG target (POS, SOS meningkat dengan meningkatnya proporsi asam stearat sampai rasio berat 5:4 dalam substrat. Perubahan dalam komposisi TAG substrat tercermin pada profil SFC dan nilai SMP. Nilai SFC dapat diprediksi dari proporsi kelompok TAG MMM, StStM dan StStD, secara tunggal atau gabungan.

  2. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax....

  3. Comparison of the impact of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Allaire, Janie; Rajendiran, Ethendhar; She, Yongbo; Ramprasath, Vanu; Gigleux, Iris; Talbot, Denis; Levy, Emile; Tremblay, Angelo; Jones, Peter Jh; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    Background: Controversies persist concerning the association between intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: We compared the impact of consuming equal amounts of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: In a multicenter, crossover, randomized controlled trial, 92 men and women with abdominal obesity and relatively low HDL-cholesterol concentrations were assigned to sequences of 5 predetermined isoenergetic diets of 4 wk each separated by 4-wk washouts: 2 diets rich in SFAs (12.4-12.6% of calories) from either cheese or butter; a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, MUFAs: 19.6%); a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, PUFAs: 11.5%); and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (fat: 25%, SFAs: 5.8%). Results: Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations were similar after the cheese and butter diets but were significantly higher than after the carbohydrate diet (+3.8% and +4.7%, respectively; P cholesterol concentrations after the cheese diet were lower than after the butter diet (-3.3%, P cholesterol concentrations after the butter diet also increased significantly (from +6.1% to +16.2%, P cholesterol response to treatment was significantly modified by baseline values ( P -interaction = 0.02), with the increase in LDL cholesterol being significantly greater with butter than with cheese only among individuals with high baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations. There was no significant difference between all diets on inflammation markers, blood pressure, and insulin-glucose homeostasis. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that the consumption of SFAs from cheese and butter has similar effects on HDL cholesterol but differentially modifies LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effects of carbohydrates, MUFAs, and PUFAs, particularly in individuals with high LDL cholesterol. In contrast, SFAs from either cheese or butter have no significant

  4. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to lean rats does not impair glucose tolerance or muscle insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanson, Amanda; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; Ritchie, Ian R; MacDonald, Tara; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2014-06-23

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of isolated CLA supplementation on glucose homeostasis in humans and rodents. However, both the amount and relative abundance of CLA isomers in supplemental form are not representative of what is consumed from natural sources. No study to date has examined the effects of altered CLA isomer content within a natural food source. Our goal was to increase the content of the insulin desensitizing CLAt10,c12 isomer relative to the CLAc9,t11 isomer in cow's milk by inducing subacute rumenal acidosis (SARA), and subsequently investigate the effects of this milk fat on parameters related to glucose and insulin tolerance in rats. We fed female rats (~2.5 to 3 months of age) CLA t10,c12 -enriched (SARA) butter or non-SARA butter based diets for 4 weeks in either low (10% of kcal from fat; 0.18% total CLA by weight) or high (60% of kcal from fat; 0.55% total CLA by weight) amounts. In an effort to extend these findings, we then fed rats high (60% kcal) amounts of SARA or non-SARA butter for a longer duration (8 weeks) and assessed changes in whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance in comparison to low fat and 60% lard conditions. There was a main effect for increased fasting blood glucose and insulin in SARA vs. non-SARA butter groups after 4 weeks of feeding (p butter, but not glucose or pyruvate tolerance. The non-SARA butter did not impair tolerance to glucose, insulin or pyruvate. This study suggests that increasing the consumption of a naturally enriched CLAt10,c12 source, at least in rats, has minimal impact on whole body glucose tolerance or muscle specific insulin response.

  5. Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; López-Miranda, José; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ruano, Juan; Paniagua, Juan A; Rodríguez, Fernando; Egido, Jesús; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    Inflammation is crucial in all stages of atherosclerosis, and few studies have investigated the effect of dietary fat on markers of inflammation related to this disease during the postprandial period. To evaluate the chronic effects of dietary fat on the postprandial expression of proinflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy subjects. 20 healthy men followed three different diets for 4 weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design: Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); CHO-rich and n-3 diet: 15% protein, 55% CHO, butter breakfast: 35% SFA; olive oil breakfast: 36% MUFA; walnut breakfast: 16% PUFA, 4% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA). The butter breakfast induced a higher increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression than the olive oil or walnut breakfasts (P=0.014) in PBMCs. Moreover, we found a higher postprandial response in the mRNA of interleukin (IL)-6 with the intake of butter and olive oil breakfasts than with the walnut breakfast (P=0.025) in these cells. However, the effects of the three fatty breakfasts on the plasma concentrations of these proinflammatory parameters showed no significant differences (P=N.S.). Consumption of a butter-enriched meal elicits greater postprandial expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in PBMCs, compared to the olive oil and walnut breakfasts.

  6. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallenius Marja

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of VirginoR CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Results Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p Conclusion Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01119690

  7. Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Ari; Pohjantähti-Maaroos, Hanna; Wallenius, Marja; Kankkunen, Päivi; Aro, Heikki; Husgafvel, Sari; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Oksanen, Kalevi

    2010-12-01

    Rapeseed oil is the principal dietary source of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Northern Europe. However, the effect of rapeseed oil on the markers of subclinical atherosclerosis is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of dietary intake of cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome completed an open and balanced crossover study. Treatment periods lasted for 6 to 8 weeks and they were separated from each other with an eight-week washout period. Subjects maintained their normal dietary habits and physical activity without major variations. The daily fat adjunct consisted either of 37.5 grams of butter or 35 mL of Virgino R CPTRO. Participants were asked to spread butter on bread on the butter period and to drink CPTRO on the oil period. The fat adjunct was used as such without heating or frying. Compared to butter, administration of CPTRO was followed by a reduction of total cholesterol by 8% (p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol by 11% (p < 0.001). The level of oxidized LDL was 16% lower after oil period (p = 0.024). Minimal differences in arterial elasticity were not statistically significant. Cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil had favourable effects on circulating LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL, which may be important in the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  8. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  9. Microbiological quality of karın butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe, Ramazan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Karın butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karın, is a traditional butter type. Karın used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karın butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karın butter samples was found to be poor in general.

    La mantequilla Karin, que se caracteriza por ser envasada en el rumen (karin de oveja o cabra, es un tipo de mantequilla tradicional. El karin, usado como un material de envasado en la produción de la mantequilla, es un importante factor para que la mantequilla sea mas aromática y deliciosa. En este estudio, muestras de mantequilla karin, que se recogieron del mercado local y de las factorias de producción, fueron investigadas con respectos las bacteria mesófilas aeróbicas, bacterias coliforme, Staphilococcus aureus y mohos- levaduras. Los resultados fueron evaluados con respecto a los acuerdos legales de Turquía y otros estudios científicos relacionados con el tema. La calidad microbiológica de las muestras de mantequilla karin fue encontrada pobre en general.

  10. Oil migration in chocolate-peanut butter paste confectionery as a function of chocolate formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K L; McCarthy, M J

    2008-08-01

    Migration of oil from high oil content filling to the chocolate coating can result in undesirable quality changes in filled chocolate confectionery products. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in a 2-layer chocolate-peanut butter paste model confectionery. Spatial and temporal oil content changes were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Five formulations of chocolate, which varied in chocolate particle size, milk fat content, and emulsifier level, were assessed at 2 temperatures, 20 and 30 degrees C. The spatial and temporal experimental data were modeled using a Fickian-based diffusion model, fitting for the diffusion coefficient, D, over a time frame of 17 d. Values of the diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.82 to 3.23 x 10(-11) m2/s for the chocolate formulations stored at 30 degrees C. No significant mass transfer took place in the 20 degrees C samples over the experimental time frame. This study describes the dynamic nature of the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste layers, quantifies the mass transfer from the peanut butter paste to the chocolate, and reinforces the importance of temperature control.

  11. The effect of coconut oil and palm oil as substituted oils to cocoa butter on chocolate bar texture and melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbardo, Rebecca Putri; Santoso, Herry; Witono, Judy Retti

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter has responsibility for dispersion medium to create a stable chocolate bar. Due to the economic reason, cocoa butter is partially or wholly substituted by edible oils e.g palm oil and coconut oil. The objective of the research was to observe the effect of oil substitution in the chocolate bar towards its melting point and texture. The research were divided in three steps which were preliminary research started with fat content analysis in cocoa powder, melting point analysis of substituted oils anc cocoa butter, and iodine number analysis in vegetable fats (cocoa butter, coconut oil, and palm oil), chocolate bar production with substitution 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%wt of cocoa butter with each of substituted oils, and analysis process to determine the chocolate bar melting point with DSC and chocolate bar hardness with texture analyser. The increasement of substituted oils during substitution in chocolate bar would reduce the melting point of chocolate bar from 33.5°C to 31.6°C in palm oil substitution with cocoa butter and 33.5°C to 30.75°C in coconut oil substitution. The hardness of chocolate with palm oil were around 88.5 to 139 g on the 1st cycle and 22.75 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. The hardness of chocolate with coconut oil were around 74.75 to 152.5 g on the 1st cycle and 53.25 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. Maximum amount of fats substitution to produce a stable texture chocolate bar is 60% wt.

  12. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to obese-prone rats impairs glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melissa; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; MacDonald, Tara L; Cervone, Daniel T; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2015-09-28

    We recently demonstrated that feeding a natural CLAt10,c12-enriched butter to lean female rats resulted in small, but significant increases in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, and impaired insulin tolerance. Our goal was to extend these findings by utilizing the diabetes-prone female fatty Zucker rat. Rats were fed custom diets containing 45 % kcal of fat derived from control and CLAt10,c12-enriched butter for 8 weeks. CLA t10,c12-enriched butter was prepared from milk collected from cows fed a high fermentable carbohydrate diet to create subacute rumen acidosis (SARA); control (non-SARA) butter was collected from cows fed a low grain diet. Female fatty Zucker rats (10 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of four diet treatments: i) low fat (10 % kcal), ii) 45 % kcal lard, iii) 45 % kcal SARA butter, or iv) 45 % kcal non-SARA butter. A low fat fed lean Zucker group was used as a control group. After 8 weeks, i) glucose and insulin tolerance tests, ii) insulin signaling in muscle, adipose and liver, and iii) metabolic caging measurements were performed. Glucose and insulin tolerance were significantly impaired in all fatty Zucker groups, but to the greatest extent in the LARD and SARA conditions. Insulin signaling (AKT phosphorylation) was impaired in muscle, visceral (perigonadal) adipose tissue and liver in fatty Zucker rats, but was generally similar across dietary groups. Physical activity, oxygen consumption, food intake and weight gain were also similar amongst the various fatty Zucker groups. Increasing the consumption of a food naturally enriched with CLAt10,c12 significantly worsens glucose and insulin tolerance in a diabetes-prone rodent model. This outcome is not explained by changes in tissue insulin signaling, physical activity, energy expenditure, food intake or body mass.

  13. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter

  14. Prevention of striae gravidarum with cocoa butter cream

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buchanan, Keisha; Fletcher, Horace M; Reid, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    .... Cocoa butter (from Theobroma cacao ) is readily available in Jamaica, where the plants are grown for cocoa drink and chocolate for export. Many cocoa butter products are readily available for use to prevent stretch marks, but their efficacy has not been confirmed. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a cream containing cocoa...

  15. strength properties of shea-butter nuts under compressive loading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Compression tests were performed on heat-treated Shea-butter nuts to study the effects of temperature and loading position on rupture force, deformation, toughness and firmness of ... Shea-butter nuts, drying of the nut, cracking of the nut, washing and crushing of the kernel, cooking of the milled product and clarification.

  16. Processors' training needs on modern shea butter processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for continual production of high quality shea butter in Nigeria through the use of modern processing technologies necessitated this study. The study was carried out to ascertain training needs of shea butter processors on modern processing technologies in North Central Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Primary ...

  17. Assessment of Usage of Upgraded Indigenous Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Agbaku-Eji in Moro Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria, to assess the usage of upgraded indigenous Shea Butter Processing Technology by Women processors. All the 61 members of the Shea Butter Cooperative Society was used for the study. An interview schedule was used to ...

  18. Chem I Supplement. Butter and Margarine: Their Chemistry, Their Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R.; McGill, Diana Combs

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the differences between margarine and butter, focusing on the chemical differences. Provides a brief historical overview of the development of both commodities. Describes the manufacture of butter and of margarine, and details the differences in chemical composition and nutritive contents. (TW)

  19. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minckler MR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Minckler,1 Joseph Fisher,2 Rachel Bowers,2 Richard Amini1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, 2College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. Case report: This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient’s presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. Conclusion: This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter. Keywords: jojoba butter, simmondsin, cyanoglycoside, anorectic

  20. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicochemical, rheological and functional properties of fats and oils in relation to cookie quality: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Sincere efforts of researchers are underway to understand the functionality of different fats and oils in relation to cookie quality. The quality of cookie primarily relies upon the functionality of fats and oils in cookie system which ultimately is combined result of their physical, chemical, and rheological properties. Effects of some major fats and oils such as butter, bakery fat, hydrogenated fat, lard, margarine, palm oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil, and soybean oil on the physical and s...

  2. Emission of diacetyl (2,3 butanedione) from natural butter, microwave popcorn butter flavor powder, paste, and liquid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, Mark W; Longo, William E

    2010-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3 butanedione), a butter-flavored diketone, has been linked to a severe lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans. We tested a total of three natural butters and artificial microwave popcorn butter flavorings (three powders, two pastes, and one liquid) for bulk diacetyl concentration and diacetyl emissions when heated. Pastes and liquid butter flavors contained the highest amount (6% to 10.6%) while natural butter possessed up to 7500 times less diacetyl. All artificial butter flavors studied emitted diacetyl. Dry powders emitted up to 1.62 ppm diacetyl; wetted powders up to 54.7 ppm diacetyl; and pastes emitted up to 34.9 ppm diacetyl. The liquid butter flavor emitted up to 17.2 ppm diacetyl. Microwave popcorn flavoring mixtures emitted up to 11.4 ppm diacetyl. At least 93% of the dry powder particles were inhalable. These studies show that microwave butter flavoring products generate concentrations of diacetyl in the air great enough to endanger those exposed.

  3. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  4. Multilevel systems biology modeling characterized the atheroprotective efficiencies of modified dairy fats in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Charles; Berton, Amélie; Ginies, Christian; Bott, Romain; Scheercousse, Pierre; Saddi, Alessandra; Gripois, Daniel; Landrier, Jean-François; Dalemans, Daniel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the atheroprotective efficiency of modified dairy fats in hyperlipidemic hamsters. A systems biology approach was implemented to reveal and quantify the dietary fat-related components of the disease. Three modified dairy fats (40% energy) were prepared from regular butter by mixing with a plant oil mixture, by removing cholesterol alone, or by removing cholesterol in combination with reducing saturated fatty acids. A plant oil mixture and a regular butter were used as control diets. The atherosclerosis severity (aortic cholesteryl-ester level) was higher in the regular butter-fed hamsters than in the other four groups (P fat. Under conditions that promote atherosclerosis, the impact of dairy fats on atherogenesis could be greatly ameliorated by technological modifications. Our modeling approach allowed for identifying and quantifying the contribution of complex factors to atherogenic development in each dietary setup. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  6. Butter, my love” Joy, Sorrow and Rehabilitation: Not simply Cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to his “love” for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of “cherry picking”, i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC, the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: “If you were to give

  7. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  8. Matrix effects on the crystallization behaviour of butter and roll-in shortening in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-06-01

    Two hydrogenated roll-in shortenings (A & B), one non-hydrogenated roll-in shortening and butter were used to prepare croissants. The impact of the laminated dough matrix on fat crystallization was then investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (p-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The fat contained within a croissant matrix has never before been analyzed using these techniques. In each case, XRD revealed that the polymorphism of a roll-in fat will be different when baked within the dough matrix than when simply heated and cooled on its own. Both hydrogenated roll-in shortenings and butter experienced only minor changes, largely retaining their β' polymorphs, but the non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant conversion from β' to the β form. However, this conversion did not take place immediately upon cooling, but after approximately 24h of storage time. The fat contained within the croissants exhibited a significantly lower SFC than the same fats in bulk. Further, DSC results demonstrated that a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat in a croissant than the same fat in bulk, observed visually as broader peaks in the melting endotherms. Analysis of croissant firmness over storage time, measured as the maximum force required to cut a croissant was used as an indication of potential sensory consequences. Results suggested that only croissants prepared with non-hydrogenated shortening experienced significant changes in firmness over one week of storage. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the shortenings and the ingredients of the croissant matrix, and given the differences observed between roll-in fats used, the extent of interaction is potentially influenced by the composition of the roll-in fat itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-fat spreadable processed cheese for people with high blood cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, N A

    1993-05-01

    Part of the raw cheese base used for manufacturing high-fat processed cheese spread was replaced by cows' (C) or buffalo (B) butter residue at levels of up to 20%. These residues were produced during the conversion of butter to butter oil by traditional moderate (T) or severe (M) heat treatments. The hypocholesterolaemic properties of butter residues incorporated into processed cheese were tested with rats (serum and liver cholesterol) and human beings (serum cholesterol). When rats were given the control cheese with no butter residue there were significant increases in both serum and liver cholesterol compared with rats given stock diet. However, when part of the raw cheese base was replaced by butter residue these rises were reduced by amounts proportional to the level of butter residue. The hypocholesterolaemic properties of the residues were in order CT > BT, CM > BM, and incorporations of 10% CT, 15% BT, 15% CM and 20% BM were found to nullify the hypercholesterolaemic effects of control cheese and restore cholesterol levels to their normal values. A small human trial gave similar results. Incorporation of butter residue slightly affected the chemical composition of the cheeses. Fat content and pH were little different; however, cheeses with butter residue tended to have higher total protein but lower soluble protein, tyrosine and tryptophan, and total volatile fatty acids. Rheological properties were not altered significantly. Incorporation of butter residue improved the organoleptic properties, particularly flavour intensity. Storage at 5 degrees C for 2 months did not alter the organoleptic properties and changes in chemical composition followed the normal pattern.

  10. Butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevents hyperinsulinemia and increases both serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; Santos da Conceição, Ellen Paula; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Lopes, Fernando César Ferraz; Garcia, Raúl Marcel González

    2014-12-22

    Evidence from in vitro and animal studies indicates that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) possesses anti-diabetic properties, which appear to be attributed to cis-9, trans-11 CLA, the major CLA isomer in ruminant fat. However, there is a shortage of studies addressing CLA from natural source. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA on parameters related to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: 1) Normal fat-Soybean oil (NF-So): diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); 2) High Fat-Control Butter (HF-Cb): diet containing 21.7% control butter and 2.3% SO; 3) High Fat-CLA enriched Butter (HF-CLAb): diet containing 21.7% cis-9, trans-11 CLA-enriched butter and 2.3% SO; and 4) High fat-Soybean oil (HF-So): diet containing 24.0% SO. HF-Cb and HF-CLAb diets contained 0.075% and 0.235% of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, respectively. HF-CLAb-fed rats had lower serum insulin levels at fasting than those fed with the HF-Cb diet, while the PPARγ protein levels in adipose tissue was increased in HF-CLAb-fed rats compared to HF-Cb-fed rats. Furthermore, R-QUICK was lower in HF-Cb than in NF-So group, while no differences in R-QUICK were observed among NF-So, HF-CLAb and HF-So groups. Serum HDL cholesterol levels were higher in HF-CLAb-fed rats than in those fed NF-So, HF-Cb and HF-So diets, as well as higher in NF-So-fed rats than in HF-Cb and HF-So-fed rats. HF-CLAb, HF-Cb and HF-So diets reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels when compared to NF-So, whereas serum triacylglycerol levels were increased in HF-CLAb. Feeding rats on a high-fat diet containing butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA prevented hyperinsulinemia and increased HDL cholesterol, which could be associated with higher levels of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and lower levels of short and medium

  11. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  12. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were...... in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis...

  13. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Creep test observation of viscoelastic failure of edible fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, C. R.; Grimson, M. J.; Smith, B. G.; Wills, P. R.

    2011-03-01

    A rheological creep test was used to investigate the viscoelastic failure of five edible fats. Butter, spreadable blend and spread were selected as edible fats because they belong to three different groups according to the Codex Alimentarius. Creep curves were analysed according to the Burger model. Results were fitted to a Weibull distribution representing the strain-dependent lifetime of putative fibres in the material. The Weibull shape and scale (lifetime) parameters were estimated for each substance. A comparison of the rheometric measurements of edible fats demonstrated a clear difference between the three different groups. Taken together the results indicate that butter has a lower threshold for mechanical failure than spreadable blend and spread. The observed behaviour of edible fats can be interpreted using a model in which there are two types of bonds between fat crystals; primary bonds that are strong and break irreversibly, and secondary bonds, which are weaker but break and reform reversibly.

  15. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  16. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  17. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  18. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    , these results demonstrated different lymphatic absorption patterns of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Because the fatty acid composition of the dairy products differed only slightly, other factors such as viscosity, type of emulsion, particle size, and likely also protein content......We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...

  19. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Louise B; Hellgren, Lars I; Raff, Marianne; Jensen, Søren K; Petersen, Rikke A; Drachmann, Tue; Tholstrup, Tine

    2013-07-10

    There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589.

  20. Six Different Fat Tolerance Tests in Young, Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Winther; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    ) was dtermined for the postprandial values. Results: The meals with six types of butters had similar postprandial response even if the saturated fat content varied with 50%.Gender significantly affected the TG responses, as time to pesk was 90 minutes in women and 180 min in men. Postprandial AUC was higherwith...... respect to TG (pcholesterol (pcholesterol (pcholesterol was lowest in men (AUC, p

  1. Rapid extraction of aflatoxin from creamy and crunchy peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Victor A

    2005-01-01

    A rapid extraction technique was developed for the isolation and subsequent liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in creamy and crunchy peanut butter. Peanut buftter samples were extracted with a methanol 15% sodium chloride (7 + 3) solution followed by a second extraction with methanol. The extract was subjected to a cleanup using a Vicam Aflatest immunoaffinity column. Control samples for both smooth and crunchy peanut butter were fortified at 4 different levels for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. The average aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 recoveries from smooth peanut buffer were 95.2, 89.9, 94.1, and 62.4%, respectively, and 92.4, 84.3, 85.5, and 53.7%, respectively, from crunchy peanut butter. This extraction method and the official AOAC Method 991.31 produced comparable results for peanut butter samples. This method provides a rapid, specific, and easily controlled assay for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanut butter with minimal solvent usage. Organic solvent consumption was decreased by 85% and hazardous waste production was decreased by 80% in comparison with the AOAC method. Along with the decreased solvent consumption, significant savings in time were observed.

  2. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajera, H P; Kapopara, M B; Patel, V H

    2010-06-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property. Saturated fatty acids like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids were higher in control biscuits (100% vanaspati), which decreased with increasing proportion of PB in the experimental biscuits. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were lowest in control biscuits and it gradually increased upon incorporation of PB. The hardness of biscuits also increased with increasing proportion of PB. Overall sensory quality of experimental biscuits improved when 50% vanaspati replaced by PB in the standard biscuits recipe. Biscuits prepared with 50% supplementation of PB had better fatty acid composition with balanced oil quality and also had a greater acceptability by sensory evaluation panel.

  3. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis.

  4. Long term effects on human plasma lipoproteins of a formulation enriched in butter milk polar lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Åke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids (SL, in particular sphingomyelin (SM are important components of milk fat polar lipids. Dietary SM inhibits cholesterol absorption in rats (Nyberg et al. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 and SLs decrease both cholesterol and TG concentrations in lipid- and cholesterol fed APOE*3Leiden mice (Duivenvoorden et al. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006. This human study examines effects of a butter milk formulation enriched in milk fat globule membrane material, and thereby in SLs, on blood lipids in healthy volunteers. In a four week parallel group study with 33 men and 15 women we examined the effects of an SL-enriched butter milk formulation (A and an equivalent control formulation (B on plasma lipid levels. Plasma concentrations of HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TG, apolipoproteins AI and B, and lipoprotein (a were measured. The daily dose of SL in A was 975 mg of which 700 mg was SM. The participants registered food and drink intake four days before introducing the test formula and the last four days of the test period. Results A daily increase of SL intake did not significantly influence fasting plasma lipids or lipoproteins. In group B TG, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and apolipoprotein B concentrations increased, however, but not in group A after four weeks. The difference in LDL cholesterol was seen primarily in women and difference in TG primarily in men. No significant side effects were observed. Conclusion The study did not show any significant decrease on plasma lipids or lipoprotein levels of an SL-enriched formulation containing 2-3 times more SL than the normal dietary intake on cholesterol, other plasma lipids or on energy intake. The formulation A may, however, have counteracted the trend towards increased blood lipid concentrations caused by increased energy intake that was seen with the B formulation.

  5. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  6. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  7. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  8. Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not

  9. [Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G; Losi, G; Frega, N; Lercker, G; Cocchi, M; Gori, A; Cerretani, L

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation) ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not all fats are harmful

  10. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Preparation of Low-fat Spreads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of CaCl2 on the preparation of low-fat spreads from buffalo and cow butter. Methods: Buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads (B-LFS and C-LFS) were treated with CaCl2 (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08%) at pH 5.5 and stored at 4°C. They were sampled after 3, 30, 60, and 90 days, and ...

  13. The Demand for Canadian Fats and Oils: A Case Study of Advertising Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Ellen W.; Alex K. Amuah

    1989-01-01

    The fats and oils market in Canada is characterized by generic (butter) and brand (margarine, shortening, vegetable oils) advertising. In this study the economic interrelationships in the consumption of fats and oils are examined and the effectiveness of the advertising programs is evaluated. The two-stage demand model used is made up of a single equation determining Canadian aggregate expenditure on fats and oils and an expenditure share system derived from a translog indirect utility functi...

  14. Development and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a Shea Butter-Containing Lipid Nutrition Supplement for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Sloffer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID’s A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa, a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed. LNS formulas were batched (0.8 kg in a wet grinder, sealed under nitrogen in three-layer mini-pouches (20 g, and underwent ASLT at 40 ± 2 °C for six months with sampling every eight weeks. At each time point, water activity, moisture, peroxide value, oil separation, vitamin C content, and hardness were evaluated. Results showed comparable stability among all formulas with an increase in Aw (p < 0.05 but no change in vitamin C, oil separation, or peroxide value. Addition of Shea butter improved the LNS’s hardness, which remained stable over time. Modifying fat profile in LNS can improve its texture and essential fatty acid content without affecting its storage stability.

  15. Pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de sabores Flavored cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliaram-se as características de pastas de castanha-de-caju com incorporação de chocolate e canela. As formulações foram elaboradas pela moagem dos ingredientes até obtenção de uma pasta homogênea. Analisaram-se: umidade, pH, cinzas, proteína, gordura, índice de acidez, atividade de água, textura e aceitação sensorial. Os produtos obtidos caracterizaram-se por baixos valores de atividade de água (Characteristics of cashew nut butter with added chocolate and cinnamon were evaluated. Formulations were obtained by grinding ingredients onto a homogeneous paste, which was analyzed for moisture, pH, ash, protein, fat, acid value, water activity, texture and sensory acceptance. Products obtained showed low water activity (<0.32 as well as moisture content (<1.4%. Fat (45.3 to 49.1% and protein (15.4 to 16.3% content were high. Nut butter formulations showed good sensory acceptance (82.9 to 100.0% and purchase intent (60.0 to 80.0% by the tasters.

  16. Effects of margarines and butter consumption on lipid profiles, inflammation markers and lipid transfer to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, A C M; Maranhão, R C; de Sousa, H P; Schaefer, E J; Santos, R D

    2010-10-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effects of daily servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine and plant sterol margarine, within recommended amounts, on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos), biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and on the transfer of lipids to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome. This was a randomized, single-blind study where 53 metabolic syndrome subjects (62% women, mean age 54 years) received isocaloric servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine or plant sterol margarine in addition to their usual diets for 5 weeks. The main outcome measures were plasma lipids, Apo, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers (CRP, IL-6, CD40L or E-selectin), small dense LDL cholesterol concentrations and in vitro radioactive lipid transfer from cholesterol-rich emulsions to HDL. Difference among groups was evaluated by analysis of variance. There was a significant reduction in Apo-B (-10.4 %, P=0.043) and in the Apo-B/Apo-A-1 ratio (-11.1%, P=0.034) with plant sterol margarine. No changes in plasma lipids were noticed with butter and no-trans-fat margarine. Transfer rates of lipids to HDL were reduced in the no-trans-fat margarine group: triglycerides -42.0%, (Pbutter and sterol margarine) and free cholesterol -16.2% (P=0.006 vs sterol margarine). No significant effects were noted on the concentrations of inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers among the groups. In free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome consumption of plant sterol and no-trans-fat margarines within recommended amounts reduced, respectively, Apo-B concentrations and the ability of HDL to accept lipids.

  17. Income Generation from Shea Butter Production by Women in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. 20 (1) June, 2016. Google Scholar ... Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), and CABI ... trade commodity. Collecting the nuts and making butter have traditionally been women's work. Suleiman (2008) observed that marketing the oil was giving women ...

  18. Income generation from shea butter production by women in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed women involvement in shea butter production in the shea growing areas of the north central states of Nigeria by specifically examining their socio-economic characteristics, ascertaining their income generation and their level of control over the resources used. Data were collected from 193 respondents ...

  19. Biodiesel production from butter factory effluent | Schabort | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in energy demand coupled with the depletion of fossil fuels has increased the need for renewable and sustainable energy sources. Butter waste effluent was identified as a possible feedstock for biodiesel. The effects of the temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and the reaction time were ...

  20. Benefits and constraints of shea butter production by women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major benefits the respondents believed they derived from their shea butter processing business included better feeding of household (46.9%), more income (100%) and improved child training (93.8%). Two of the several major serious constraints the respondents faced in their production activities were hazards during ...

  1. Letter to the Editor re: Bittman's "Butter is Back"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Bittman suggests that “Butter Is Back” (column, March 26) based on one highly controversial meta-analysis. There are a number of ways to summarize the available scientific data. The links? Conclusions of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, released last fall, ...

  2. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in…

  3. Perception of Modern Processing Technology by Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of Shea butter processors to modern processing technology in Kwara State. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents. Data was collected using interview schedule and analysed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that 88.3% of the ...

  4. "The Butter Battle Book": Engaging Children's Thoughts of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how "The Butter Battle Book" by Dr. Seuss can be used to introduce the moral issue of war to young children. Studies the written responses of 1,187 children in grades kindergarten to 6 to the story. Notes that only the fourth- through sixth-grade students (who felt themselves beyond Dr. Seuss) understood the allegorical nature…

  5. Soap Production From Shea nut Butter | Warra | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to explore the use of shea butter for soap production. The traditional method of extraction of the shea nut oil was employed. A simple cold-process alkali hydrolysis of the shea nut oil, which is a village adoptable technology was used in producing the soap. The chemical analysis of the oil revealed ...

  6. Discovery of new lactones in sweet cream butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Elise; Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain; Aeberhardt, Kasia; Rubin, Mark

    2011-06-22

    Sweet cream butter oil was analyzed to identify new volatile compounds that may contribute to its flavor, with an emphasis on lactones. The volatile part of butter oil was obtained by using short-path distillation. As some previously unknown lactones were detected in this first extract, it was fractionated further. The fatty acids were removed, and the extract was fractionated by flash chromatography. Three lactonic fractions possessing a creamy, buttery, and fatty character were investigated in depth by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) (EI and CI) and high-resolution GC-time-of-flight MS. Many lactones were identified by their mass fragmentation and by comparison with reference materials synthesized during this work. Six γ-lactones, five δ-lactones, and one ε-lactone were identified for the first time in butter oil, seven of them for the first time in a natural product. The possible contribution of these new lactones to the aroma of butter oil is briefly discussed.

  7. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Julia; Rosenquist, Anna; Ohlsson, Lena

    2011-06-28

    Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs). Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in plasma. A randomized crossover design (n = 19) was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  8. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... polyunsaturated fat; Heart disease - polyunsaturated fat; Peripheral artery disease - polyunsaturated fat; PAD - polyunsaturated fat; Stroke - polyunsaturated fat; CAD - polyunsaturated fat; Heart healthy diet - polyunsaturated fat

  9. Impact of the addition of cocoa butter equivalent on the volatile compounds profile of dark chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Souza, Cristiano; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the partial replacement of cocoa butter (CB) by cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) in the release of volatile compounds in dark chocolate was studied. The fatty acid profile, triacylglyceride composition, solid fat content (SFC) and melting point were determined in CB and CBE. Chocolate with CB (F1) and with different content of CBE (5 and 10%-F2 and F3, respectively) were prepared. Plastic viscosity and Casson flow limit, particle size distribution and release of volatile compounds using a solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography (SMPE-GC) were determined in the chocolate samples. The melting point was similar for the studied samples but SFC indicated different melting behavior. CBE showed a higher saturated fatty acid content when compared to CB. The samples showed similar SOS triglyceride content (21 and 23.7% for CB and CBE, respectively). Higher levels of POS and lower POP were observed for CB when compared to CBE (44.8 and 19.7 and 19 and 41.1%, respectively). The flow limit and plastic viscosity were similar for the studied chocolates samples, as well as the particle size distribution. Among the 27 volatile compounds identified in the samples studied, 12 were detected in significantly higher concentrations in sample F1 (phenylacetaldehyde, methylpyrazine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2-acetylpyrrole, acetophenone and isovaleric acid). The highest changes were observed in the pyrazines group, which presented a decrease of more than half in the formulations where part of the CB was replaced by the CBE.

  10. [A new type of creamery butter for pediatric and dietetic nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, M Ia; Fursova, S A; Baeva, V S; Krasulia, N G; Frolova, L S

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the data on the chemical composition and the technology of manufacturing a new sort of butter for child's and dietetic nutrition. The butter has high biological value due to the introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUSFA) with vegetable oils and milk-protein ingredients. The milk-protein ingredients also play the role of the butter structure stabilizers. The chemical composition of the new sort of butter, including the vitamin and mineral content, as well as the amino-acid composition of the butter plasma are described. It is shown that the content of PUSFA in the new sort of butter is 10-fold higher than in the routine butter. Various kinds of dessert butter have been developed with different flavoring additives. One of the butter variant has been enriched with bifidobacteria. The new sort of butter is recommended for the dietetic nutrition of children and adults suffering from obesity, as well as for the nutrition of the middle- and old-aged subjects to prevent lipid metabolism disorders.

  11. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pbutter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of 4 different dietary fats (rapeseed oil (RO), rapeseed oil interesterified with decanoic acid (R/C10), olive oil (OO), and butter) after feeding a high-fat (30 wt-%) diet rich in trans-fatty acids (mainly trans-C18:1) for 3 weeks. The trans-fatty...... artery were divided into 4 groups after a 24 h fast and fed intragastrically with a fat load. Blood samples were collected regularly and fatty acid compositions as well as insulin and glucagon concentrations were determined (experiment 1). In 2 other groups of rats the mesenteric lymph duct...... was cannulated and they were fed intragastrically either R/C10 or butter. Lymph was collected and analyzed for fatty acid composition (experiment 2). The fatty acid composition of plasma lipids changed rapidly according to the administered fats and a biphasic response was observed for nearly all fatty acids...

  13. Organochlorine pesticide residues in different Indian cereals, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphalia, B S; Takroo, R; Mehrotra, S; Nigam, U; Seth, T D

    1990-01-01

    A total of 244 samples of cereals (wheat flour, rice, and maize), pulses (arhar, moong, gram, lentil, and black gram), spices (turmeric, chili, coriander, and black pepper), vegetables (potato, onion, spinach, cabbage, brinjal, and tomato), fruits (mango, guava, apple, and grape), milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils (vegetable, mustard, groundnut, and sesame) collected from different cities of Northern Province (Utter Pradesh) were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography for the presence of organochlorine pesticide residues. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) were detected in about 85% of the total samples of cereals, spices, milk, butter, Deshi ghee, and edible oils analyzed in the present study. However, the residue levels were either very small (less than 0.06 ppm) or not detected at all in pulses, vegetables, and fruits as compared with very high concentrations in wheat flour (4.42 and 0.12 ppm), butter (1.19 and 4.85 ppm), mustard oil (1.26 and 2.42 ppm), Deshi ghee (1.10 and 3.84 ppm), vegetable oil (1.02 and 0.59 ppm), groundnut oil (0.51 and 1.49 ppm), and chili (0.48 and 1.92 ppm). The levels of HCH and DDT residues detected in rice, maize, turmeric, corlander, black pepper, and all the vegetables and fruits were also lower than those found in wheat flour, oil, and fat samples analyzed in the present study. These findings suggest that a restricted and controlled use of such persistent pesticides may be useful for decreasing their contamination levels in different food items.

  14. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  15. Salmonellosis and the GI Tract: More than Just Peanut Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Cianflone, Nancy F. Crum

    2008-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S., causing approximately 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats. However, almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of over 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infec...

  16. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-01-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg. PMID:6808919

  17. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica) Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Edgardo V. Casas; Von Jansen G. Comedia; Arni G. Gilbuena; Kevin F. Yaptenco

    2015-01-01

    Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of...

  18. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4–16 min and 160–200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400–700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center. PMID:24804036

  19. Contemporary carbon content of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, T; Ondov, J M; Buchholz, B A; VanDerveer, M C

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈ 250 μg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5 ± 1.2% (n = 3, 1σ) to 97.1 ± 0.8% (n = 3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16 ± 0.12 (n = 5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of feeding fresh forage and marine algae on the fatty acid composition and oxidation of milk and butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K E; Budge, S; Rose, M; Rupasinghe, H P V; Maclaren, L; Green-Johnson, J; Fredeen, A H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding fresh forage either as pasture plus a concentrate (PAS) or as a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), combined with either a ruminally inert lipid supplement high in saturated fatty acids (-) or a ruminally protected microalgae containing 22 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/100 g of fatty acids (+) on the fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidation of milk and butter. For the 8 mid-lactation Holstein cows in this study, milk yield was not significantly affected by treatment, averaging 32.3 ± 1.28 kg/d. Milk fat content was higher for PAS⁻, averaging 5.05 compared with 4.10 ± 0.17% for the mean of other treatments, and was significantly depressed with microalgae supplementation (3.97 vs. 4.69 ± 0.17%). The saturated fatty acid level in the milk of cows fed TMR⁻ was significantly higher than that of the other treatments (66.9 vs. 61.2 g/100 g of FA). The level of monounsaturated FA was lowered by feeding TMR⁻ (27.4 vs. 32.0 g/100 g of FA), whereas levels of polyunsaturated FA were elevated by feeding PAS+ compared with the mean of the other treatments (6.54 vs. 5.07 g/100 g of FA). Feeding the rumen-protected microalgae increased the DHA content of milk more than 4-fold (0.06 to 0.26 g/100g of FA) with the PAS treatment. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk was highest for PAS+ compared with the other treatments (4.18 vs. 3.41 g/100g of FA). In general, the fatty acid composition of butter followed that of milk. Overall, feeding the TMR supplemented with the rumen-protected microalgae increased the levels of volatile products of oxidation in milk and butter. No effect of forage type or microalgae supplementation was observed on the oxidative stability or antioxidant capacity of milk, although the oxidative stability of butter exposed to UV was reduced with microalgae supplementation, particularly with TMR, as assessed by using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy

  1. Intake of butter naturally enriched with cis9,trans11 conjugated linoleic acid reduces systemic inflammatory mediators in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Letícia A; Nunes, Juliana C; Gama, Marco Antônio S; Leite, Paulo Emilio C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2013-12-01

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) depletion-repletion study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary c9,t11 CLA on C-reactive protein, transcription factor NFκB, metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inflammatory mediators (adiponectin, TNFα, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10), body composition, and erythrocyte membrane composition in healthy normal-weight human adults. CLA depletion was achieved through an 8-week period of restricted dairy fat intake (depletion phase; CLA intake was 5.2±5.8 mg/day), followed by an 8-week period in which individuals consumed 20 g/day of butter naturally enriched with c9,t11 CLA (repletion phase; CLA intake of 1020±167 mg/day). The participants were 29 healthy adult volunteers (19 women and 10 men, aged 22 to 36 years), with body mass index between 18.0 and 29.9 kg m(-2). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of both depletion and repletion phases. The content of CLA in erythrocytes decreased during CLA-depletion and increased during CLA-repletion. Intake of CLA-enriched butter increased the serum levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 but reduced transcription factor NFκB in blood and serum levels of TNFα, IL-2, IL-8 and inactive metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, reduced activity of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in serum was observed during the CLA-repletion period. In contrast, intake of CLA-enriched butter had no effects on body composition (DXA analysis) as well as on serum levels of adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and IL-4. Taken together, our results indicate that the intake of a c9,t11 CLA-enriched butter by normal-weight subjects induces beneficial changes in immune modulators associated with sub-clinical inflammation in overweight individuals. © 2013.

  2. Oxidation of edible animal fats. Comparison of the performance of different quantification methods and of a proposed new semi-objective colour scale-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Cid, Francisco J; Lorenzo, José M; Martínez, Sidonia; Carballo, Javier

    2017-02-15

    The agreement among the results determined for the main parameters used in the evaluation of the fat auto-oxidation was investigated in animal fats (butter fat, subcutaneous pig back-fat and subcutaneous ham fat). Also, graduated colour scales representing the colour change during storage/ripening were developed for the three types of fat, and the values read in these scales were correlated with the values observed for the different parameters indicating fat oxidation. In general good correlation among the values of the different parameters was observed (e.g. TBA value correlated with the peroxide value: r=0.466 for butter and r=0.898 for back-fat). A reasonable correlation was observed between the values read in the developed colour scales and the values for the other parameters determined (e.g. values of r=0.320 and r=0.793 with peroxide value for butter and back-fat, respectively, and of r=0.767 and r=0.498 with TBA value for back-fat and ham fat, respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  4. Survival and heat resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Significant differences (P butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment.

  5. Survival and Heat Resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Peanut Butter ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Significant differences (P butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment. PMID:21965404

  6. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    the effect of butter with a naturally high content of vaccenic acid and a concomitantly higher content of monounsaturated FAs on classic and novel risk markers of IHD. Design: In a double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study, 42 healthy young men were given 115 g fat/d from test butter...... that was high in vaccenic acid (3.6 g vaccenic acid/d) or a control butter with a low content of vaccenic acid. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the intervention. Results: The intake of the vaccenic acid-rich diet resulted in 6% and 9% lower total cholesterol and plasma HDL......-cholesterol concentrations, respectively, than did the intake of the control diet (P = 0.05 and 0.002, respectively), whereas the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol did not differ significantly between the groups. The FA composition of lipid classes reflected the FAs' proportion of the test butter. No other differences were...

  7. Production of fats and oils by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1987-10-20

    This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

  8. Nutritional Composition of Shea Products and Chemical Properties of Shea Butter: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Akissoe, N.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand of shea products (kernels and butter) has led to the assessment of the state-of-the-art of these products. In this review, attention has been focused on macronutrients and micronutrients of pulp, kernels, and butter of shea tree and also the physicochemical properties of shea

  9. Phase equilibria and physical properties of CO2-saturated cocoa butter mixtures at elevated pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kareth, S.; Weidner, E.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The melting point and phase behaviour of cocoa butter under CO2 pressure were observed in a high-pressure view cell. The melting point decreases from 35 to 23 °C at CO2 pressures higher than 5 MPa. A static analytical procedure was used to measure the solubility of CO2 in cocoa butter at 40, 80 and

  10. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    either butter (B) or an interesterified mixture (IM) of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT),and safflower oils. Blood drawn during weeks 5 and 10 of feeding was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),LDL-C, and triacylglycerols (TAG). Mean plasma levels...

  11. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  12. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  13. Keeping the quality of cows’ butter by γ-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rady, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows’ butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows’ butter and increased its shelf life at 4±1ºC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples without any effects on its sensory properties.En esta investigación se estudió el uso de la radiación gamma para mantener la calidad de

  14. Comparison of different methods to quantify fat classes in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Min; Hwang, Young-Ok; Tu, Ock-Ju; Jo, Han-Bin; Kim, Jung-Hun; Chae, Young-Zoo; Rhu, Kyung-Hun; Park, Seung-Kook

    2013-01-15

    The definition of fat differs in different countries; thus whether fat is listed on food labels depends on the country. Some countries list crude fat content in the 'Fat' section on the food label, whereas other countries list total fat. In this study, three methods were used for determining fat classes and content in bakery products: the Folch method, the automated Soxhlet method, and the AOAC 996.06 method. The results using these methods were compared. Fat (crude) extracted by the Folch and Soxhlet methods was gravimetrically determined and assessed by fat class using capillary gas chromatography (GC). In most samples, fat (total) content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lower than the fat (crude) content determined by the Folch or automated Soxhlet methods. Furthermore, monounsaturated fat or saturated fat content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lowest. Almost no difference was observed between fat (crude) content determined by the Folch method and that determined by the automated Soxhlet method for nearly all samples. In three samples (wheat biscuits, butter cookies-1, and chocolate chip cookies), monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was higher than that obtained by the Folch method. The polyunsaturated fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was not higher than that obtained by the Folch method in any sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Palm Based Mono-Diacylglyceride as an Emulsifier in Producing Chocolate with Cocoa Butter Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifier used in the preparation of chocolate has the function to stabilize fat and water that can prevent the occurrence of blooming. Emulsifier generallyused in the preparation of chocolate is lecithin. However as an alternative monodiacylglycerol (MDAG can be used. MDAG can be synthesized from vegetableoil such as palm oil and its fraction. This research was conducted to study the effect of palm MDAG and variation of its concentration on quality of chocolate. The palm MDAG used was palm kernel oil MDAG (MDAG PKO, palm oleinMDAG (MDAG POL, palm stearin MDAG (MDAG PS at the concentration between 0.3 to 0.9%. Results of the study showed that chocolate which usedpalm MDAG did not cause blooming. Increase of MDAG concentration tended to increase fat content but the reverse result was observed in the case of lecithin.The melting point of chocolate tended to increase with increasing concentration of MDAG POL and MDAG PS but the reverse result was observed in lecithin,meanwhile for MDAG PKO similar result was observed. The protein content of chocolate tended to decrease with increasing MDAG concentration but thereverseresult was observed in lecithin. Viscosity of chocolate with lecithin, MDAG PKO and MDAG POL decreased in accordance with increasing concentration,meanwhile in MDAG PS at the concentration of 0.3% in the beginning viscosity decreasedbut later on increased with increasing concentration. The use of emulsifierat the concentration of 0.3–0.9% did not have significant effect on fat content, melting point of fat and protein content, but it had significant effect on viscosity.Results of organoleptic testing showed that the use of palm MDAG have not significant effect on texture, taste, and appearance of chocolate. Types and concentrations of palm MDAG which were highly accepted by the panelist there wereMDAG PS and MDAG PKO with concentration 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Keywords: chocolate, cocoa butter substitute, lecithin, palm oil

  16. Ultrasonic wave propagation in cocoa butter during crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Rigolle, Annelien; Descheemaeker, Jan; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2012-01-01

    In the production of fat containing food products, insight in the crystallization behaviour of fats is of utmost importance to obtain the desired product functionality and product quality. The aim of this research is to study the potential of advanced ultrasonic techniques to monitor fat crystallization. For reasons of sensitivity and signal quality during the entire process, we concentrate on shear wave reflectivity measurements at the interface between a fat sample and ...

  17. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2012-09-15

    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemistry and Agro-Industrial Potential of Native Oilseeds from West Africa: African Grape (Lannea microcarpa, Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, and Butter Tree (Pentadesma butyracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Hilou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical investigations on local oilseed species in Burkina Faso revealed that oils from tree oilseeds are frequently used for food, cosmetics and traditional medicine by local people. To test the bio-preservative capacity, the effect of the oilseed extracts on the stabilization of Shea butter was evaluated. Levels of bioactive phyto-components were evaluated through several methods. Some aspects of the quality of oilcakes were evaluated based on their inhibitory capacity on the endogenous digestive enzymes of cattle. For fat stabilizing quality, the extract from Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Krause has showed the largest increase (91.47% in the Rancimat induction time (TIR of Shea butter. Using DPPH and FRAP methods for prevention or scavenging of free radicals, the results evidenced the highest activity with extracts of L. microcarpa. With respect to the feed quality of the oilcakes, the IC50 obtained with α-amylase and trypsin have showed that the ethanolic extracts of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (1824 is less toxic for cattle. These results suggest that phenolic compounds extracted from these native oilseeds, especially those of Lannea microcarpa, can be used as biological antioxidants for bio-preservation of edible fats. In addition, the by-products of the oil-extraction can be valorized as nontoxic and protein-rich oilcakes for livestock feed.

  19. Influence of a diet enriched with virgin olive oil or butter on mouse gut microbiota and its correlation to physiological and biochemical parameters related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Isabel; Hidalgo, Marina; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Rodríguez, Ana María; Cobo, Antonio; Ramírez, Manuel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Gálvez, Antonio; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The type of fat in the diet determinates the characteristics of gut microbiota, exerting a major role in the development of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesize that a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has a distinctive effect on the intestinal microbiome in comparison with an enriched butter diet (BT) and this effect is related to the physiological benefits exerted by EVOO. Swiss Webster mice were fed standard (SD) or two high fat diets enriched with EVOO or butter. Hormonal, physiological and metabolic parameters were evaluated. At the end of the feeding period, DNA was extracted from faeces and the 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced. Among the main significant differences found, BT triggered the highest values of systolic blood pressure, correlating positively with the percentage of Desulfovibrio sequences in faeces, which in turn showed significantly higher values in BT than in EVOO. EVOO had the lowest values of plasmatic insulin, correlating inversely with Desulfovibrio, and had the lowest plasmatic values of leptin which correlated inversely with Sutterellaceae, Marispirillum and Mucilaginibacter dageonensis, the three showing significantly higher percentages in EVOO. The lowest total cholesterol levels in plasma were detected in SD, correlating positively with Prevotella and Fusicatenibacter, both taxa with significantly greater presence in SD. These results may be indicative of a link between specific diets, certain physiological parameters and the prevalence of some taxa, supporting the possibility that in some of the proposed effects of virgin olive oil the modulation of intestinal microbiota could be involved.

  20. Effect of cocoa fat content on wetting and surface energy of chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the quantification of the effect of the cocoa fat content on the wetting characteristics and surface free energy of different chocolate compositions. On the market, there are many different types of chocolate products which differ both in the sensory and physico-chemical properties together with their raw material compositions and the contents of the individual components. This paper focuses on differences in the use of different types of fats - cocoa butter, milk fat, equivalents or cocoa butter substitutes in chocolate products. Studied samples (prepared at Carla, Ltd. Company were followed by static contact angles of wetting measurements and by calculated surface free energies. There were investigated the effects of fat content and used fat types of the chocolate products on their final wettabilities and resulting surface free energies. There was found a linear dependence between total fat content and the surface free energy, which was gradually increasing with increasing fat content. Additionally, there were performed TG DTG and NIR spectrometry measurements of the tested materials with the aim to determine the melting point of studied fats used, as well as to determine and identify individual fat components of chocolate products which may affect the resulting value of surface free energy.

  1. An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent changes to the common agricultural policy (CAP saw a shift to greater market orientation for the EU dairy industry. Given this reorientation, the volatility of EU dairy commodity prices has sharply increased, creating the need to develop proper risk management tools to protect farmers’ income and to ensure stable prices for processors and consumers. In addition, there is a perceived threat that these commodities may be replaced by cheaper substitutes, such as palm oil, as dairy commodity prices become more volatile. Global production of palm oil almost doubled over the last decade while butter production remained relatively flat. Palm oil also serves as a feedstock for biodiesel production, thus establishing a new link between agricultural commodities and crude oil. Price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices, as well as between butter, palm oil and crude oil prices, before and after the Luxembourg agreement, are analysed. Vector autoregression (VAR models are applied to capture price transmission effects between these markets. These are combined with a multivariate GARCH model to account for potential volatility transmission. Results indicate strong price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices. EU butter shocks further spillover to palm oil volatility. In addition, there is evidence that oil prices spillover to World butter prices and World butter volatility.

  2. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  3. Characterization of butter spoiling yeasts and their inhibition by some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Bayram, Okan; Kesmen, Zulal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast populations were 5.40 log CFU/g in unpackaged butter samples and 2.22 log CFU/g in packaged butter samples, indicating better hygienic quality of packaged samples. Forty-nine yeast species were isolated and identified from butter samples with the most prevalent isolates belonging to genera Candida-C. kefyr, C. zeylanoides, and C. lambica-and with moderate number of isolates belonging to genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Black cumin exhibited the highest antiyeast activity against C. zeylanoides and C. lambica species, even inhibited these species, while summer savory inhibited C. kefyr. The results of this study revealed clear antimicrobial potential of black cumin against the yeast species isolated from butters. Marjoram, summer savory, and black cumin could be used as natural antimicrobial agents against spoilage yeasts in food preservation, especially in butter. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Pengaruh Lama Penyangraian Dan Konsentrasi Minyak Kacang Terhadap Mutu Mentega Kacang (Peanut Butter)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurry

    2010-01-01

    In Indonesia, the utilization of peanut to produce peanut butter is not optimal. Therefore, research must be done in simple processing of peanut butter about the effect of roasting time with peanut oil concentration. This research is a initial step to find the best quality of peanut butter. Peanuts were roasted for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes and using concentration of peanut oil, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, and 15% in grinding process. This research was perfomed in March - May 2010 at the...

  5. Waffle production: influence of batter ingredients on sticking of waffles at baking plates-Part II: effect of fat, leavening agent, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-05-01

    Fresh egg waffles are continuously baked in tunnel baking ovens in industrial scale. Waffles that partly or fully stick to the baking plates cause significant product loss and increased costs. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of different recipe ingredients on the sticking behavior of waffles. In this second part, ingredients investigated were different leavening agents (sodium acid pyrophosphate, ammonium bicarbonate, magnesium hydroxide carbonate, or monocalcium phosphate), different fat sources (rapeseed oil, cocos fat, butter, or margarine), and different water sources (tap water 12°dH and distilled water). Within the different types of fats, solid fats with high amount of short-chain fatty acids (cocos fat or butter) decreased the number of sticking waffles compared to liquid oils (rapeseed oil). Regarding leavening agents, magnesium hydroxide carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate were superior to sodium acid pyrophosphate or monocalcium phosphate. Between the two water sources, effects were small.

  6. Salmonellosis and the GI Tract: More than Just Peanut Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianflone, Nancy F. Crum

    2009-01-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S., causing approximately 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats. However, almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of over 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the U.S. occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and a variety of immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis; however, bacteremia, endovascular, and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, with antibiotic therapy reserved among persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and among consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis. PMID:18627657

  7. Salmonellosis and the gastrointestinal tract: more than just peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2008-08-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing about 1.4 million infections annually. Most cases of salmonellosis are due to ingestion of contaminated food items such as eggs, dairy products, and meats, but almost any foodstuff can be implicated, including peanut butter, as seen during a recent outbreak of more than 600 Salmonella infections. Although outbreaks often gain national media attention, the majority of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States occur sporadically. Risk factors for salmonellosis include gastric hypoacidity, recent use of antibiotics, extremes of age, and immunosuppressive conditions. Clinical manifestations of the infection most commonly involve self-limited gastroenteritis, but bacteremia and endovascular and localized infections may occur. Most cases of gastrointestinal involvement are self-limited, and antibiotic therapy is reserved for persons at risk for complicated disease. Preventive strategies by both industry and consumers are advocated to further reduce the occurrence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis.

  8. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  9. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  10. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  11. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  12. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar

    2008-01-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk...... fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type 11, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA...... oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol...

  13. LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE AUTHENTICITY OF DAIRY PRODUCTS AS EXEMPLIFIED BY BUTTER AND CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Ziółkowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authenticity of food products is one of the criteria settling the consumers’ decision on the purchase of given goods. Herebythis article the authors focus on authenticity issues of butter and cheese. Matters of counterfeiting and methods of detecting such falsifications are brought up. The subject of additional substances permitted in the production of butter and cheese has been broadly discussed. The authors pay special attention to the issues of modern methods for the production of butter, having been in use for years in western European countries, which has run into resistance from supervising units. The problem of authenticity of butter and cheese has also been discussed in the context of products marked as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, Protected Geographical Indication (PGI and Traditional Speciality Guaranted (TSG. The authors present possible offences against products subject to protection and legal regulations in the scope of the protection of traditional and regional products.

  14. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  15. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SongQing; Wei, HaiLiu; Guo, ShaSha; Li, Lin; Hou, Yi

    2011-02-01

    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions. In this paper the organoleptic flavor of yak butter was estimated, and 28 kinds of substance with different flavors were identified with the technique of coupling gas chromatography to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that there are many microorganisms in yak butter with natural inoculation, which contribute to the formation of its special flavors. It was found that three of these 15 microorganisms, identified as Saccharomycetaceae, Penicillium and Asperillus separately, contributed the most to flavors. The microorganisms are expected to be applied in the food industry, especially to produce dairy food with the unique flavor of yak butter. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Development of an offline bidimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method for analysis of stereospecific triacylglycerols in cocoa butter equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Le, Thien Trung; Dewettinck, Koen

    2013-08-21

    Acyl migration is a serious problem in enzymatic modification of fats and oils, particularly in production of cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymatic acidolysis reaction, which leads to the formation of non-symmetrical triacylglycerols (TAGs) from symmetrical TAGs. Non-symmetrical TAGs may affect the physical properties of final products and are therefore often undesired. Consequently, an accurate method is needed to determine positional isomer TAGs during the production of CBE. A bidimentional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with combination of non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC and silver ion HPLC joining with an evaporative light scattering detector was successfully developed for the analysis of stereospecific TAGs. The best separation of positional isomer standards was obtained with a heptane/acetone mobile-phase gradient at 25 °C and 1 mL/min. The developed method was then used in multidimensional determination of the TAG positional isomers in fat and oil blends and successfully identified the TAGs and possible isomers in enzymatically acidolyzed CBE.

  17. Fat Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yakovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fat embolism ranges from 0.5 to 30% in injuries with long and pelvic bone fractures; it also occurs in other diseases and conditions. Moreover, mortality accounts for 3 to 67%. There is still no clear idea on the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of fat embolism. This review gives current views on this problem. Key words: fat embolism, poly-trauma.

  18. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  19. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  1. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  2. Physico-Chemical, and Sensory Properties of Soy Based Gouda Cheese Analog Made from Different Concentration of Fat, Sodium Citrate and Various Cheese Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Amar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gouda cheese analog (GCA was made using soy protein isolate (SPI, skim milk powder (SMP, fat (palm fat and butter fat, and water (W at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA of GCA. The free fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

  3. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-10-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. The mean TFA values were below 2.0% of FAME, however, bakery products contained 4.5% and butter fat 3.2%, respectively. In addition, the distribution of individual trans C18:1 differed. In samples containing ruminant fat (butter and various confectioneries), vaccenic acid (t11-C18:1, t11) predominated, while in foods containing industrially hydrogenated fats, elaidic acid (trans-9, t9-) and t10-C18:1 were the major trans isomers.. This was reflected by a low t9/t11 index of 0.3 and 0.5 in butter and ruminant fat containing confectioneries, respectively, whilst the highest index was observed in shortenings and deep-fried potato products at 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. In conclusion, the TFA content of foods available on the German market is generally declining, but substantial variations are present. The t9/t11 index could be used as an indicator to determine ruminant fat.Practical applications: A number of studies provide evidence that a high TFA intake, particularly of industrial origin, adversely affects human health. The TFA content of foods could be reduced due to the introduction of several mandatory regulations and modifications regarding the hydrogenation process of oils. The most abundant dietary TFA are the isomers of trans C18:1. Unfortunately, the differentiation of these isomers is not yet very common, though the trans C18:1 profile differs depending on its origin (bacterial hydrogenation in the rumen or industrial hydrogenation). To date, data for TFA content

  4. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of

  5. Spatial gradients of OCPs in European butter--integrating environmental and exposure information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jana; Müller, Anne; Vives, Ingrid; Mariani, Giulio; Umlauf, Gunther

    2013-05-01

    The Stockholm Convention and the Global Monitoring Plan encourage the production of monitoring data to effectively evaluate the presence of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all regions, in order to identify changes in levels over time, as well as to provide information on their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we report the first step of two to investigate whether butter is a feasible matrix to screen with the purpose to reflect regional ambient atmospheric air levels of POPs. The first step described here is to generate monitoring data; the second is to investigate the relationship between the two matrixes, i.e., POP concentrations in air and butter, which will be reported in another article published in this journal. Here, the 27 organochlorine pesticides listed under the Stockholm Convention have been analyzed in 75 butter samples from Europe. The general conclusions were as follows: Total organochlorine pesticide concentration is lower in butter from northern and central Europe. The spatial gradient of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane and hexachlorocyclohexane is increasing in the eastern region of Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine), dieldrin towards France, and endosulfan levels were elevated on the Azores Island in the Atlantic Ocean. One butter sample from Romania exceeded the European Maximum Residue Limit value for lindane, but the other butter pesticide levels were all below the limit values. The dataset reported here can be used for the calibration of the air-grass-dairy products model, which would support the feasibility to use butter as biomonitor for measuring POP levels in ambient air.

  6. Milk fat globule membrane and buttermilks: from composition to valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderghem, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition in proteins and polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM. The aim of this review is to take stock of current buttermilk knowledge. Firstly, the milk fat globule membrane composition and structure are described. Secondly, buttermilk and its associated products are defined according to the milk fat making process. Structure and mean composition of these products are summarized from recent dairy research data and related to technological properties, especially the emulsifying properties provided by MFGM components. Finally, new applications are presented, leading to promising valorizations of buttermilk and its derivate products.

  7. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, exacerbates β-amyloid cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S; Vartak, Ashish P; Vince, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Diacetyl (DA), an ubiquitous butter-flavoring agent, was found to influence several aspects of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation--one of the two primary pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thioflavin T fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements revealed that DA accelerates Aβ¹⁻⁴² aggregation into soluble and ultimately insoluble β-pleated sheet structures. DA was found to covalently bind to Arg⁵ of Aβ¹⁻⁴² through proteolytic digestion-mass spectrometric experiments. These biophysical and chemical effects translated into the potentiation of Aβ¹⁻⁴² cytotoxicity by DA toward SH-SY5Y cells in culture. DA easily traversed through a MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, DA was found not only to be resistant to but also inhibitory toward glyoxalase I, the primary initiator of detoxification of amyloid-promoting reactive dicarbonyl species that are generated naturally in large amounts by neuronal tissue. In light of the chronic exposure of industry workers to DA, this study raises the troubling possibility of long-term neurological toxicity mediated by DA.

  8. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    butter as well as different structured lipids containing decanoic acid (10:0) and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin. Overall, these fats had wide variations in fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol structures. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed...... of this fat as compared with the other fats, because similar weights of fat were administered. Conclusion: The gastric emptying of fat was not influenced by fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol structure of the fats administered.......Aim: To investigate the gastric emptying upon administration of ten different fats in order to determine whether major differences in fatty acid profiles resulted in differences in gastric emptying. Methods: Gastric emptying was measured as the appearance of acetaminophen in plasma which represents...

  10. Effects of hygiene-sanitary measures on microbiological safety of finished product in butter production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigations of the effects of hygienesanitary measures at critical points in the technological process of butter production on its quality and microbiological safety. With this object in mind, hygiene safety was checked using the swab method at the machine for churning and packing butter (125 g packages and bulk butter, the equipment, hands and clothing (work aprons of employees directly engaged on the machines. The evaluation of the safety parameters, as well as of the hygiene of the production process itself, was carried out in keeping with the Regulations on general and special conditions of food hygiene at any stage of production, processing and trade (RS Official Gazette, No.72/2010. The results of the hygiene safety of swabs taken from the 125g-butter packing machine, after sanitation, showed an increased number of mesophilic bacteria (up to 90 cfu/cm2, as well as the presence of bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriaceae (4 cfu/cm2. The results of swabs taken from the hands of workers engaged on the line for wrapping the butter following the churning process and on the packing line reveal the presence of aerobic mesophilic sporogenic bacteria (20 cfu/cm2, while the presence of pathogenic microorganisms was not established. Butter samples packed into 125g portions present more risky forms of commercial packaging than bulk butter, which is a consequence of various handling activities and additional outside contamination that takes place during the production process if continuous production in the plant has not been ensured. Moreover, the established presence of certain microorganisms (aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, lipolytic bacteria, as well as fungi in packed butter during its shelf life, is largely a result of outside contamination and the hygienic condition of the equipment. The obatined results of the investigations indicate the need for special attention to be paid during the butter

  11. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat diary with low-fat or nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheese. Alternative Names Trans fatty acids; Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs); Cholesterol - trans fats; Hyperlipidemia - trans fats; Atherosclerosis - trans fat; ...

  12. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat diary with low-fat or nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheese. Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods with low or no saturated fat. Alternative Names Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the ...

  13. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you need. Eating foods containing saturated fat and trans fat causes your body to produce even more, raising ... cholesterol when used in place of saturated and trans fats. Trans Fat Trans fats (or trans fatty acids) ...

  14. Front-face fluorescence measurement of photosensitizers and lipid oxidation products during the photooxidation of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberg, A; Olsen, E; Nilsen, A N; Wold, J P

    2007-05-01

    This paper shows that fluorescence spectroscopy can measure both degradation of photosensitizers and formation of lipid oxidation products in light-exposed butter. The photosensitizers were already notably degraded after 4 h of light exposure, whereas fluorescent lipid oxidation products were detected after 5 d. The fluorescence measurements were highly correlated with sensory assessments of acidic and rancid flavor. Photosensitizer degradation is therefore a promising indirect indicator of the onset of lipid oxidation in butter. Sensory analysis and measurement of peroxide value showed that the level of lipid oxidation was significantly higher for butter stored in air compared with butter stored in nitrogen (N2). This might be explained by the formation of singlet oxygen from direct photooxidation and type II photosensitized oxidation. Addition of the singlet oxygen quencher beta-carotene reduced the rancid flavor intensity in the air and N2 packages from 9.0 to 4.9 and from 6.5 to 4.7, respectively. Results indicate that lipid oxidation in the butter stored in N2 was mainly caused by type I photosensitized reactions, because addition of beta-carotene had little effect on the rancid flavor intensity.

  15. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements...... of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28...... the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive...

  16. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  17. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  18. Synthesis of cocoa butter triacylglycerols using a model acidolysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göǧüş, Fahrettin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reaction parameters such as substrate mole ratio, reaction temperature, enzyme load, water content and reaction time were studied in a model enzymatic acidolysis system. Palmitic and stearic acids were incorporated into triolein (OOO under the catalysis of sn-1,3 specific lipase to produce the three major triacylglycerols (TAGs in cocoa butter (CB, namely, 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl--glycerol (POP, 1(3-palmitoyl-3(1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS and 1,3distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS. TAG contents of the reaction products were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC.The best results (15.2% POP, 30.4% POS, 15.2 % SOS were obtained at 1:3:3 (OOO:palmitic acid:stearic acid substrate mole ratio and reaction parameters: time 10 h, temperature 45 oC, enzyme load 20 %, water content 5 %. The results obtained in this model system might be used for the optimization and application of lipase catalyzed acidolysis reactions in natural systems to produce cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs.El efecto de parámetros de reacción como el ratio molar de sustratos, carga de enzima, contenido de agua o temperatura de reacción fueron estudiados en un sistema modelo de acidolisis para la síntesis de triglicéridos disaturados. Los ácidos grasos palmítico y esteárico se incorporaron a la molécula de trioleína (OOO mediante la catálisis con una li-pasa sn-1,3 específica para producir los tres triglicéridos (TAGs mayoritarios de la manteca de cacao (CB: 1,3-dipalmitil-2-oleoil glicerol (POP, 1(3-palmitil-3(1-estearil-2glicerol (POS and 1,3-diestearil-2-oleoil glicerol (SOS. Los TAGs producidos en cada reacción se analizaron por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (HPLC. Los mejores resultados (15.2 %, POP, 30.4 % POS, 15.2 % SOS se obtuvieron empleando la relación molar de sustratos 1:3:3 (OOO: ácido palmítico:ácido esteárico y los parámetros de reacción: tiempo 10h, temperatura 45 °C, carga de enzima 20

  19. Long term highly saturated fat diet does not induce NASH in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Céline

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is hampered by the lack of a suitable model. Our aim was to investigate whether long term high saturated-fat feeding would induce NASH in rats. Methods 21 day-old rats fed high fat diets for 14 weeks, with either coconut oil or butter, and were compared with rats feeding a standard diet or a methionine choline-deficient (MCD diet, a non physiological model of NASH. Results MCDD fed rats rapidly lost weight and showed NASH features. Rats fed coconut (86% of saturated fatty acid or butter (51% of saturated fatty acid had an increased caloric intake (+143% and +30%. At the end of the study period, total lipid ingestion in term of percentage of energy intake was higher in both coconut (45% and butter (42% groups than in the standard (7% diet group. No change in body mass was observed as compared with standard rats at the end of the experiment. However, high fat fed rats were fattier with enlarged white and brown adipose tissue (BAT depots, but they showed no liver steatosis and no difference in triglyceride content in hepatocytes, as compared with standard rats. Absence of hepatic lipid accumulation with high fat diets was not related to a higher lipid oxidation by isolated hepatocytes (unchanged ketogenesis and oxygen consumption or hepatic mitochondrial respiration but was rather associated with a rise in BAT uncoupling protein UCP1 (+25–28% vs standard. Conclusion Long term high saturated fat feeding led to increased "peripheral" fat storage and BAT thermogenesis but did not induce hepatic steatosis and NASH.

  20. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  1. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower......The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air-grass-yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air-butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fatty acid composition including trans-fatty acids in edible oils and fats: probable intake in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sumita; Das, Mukul

    2012-10-01

    The susceptibility of trans-fat to the human health risk prompted the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to prepare regulations or compulsory claims for trans-fatty acids (TFA) in edible oils and fats. In this study, analysis of fatty acid composition and TFA content in edible oils and fats along with the possible intake of trans-fat in Indian population was carried out. The analysis was carried out as per the Assn. of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methodology and the results were statistically analyzed. The average TFA content in nonrefined mustard and refined soybean oils exceeded by 1.16- to 1.64-fold as compared to the Denmark limit of 2% TFA in fats and oils destined for human consumption. In branded/nonbranded butter and butter oil samples, average TFA limit exceeded by 4.2- to 9.5-fold whereas hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) samples exceeded the limit by 9.8-fold, when compared to Denmark standards. The probable TFA intake per day through different oils in Indian population were found to be less than WHO recommendation. However Punjab having highest consumption of HVO (-15 g/d) showed 1.09-fold higher TFA intake than the WHO recommendation, which is alarming and may be one of the factors for high cardiovascular disease mortality rate that needs further elucidation. Thus there is a need to prescribe TFA limit for edible oil, butter, and butter oil in India and to reduce the already proposed TFA levels in HVO to safeguard the health of consumers. The probable daily intake of trans-fatty acid (TFA) especially through hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) was assessed. In absence of any specification for TFA and fatty acid composition for edible oils, butter, and butter samples, a pressing need was felt to prescribe TFA limit in India. The study indicates that TFA intake through HVO consumption is higher in States like Punjab than the recommended daily intake prescribed by WHO. Hence, strategies should be adopted to

  4. Rapid Analysis Procedures for Triglycerides and Fatty Acids as Pentyl and Phenethyl Esters for the Detection of Butter Adulteration Using Chromatographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Naviglio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of three methods for quality control, fraud detection, and authentication of butter fat and other oils/fats using chromatographic techniques, with one method for triglycerides and two methods for fatty acids (FAs. The procedure for the analysis of triglycerides requires only dissolution of the sample in n-hexane and gas chromatography (GC analysis using a capillary column. The second method is based on the transesterification of triglycerides as pentyl esters in a single-step reaction using sodium pentanoate in pentanol. The reaction proceeds at room temperature and is similar to the potassium hydroxide-catalysed transesterification of triglycerides with methanol and even more similar to the sodium methoxide method and sodium butanoate method. The advantage of using pentyl esters includes reducing the volatility of short-chain FAs, and substantial recoveries were obtained compared with methyl ester analysis. The third method involves the transesterification of triglycerides in fat through reaction with 2-phenylethanol in a single step; 2-phenylethanol possesses a chromophore, and the phenethyl esters formed are analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection.

  5. Postprandial lipid responses do not differ following consumption of butter or vegetable oil when consumed with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cintia B; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2015-04-01

    Dietary saturated fat (SFA) intake has been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and increased risk for the development of chronic diseases. However, some animal studies have demonstrated that dietary SFA may not raise blood lipid levels when the diet is sufficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). Therefore, in a randomised cross-over design, we investigated the postprandial effects of feeding meals rich in either SFA (butter) or vegetable oil rich in omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), in conjunction with n-3PUFA, on blood lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG)] and n-3PUFA incorporation into plasma lipids over a 6-h period. The incremental area under the curve for plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG and n-3PUFA levels over 6 h was similar in the n-6PUFA compared to SFA group. The postprandial lipemic response to saturated fat is comparable to that of n-6PUFA when consumed with n-3PUFA; however, sex-differences in response to dietary fat type are worthy of further attention.

  6. Physico-Chemical characteristics of shea butter( Vitellaria paradoxa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the seeds of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn.). It constitutes an important source of fat in food and cosmetics. Although shea oil can be marketed both locally and internationally, increasing demand worldwide for exportable products calls for their certification.

  7. Analysis of Processed Foods Containing Oils and Fats by Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry with an APCI Direct Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shihomi; Chikasou, Masato; Inohana, Shuichi; Fujita, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Discriminating vegetable oils and animal and milk fats by infrared absorption spectroscopy is difficult due to similarities in their spectral patterns. Therefore, a rapid and simple method for analyzing vegetable oils, animal fats, and milk fats using TOF/MS with an APCI direct probe ion source was developed. This method enabled discrimination of these oils and fats based on mass spectra and detailed analyses of the ions derived from sterols, even in samples consisting of only a few milligrams. Analyses of the mass spectra of processed foods containing oils and milk fats, such as butter, cheese, and chocolate, enabled confirmation of the raw material origin based on specific ions derived from the oils and fats used to produce the final product.

  8. Spatial biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Iran: a study using locally produced butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Amirali; Moeckel, Claudia; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-07-01

    Butter is a readily collected, integrative and inexpensive sampling matrix for the spatial mapping of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the national or regional scale. As air-plant-animal transfers generally supply the POPs reaching butter lipid, this study used butter for an initial evaluation of the occurrence, levels and distribution of POPs (selected organochlorine pesticides and PCBs) in Iran, a country for which very little information on usage, emissions and environmental burdens of these compounds exists. Fifty samples from rural and urban areas, in the north, west and central regions of the country were collected from local farms in spring 2007. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE varied widely by a factor of approximately 1000 and approximately 370 (8450 pg g(-1) lipid and 46 800 pg g(-1) lipid on average). The highest levels, found mainly in urban areas in the centre of the country, were amongst the highest reported in the world. PCB concentrations (4320 pg g(-1) lipid on average) varied by a factor of approximately 160 and were highest close to urban centres and lowest in the rural northwest. Although Iran is not known for widespread PCB usage in the past, concentrations were higher than a 'global average' reported in a butter survey in 2001. This simple sampling approach could be adopted in other regions where cows graze, as part of an initial screening to help meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention.

  9. Implantation of cocoa butter reduces egg and hatchling size in Salmo trutta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M. O.; Armstrong, J. D.; Miles, M. S.; Burton, T.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Metcalfe, N. B.

    This study demonstrated that, irrespective of hormone type or dose, administering cocoa butter implants during egg development affected the growth of female brown trout Salmo trutta and reduced the size of their offspring. Cortisol treatment also increased adult mortality. Caution is urged in the

  10. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    Three commercial grades of polycarbonates (Lexan (R) 144, Lexan (R) 104 and Makrolon Rx1805) were studied with respect to resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) when exposed to butter and related chemicals. The polycarbonates (PCs) were extensively characterised to determine whether...

  11. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1...

  12. Impact of lactic acid bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid content and atherogenic index of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Roufegari-Nejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Sterptococcus thermophilus (as thermophilic culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, cremoris and diacetylactis, Leuconostoc citrovorum (as mesophilic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis and a mixed culture of L.acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis on fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and atherogenic index (AI of butter. Fatty acid analysis with gas chromatography indicated that application of thermophilic and mixed culture decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid; whereas, the butters made with L. acidophilus had the highest content of CLA. Moreover, AI in the samples prepared with thermophilic cultures was the least. Sensory evaluation of the treatments revealed no significant differences (p> 0/05 in appearance and color. However, the butters prepared with thermophilic and mesophilic cultures had more desirable taste in comparison with the samples made with L. acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis. From the nutritional point of view, the adverse effect of butter could be diminished via the application of selected lactic acid bacteria.

  13. Effects of pulsed UV-light on peanut allergens in extracts and liquid peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S-Y; Yang, W; Krishnamurthy, K

    2008-06-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet (PUV) light, a nonthermal technology, was used to treat both the peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The objective was to determine if such treatment would lead to a reduction in the allergenic properties of the peanut extract and butter. Peanut samples were PUV treated using a Xenon RS-3000C under the following conditions: 3 pulses/s, 14.6 cm from the central axis of the lamp, 4 min (extract) or 3 min (liquid peanut butter). After the treatment, the peanut samples were centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed by SDS-PAGE and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA). For comparison, boiling treatments were also performed. SDS-PAGE showed that while boiling treatment had little effect on the peanut allergens, PUV-light-treated samples displayed a reduced solubility or level of peanut allergens (63 kDa). Solubility of another allergen (18 to 20 kDa) was unaffected. Insoluble aggregates formed were responsible for the reduced level of allergens in PUV-light-treated samples. ciELISA showed that untreated samples exhibited an IgE binding 7-fold higher than the PUV-treated samples. It was concluded that PUV light was effective in reducing IgE binding of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. The current study provides an approach to the development of a possibly less allergenic peanut product. However, the reduction in actual allergenicity needs to be confirmed by clinical studies.

  14. Cold-storage defects in butter and their relation to the autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badings, H.T.

    1970-01-01

    In this thesis investigations are described of the identification of aroma compounds which are formed as a result of oxidative deterioration of butter during cold storage, producing a typical trainy (fishy) off-flavour. As these flavour defects are caused chiefly by autoxidative breakdown of

  15. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Fourth-Grade Primary School Students' Thought Processes and Challenges Encountered during the Butter Beans Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Neslihan; Eraslan, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with mathematical modeling studies that have gradually drawn interest in recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the thought processes of fourth-grade students in the Butter Beans Problem and to identify possible challenges in this process. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted at a university-foundation…

  17. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% ...

  18. Dietary fat and carbohydrate quality have independent effects on postprandial glucose and lipid responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Tan, Kevin Wei Jie; Lim, Joseph Zhien; Magkos, Faidon; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-10-21

    The magnitude of postprandial lipemia is influenced not only by the amount but also the type of fat and carbohydrate consumed. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in postprandial glucose and lipid responses after a mixed meal containing low- or high-glycemic-index (GI) carbohydrate and three different types of fat varying in the degree of saturation in healthy subjects. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese men. Subjects consumed in random order six experimental isocaloric meals that differed in carbohydrate and fat quality, and contained 40 g of either saturated fat (SFA, butter), monounsaturated fat (MUFA, olive oil) or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, grapeseed oil), and 50 g of either low-GI (basmati rice) or high-GI (jasmine rice) carbohydrate. Glucose, insulin, c-peptide, triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured over 4 h. For all substrates evaluated, there were no significant interactions between fat and carbohydrate. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for TG was significantly lower after the SFA and PUFA meals compared with the MUFA meal, irrespective of GI. No significant difference was found for NEFA iAUC in all treatments. Glucose, insulin and c-peptide iAUCs were significantly lower after ingestion of low-GI than high-GI meals, independent of the type of fat. A carbohydrate-rich meal (of either low or high GI) that contains butter or grapeseed oil results in lower postprandial TG concentrations relative to olive oil in healthy Chinese males. Glucose, insulin and c-peptide responses, however, are directly dependent on the GI of the meal and not on the degree of saturation of dietary fat. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02585427.

  19. Comparison of sunscreens Containing Titanium Dioxide Alone Or In Association With Cocoa, Murumuru Or Cupuaçu Butters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marronato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingredients of natural origin may represent alternatives for formulating sunscreens, without compromising their effectiveness. The literature has shown the antioxidant potential of compounds existing in murumuru (Astrocaryum murmuru, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum and cocoa (Theobroma cacao butters that recommends further investigation. The objectives of this research were: (1 to develop bioactive photoprotective formulations containing cocoa, murmuru or cupuaçu butters in association with a physical sunscreen (titanium dioxide (TiO2 and (2 determine the possible photoprotective activity of butters and their interactions with the sunscreen. Cocoa, cupuaçu and murumuru butter were individually associated to TiO2 in O / W emulsions. The anti-UVA and UVB efficacy in vitro was estimated by diffuse transmittance analysis in a Labsphere® UV2000S, using quartz plates and Transpore® tape to obtain the SPF (sun protection factor and critical wavelength. Photoprotective formulations containing titanium dioxide and bioactive butters were obtained using Aristoflex® AVC and triglycerides of caprylic capric acid (GTCC. The SPF of the samples containing only TiO2 and formulations containing cocoa, murumuru or cupuassu butters associated with TiO2 ranged from 4 to 5. The critical wavelength values for these formulations ranged from 383.0 to 386.7 nm. The results indicated no increase in the SPF value for formulations containing vegetable butters. The critical wavelength values indicated their potential to absorb part of the UVA radiation.

  20. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng; Lauritzen, Lotte; Mu, Huiling

    2008-10-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition. No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower concentration of triacylglycerols in the plasma 2 h after the meal in comparison with the commercial butter blend (p = 0.02); there was, however, no significant difference 24 h after the meal. In conclusion, fish oil-enriched butter blend provides a source to increase the intake of n-3 LCPUFA in the population, but has no acute effect on cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentration in human.

  1. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  2. Physicochemical, rheological and functional properties of fats and oils in relation to cookie quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2016-10-01

    Sincere efforts of researchers are underway to understand the functionality of different fats and oils in relation to cookie quality. The quality of cookie primarily relies upon the functionality of fats and oils in cookie system which ultimately is combined result of their physical, chemical, and rheological properties. Effects of some major fats and oils such as butter, bakery fat, hydrogenated fat, lard, margarine, palm oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil, and soybean oil on the physical and sensory characteristics of cookie have been studied. Previous studies reported that fats and oils had radical contribution in cookie quality and most authors agree on the fact that different fats and oils affect the cookie quality to different extent. Furthermore, it was observed by many researchers that with oils, dough was softer and cookie spread was higher as compared with that of fats. It is important to understand the molecular basis of the difference in technological changes in cookies properties with different fats and oils. This review focuses on the current knowledge of quality determining physical, chemical, thermal, microstructural, and functional properties of fats and oils in relation to cookie dough rheology and cookie quality.

  3. Flavor and antioxidant capacity of peanut paste and peanut butter supplemented with peanut skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Chellani S; Sanders, Timothy H

    2012-11-01

    Peanut skins (PS) are a good source of phenolic compounds. This study evaluated antioxidant properties and flavor of peanut paste and peanut butter enhanced with peanut skins. PS were added to both materials in concentrations of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 5.0%, 10.0%, 15.0%, and 20.0% (w/w). PS, peanut paste, and peanut butter used in the study had initial total phenolics contents of 158, 12.9, and 14.1 mg GAE/g, respectively. Hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORAC) of peanut skins was 189453 μMol Trolox/100 g and addition of 5% PS increased H-ORAC of peanut paste and peanut butter by 52% to 63%. Descriptive sensory analysis indicated that the addition of 1% PS did not change intensity of descriptors in the sensory profile of either peanut paste or peanut butter. Addition of 5% PS resulted in significant differences in woody, hulls, skins; bitter; and astringent descriptors and 10% PS addition resulted in significant differences in most attributes toward more negative flavor. Peanut skins are a low-value residue material from peanut processing which contain naturally occurring phenolic compounds. The use of this material to improve antioxidant capacity and shelf-life of foods can add value to the material and improve the nutritional value of foods. The improved nutritional qualities and unchanged flavor profile occurring with low levels of peanuts skins in peanut paste and peanut butter suggest potential application of this technology in various food industries. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  4. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  5. Contamination of U.S. butter with polybrominated diphenyl ethers from wrapping paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Smith, Sarah; Colacino, Justin; Malik, Noor; Opel, Matthias; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.S. butter contamination with extremely high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs. One of the samples and its paper wrapper contained very high levels of higher-brominated PBDEs. Dietary estimates were calculated using the 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data, excluding the elevated sample. The highly contaminated butter sample had a total upper bound PBDE level of 42,252 pg/g wet weight (ww). Levels of brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-206, -207, and -209 were 2,000, 2,290, and 37,600 pg/g ww, respectively. Its wrapping paper contained a total upper-bound PBDE concentration of 804,751 pg/g ww, with levels of BDE-206, -207, and -209 of 51,000, 11,700, and 614,000 pg/g, respectively. Total PBDE levels in the remaining nine butter samples ranged from 180 to 1,212 pg/g, with geometric mean of 483 and median of 284 pg/g. Excluding the outlier, total PBDE daily intake from all food was 22,764 pg/day, lower than some previous U.S. dietary intake estimates. Higher-brominated PBDE congeners were likely transferred from contaminated wrapping paper to butter. A larger representative survey may help determine how frequently PBDE contamination occurs. Sampling at various stages in food production may identify contamination sources and reduce risk.

  6. Method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ in cheese and butter by HPLC using an immunoaffinity column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Hisako; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive convenient method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in cheese and butter by HPLC was developed and validated. The method employs a safe extraction solution (mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water) and an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up. Compared with the widely used method employing chloroform and a Florisil column, the IAC method has a short analytical time and there are no interference peaks. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the IAC method were 0.12 and 0.14 µg/kg, while those of the Florisil column method were 0.47 and 0.23 µg/kg in cheese and buffer, respectively. The recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD) for cheese (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 92% and 7%, respectively, while for the Florisil column method the corresponding values were 76% and 10%. The recovery and RSD for butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 97% and 9%, and those in the Florisil method were 74% and 9%, respectively. In the IAC method, the values of in-house precision (n=2, day=5) of cheese and butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) were 9% and 13%, respectively. The IAC method is superior to the Florisil column method in terms of safety, ease of handling, sensitivity and reliability. A survey of AFM₁ contamination in imported cheese and butter in Japan was conducted by the IAC method. AFM₁ was not detected in 60 samples of cheese and 30 samples of butter.

  7. Bioactive lipids in the butter production chain from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M; Gori, Alessandro; Losi, Giuseppe; Caboni, Maria F

    2013-11-01

    Bovine milk contains hundreds of diverse components, including proteins, peptides, amino acids, lipids, lactose, vitamins and minerals. Specifically, the lipid composition is influenced by different variables such as breed, feed and technological process. In this study the fatty acid and phospholipid compositions of different samples of butter and its by-products from the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area, produced by industrial and traditional churning processes, were determined. The fatty acid composition of samples manufactured by the traditional method showed higher levels of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with industrial samples. In particular, the contents of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids were higher in samples produced by the traditional method than in samples produced industrially. Sample phospholipid composition also varied between the two technological processes. Phosphatidylethanolamine was the major phospholipid in cream, butter and buttermilk samples obtained by the industrial process as well as in cream and buttermilk samples from the traditional process, while phosphatidylcholine was the major phospholipid in traditionally produced butter. This result may be explained by the different churning processes causing different types of membrane disruption. Generally, samples produced traditionally had higher contents of total phospholipids; in particular, butter produced by the traditional method had a total phospholipid content 33% higher than that of industrially produced butter. The samples studied represent the two types of products present in the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area, where the industrial churning process is widespread compared with the traditional processing of Reggiana cow's milk. This is because Reggiana cow's milk production is lower than that of other breeds and the traditional churning process is time-consuming and economically disadvantageous. However, its products have been demonstrated to

  8. SINTESA POP FAT MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI DAN FRAKSINASI BERBAHAN MINYAK SAWIT DAN OLEIN SUPER TERHIDROGENASI [Synthesis of POP Fat via Interesterification and Fractionation Based on Plam Oil and Hydrogenated Super Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interesterification of fat blends containing palm oil (RBDPO and hydrogenated super olein (HSOL at weight ratios of 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 and fractionation was studied for production POP fat. POP fat is cocoa butter equivalent (CBE which contains high triglyceride of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP and its can be used as alternative fat for cocoa butter with the standard i.e. triglyceride composition of saturated-unsaturated-saturated (SUS more than 65% and melting point about of 32-35°C. Interesterification was conducted chemically using sodium methoxide. Then, interesterified product was fractionated two stages using hexane and acetone as solvent, respectively. Interesterification of the subtrates resulted change of triglycerides composition of PPP, PPS, POP, POS and POO which were showed with the concentration of several triglycerides were increased, some were decreased and several new triglycerides were formed. The change of triglyceride structure cause melting point and solid fat content were decreased. Fractionation 2 stages of interesterified product resulted fat containing high triglyceride of POP (above 62% and POS range of 10-17% and melting point about of 35-39°C. This product can be categorized as CBE which produced from the substrate of RBDPO to HSOL at weight ratio was 2:1 with characteristic i.e. POP 68.2%, POS 10.8 % and melting point of 35°C.

  9. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  10. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  11. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  12. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  13. Studies of isothermal crystallisation kinetics of sunflower hard stearin-based confectionery fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Levin, Madeline; Martínez-Blanes, Jose M; Real, Concepción; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2013-08-15

    The crystallisation and polymorphic properties of three sunflower hard stearins (SHSs) and cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) formulated by blending SHSs and palm mid fraction (PMF) were studied and compared with those from cocoa butter (CB), to explore their possibilities as confectionery fats. The isothermal crystallisation kinetics of these fats were examined by pNMR and DSC at three different temperatures. All samples studied displayed a two-step crystallisation profile that could be fitted to an exponential-Gompertz equation. Stop-and-return DSC studies showed that SHSs and CBEs exhibited different crystallisation mechanisms according to their triacylglycerol composition, with a quick formation of metastable crystals, followed by a polymorphic transition to the more stable β or β' forms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the polymorphic forms of tempered SHSs and CBEs in the long term. In all cases the resulting fats displayed short spacing patterns associated with β polymorphism. These formulations based on SHSs and PMF met all the requirements to be considered as CBEs; therefore they could be used as an alternative to traditional confectionery fats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  15. Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Maryam; Murphy, Gwen; Etemadi, Arash; Dawsey, Sanford M; Liao, Linda M; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-09-01

    Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes. Design: In this study we used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 566,407 persons who were 50-71 y old at baseline (1995-1996). The median follow-up time was 15.5 y. Intakes of nuts and peanut butter were assessed through the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancers and their subtypes. Results: We identified 966 incident cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, 323 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 698 cases of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 732 cases of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. Compared with those who did not consume nuts or peanut butter [lowest category of consumption (C0)], participants in the highest category of nut consumption (C3) had a lower risk of developing gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.94)]. This inverse association was also seen for peanut butter consumption [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.94)]. We observed no significant associations between the highest and lowest intakes of nuts or peanut butter and the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Among older American adults, both nut and peanut butter consumption were inversely associated with the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  16. The Quality of Milk Chocolate Bars by Substitution of Cocoa Butter, Milk Powder and Lecithin Soya – A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hasni Dian; Rahmad Dedy

    2015-01-01

    Milk chocolate is most important products of confectionary that are well-known for its consumer, and a precious ended product in entirely value added chain in cacao. In chocolate industry, each ingredient plays an important role in product quality. This research aims to assess the possibility of substitution of cocoa butter and its impact on physiological appearance and sensory quality hedonically, to formulate optimum formulation of palm oil as cocoa butter substitute (0%; 10%; 20%), milk po...

  17. Effect of freeze storage on the volátiles of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mageed, Magda A.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the volatile components of three butter samples during freeze storage for 7.5 months were studied. The storage had a significant effect on the carbonyl and lactone components analyzed. The increase in the yield of the carbonyls caused by peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids was taken as indicator for the deterioration of the butter samples during storage.

    Se han estudiado los cambios en los componentes volátiles de tres muestras de mantequilla durante su almacenamiento en estado congelado por siete meses y medio. El almacenamiento tuvo un efecto significativo en los componentes carbonilos y lactonas analizadas. El aumento en el rendimiento de los carbonilos causado por la peroxidación de ácidos grasos insaturados se tomó como indicador en la deterioración de las muestras de mantequilla durante el almacenamiento.

  18. A High-Fat Diet Enriched with Low Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Reduced Fat Cellularity and Plasma Leptin Concentration in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Tekeleselassie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1 standard rat chow diet (CTRL, (2 CTRL + 10% (w/w butter (HFAR, (3 CTRL + 3.33% (w/w menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w soybean oil (MFAR, and (4 CTRL + 6.67% (w/w menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w soybean oil (LFAR. Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 * 105 ± 3.6 and LFAR (8.5 * 105 ± 5.1 groups was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P<0.05 (46.2 ± 2.8 than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P<0.05 (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL, than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia.

  19. Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8% of energy and 16·8-18·0% of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0-46·8% of energy; P-trend trend Trends were similar between the sexes, although women exhibited a greater increase in the percentage of energy derived from saturated fat and less reduction in the percentage of energy derived from trans-fats (P interaction Trends in fat intake were similar across the BMI categories. The number of weekly servings of cheese, eggs, ice cream desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend < 0·001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, the percentage of energy derived from dietary fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35 % of total energy, on average.

  20. Trends in Dietary Fat Intake and High-Fat Foods from 1991-2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies among US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them to national recommendations during the 2-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. We examined trends in dietary fat intake and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire beginning in 1991 (Exam 5). We included 2,732 adults ages ≥25y with complete dietary data in at least three exams from 1991-2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SASv9.3 and a repeated measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intake using R. Over 17-years of follow-up, the %energy from total fat and protein increased (27.3-29.8% energy and 16.8-18.0% energy respectively) and %energy from carbohydrate decreased (51.0-46.8% energy;p-trendtrendTrends were similar between sexes, although women had a greater increase in %energy from saturated fats and less reduction in %energy from trans-fats (p-interactionTrends of fat intakes were similar across BMI categories. Weekly servings of cheese, eggs, ice cream desserts, nuts, butter, and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased(p-trend<0.001). In this cohort of predominantly Caucasian older adults, %energy from dietary fat increased over time but remained within national recommendations of <35% of total energy, on average. PMID:24047827

  1. Application of Stirling cooler to food processing: Feasibility study on butter churning

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian-Feng; Kitamura, Yutaka; Satake, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    The Stirling cycle engine was invented almost 190 years ago. In this study, the reverse Stirling cycle is investigated for use in refrigeration. This type of cycle is referred to as Stirling cooling or cooler. An experimental free-piston Stirling cooler (FPSC) was constructed and the effects of the device parameters in relation to the performance of the cooler were studied; the equipment was then experimentally applied to churning butter. Two effect parameters, namely, the size of the displac...

  2. Ontogeny of the digestive tract in butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, P K; Jena, J K; Mitra, G; Sood, N; Gisbert, E

    2012-12-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus from hatching to 30 days post-hatching (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract of butter catfish consisted of a straight tube with a smooth lumen dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Between 1 and 2 dph, the mouth opened, oral valves were visible and canine-like teeth and taste buds were detected. During this period, intestine was differentiated into the anterior and posterior intestine, and the digestive accessory glands were also developed. Exogenous feeding started at 2 dph, and there was a 2-day mixed endogenous-exogenous feeding period. Most of the yolk sac reserves were consumed between 2 and 3 dph, and by 5 dph, the yolk sac was completely depleted and no longer visible in histological sections. Between 3 and 4 dph, several vacuoles (neutral lipids) were observed in the intestine and also in hepatocytes, indicating a functional absorption of nutrients from food. At 8 dph, differentiation of gastric glands was noticed, and by 9-11 dph, there were abundant gastric tubular glands arranged along numerous longitudinal folds. During the same period, pyloric sphincter appeared as an epithelial fold that separated the stomach from the anterior intestine. From 12 dph to the end of the study at 30 dph, no noticeable histological modifications were observed. The development of gastric glands is considered as the last major events in digestive tract development and their presence designates the end of larval period and the onset of the juvenile period. Hence, it is suggested that, butter catfish larvae have a morphologically complete digestive tract by 12 dph. These findings on the development of the digestive system in butter catfish may lead to a better understanding of the ontogeny and would be useful to improve the larval rearing techniques of this promising catfish species for freshwater aquaculture diversification.

  3. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18...

  4. Preparation of peanut butter suspension for determination of peanuts using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, Mary W; Brewer, Vickery A; Williams, Kristina M; Westphal, Carmen D; Heeres, James T

    2004-01-01

    Peanuts are one of the 8 most common allergenic foods and a large proportion of peanut-allergic individuals have severe reactions, some to minimal exposure. Specific protein constituents in the peanuts are the cause of the allergic reactions in sensitized individuals who ingest the peanuts. To avoid accidental ingestion of peanut-contaminated food, methods of analysis for the determination of the allergenic proteins in foods are important tools. Such methods could help identify foods inadvertently contaminated with peanuts, thereby reducing the incidence of allergic reactions to peanuts. Commercial immunoassay kits are available but need study for method performance, which requires reference materials for within- and between-laboratory validations. In this study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 2387 peanut butter was used. A polytron homogenizer was used to prepare a homogenous aqueous Peanut Butter suspension for the evaluation of method performance of some commercially available immunoassay kits such as Veratox for Peanut Allergen Test (Neogen Corp.), Ridascreen Peanut (R-Biopharm GmbH), and Bio-Kit Peanut Protein Assay Kit (Tepnel). Each gram of the aqueous peanut butter suspension contained 20 mg carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, 643 microg peanut, 0.5 mg thimerosal, and 2.5 mg bovine serum albumin. The suspension was homogenous, stable, reproducible, and applicable for adding to ice cream, cookies, breakfast cereals, and chocolate for recovery studies at spike levels ranging from 12 to 90 microg/g.

  5. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  6. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  7. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  8. Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Park, Keigan M

    2012-05-01

    Although evidence has linked the consumption of saturated fat (SF) to increased LDL levels and an increased risk of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent findings have indicated that the link between CVD and SF may be less straightforward than originally thought. This may be due to the fact that some food sources high in SF contain an array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, each of which may differentially affect lipoprotein metabolism, as well as contribute significant amounts of other nutrients, which may alter CVD risk. The purpose of this review is to examine the published research on the relationship between milk fat containing dairy foods and cardiovascular health. The findings indicate that the majority of observational studies have failed to find an association between the intake of dairy products and increased risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke, regardless of milk fat levels. Results from short-term intervention studies on CVD biomarkers have indicated that a diet higher in SF from whole milk and butter increases LDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates or unsaturated fatty acids; however, they may also increase HDL and therefore might not affect or even lower the total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio. The results from the review also indicate that cheese intake lowers LDL cholesterol compared with butter of equal milk fat content. In addition, the review highlights some significant gaps in the research surrounding the effects of full-fat dairy on CVD outcomes, pointing to the need for long-term intervention studies.

  9. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  10. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  11. Influence of dietary fat on nutritive utilization of protein in intestinally resected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aliaga, I; Campos, M S; Barrionuevo, M; Coves, F; Lisbona, F

    1991-01-01

    The effects of different types of dietary fat on the digestive and metabolic utilization of protein were studied in rats with 50% resection of the distal small intestine and in sham-operated controls one month after surgery. The digestive utilization of protein was not significantly affected in intact animals when olive oil was replaced by butter as the dietary source of fat. In resected rats given either type of diet the apparent digestibility coefficient of protein declined significantly in comparison to intact controls. Intestinal resection decreased the retention of nitrogen significantly in rats given olive oil. The replacement of 2/3 of the dietary supply of olive oil with 1/3 medium chain triglycerides and 1/3 sunflower seed oil improved the metabolic utilization of protein in comparison to resected rats fed olive oil or butter as the only source of dietary fat. However, the addition of ursodeoxycholic acid to the diet containing equal parts of olive oil, medium chain triglycerides and sunflower seed oil failed to improve the metabolic utilization of protein in comparison to that seen in rats given olive oil only. Serum concentrations of total protein, urea and creatinine, albeit with slight changes in the first, remained within normal limits. Despite the lower retention of nitrogen in resected rats, these animals maintained homeostasis without resorting to muscular protein.

  12. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  13. Effect of buffer-layered buttering on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar metal weld joints for nuclear plant application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Dinesh W., E-mail: dineshvrathod@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pandey, Sunil; Aravindan, S. [Department of Mechanical Enggineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we present the metallurgical and mechanical investigation of four dissimilar welds between SA508Gr.3Cl.1 and SS304LN. The welding processes for buttering deposition and fill-pass welding were varied with ERNiCr-3/ENiCrFe-3 consumables. The Ni-Fe alloy buffer layer was introduced as intermediate layer in buttering and then the joints (with and without buffer layer in buttering) were fabricated. The effect of Ni-Fe buffer layered buttering and welding processes on the resulting weld joints properties has been addressed. Metallurgical and mechanical properties, fracture toughness were measured and various examinations were carried out for integrity assessment on all the weld joints. Addition of a Ni-Fe buttering layer leads to the development of more favourable properties than observed in welded joints made using the current practice without a buffer layer. Control of carbon migration and its subsequent effect on metallurgical, mechanical properties due to buffer layer has been justified in the study. Conventional procedure of DMW fabrication has been proven to be the least favourable against the new technique suggested. Modification in current integrity assessment procedure would be possible by considering the properties at interfacial regions, introduction of yield strength ratio mismatch and the plastic instability strength in the integrity assessment.

  14. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  15. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Currently, butter and margarine are food products attracting wide customer interest. Every day, consumers around the world buy these products for human consumption. Butter is obtained from milk fat, while margarine is derived from vegetable oils. The content of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues was examined in both types of these high fatty products. A gas chromatograph with MSD (HP 5973) detector was used for the determination of pesticides such as α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. The examined products had diverse concentrations of the analyzed compounds. Visible was the division based on the origin of the product, which might be composed of animal or vegetable fats. The research has revealed the presence of OCP residues in all examined spreads. Quantities of organochlorine compounds did not pose an immediate danger to the consumers' health. Human and environmental health risk assessment was carried out by the estimation of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and non-carcinogenic health hazard quotient (HQ). Total estimated LADD ranged between 1.3 × 10(-5) and 3.1 × 10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for butter, and 1.9 × 10(-6) and 4.6 × 10(-6) mg kg(-1) d(-1) for margarine and mix spread. The HQ ranged between 1.1 × 10(-4) and 3.7 × 10(-4) for butter, and 1.4 × 10(-5) and 9.0 × 10(-6) for margarine and mix spread for adults. These estimated HQs were within the safe acceptable limits, indicating a negligible risk to the residents of the study area.

  16. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  17. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Tibetan butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Yang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-02-01

    The Tibetan plateau is considered a potential cold trap for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and plays an important role in the global long-range transport of these compounds. This present work surveyed the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Tibetan butter samples collected from different prefectures in Tibet autonomous region (TAR). summation operator(25)PCB concentrations ranged from 137 to 2518 pg g(-1) with a mean value 519 pg g(-1), which were far lower than those in the butter from other regions in the world. The highest level was found in butter from Sichuan province, which is located to the east of the Tibetan plateau and the lowest value was in samples from southeast TAR. The average concentration of summation Sigma(12)PBDE was 125 pg g(-1). The sample with highest and lowest summation Sigma(12)PBDE concentration (955 and 18.0 pg g(-1)) was from the south and southeast part of the plateau, respectively. Back trajectory model implied that the sources of these two groups of POPs were by atmospheric deposition in south, whereas the western plateau was mainly influenced by the tropical monsoon from south Asia. Air currents from Sichuan and Gansu province are further responsible for the atmospheric transport of PCBs and PBDEs to the eastern and northern side of the plateau. Local air concentrations of summation Sigma(5)PCBs predicted using air-milk transfer factor were at the lower end of published global levels. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an ultrasonic shear reflection technique to monitor the crystallization of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolle, Annelien; Foubert, Imogen; Hettler, Jan; Verboven, Erik; Demuynck, Ruth; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2015-09-01

    The quasi-isothermal crystallization process of cocoa butter was monitored by an ultrasonic shear reflection technique utilizing a custom-built experimental set-up in a temperature controlled environment. To facilitate the interpretation of the measurement results, the propagation of shear waves was first theoretically studied in different configurations of gas, liquid or solid layers with varying thickness for the case of normal incidence, yielding theoretical equations of the shear wave reflection coefficient (swRC) for different layering conditions. The typical experimentally observed pattern of the swRC during quasi-isothermal cocoa butter crystallization was subsequently linked to the theoretical equations. The remarkable oscillatory damped response in the swRC as function of the crystallization time could be explained by constructive and destructive interference of a first reflection at the boundary between a plexiglass delay line and the crystallized cocoa butter and a second reflection occurring at the interface between crystallized and liquid substance. This hypothesis was supported by the excitation frequency dependence of the oscillations. The quality of the fit of the theoretical model to the experimental results was very good and also the reproducibility between different independent measurements was acceptable. Finally, measurements at different temperatures (18°C and 20°C) suggested that the technique was able to detect differences in crystallization behavior, as measurements at 18°C displayed faster oscillations compared to measurements at 20°C. Moreover, this was also confirmed by the theoretical model, as a higher value of the crystallization rate parameter K, exhibited more rapid oscillations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF ALLOY 152 WELD BUTTER NEAR THE LOW ALLOY STEEL INTERFACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreanu, Bogdan; Chen, Yiren; Natesan, Ken; Shack, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain SCC growth data in Alloy 152 weld butter near the interface with Low Alloy Steel (LAS), which is a region where some dilution of Cr was expected to have occurred, thus presumably exhibiting an increased SCC-susceptibility vs. the bulk of the weld. The LAS piece used in this application was Alloy 533-Gr B from the Midland reactor lower head, and the Alloy 152 weld butter received a prototypical Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) prior to joining by Alloy 152 to an Alloy 690 piece according to a procedure qualified to ASME IX. The compact tension specimens for SCC testing were aligned in the first layer of the Alloy 152 butter. The experimental approach based on tracking environmental enhancement vs. location was successful in identifying SCC-susceptible locations, and SCC rates ranging from 10-12 m/s to as high as 10-10 m/s were measured. The post-test examination of the specimens found that the fracture had the intergranular/interdendritic appearance typical of welds, and that the propagation was arrested wherever an intersection with the LAS occurred. The large range of SCC rates measured does not appear to correlate well with the local concentration of Cr (approx. 25% at the SCC locations), and, in fact, low Cr (20%) – high Fe “streaks” seemed to slow/arrest crack propagation. In short, simple “Cr dilution” does not seem to fully account for the “SCC-susceptible” microstructure that yielded the 10-10 m/s growth rate in this weld.

  20. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  1. Direct valorisation of waste cocoa butter triglycerides via catalytic epoxidation, ring‐opening and polymerisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Dorota D; Strobel, Vinzent; Heer, Parminder Kaur KS; Sellars, Andrew B; Hoong, Seng‐Soi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Development of circular economy requires significant advances in the technologies for valorisation of waste, as waste becomes new feedstock. Food waste is a particularly important feedstock, containing large variation of complex chemical functionality. Although most food waste sources are complex mixtures, waste from food processing, no longer suitable for the human food chain, may also represent relatively clean materials. One such material requiring valorisation is cocoa butter. RESULTS Epoxidation of a triglyceride from a food waste source, processing waste cocoa butter, into the corresponding triglyceride epoxide was carried out using a modified Ishii‐Venturello catalyst in batch and continuous flow reactors. The batch reactor achieved higher yields due to the significant decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the laminar flow tubular reactor. Integral and differential models describing the reaction and the phase transfer kinetics were developed for the epoxidation of cocoa butter and the model parameters were estimated. Ring‐opening of the epoxidised cocoa butter was undertaken to provide polyols of varying molecular weight (Mw = 2000–84 000 Da), hydroxyl value (27–60 mg KOH g−1) and acid value (1–173 mg KOH g−1), using either aqueous ortho‐phosphoric acid (H3PO4 ) or boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3 ·OEt2)‐mediated oligomerisation in bulk, using hexane or tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvents. The thermal and tensile properties of the polyurethanes obtained from the reaction of these polyols with 4,4′‐methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) are described. CONCLUSION The paper presents a complete valorisation scheme for a food manufacturing industry waste stream, starting from the initial chemical transformation, developing a process model for the design of a scaled‐up process, and leading to synthesis of the final product, in this case a polymer. This work describes aspects of optimisation of the conversion route

  2. Cholecystokinin knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Min; King, Alexandra; Samuelson, Linda C; Kindel, Tammy Lyn; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald J; Raybould, Helen E; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a satiation peptide released during meals in response to lipid intake; it regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes that are required for absorption of nutrients. We proposed that mice with a disruption in the CCK gene (CCK knockout [CCK-KO] mice) that were fed a diet of 20% butter fat would have altered fat metabolism. We used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to determine body composition and monitored food intake of CCK-KO mice using an automated measurement system. Intestinal fat absorption and energy expenditure were determined using a noninvasive assessment of intestinal fat absorption and an open circuit calorimeter, respectively. After consuming a high-fat diet for 10 weeks, CCK-KO mice had reduced body weight gain and body fat mass and enlarged adipocytes, despite the same level of food intake as wild-type mice. CCK-KO mice also had defects in fat absorption, especially of long-chain saturated fatty acids, but pancreatic triglyceride lipase did not appear to have a role in the fat malabsorption. Energy expenditure was higher in CCK-KO than wild-type mice, and CCK-KO mice had greater oxidation of carbohydrates while on the high-fat diet. Plasma leptin levels in the CCK-KO mice fed the high-fat diet were markedly lower than in wild-type mice, although levels of insulin, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 were normal. CCK is involved in regulating the metabolic rate and is important for lipid absorption and control of body weight in mice placed on a high-fat diet. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  4. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss the diel...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  5. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-08-01

    Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. We compared the effects of moderate butter intake, moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m²) of 40.4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P butter resulted in increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum, whereas moderate butter intake may be considered part of the diet in the normocholesterolemic population. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Influence of a Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter Plus Cholesterol-Enriched Diet on Testicular Enzymatic Activities in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities in testis, as enzymes involved in testicular function. Male Wistar rats (6 months old) were fed for 24 weeks with three different diets: standard (S), an S diet supplemented with virgin-olive-oil (20%) (VOO), or a S diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). At the end of the experimental period, plasma lipid profiled (total triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL and VDL)) were measured. Enzymatic activities were determined by fluorimetric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of testicular tissue using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Results indicated an increase in plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in Bch. A significant increase of mb GluAP and GGT activities was also found in this diet in comparison with the other two diets. Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were established between these activities and plasma triglycerides and/or total cholesterol. These results support a role for testicular GluAP and GGT activities in the effects of saturated fat (Western diet) on testicular functions. In contrast, VOO increased sol DPP IV activity in comparison with the other two diets, which support a role for this activity in the effects of monounsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet) on testicular function. The present results strongly support the influence of fatty acids and cholesterol on testicular GluAP and GGT activities and also provide support that the reported beneficial influence of the Mediterranean diet in male fertility may be mediated in part by an increase of testicular sol DPP IV activity. PMID:28777292

  7. Influence of a Virgin Olive Oil versus Butter Plus Cholesterol-Enriched Diet on Testicular Enzymatic Activities in Adult Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vías, Germán; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Prieto, Isabel

    2017-08-04

    The aim of the present work was to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the beneficial or deleterious effects on testicular function of the so-called Mediterranean and Western diet by analyzing glutamyl aminopeptidase (GluAP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activities in testis, as enzymes involved in testicular function. Male Wistar rats (6 months old) were fed for 24 weeks with three different diets: standard (S), an S diet supplemented with virgin-olive-oil (20%) (VOO), or a S diet enriched with butter (20%) plus cholesterol (0.1%) (Bch). At the end of the experimental period, plasma lipid profiled (total triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions (HDL, LDL and VDL)) were measured. Enzymatic activities were determined by fluorimetric methods in soluble (sol) and membrane-bound (mb) fractions of testicular tissue using arylamide derivatives as substrates. Results indicated an increase in plasmatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL in Bch. A significant increase of mb GluAP and GGT activities was also found in this diet in comparison with the other two diets. Furthermore, significant and positive correlations were established between these activities and plasma triglycerides and/or total cholesterol. These results support a role for testicular GluAP and GGT activities in the effects of saturated fat (Western diet) on testicular functions. In contrast, VOO increased sol DPP IV activity in comparison with the other two diets, which support a role for this activity in the effects of monounsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet) on testicular function. The present results strongly support the influence of fatty acids and cholesterol on testicular GluAP and GGT activities and also provide support that the reported beneficial influence of the Mediterranean diet in male fertility may be mediated in part by an increase of testicular sol DPP IV activity.

  8. Chromatography methods and chemometrics for determination of milk fat adulterants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Milk and milk-based products are among the leading food categories according to reported cases of food adulteration. Although many authentication problems exist in all areas of the food industry, adequate control methods are required to evaluate the authenticity of milk and milk products in the dairy industry. Moreover, gas chromatography (GC) analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) or fatty acid (FA) profiles of milk fat (MF) in combination with multivariate statistical data processing have been used to detect adulterations of milk and dairy products with foreign fats. The adulteration of milk and butter is a major issue for the dairy industry. The major adulterants of MF are vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, groundnut, coconut, palm and peanut oil) and animal fat (cow tallow and pork lard). Multivariate analysis enables adulterated MF to be distinguished from authentic MF, while taking into account many analytical factors. Various multivariate analysis methods have been proposed to quantitatively detect levels of adulterant non-MFs, with multiple linear regression (MLR) seemingly the most suitable. There is a need for increased use of chemometric data analyses to detect adulterated MF in foods and for their expanded use in routine quality assurance testing.

  9. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  10. ‘Don’t play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don’t play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don’t play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria from "Sheep's Dhan", a traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep’s Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep’s milk in Jijel (East of Algeria. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exopolysaccharide.

    Veintiséis bacterias lácticas fueron aisladas de “Sheep´s Dhan”, una mantequilla tradicional hecha con leche de oveja en Jijel (al Este de Argelia. Estas cepas pertenecen a tres géneros: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc y Lactobacillus. Los resultados mostraron que Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis fue la especie predominante en esta mantequilla tradicional. Los resultados de la evaluación de la aptitud tecnológica indican que la principal cepa tiene una buena aptitud de acidificación, algunas de ellas mostraron una buena actividad proteolítica y únicamente Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum fue capaz de producir exopolisacárido.

  12. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzanti,G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 {sup o}C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s{sup -1} and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material.

  13. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-04

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  14. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid-enriched Butter After 24 hours of Intestinal Mucositis Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira de; Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos; Andrade, Maria Emília Rabelo; da Gama, Marco Antonio Sundfeld; Lopes, Fernando Cesar Ferraz; de Sales E Souza, Éricka Lorenna; Martins, Flaviano Dos Santos; Miranda, Sued Eustáquio Mendes; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Mucositis is the most common side effect due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It refers to the inflammation of intestinal mucous membranes, and it is associated with complications such as diarrhea, weight loss, and increased intestinal permeability (IP). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched butter on intestinal damage and inflammatory response after 24 h of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced mucositis. Mice were divided into four groups: CTL; CLA; 5-FU, and CLA 5-FU, and they were fed for 31 days. On the 30th experimental day, mucositis was induced by unique injection of 300 mg/kg of 5-FU. After 24 h (31st experimental day), IP was evaluated; ileum and fecal material were collected to determine cytokine level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). The 5-FU group showed an increase in IP and MPO activity (CTL vs. 5-FU: P butter exacerbating the 5-FU-induced intestinal damage. Safety concerns regarding the use of CLA require further investigation.

  15. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health. How Monounsaturated Fats Affect Your Health Monounsaturated fats are good for your health in several ways: They can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance ...

  16. Dietary fat and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to eating too much fat or eating the wrong types of ...

  17. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  18. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, also contain saturated fats. These fats are solid at room temperature. A diet high in saturated fat increases cholesterol buildup in your arteries (blood vessels). Cholesterol is ...

  19. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy fats are a vital part of a child’s diet, and they should not be excessively limited or banned. For young kids, especially, fat and cholesterol play important roles in brain development. And for those under 2 years old, fat ...

  20. Production of sn-1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol-rich fats from mango kernel fat by selective fractionation using 2-methylpentane based isohexane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Zheng, Liyou; Mwinyi Pembe, Warda; Zhang, Jinfang; Xie, Dan; Wang, Xiaosan; Huang, Jianhua; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

    2017-11-01

    High-purity isohexane containing 88.12% 2-methylpentane, which has a higher polarity than industrial hexane, was selected to selectively fractionate mango kernel fat to produce 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS)-rich fat. The three-stage fractionation process was optimized by considering the stearin yield and its SOS content to obtain a third stearin (TS). This fat contained a high percentage of SOS (69.2%) with only 0.8% diacylglycerol. Mass spectra and sn-2 fatty acid analyses further revealed that the TS was mainly composed of symmetrical monounsaturated triacylglycerols. Compared with cocoa butter (CB), the unique composition of the TS improved its thermal properties (35.6% and 0% solid fat content at 35°C for the TS and CB, respectively). In particular, tempered binary fat blends, which were composed of 20-50% TS and 50-80% CB, showed acceptable compatibility at 20-28°C. The TS could be utilized by chocolate manufacturers to make products suitable for sale and consumption in tropical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Tennessee in peanut butter by 915 MHz microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different levels to inactivate 3 serovars of Salmonella in peanut butter. Peanut butter inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4 and 6 kW and acid and peroxide values and color changes were determined after 5 min of microwave heating. Salmonella populations were reduced with increasing treatment time and treatment power. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three Salmonella serovars by 3.24-4.26 log CFU/g. Four and two kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these Salmonella serovars by 1.14-1.48 and 0.15-0.42 log CFU/g, respectively. Microwave treatment did not affect acid, peroxide, or color values of peanut butter. These results demonstrate that 915 MHz microwave processing can be used as a control method for reducing Salmonella in peanut butter without producing quality deterioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling energy and environmental impacts of traditional and improved shea butter production in West Africa for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Colleen C; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2017-01-15

    This study improves the global application of methods and analyses, especially Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), that properly incorporates environmental impacts of firewood and a social sustainability indicator (human energy) as tools for sustainable human development. Specifically shea butter production processes, common throughout sub-Saharan Africa and crucial to food security, environmental sustainability, and women's empowerment, are analyzed. Many economic activities in the world rely on firewood for energy and labor that aren't included in traditional LCAs. Human energy (entirely from women) contributed 25-100% of shea butter production processes (2000-6100kJ/kg of shea butter) and mechanized production processes had reduced human energy without considerably greater total energy. Firewood accounted for 94-100% of total embodied energy (103 and 172MJ/kg of shea butter for improved and traditional shea butter production processes respectively) and global warming potential and 18-100% of human toxicity of the production processes. Implementation of improved cookstoves modeled in this study could reduce: (1) global warming potential by 78% (from 18 to 4.1kg CO2 eq/kg and 11 to 2.4kg CO2 eq/kg of shea butter for the traditional and improved processes respectively), (2) the embodied energy of using firewood by 52% (from 170 to 82MJ/kg and 103 to 49MJ/kg for the traditional and improved processes respectively), and (3) human toxicity by 83% for the non-mechanized traditional and improved processes (from 0.041 to 0.0071 1,4 DB eq/kg and 0.025 to 0.0042 1,4 DB eq/kg respectively). In addition, this is the first study to compare Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and process-based LCA in a developing country and evaluate five traditional and improved shea butter production processes over different impact categories. Overall, this study developed a framework to evaluate and improve processes for achievement of the United Nation's Sustainable Development

  4. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations......, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human....... DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low...

  5. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  6. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Claus; Storm, Hanne; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids. Furthermore, olive oil induced higher concentrations of GLP-1, which may indicate a relation between fatty acid composition...... butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction. RESULTS: No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma...... metabolism and the responses of the duodenal incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide after meals rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), respectively. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the postprandial responses (8 h) of glucose...

  7. Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, D; Clarke, R

    2009-05-01

    Reduced consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is desirable to lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. In practice, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) that contain both TFAs and other fatty acids are the unit of replacement and could be replaced with diverse alternative fats and oils. We performed quantitative estimates of CHD effects if a person's PHVO consumption were to be replaced with alternative fats and oils based on (1) randomized dietary trials and (2) prospective observational studies. We performed meta-analyses of (1) the effects of TFAs on blood lipids and lipoproteins in controlled dietary trials and (2) associations of habitual TFA consumption with CHD outcomes in prospective cohort studies. On the basis of these results and corresponding findings for saturated fatty acids (SFA), cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), we calculated the effects on CHD risk for replacing 7.5% of energy from three different PHVO formulations (containing 20, 35 or 45% TFAs) with butter, lard, palm or vegetable oils. In controlled trials, each 1% energy replacement of TFAs with SFAs, MUFAs or PUFAs, respectively, decreased the total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio by 0.31, 0.54 and 0.67; the apolipoprotein (Apo)-B/ApoAI ratio by 0.007, 0.010 and 0.011; and lipoprotein (Lp)(a) by 3.76, 1.39 and 1.11 mg/l (Pfats from one trial. On the basis of these risk factor changes in controlled trials, CHD risk would be variably decreased by different fats and oils replacing 7.5% of energy from 20% TFA PHVO (CHD risk reduction: -2.7% (butter) to -9.9% (canola)); 35% TFA PHVO (-11.9% (butter) to -16.0% (canola)); or 45% TFA PHVO (-17.6% (butter) to -19.8% (canola)). In prospective cohort studies, each 2% energy replacement of TFAs with SFAs, MUFAs or PUFAs would lower CHD risk by 17% (95% confidence interval (CI)=7-25%), 21% (95% CI=12-30%) or 24% (95% CI=15-33%), respectively. On the basis of

  8. Butter battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nick

    2013-02-01

    Your article on academia-industry collaborations ("A clean solution", January pp44-45) was extremely interesting, and I wish Durham University and Procter & Gamble every success in their challenging and worthwhile project - which, as the article described, is partly aimed at improving the formulation of biological washing powders.

  9. Continuous Flow Metathesis for Direct Valorization of Food Waste: An Example of Cocoa Butter Triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotten, Christiane; Plaza, Dorota; Manzini, Simone; Nolan, Steven P; Ley, Steven V; Browne, Duncan L; Lapkin, Alexei

    2015-07-06

    The direct chemical conversion of cocoa butter triglycerides, a material available as a postmanufacture waste stream from the food industry, to 1-decene by way of ethenolysis is reported. The conversion of the raw waste material was made possible by use of 1 mol % of the [RuCl 2 ( i Bu-phoban) 2 (3-phenylindenyl)] catalyst. The process has been investigated in both batch and flow conditions, where the latter approach employs a Teflon AF-2400 tube-in-tube gas-liquid membrane contactor to deliver ethylene to the reaction system. These preliminary studies culminate in a continuous processing system, which maintained a constant output over a 150 min period tested.

  10. Bronchiolitis obliterans and consumer exposure to butter-flavored microwave popcorn: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David S; Schilling, John Henry

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory exposure to diacetyl and diacetyl-containing flavorings used in butter-flavored microwave popcorn (BFMP) causes lung disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), in flavorings and popcorn manufacturing workers. However, there are no published reports of lung disease among BFMP consumers. We present a case series of three BFMP consumers with biopsy-confirmed BO. We review data relating to consumer exposures, estimate case exposures, and compare them to diacetyl-containing flavoring-exposed manufacturing workers with lung disease. These consumer cases' exposure levels are comparable to those that caused disease in workers. We were unable to identify any other exposures or diseases known or suspected to cause BO in these cases. BFMP poses a significant respiratory risk to consumers. Some manufacturers have substituted diacetyl with other alpha-diketones that are likely to pose a similar risk. Simple consumer practices such as cooling the popcorn bag would eliminate the risk of severe lung disease.

  11. Identification of important mechanical and acoustic parameters for the sensory quality of cocoa butter alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, S B; Povey, M J W; Kidmose, U; Andersen, M D; Hammershøj, M; Wiking, L

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the correlation between sensory attributes and the mechanical and acoustic properties of cocoa butter alternatives was elucidated. Needle penetration, cone penetration and compression tests were used to characterise mechanical properties and acoustic properties were evaluated by simultaneous texture and sound analyses. Results were correlated with a descriptive sensory evaluation. A significant correlation was found between hardness (needle penetration) and sensory hardness evaluated upon biting (r=0.91, psound pressure level (simultaneous sound and texture analyses) and the sensory evaluation of the sound intensity upon breakage (r=0.96 and 0.97, psound emission i.e. a hard texture with a low degree of flexibility (less elastic) is more likely to provide a rapid energy release upon breakage and thus a high intensity sound emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  13. Bronchiolitis associated with exposure to artificial butter flavoring in workers at a cookie factory in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Zaida do Rego; Albuquerque Filho, Alfredo Pereira Leite de; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins

    2012-01-01

    To report the cases of four patients with bronchiolitis caused by exposure to artificial butter flavoring at a cookie factory in Brazil. We described the clinical, tomographic, and spirometric findings in the four patients, as well as the lung biopsy findings in one of the patients. All four patients were young male nonsmokers and developed persistent airflow obstruction (reduced FEV1/FVC ratio and FEV1 at 25-44% of predicted) after 1-3 years of exposure to diacetyl, without the use of personal protective equipment, at a cookie factory. The HRCT findings were indicative of bronchiolitis. In one patient, the surgical lung biopsy revealed bronchiolitis obliterans accompanied by giant cells. Bronchiolitis resulting from exposure to artificial flavoring agents should be included in the differential diagnosis of airflow obstruction in workers in Brazil.

  14. The Evolution of Shea Butter's "Paradox of paradoxa" and the Potential Opportunity for Information and Communication Technology (ICT to Improve Quality, Market Access and Women's Livelihoods across Rural Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bello-Bravo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shea trees grow across 4 million km2 of sub-Saharan Africa. Shea parklands provide a sustainable source of edible fat (shea butter that, in terms of volume, is currently second only to cocoa butter as a vegetal source of stearic acid in the multi-billion dollar chocolate and cosmetic sectors. However, in terms of international trade, shea has been opaque to consumers of edible products (where the majority of shea exports end their global journey and actually only well-known in western markets as a cosmetic ingredient. The millions of women collectors have been disconnected from global supply chains, as the majority of their sheanuts are factory processed, supplied by traders who, in many cases, do not understand quality issues nor share knowledge with their village-based collectors—this is the “Paradox of paradoxa”. This review provides the background to this issue by contextualizing the industry and describing how weak post-harvest quality control impacts the shea supply chain. The paper then explains how this knowledge was incorporated into a 3D animation available for free transmission to rural African audiences and viewing on portable devices like video capable mobile phones. This tool offers the potential of low-cost multiple benefits to users, which we term here a win-cubed [win3] opportunity, where women collectors can receive free knowledge of using less resources to produce higher quality shea kernels which in turn offer higher extraction yields, lowering production costs, of a better and more marketable product.

  15. Relative Sunspot Number Observed from 2002 to 2011 at ButterStar Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jin Oh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ButterStar Observatory at the Dongducheon High School has been working for photographic observations of the Sun since October 16, 2002. In this study, we observed the Sun at the ButterStar observatory for 3,364 days from October 16, 2002 to December 31, 2011, and analyzed the photographic sunspot data obtained in 1,965 days. The correction factor Kb for the entire observing period is 0.9519, which is calculated using the linear least square method to the relationship between the daily sunspot number, RB, and the daily international relative sunspot number, Ri. The yearly correction factor calculated for each year varies slightly from year to year and shows a trend to change along the solar cycle. The correction factor is larger during the solar maxima and smaller during the solar minima in general. This implies that the discrepancy between a relative sunspot number, R, and the daily international relative sunspot number, Ri, can be reduced by using a yearly correction factor. From 2002 to 2008 in solar cycle 23, 35.4% and 64.6% of sunspot groups and 35.1% and 64.9% of isolated sunspots in average occurred in the northern hemisphere and in the southern hemisphere, respectively, and from 2008 to 2011 in solar cycle 24, 61.3% and 38.7% of sunspot groups and 65.0% and 35.0% of isolated sunspots were observed, respectively. This result shows that the occurrence frequency for each type of sunspot group changes along the solar cycle development, which can be interpreted as the emerging and decaying process of sunspot groups is different depending on the phase of solar cycle. Therefore, it is considered that a following study would contribute to the efforts to understand the dependence of the dynamo mechanism on the phase of solar cycle.

  16. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  17. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445

  18. Microencapsulation of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. Pedroso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04 were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10³ CFU/g. The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.

  19. Effects of high-fat diets from different sources on serum and thymus lipid profile: study in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina; Perris, Paula D; Fernandez, Ines; Godoy, Maria F; Mambrin, Cecilia; Slobodianik, Nora H; Feliu, Maria S

    2014-01-01

    A balanced diet is important to maintain an optimal health status and to prevent noncommunicable chronic diseases. The principal objective of this study was to analyze the effect of diets containing high fat levels from different sources, on serum and thymus lipid profile, in adult rats. Experimental diets contained 50% kcal of fat, provided by butter (B) or sunflower oil (S); control diet (C) was isocaloric, with 15 kcal of fat per 100 total kcal, provided by soy oil. Diets were otherwise complete in all nutrients and were administered for 40 days. Group B had higher levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides than C; S serum lipid profile did not differ from C, despite the higher fat content. Regarding serum and thymus FA profile, B showed an increase of saturated fatty acids and lower levels of ω6 and ω3 FA, and S had lower levels of ω3 fatty acids. The administration of high-fat diets, during 40 days to adult rats, provoked specific variations on serum and thymus fatty acids, as a consequence of differences in FA profile of their lipid sources. These results reflect the impact that eating habits have on health status. It is important to put emphasis not only on the reduction of total fat intake, but also on choosing healthy sources of fat, replacing saturated fatty acids by polyunsaturated and including oils with higher content of ω3 to keep a balanced ω6/ω3 ratio.

  20. Fat intake and breast milk fatty acid composition in farming and nonfarming women and allergy development in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Karin; Barman, Malin; Moberg, Sara; Sjöberg, Agneta; Brekke, Hilde K; Hesselmar, Bill; Johansen, Susanne; Wold, Agnes E; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-01-01

    Children growing up on small family farms are at much lower risk of developing allergy than other children. We hypothesized that low intake of margarine and polyunsaturated fats among farming families could contribute to this protection. Twenty-eight mother-infant pairs living on small dairy farms and 37 nonfarm rural resident pairs were recruited in the FARMFLORA birth cohort. Food items expected to affect dietary fat composition were recorded by food frequency questionnaires during pregnancy and by 24-h recalls followed by 24-h food diaries during lactation. Allergy was diagnosed by doctors, using strict predefined criteria. Maternal diet and breast milk fat composition were compared between farming and nonfarming mothers and related to children's allergy at age 3 y. Farming mothers consumed more butter, whole milk, saturated fat, and total fat than nonfarming mothers, who consumed more margarine, oils, and low-fat milk. Farming mothers' breast milk contained higher proportions of saturated and lower proportions of polyunsaturated fat. Allergy was eight times more common in nonfarm children. Mothers of allergic children consumed more margarine and oils than mothers of nonallergic children. Low maternal consumption of margarine and vegetable oils might contribute to the allergy-preventive effect of growing up on small dairy farms.

  1. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping of Salmonella Tennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Boxrud, David; Rankin, Shelly; Downe, Francis; Lovchik, Judith; Gibson, Jim; Erdman, Matt; Saeed, A. Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2007, a nationwide Salmonella Tennessee outbreak occurred via contaminated peanut butter. Here, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing method for S. Tennessee to determine the clonal subtypes of S. Tennessee that were associated with the peanut butter outbreak. Methods and results One seventy-six S. Tennessee isolates from various sources, including humans, animals, food, and the environment, were analyzed by using the SNP technique. Eighty-four representativ...

  3. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  4. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Sjøgren, Per; Hølland, Nina; Müller, Hanne; Kjos, Nils P; Taugbøl, Ole; Fjerdingby, Nina; Biong, Anne S; Selmer-Olsen, Eirik; Harstad, Odd M

    2008-08-29

    Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) and trans vaccenic acid (VA). These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0) were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  5. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (<10% SFA, 22% PUFA and 6% MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates. Size and body composition, glucose, insulin, HOMA, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL.C were measured; dietary Anamnesis/24 hours, daily food record. ANOVA and Bonferroni statistical analysis (SPSS 20) was applied. The age was 56 ± 5 years, BMI 29.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2, waist circumference: 93.2 ± 10.1 cm, waist/hip ratio: 0.86 ± 0.14, waist/height: 0.59 ± 0.06 and 38.6 ± 4% body fat (NS). Lipid profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016). The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lower-fat ingredients. “Low-fat and fat-free yogurt and milk still contain the important proteins and minerals found in the full-fat versions, but you’re getting less saturated fat and cholesterol,” McDowell says. “In some recipes, you can use ...

  7. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed.

  8. Influence of Dairy Product and Milk Fat Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Review of the Evidence12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J.; Park, Keigan M.

    2012-01-01

    Although evidence has linked the consumption of saturated fat (SF) to increased LDL levels and an increased risk of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent findings have indicated that the link between CVD and SF may be less straightforward than originally thought. This may be due to the fact that some food sources high in SF contain an array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, each of which may differentially affect lipoprotein metabolism, as well as contribute significant amounts of other nutrients, which may alter CVD risk. The purpose of this review is to examine the published research on the relationship between milk fat containing dairy foods and cardiovascular health. The findings indicate that the majority of observational studies have failed to find an association between the intake of dairy products and increased risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke, regardless of milk fat levels. Results from short-term intervention studies on CVD biomarkers have indicated that a diet higher in SF from whole milk and butter increases LDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates or unsaturated fatty acids; however, they may also increase HDL and therefore might not affect or even lower the total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio. The results from the review also indicate that cheese intake lowers LDL cholesterol compared with butter of equal milk fat content. In addition, the review highlights some significant gaps in the research surrounding the effects of full-fat dairy on CVD outcomes, pointing to the need for long-term intervention studies. PMID:22585901

  9. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Centre for Molecular and Interface Engineering

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Understanding and refining the molecular-scale processes involved in the manufacture of structured materials such as long-chain hydrocarbon compounds is important in many commercial areas such as the petrochemical, biochemical, food, pharmaceutical and soap industries. In such processes crystallisation is an important separation, purification and preparation technique. Despite this our knowledge of the crystallisation process itself is surprisingly limited. In order to improve the crystallisation of confectionery fats, the crystallisation of it`s main component, cocoa butter fat, must be properly understood. Cocoa butter fat can exhibit up to 6 polymorphic forms of different crystallographic structures with melting points varying from 17.3 deg C to 36.3 deg C. During the production of chocolate it is essential to control the polymorphic form of fats present, in order to produce a final product with the correct physical and rheological properties. Both shear rate and temperature are thought to play a crucial role in this process. The most widely used method for studying polymorphism is X-ray diffraction. Typical X-ray diffraction patterns of fats exhibit two groups of diffraction lines corresponding to the long and short spacings. The long spacings correspond to the planes formed by the methyl end groups and are dependent on the chain length and the angle of tilt of the component fatty acids of the glyceride molecules. The short spacings refer to the cross sectional packing of the hydrocarbon chain and are independent of the chain length. The relationship between crystallisation rate, polymorphic form, shear and the fat composition has for the first time been quantified, which will enable more accurate control of the polymorhic form in chocolate production. This has been achieved by developing an improved in-situ cell for X-ray studies. The X-ray studies are necessary for the examination of on-line studies under well controlled conditions of temperature

  10. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  11. Trans-polar-fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Counil, Emilie; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As part of the rapid socio-cultural transition observed in Arctic populations, the Inuit diet is changing. We present original data derived from the baseline Inuit Health in Transition cohort study regarding biological levels of n-3 fatty acids and trans-fatty acids (TFA), lipids with opposite he...... of 2 g/100 g fat on industrially produced trans-fats in 2003....

  12. Dietary fats and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    The present review addresses the evidence for a possible link between dietary fat and cancer. International comparisons suggest that a high-fat diet may increase cancer risk, and this hypothesis is supported by animal experiments. However, epidemiological studies within populations show little or

  13. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fat and bone interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo, Sandra; Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Duque, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    Fat and bone have a complicated relationship. Although obesity has been associated with low fracture risk, there is increasing evidence that some of the factors that are released by peripheral fat into the circulation may also have a deleterious effect on bone mass, thus, predisposing to fractures. More importantly, the local interaction between fat and bone within the bone marrow seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. This "local interaction" occurs inside the bone marrow and is associated with the autocrine and paracrine release of fatty acids and adipokines, which affect the cells in their vicinity including the osteoblasts, reducing their function and survival. In this review, we explore the particularities of the fat and bone cell interactions within the bone marrow, their significance in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and the potential therapeutic applications that regulating marrow fat may have in the near future as a novel pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis.

  15. Diffusion Control and Metallurgical Behavior of Successive Buttering on SA508 Steel Using Ni–Fe Alloy and Inconel 182

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod, Dinesh W.; Pandey, Sunil; Aravindan, S.; P. K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    The metallurgical deterioration and carbon diffusion caused during welding in the vicinity of the fusion interfaces between dissimilar metals have been investigated in case of gas tungsten arc and shielded metal arc welded SA508Gr.3Cl.1 steel substrate with Ni–Fe alloy and Inconel 182. The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Ni–Fe matrix as buffer layer and SMAW process for buttering deposition on the carbon diffusion and metallurgical changes. Quantitative measurement and valida...

  16. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  17. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  18. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  19. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Benhamada, N.; Leghouchi, E.

    2010-07-01

    This is the first report describing microbiological, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows milk in East of Algeria. Five butter samples were prepared in the laboratory according to the traditional method used by people in the Jijel areas (Eastern Algeria). Our results show the presence of lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts, while staphylococci or lipolytic bacteria were not detected. Important differences were found in chemical values among butter samples. The pH values ranged from pH4.64 and pH5.53. Moisture and impurities exceeded 17.5% and 9.19% respectively. The values for acid index, peroxide index, saponification index and iodine index ranged from: 23.56-31.35mg KOH/g, 1.6-4 meq/kg, 140.25- 228.60 mg KOH/g and 35.35-53.69 mgI/100g respectively. Finally, the fatty acid composition showed that palmitic acid and oleic acid were the major saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (Author) 20 refs.

  20. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial potential for use in tropical regions.

    En este trabajo se presenta el comportamiento de la microestructura y la cristalización de mantecas de cacao representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de tres regiones geográficas diferentes de Brasil. Las muestras se evaluaron de acuerdo a la microestructura, la cinética de cristalización y el comportamiento polimórfico. La evaluación de estos parámetros nos permite establecer relaciones entre la composición química y el comportamiento de la cristalización de las muestras, así como las diferencias sobre la adecuación del potencial tecnológico e industrial para su aplicación en las regiones tropicales.

  1. Rapid and non-destructive determination of rancidity levels in butter cookies by multi-spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Liu, Changhong; Liu, Jinxia; Pan, Wenjuan; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Lei

    2016-03-30

    Rancidity is an important attribute for quality assessment of butter cookies, while traditional methods for rancidity measurement are usually laborious, destructive and prone to operational error. In the present paper, the potential of applying multi-spectral imaging (MSI) technology with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm to evaluate the rancidity in butter cookies was investigated. Moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were determined by traditional methods and then related with the spectral information by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The optimal models for predicting moisture content, acid value and peroxide value were obtained by PLSR. The correlation coefficient (r) obtained by PLSR models revealed that MSI had a perfect ability to predict moisture content (r = 0.909), acid value (r = 0.944) and peroxide value (r = 0.971). The study demonstrated that the rancidity level of butter cookies can be continuously monitored and evaluated in real-time by the multi-spectral imaging, which is of great significance for developing online food safety monitoring solutions. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana, cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L., palm oil (Elaeis guinensis and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG compositions, and melting and solidification behaviors. Although plant fats are completely different from lard with respect to fatty acid and TAG compositions, they share some common thermal features with lard. Based on thermal analysis, lard and plant fats, except cocoa butter, are found to have thermal transitions in both low (< 0 °C and high (> 0 °C melting regions of their cooling and melting curves. According to pulse NMR data, mee fat and lard are found to display closely similar solidification profiles in the temperature range of 0-25 °C, while palm oil and lard are found to have similar solidification profiles in the temperature range between 25-40 °C. Hence, the thermo-physical property comparison between plant fats and lard may be useful to formulate a fat blend which simulates the thermal properties of lard.

    La comparación de las propiedades térmica y mecánicas de la manteca de cerdo y la de determinadas grasas de plantas, podría ayudar a formular sustitutos alternativos de las grasas para aplicaciones alimentarias. En este estudio, basado en materias grasas vegetales como, aguacate (Persea americana, manteca de cacao (Theobroma cacao L., palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis y grasa de mee (Madhuca longifolia se comparan con la manteca de cerdo con respecto a parámetros físico-químicos, composiciones en ácidos grasos y triglicéridos (TAG, y comportamientos de los parámetros de fusión y de solidificación. Aunque las grasas de plantas

  3. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (poils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of krabok (Irvingia Malayana ) and rambutan seed fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of fats extracted from the seeds of krabok (Irvingia Malayana) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) trees grown in Thailand were studied and compared with cocoa butter (CB). The krabok seed fat, KSF, consisted of 46.9% lauric and 40.3% myristic acids. It exhibited the highest saponification value and slip melting point but the lowest iodine values. The three fats displayed different crystallization behavior at 25°C. KSF crystallized into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' structures with a one-step crystallization curve and high solid fat content (SFC). The fat showed simple DSC crystallization and melting thermograms with one distinct peak. The rambutan seed fat, RSF, consisted of 42.5% arachidic and 33.1% oleic acids. Its crystallization behavior was more similar to CB than KSF, displaying a two-step crystallization curve with SFC lower than that of KSF. RSF solidified into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' before transforming to β after 24 h. The large spherulitic microstructures were observed in both KSF and RSF. According to these results, the Thai KSF and RSF exhibited physicochemical, thermal characteristics and crystallization behavior that could be suitable for specific applications in several areas of the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Simultatenous determination of diacetyl and acetoin in traditional turkish butter stored in sheep’s rumen (Karinyagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce, R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Karinyagi (traditionally named karin is made of cows’ milk cream and is produced by filling butter in cleaned sheep’s rumen. The effect of butter storage in sheep’s rumen on the production of diacetyl and acetoin was investigated. These compounds were determined by GC-MS and they are the typical butter flavor commonly found in fermented dairy products. The modified method for the simultaneous extraction of diacetly and acetoin from butter samples was accurate and precise. The recoveries of diacetyl and acetoin were 94.7 and 110.8%, respectively, while the detection limits were 1.83 and 0.51 mg·L-1, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the monitoring of aroma compounds in Karin butter samples during different time intervals. The concentration of acetoin remained stable through 0–50 days while the concentration of diacetyl increased to 33.0 μg·g-1 up to 40 days and remained constant through 40–50 days.El Karinyagi comercial (nombre tradicional Karin está hecho de crema de leche de vaca, y producido llenando con mantequilla el rumen limpio de ovejas. Se ha investigado el efecto del almacenamiento de la mantequilla en el rumen de ovejas sobre la formación de diacetilo y acetoína. Estos compuestos son el típico flavor a mantequilla que se detecta comúnmente en los productos lácteos fermentados y han sido determinados mediante GC-MS. El método modificado para la extracción simultánea de diacetilo y acetoína en mantequilla resultó ser exacto y preciso y las recuperaciones de 94,7 y 110,8 % respectivamente, mientras que los límites de detección fueron 1.83 y 0,51 mg·L-1, respectivamente. El método propuesto se aplicó al control de compuestos aromáticos en Karin y muestras de mantequilla, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. La concentración de acetoína se mantuvo estable entre 0–50 días mientras que la concentración de diacetilo aumentó a 33,0 mg·g-1 hasta 40 días y se mantuvo constante

  6. Optimisation of enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-05-01

    High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture were inter-esterified in a solvent-free system catalysed by Lipozyme RM IM to produce a cocoa butter equivalent (CBE). The effects of reaction conditions on the percentage of saturate-oleoyl-saturate (SOS) and saturate-saturate-oleoyl (SSO) triacylglycerols (TAGs) were studied. The process was further optimised by response surface methodology. A five-factor response surface design was used to investigate the influences of the five major factors and their mutual relationships. The five factors were substrate ratio (A, FA/HOSO, mol mol⁻¹), enzyme load (B, wt% based on substrates), water content (C, wt% based on substrates), reaction temperature (D,°C) and reaction time (E, in hours) varying at three levels together with two star point levels. The highest yield (59.1% SOS) and lowest acyl migration (2.9% SSO) was obtained at 10% enzyme load, 1% water content, 1:7 substrate mole ratio, 65°C reaction temperature and 6 h reaction time. All the investigated factors except substrate ratio had significant effect on acyl migration. The quadratic response models sufficiently described the acidolysis reaction. All parameters had significant effect on the percentage of SOS TAGs. Based on the models, the reaction was optimised to obtain a maximum yield of SOS TAGs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Storage stability of traditional Tunisian butter enriched with antioxidant extract from tomato processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Yousra; Azabou, Samia; Jridi, Mourad; Khemakhem, Ibtihel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Attia, Hamadi

    2017-10-15

    Traditional Tunisian butter (TTB) is one of the most appreciated dairy products in Tunisia. Herein, the storage stability of TTB enriched with antioxidants from tomato processing by-products (TPB) was evaluated during 60days of storage at 4°C. TPB extract contains significant amounts of lycopene and phenolics. TTB enriched with 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB revealed the lowest peroxide values at all the determination intervals. Adding 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB did not exhibit any undesired effect on lactic bacteria which are necessary for development of aroma and chemical properties of TTB. However, raw TTB and highly enriched TTB (800mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB) displayed higher lipid peroxidation. The detrimental effect of high antioxidant amounts on TTB stability could be due to a possible pro-oxidant character. Thus, appropriate supplementation of TPB extract could be used in TTB as a protective agent against lipid peroxidation to extend its shelf-life up to two months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of volatile components in yak butter using SAFE, SDE and HS-SPME-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Sun, Bao-Guo; Zheng, Fu-Ping; Chen, Hai-Tao; Liu, Si-Yuan; Gu, Chen; Song, Zhen-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The volatile components of yak butter were isolated by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE; dichloromethane and diethyl ether as solvent, respectively) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; CAR/PDMS, PDMS/DVB and DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre extraction, respectively) and were analysed by GC/MS. A total of 83 volatile components were identified under six different conditions, including 28 acids, 12 esters, 11 ketones, 10 lactones, 10 alcohols, 4 other compounds, 2 aldehydes, 2 unsaturated aldehydes, 1 furan, 1 sulphur-containing compound, 1 unsaturated alcohol and 1 unsatruated ketone. Among them, 51 were identified by SAFE, 58 by SDE (45 with dichloromethane as solvent and 41 with diethyl ether as solvent) and 40 by HS-SPME (26 with CAR/PDMS; 26 with PDMS/DVB and 32 with DVB/CAR/PDMS). Three pretreatment methods were compared to show that the volatile components obtained using different methods varied greatly, both in terms of categories and in content. Therefore, a multi-pretreatment method should be adopted, together with GC/MS. A total of 25 aroma-active compounds were detected by gas chromatography-olfactometry, among which 20 aroma-active compounds were found by SDE (14 with dichloromethane as solvent and 14 with diethyl ether as solvent) and 17 by SAFE.

  10. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  11. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks to delivery) Prostate Cancer Protein in Urine (Proteinuria) Reactive Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Sarcoidosis Scleroderma Sepsis Septic ... healthcare practitioner's instructions; this may include consuming 50-150 grams of fat a day in your diet ...

  12. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... 150 grams of fat a day in your diet for 2-3 days prior to and during ...

  13. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  14. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TIPS: Vary Your Veggies Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods Food Gallery Take the Vegetable Quiz Grains ... Foods and Beverages Saturated, Unsaturated, and Trans Fats Sodium Added Sugars Others Everything You Eat and Drink ...

  15. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  16. Saturated and trans fats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shader, Richard I

    2014-01-01

    ... Original Pancake Mix plus ingredients suggested by the recipe: 2 g saturated fat (SF) and no trans fatty acids or trans fat (TFA); bacon, Oscar Mayer Lower Sodium Bacon: 2.5 g SF and no TFA; sausages, Jimmy Dean Original Pork Sausage Links: 8 g SF and no TFA; potatoes, Ore-Ida Mini Tater Tots: 2 g SF and no TFA; and nondairy creamer, Nestlé Coffee-...

  17. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake

  18. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed press-cake

    OpenAIRE

    Radočaj Olga F.; Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly ...

  19. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J

    2009-01-01

    : The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after...... ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon...

  20. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  1. Biomodification of edible fats and oils by yeasts; Kobo ni yoru shokuyo yushi no seibutsugakuteki kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, K.; Endo, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-10-20

    Lipid-biomodification ability was examined for yeasts isolated from soil using culture medium containing beef tallow (2%). Some yeasts, e.g. Candida, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species were able to grow on fats and oils. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were modified in lipids of some strains. Candida sp. MIS-1 and YM1-1 preferentially produced oleic acid. Candida sp. MIS-1 had high level of triacylglycerol with a melting point like olive oil. Fatty acid composition of lipids in Candida lipolytica IAM4948 and Rhodotorula sp. AO3-5 was similar to that of cacao butter. Yeast oils obtained from C. lipolytica provided the melting characterization different from beef tallow. 30 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Robust multipoint water-fat separation using fat likelihood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanzhou; Reeder, Scott B; Shimakawa, Ann; McKenzie, Charles A; Brittain, Jean H

    2012-04-01

    Fat suppression is an essential part of routine MRI scanning. Multiecho chemical-shift based water-fat separation methods estimate and correct for Bo field inhomogeneity. However, they must contend with the intrinsic challenge of water-fat ambiguity that can result in water-fat swapping. This problem arises because the signals from two chemical species, when both are modeled as a single discrete spectral peak, may appear indistinguishable in the presence of Bo off-resonance. In conventional methods, the water-fat ambiguity is typically removed by enforcing field map smoothness using region growing based algorithms. In reality, the fat spectrum has multiple spectral peaks. Using this spectral complexity, we introduce a novel concept that identifies water and fat for multiecho acquisitions by exploiting the spectral differences between water and fat. A fat likelihood map is produced to indicate if a pixel is likely to be water-dominant or fat-dominant by comparing the fitting residuals of two different signal models. The fat likelihood analysis and field map smoothness provide complementary information, and we designed an algorithm (Fat Likelihood Analysis for Multiecho Signals) to exploit both mechanisms. It is demonstrated in a wide variety of data that the Fat Likelihood Analysis for Multiecho Signals algorithm offers highly robust water-fat separation for 6-echo acquisitions, particularly in some previously challenging applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Estabilidade de pasta de amêndoa de castanha de caju Stability of cashew nut butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Ribeiro Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou avaliar a estabilidade de pasta de castanha de caju obtida pela moagem de amêndoas quebradas com açúcar, sal e lecitina de soja. A influência de diferentes embalagens (potes de vidro e de polipropileno e do uso de antioxidantes (BHA, BHT e tocoferóis na qualidade do produto também foi investigada. Características físico-químicas (atividade de água, índice de acidez, cor e textura instrumentais, microbiológicas (coliformes totais e fecais, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva e bolores e leveduras e aceitação sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e textura, foram acompanhadas durante 300 dias de armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28 °C. Foi observado aumento do índice de acidez, redução da maciez e descoloração. No entanto, essas alterações pouco afetaram a aceitação sensorial, que ficou entre "gostei ligeiramente" e "gostei moderadamente", após os 300 dias de armazenamento. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram boa qualidade do produto, estando dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira: contagem de coliformes a 45 °C (fecais menor que 10 NMP.g -1 e ausência de Salmonella spp. em 25 gramas. Os resultados demonstraram que as pastas podem ser armazenadas nas condições e tempo testados, e que não houve influência dos materiais de embalagem utilizados e nem dos antioxidantes na estabilidade do produto.This work involved an evaluation of the stability of cashew nut butter obtained by grinding up broken cashew kernels with sugar, salt and soy lecithin. The influence of different packaging materials (glass and polypropylene containers and antioxidants (BHA, BHT and tocopherols on product quality was also evaluated. Physicochemical (water activity, acidity index, instrumental color and texture and microbiological characteristics (total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeast and mold and

  4. Optimization of a two stage process for biodiesel production from shea butter using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ajala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA shea butter (SB necessitated this study. The reduction of %FFA of SB by esterification and its subsequent utilization by transesterification for biodiesel production in a two stage process for optimization studies was investigated using response surface methodology based on a central composite design (CCD. Four operating conditions were investigated to reduce the %FFA of SB and increase the %yield of shea biodiesel (SBD. The operating conditions were temperature (40–60°C, agitation speed (200–1400 rpm, methanol (MeOH: oil mole ratio: 2:1–6:1 (w/w for esterification and 4:1–8:1 (w/w for transesterification and catalyst loading: 1–2% (H2SO4, (v/v for esterification and KOH, (w/w for transesterification. The significance of the parameters obtained in linear and non-linear form from the models were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimal operating conditions that gave minimum FFA of 0.26% were 52.19°C, 200 rpm, 2:1 (w/w and 1.5% (v/v, while those that gave maximum yield of 92.16% SBD were 40°C, 800 rpm, 7:1 (w/w and 1% (w/w. The p-value of <0.0001 for each of the stages showed that the models were significant with R2 of 0.96 each. These results indicate the reproducibility of the models and showed that the RSM is suitable to optimize the esterification and transesterification of SB for SBD production. Therefore, RSM is a useful tool that can be employed in industrial scale production of SBD from high FFA SB.

  5. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Change of Sunspot Groups Observed from 2002 to 2011 at ButterStar Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jin Oh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of surface magnetic features should reflect the evolution of the solar magnetic field in the deep interior of the Sun, it is crucial to study properties of sunspots and sunspot groups to understand the physical processes working below the solar surface. Here, using the data set of sunspot groups observed at the ButterStar observatory for 3,364 days from 2002 October 16 to 2011 December 31, we investigate temporal change of sunspot groups depending on their Zürich classification type. Our main findings are as follows: (1 There are more sunspot groups in the southern hemisphere in solar cycle 23, while more sunspot groups appear in the northern hemisphere in solar cycle 24. We also note that in the declining phase of solar cycle 23 the decreasing tendency is apparently steeper in the solar northern hemisphere than in the solar southern hemisphere. (2 Some of sunspot group types make a secondary peak in the distribution between the solar maximum and the solar minimum. More importantly, in this particular data set, sunspot groups which have appeared in the solar southern hemisphere make a secondary peak 1 year after a secondary peak occurs in the solar northern hemisphere. (3 The temporal variations of small and large sunspot group numbers are disparate. That is, the number of large sunspot group declines earlier and faster and that the number of small sunspot group begins to rise earlier and faster. (4 The total number of observed sunspot is found to behave more likewise as the small sunspot group does. Hence, according to our findings, behaviors and evolution of small magnetic flux tubes and large magnetic flux tubes seem to be different over solar cycles. Finally, we conclude by briefly pointing out its implication on the space weather forecast.

  7. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  8. Clarifying the butter Boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, David; Frank, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    The butter boletes (Boletus s.l. sect. Appendiculati) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a yellow tube layer that often bruises blue, yellow reticulate stipe, mild flavor and firm yellow-tinged flesh that may or may not turn blue when exposed. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) place this group in a separate phylogenetic clade from Boletus sensu stricto. Here we establish a new genus, Butyriboletus, to accommodate 14 species of butter boletes that range from Asia to Europe, north Africa and North America. We recombine eight previously described butter bolete species and we describe six new species: four from western USA (Bu. persolidus, Bu. primiregius, Bu. autumnigius, Bu. querciregius) and two from Yunnan, China (Bu. yicibus, Bu. sanicibus). © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  9. Occupational lung disease risk and exposure to butter-flavoring chemicals after implementation of controls at a microwave popcorn plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Fedan, Kathleen B; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    After an outbreak of severe lung disease among workers exposed to butter-flavoring chemicals at a microwave popcorn plant, we determined whether or not lung disease risk declined after implementation of exposure controls. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health staff performed eight serial cross-sectional medical and industrial hygiene surveys at the plant from November 2000 through August 2003. Medical surveys included standardized questionnaires and spirometry testing. Industrial hygiene surveys measured levels of production-related air contaminants, including butter-flavoring chemicals such as diacetyl. All diacetyl concentrations above detectable limits were corrected for the effects of absolute humidity and days to sample extraction. Ventilation and isolation of the production process resulted in one to three orders of magnitude reductions in diacetyl air concentrations in different areas of the plant. Workers with past high exposures had stable chest symptoms over time; nasal, eye, and skin irritation symptoms declined. New workers had lower symptom prevalences and higher lung function than workers with past high exposures, and they did not worsen over time. In workers who had at least three spirometry tests, those with past high exposures were more likely to experience rapid declines in lung function than new workers. Implemented controls lowered exposures to butter-flavoring chemicals and decreased lung disease risk for much of the plant workforce. Some workers with continuing potential for intermittent, short-term peak and measurable time-weighted exposures remain at risk and should use respiratory protection and have regularly scheduled spirometry to detect rapid lung function declines that may be work-related. Close follow-up of such workers is likely to yield additional information on risks due to peak and time-weighted exposure levels.

  10. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  11. Popcorn worker's lung: in vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedan, J S; Dowdy, J A; Fedan, K B; Hubbs, A F

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., "popcorn worker's lung" (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10(-7) M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  12. Association between intake of nutrients and food groups and liking for fat (The Nutrinet-Santé Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Deglaire, Amélie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Schlich, Pascal; Castetbon, Katia

    2014-07-01

    Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24 h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A national outbreak of Salmonella serotype Tennessee infections from contaminated peanut butter: a new food vehicle for salmonellosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Anandi N; Hoekstra, Mike; Patel, Nehal; Ewald, Gwen; Lord, Cathy; Clarke, Carmen; Villamil, Elizabeth; Niksich, Katherine; Bopp, Cheryl; Nguyen, Thai-An; Zink, Donald; Lynch, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella serotype Tennessee is a rare cause of the estimated 1 million cases of salmonellosis occurring annually in the United States. In January 2007, we began investigating a nationwide increase in Salmonella Tennessee infections. We defined a case as Salmonella Tennessee infection in a patient whose isolate demonstrated 1 of 3 closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and whose illness began during the period 1 August 2006 through 31 July 2007. We conducted a case-control study in 22 states and performed laboratory testing of foods and environmental samples. We identified 715 cases in 48 states; 37% of isolates were from urine specimens. Illness was associated with consuming peanut butter more than once a week (matched odds ratio [mOR], 3.5 [95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 1.4-9.9]), consuming Brand X peanut butter (mOR, 12.1 [95% CI, 3.6-66.3]), and consuming Brand Y peanut butter (mOR, 9.1 [95% CI, 1.0-433]). Brands X and Y were produced in 1 plant, which ceased production and recalled products on 14 February 2007. Laboratories isolated outbreak strains of Salmonella Tennessee from 34 Brands X and Y peanut butter jars and 2 plant environmental samples. This large, widespread outbreak of salmonellosis is the first linked to peanut butter in the United States; a nationwide recall resulted in outbreak control. Environmental contamination in the peanut butter plant likely caused this outbreak. This outbreak highlights the risk of salmonellosis from heat-processed foods of nonanimal origin previously felt to be low risk for Salmonella contamination.

  14. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  15. Lactic acid bacteria from Sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter from sheep's milk: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoui, T.; Boudjerda, J.; Leghouchi, E.; Karam, N. E.

    2009-07-01

    Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep's Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep's milk in Jijel (East of Algeria). These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactic ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exo polysaccharide. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad, Kacem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs, lipolytic bacteria and yeasts were isolated from 20 samples of shmen, a traditional clarified butter made from sour camel milk in the Algerian Sahara. The values of pH, titratable acidity, NaCl, total solid, moisture, and fat content ranged from : 3.11-4.97, 0.19-0.36%, 1.04-2.15%, 64.03-65.11%, 34.40-34.99%, and 49.90-56% respectively. A total of 181 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (40 strains, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 strains, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 strains, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 strains, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 strains and Leuconostoc gelidum (12 strains Enterococcus faecium (35 strains. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (55 isolates. Of these, 40 were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 15 isolates were identified as Saccharomyces sp.Se aislaron los microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, bacterias acido lácticas, bacterias lipolíticas y levaduras de 20 muestras de “shmen”, una matequilla tradicional del Sahara argelino hecha a partir de leche de camella. Los valores de pH, acidez, libre, Nacl, solidos totales, humedad y grasa oscilaron entre 3,11-4,97, 0,19-0,36%, 1.04-2,15%, 64,03-65,11%, 34,40-34,99% y 49,90-56,00%, respectivamente. Entre los 181 cultivos puros de bacterias lácticas se identificaron Lactobacillus plantarum (40 cepas, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (35 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylacti (22 cepas, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (18 cepas, Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (10 cepas, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (9 cepas and Leuconostoc gelidum (12cepas Enterococcus faecium (35 cepas. Asimismo, se detectaron levaduras en todas las muestras (55 cultivos puros. De estos, 40 se identificaron como

  17. Fat Grams: How to Track Your Dietary Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating To track how much fat I eat each day, should I focus on ... 30, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/fat-grams/faq- ...

  18. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...... the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of (13)CO(2) production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65 % of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.1 micromol min(-1) kg(-1); P

  19. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  20. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  1. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  2. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  3. Effect Of Fat Source And Vitamin E Supplimentation On Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different sources of fat on carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of broilers and the interactive effect of fat source and vitamin E on keeping quality of broiler thigh meat were evaluated. The four dietary treatments were the control (No fat inclusion); palm oil; groundnut oil and palm kernel oil. The diets ...

  4. Isothermal Crystallization Behavior of Cocoa Butter at 17 and 20 °C with and without Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolle, Annelien; Goderis, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Foubert, Imogen

    2016-05-04

    Differential scanning calorimetry and real-time X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation were used to elucidate isothermal cocoa butter crystallization at 17 and 20 °C in the absence and presence of different limonene concentrations. At 17 °C, a three-step crystallization process was visible for pure cocoa butter, whereby first an unknown structure with long spacings between a 2L and 3L structure was formed that rapidly transformed into the more stable α structure, which in turn was converted into more stable β' crystals. At 20 °C, an α-mediated β' crystallization was observed. The addition of limonene resulted in a reduction of the amount of unstable crystals and an acceleration of polymorphic transitions. At 17 °C, the crystallization process was accelerated due to the acceleration of the formation of more stable polymorphic forms, whereas there were insufficient α crystals for an α-mediated β' nucleation at 20 °C, resulting in a slower crystallization process.

  5. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  6. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  7. Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhye Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON or high-fat diets (HFD containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB, olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO, safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO, or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo.

  8. Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Petry, Nicolai; Walther, Barbara; Bütikofer, Ueli; Luginbühl, Werner; Gille, Doreen; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François P; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-28

    Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.

  9. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  10. Comparison of hydrophobic properties of thoracic duct lymph chylomicrons from rats given different fats or oils by gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, K; Işıkgil; Güldür, T

    2014-06-01

    Lipoprotein aggregation is generated by hydrophobic nature of lipoproteins that is known to be one of the causes of atherosclerosis. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) has been extensively studied in this respect but not chylomicrons. There is strong evidence that post-prandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins are atherogenic. Because biophysical properties of lipoproteins are largely determined by their lipid compositions, hydrophobic nature of thoracic lymph duct chylomicrons obtained from rats given different fats or oils by gavage was investigated by vortexing-induced aggregation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Contrary to LDL, vortexing did not cause aggregation in chylomicrons. Vortexing of fish oil and butter chylomicrons resulted in more prominent reduction in absorbances compared with chylomicrons from other sources that might indicate less micelle stability. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography of fish oil, palm oil and olive oil chylomicrons yielded three fractions, whereas that of sunflower, margarine and butter chylomicrons gave rise to two fractions. These results suggest that surface hydrophobicity of chylomicrons might be heterogenous. Our results also demonstrate that fish oil chylomicrons have less hydrophobicity and lower stability against vortexing compared with chylomicrons from other sources. Considering beneficial effects of fish oil in cardiovascular health, less hydrophobicity together with lower stability might provide an additional atherogeneicity index for lipoproteins. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from palm olein and saturated fatty acid distillate from palm oil physical refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2012-11-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent was prepared by enzymatic acidolysis reaction of substrate consisting of refined palm olein oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture. The reactions were performed in a batch reactor at a temperature of 60 °C in an orbital shaker operated at 160 RPM. Different mass ratios of substrates were explored and the compositions of the five major triacylglycerol (TAG) of the structured lipids were identified and quantified using cocoa butter-certified reference material IRMM-801. The reaction resulted in production of cococa butter equivent with TAG compostion (POP 26.6 %, POS 42.1, POO 7.5, SOS 18.0 %, and SOO 5.8 %) and melting temperature between 34.7 and 39.6 °C which is close to that of the cocoa butter. The result of this research demonstrated the potential use of saturated fatty acid distillate (palmitic and stearic fatty acids) obtained from palm oil physical refining process into a value-added product.

  12. Development and validation of a method for the determination of low-ppb levels of macrocyclic lactones in butter, using HPLC-fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Resende, Michele Fabri; Brasil, Taila Figueiredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-07-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of four macrocyclic lactones (ML) (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and moxidectin) in butter, using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The method employed heated liquid-liquid extraction and a mixture of acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and water, with preconcentration and derivatization, to produce stable fluorescent derivatives. The chromatographic run time was butter samples. The figures of merit obtained, e.g. recovery (72.4-106.5%), repeatability (8.8%), within-laboratory reproducibility (15.7%) and limits of quantification (0.09-0.16 μg kg(-1)) were satisfactory for the desired application. The application of the method to real samples showed that ML residues were present in six of the ten samples evaluated. The method proved to be simple, easy and appropriate for simultaneous determination of ML residues in butter. To our knowledge, this is the first method described for the evaluation of ML in butter. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The degree of fat saturation does not alter glycemic, insulinemic or satiety responses to a starchy staple in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Caroline G; Holt, Susanna H A; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2003-08-01

    Inclusion of fat reduces the glycemic response to a carbohydate meal, although the effect of different types of fat on glycemic, insulinemic and satiety responses is unclear. Ten healthy men received 50-g carbohydrate portions of mashed potato with isoenergetic amounts of butter (saturated fatty acid), Sunola oil (monounsaturated fatty acid) or sunflower oil (PUFA) and two 50-g glucose loads on separate days. Capillary blood was collected at regular intervals for 2 h. Satiety ratings were assessed by use of a rating scale. The glycemic index (GI), insulin index (II) and satiety index (SI) scores were calculated. Energy intakes from a meal consumed ad libitum at 2 h and for the remainder of the day were quantified. The GI values ranged from 68 +/- 8 to 74 +/- 10 and the II values ranged from 113 +/- 10 to 122 +/- 17, but there was no effect of fat type. SI scores and subsequent energy intake did not differ among the test meals. Substitution of unsaturated fats for saturated fatty acids had no acute benefits on postprandial glycemia, insulin demand or short-term satiety in young men.

  14. Fat and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian R

    2010-11-01

    Body weight is a principal determinant of bone density and fracture risk, and adipose tissue mass is a major contributor to this relationship. In contrast, some recent studies have argued that "fat mass after adjustment for body weight" actually has a deleterious effect on bone, but these analyses are confounded by the co-linearity between the variables studied, and therefore have produced misleading results. Mechanistically, fat and bone are linked by a multitude of pathways, which ultimately serve the function of providing a skeleton appropriate to the mass of adipose tissue it is carrying. Adiponectin, insulin/amylin/preptin, leptin and adipocytic estrogens are all likely to be involved in this connection. In the clinic, the key issues are that obesity is protective against osteoporosis, but underweight is a major preventable risk factor for fractures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brown Fat Cell Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

  16. Fat transfer and fatal macroembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, Denis C; Scheinin, Lisa A; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan

    2015-03-01

    Fat embolism is usually associated with long bone fractures or other trauma. The diagnosis is usually clinical, and in most cases, emboli are not fatal and not usually seen on gross examination. At the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office, we autopsied the victim of fatal macroscopic fat embolization to the lungs. The patient died during buttock enhancement surgery when fat from liposuction was injected into her buttocks. Fat embolism from liposuction and fat injection is reportedly rare, and macroscopic embolization is rarer still. Varicose veins can occur in the area of the sciatic notch and are known to cause painful sciatica symptoms. We suggest them as a potential conduit for macroscopic fat to reach the lungs. Simple pre-operative questioning for sciatica symptoms and possible radiologic study to rule out sciatic varices seem prudent before undertaking buttock-enhancing surgery. Careful fat injection with pre-aspiration is always advised. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Effect of growth on the thermal resistance and survival of Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg in peanut butter, measured by a new thin-layer thermal death time device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A; Fleischman, Gregory J; Chirtel, Stuart J; Grove, Stephen F

    2012-06-01

    In published data the thermal destruction of Salmonella species in peanut butter deviates from pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reasons for such deviation are unknown. This study examined both the method used to measure the thermal destruction rate and the method of growth of the microorganisms to explain variations in destruction kinetics. Growth on a solid matrix results in a different physiological state that may provide greater resistance to adverse environments. In this study, Salmonella Tennessee and Oranienburg were grown for 24 h at 37°C under aerobic conditions in broth and agar media to represent planktonic and sessile cell growth, respectively. Peanut butter was held at 25°C and tested for Salmonella levels immediately after inoculation and at various time intervals up to 2 weeks. Thermal resistance was measured at 85°C by use of a newly developed thin-layer metal sample holder. Although thermal heat transfer through the metal device resulted in longer tau values than those obtained with plastic bags (32.5 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 1.9 s), the bags have a relative variability of about 15 % compared with about 3 % in the plates, allowing improved uniformity of sample treatment. The two serovars tested in the thin-layer device showed similar overall thermal resistance levels in peanut butter regardless of growth in sessile or planktonic states. However, thermal destruction curves from sessile cultures exhibited greater linearity than those obtained from planktonic cells (P = 0.0198 and 0.0047 for Salmonella Oranienburg and Salmonella Tennessee, respectively). In addition, both Salmonella serovars showed significantly higher survival in peanut butter at 25°C when originally grown on solid media (P = 0.001) with a survival of Salmonella at different temperatures in a low-water-activity environment such as peanut butter.

  18. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetics of Crystallization in n-Hexadecane and Cocoa Butter Oil-in-Water Emulsions Accounting for Droplet Collision-Mediated Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle; Povey; Smith

    2000-12-15

    Droplet collision is shown to be important in the propagation of nucleation through supercooled oil-in-water emulsions by the use of a novel membrane technique. On the other hand, nucleation mediated by Tween 20 micelles is shown to be of relatively much less importance in both n-hexadecane and cocoa butter oil-in-water emulsions. The droplet collision phenomenon probably occurs via a surfactant bridge between the colliding droplets. When this process is taken into account we show that the Turnbull model for crystal nucleation kinetics explains very well nucleation in cocoa butter oil-in-water emulsions by seed crystals. On the basis of this model we characterized the seed crystals in cocoa butter via isothermal crystallization studies at 14.2, 15.0, 15.5, and 15.8 degrees C. We suggest that there are few seed crystals whose size exceeds 0.28 µm at 80 degrees C. In our cocoa butter samples there were between 10(16) and 10(17) seed crystals m(-3) whose average size we inferred to be less than 0.09 µm. A value of 0.133 mJ m(-2) is obtained for the Gibbs free energy of the nucleating surface in our West African cocoa butter samples. There is evidence that the alpha-polymorph of POS comprises the nucleating layer in the seed crystal. There is no evidence that surfactant influences the primary nucleation of oil crystals. However, the surfactant has a big effect on the kinetics of the secondary nucleation process, mediated by droplet collision. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  1. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Martine C; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin pumpkin

  3. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Morrison

    Full Text Available As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats, as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals.ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON containing cocoa butter (15% w/w and cholesterol (1% w/w for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF or virgin (VIR pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content.Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (VLDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity.Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis development. Phytochemical-rich virgin

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population......-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated...... as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  5. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-01-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  6. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  7. Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta Rai; Alexander M Marsland; Vishal Madan

    2014-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

  8. Tim Schanetzky, « Kanonen statt Butter ». Wirtschaft und Konsum im Dritten Reich

    OpenAIRE

    Pouly, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    « Et nous sommes prêts aussi à l’avenir, si nécessaire, à consommer encore un peu moins de graisse, un peu moins de viande de porc et d’œufs […]. Nous savons que les devises, que nous allons ainsi économiser, se révèleront être un avantage pour l’armement. Aussi le slogan en vigueur aujourd’hui est : des canons plutôt que du beurre ». Ainsi énoncé par Rudolf Hess au mois d’octobre 1936, le slogan nazi « Kanonen statt Butter » va rapidement se propager à la radio, dans la presse, lors des cong...

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  11. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee) to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana), which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs), suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts during future

  12. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    Full Text Available Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana, which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs, suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts

  13. Fat circadian biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M; Floyd, Z Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    While adipose tissue has long been recognized for its major role in metabolism, it is now appreciated as an endocrine organ. A growing body of literature has emerged that identifies circadian mechanisms as a critical regulator of adipose tissue differentiation, metabolism, and adipokine secretory function in both health and disease. This concise review focuses on recent data from murine and human models that highlights the interplay between the core circadian regulatory proteins and adipose tissue in the context of energy, fat, and glucose metabolism. It will be important to integrate circadian mechanisms and networks into future descriptions of adipose tissue physiology.

  14. Fat sensing and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jang H

    2014-12-01

    Overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that high dietary fat may promote these metabolic states not only by providing calories but also by inducing impaired control of energy balance. In normal metabolic states, fat interacts with various organs or receptors to generate signals for the regulation of energy balance. Many of these interactions are impaired by high-fat diets or in obesity, contributing to the development or maintenance of obesity. These impairments may arise largely from fundamental alterations in the hypothalamus where all peripheral signals are integrated to regulate energy balance. This review focuses on various mechanisms by which fat is sensed at different stages of ingestion, circulation, storage, and utilization to regulate food intake, and how these individual mechanisms are altered by high-fat diets or in obesity.

  15. [Body fat distribution: anthropometric indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, M; Albala, C

    1995-12-01

    There are two types of fat distribution in obese subjects. The abdominal, superior, android or apple shaped and the gluteo-femoral, gynecoid, inferior or pear shaped. In the former, fat is accumulated in the abdomen and in the latter, in the gluteal region. The superior distribution is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Among anthropometric measurements of fat distribution, the ratio between waist circumference measured at the level of the navel and hip circumference, measured at the level of greater trochanters, is the best indicator. Using the cutoff points of 0.8 for women and 1 for men, it has a good correlation with visceral fat.

  16. Pequi: a Brazilian fruit with potential uses for the fat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes Andréa Madalena Maciel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi is a native fruit from Brazil, found in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest regions. It is one of the main plants with great potential for sustainable use in Central Brazil. Among 16 species comprising Caryocar genus, three are highlighted: C. brasiliense, C. villosum, and C. coriaceum, of economic importance for families in small communities of Brazilian Cerrado. They are generally organized in cooperatives and use the leaves for preparing medicinal extracts, and the fruits for culinary purposes. When the sale of fresh fruits is reduced, they produce and commercialize fruit preserves, and liqueur products, as well as extract the oil. Harvesting of mature fruits after falling from the tree while keeping some fruits at the plant is the best way for its sustainable production. The internal mesocarp contains from 36 to 66% dry weight of oil having traditional culinary, medicinal and cosmetic uses. This oil has 60% of oleic acid and 35% palmitic acid, thus suitable for industrial fat hardstocks. The presence of the triacylglycerols POO and POP makes the oil of interest for cosmetic and food industries. Both pulp and kernel oils have been studied for their health effects. By physical, enzymatic or chemical modification, the oil has shown potential uses as cocoa butter substitute and zero trans fat product.

  17. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  18. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalanen, Laura; Prättälä, Ritva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2012-10-26

    Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992-2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key foods influencing serum cholesterol levels

  19. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key

  20. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paalanen Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672, and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437, were used. The analyses included two phases. 1 To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2 Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007, whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28 adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15 and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15 had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically

  1. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Mice fed a high-fat diet, especially that of saturated-fat-rich oil, develop fatty liver with an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 protein in liver. The fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet is improved by knockdown of liver PPARγ2. In this study, we investigated whether β-conglycinin (a major protein of soy protein) could reduce PPARγ2 protein and prevent high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver in ddY mice. Mice were fed a high-starch diet (70 energy% [en%] starch) plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in their drinking water or a high-safflower-oil diet (60 en%) or a high-butter diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks, by which fatty liver is developed. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Either β-conglycinin or casein (control) was given as dietary protein. β-Conglycinin supplementation completely prevented fatty liver induced by each type of diet, along with a reduction in adipose tissue weight. β-Conglycinin decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in sucrose-supplemented mice, whereas it decreased PPARγ2 mRNA (and its target genes CD36 and FSP27), but did not decrease SREBP-1c and ChREBP mRNAs, in mice fed a high-fat diet. β-Conglycinin decreased PPARγ2 protein and liver triglyceride (TG) concentration in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-butter diet; a significant decrease in liver TG concentration was observed at a concentration of 15 en%. In conclusion, β-conglycinin effectively prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet through a decrease in liver PPARγ2 protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  3. Fats and oils: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  4. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter.

  5. Laboratory, Environmental, and Epidemiologic Investigation and Regulatory Enforcement Actions in Response to an Outbreak of Salmonella Bredeney Infections Linked to Peanut Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Viazis, Stelios; Beal, Jennifer K.; Monahan, Caitlin; Lanier, William A.; Kreil, Katherine R.; Melka, David C.; Boden, William D.; Dion, Jamie L.; Miller, Zachary A.; Nguyen, Thai-An; Gieraltowski, Laura B.; Zink, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Background.  In September 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state and local partners investigated an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Bredeney linked to peanut butter (PB). Methods.  A case was defined as infection with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Bredeney between June 1, 2012 and October 31, 2012. Food exposure questionnaires were analyzed by the CDC to determine the food vehicle. The FDA reviewed production ...

  6. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000767.htm Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart To use the sharing ... 3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat . We need these fats to build brain cells ...

  9. Relationship of tree nut, peanut and peanut butter intake with total and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-06-01

    Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear. We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies. Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1-Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality. Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. Objective: We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. Methods: We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Results: Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults. PMID:26740685

  11. Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in Very Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kirkwood, Thomas; Hill, Tom R; Siervo, Mario; Mathers, John C; Jagger, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Healthy dietary patterns (DPs) have been linked to better cognition and reduced risk of dementia in older adults, but their role in cognitive functioning and decline in the very old (aged ≥85 y) is unknown. We investigated the association between previously established DPs from the Newcastle 85+ Study and global and attention-specific cognition over 5 y. We followed up with 302 men and 489 women (1921 birth cohort from Northeast United Kingdom) for change in global cognition [measured by the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE)] over 5 y and attention (assessed by the cognitive drug research attention battery) over 3 y. We used 2-step clustering to derive DPs and mixed models to determine the relation between DPs and cognition in the presence of the dementia susceptibility gene. Previously, we characterized 3 DPs that differed in intake of red meat, potato, gravy, and butter and varied with key health measures. When compared with participants in DP1 (high red meat) and DP3 (high butter), participants in DP2 (low meat) had higher SMMSE scores at baseline (P butter (DP3) were associated with poor cognition but not with the rate of cognitive decline in very old adults.

  12. Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes-based matrix solid phase dispersion extraction for determination of hormones in butter by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Wang, Xinghua; Xu, Xu; Wang, Ziming; Li, Dan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2011-08-05

    The multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-based matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) was applied for the extraction of hormones, including 17-α-ethinylestradiol, 17-α-estradiol, estriol, 17-β-estradiol, estrone, medroxyprogesterone, progesterone and norethisterone acetate in butter samples. The method includes MSPD extraction of the target analytes from butter samples, derivatization of hormones with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride-acetonitrile mixture, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mixture containing 0.30 g graphitized MWCNTs and 0.10 g MWCNTs was selected as absorbent. Ethyl acetate was used as elution solvent. The elution solvent volume and flow rate were 12 mL and 0.9 mL min(-1), respectively. The recoveries of hormones obtained by analyzing the five spiked butter samples were from 84.5 to 111.2% and relative standard deviations from 1.9 to 8.9%. Limits of detection and quantification for determining the analytes were in the range of 0.2-1.3 and 0.8-4.5 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with other traditional methods, the proposed method is simpler in the operation and shorter in the sample pretreatment time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. History of fat grafting: from ram fat to stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Riccardo F; Mazzola, Isabella C

    2015-04-01

    Fat injection empirically started 100 years ago to correct contour deformities mainly on the face and breast. The German surgeon Eugene Hollaender (1867-1932) proposed a cocktail of human and ram fat, to avoid reabsorption. Nowadays, fat injection has evolved, and it ranks among the most popular procedures, for it provides the physician with a range of aesthetic and reconstructive clinical applications with regenerative effects on the surrounding tissues. New research from all over the world has demonstrated the role of adipose-derived stem cells, present in the adipose tissue, in the repair of damaged or missing tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trans fats: What physicians should know

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, V

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenation of fat products is used in the food industry to extend their shelf life. Trans fats are the result of partial hydrogenation of unsaturated fat. Trans fats increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Canadians have one of the highest dietary intake of trans fat in the world. Health Canada has made recommendations to decrease the trans fat intake of Canadians. Physicians should ...

  15. Studies of fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties, and crystallization behavior of mango kernel fats from various Thai varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    Mango kernel fat (MKF) has received attention in recent years due to the resemblance between its characteristics and those of cocoa butter (CB). In this work, fatty acid (FA) composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of MKFs obtained from four varieties of Thai mangoes: Keaw-Morakot (KM), Keaw-Sawoey (KS), Nam-Dokmai (ND) and Aok-Rong (AR), were characterized. The fat content of the mango kernels was 6.40, 5.78, 5.73 and 7.74% (dry basis) for KM, KS, ND and AR, respectively. The analysis of FA composition revealed that all four cultivars had oleic and stearic acids as the main FA components with ND and AR exhibiting highest and lowest stearic acid content, respectively. ND had the highest slip melting point and solid fat content (SFC) followed by KS, KM and AR. All fat samples exhibited high SFC at 20℃ and below. They melted slowly as the temperature increased and became complete liquids as the temperature approached 35°C. During static isothermal crystallization at 20°C, ND displayed the highest Avrami rate constant k followed by KS, KM and AR, indicating that the crystallization was fastest for ND and slowest for AR. The Avrami exponent n of all samples ranged from 0.89 to 1.73. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that all MKFs crystallized into a mixture of pseudo-β', β', sub-β and β structures with β' being the predominant polymorph. Finally, the crystals of the kernel fats from all mango varieties exhibited spherulitic morphology.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of autologous fat grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehde, Susanne C.; Kuehl, Hilmar; Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    A 30-year-old female patient with isolated facial lipodystrophy underwent two sessions of fat injection. MR signals of injected fat at different injection ages were compared to native fat. Native T1 signal was smaller for transplant fat, probably due to a slightly lower fat content and/or fibrosis or due to higher perfusion. T2 signal of transplants was significantly higher than that of native fat. T1 post-contrast was also higher, and contrast uptake of transplanted fat increased slightly with transplant age, which could be explained by an increasing perfusion. This study demonstrates the differences and MR signal time changes of native and transplanted fat. (orig.)

  17. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Trading Fat for Forests: On Palm Oil, Tropical Forest Conservation, and Rational Consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isenhour, Cindy

    2014-01-01

      The longstanding butter vs margarine debate has recently become more complex as the links between margarine, industrial palm oil plantations, and tropical deforestation are made increasingly clear...

  19. Discrimination of edible oils and fats by combination of multivariate pattern recognition and FT-IR spectroscopy: A comparative study between different modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, Katayoun; Parish, Maryam; Karimi, Sadegh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    By using FT-IR spectroscopy, many researchers from different disciplines enrich the experimental complexity of their research for obtaining more precise information. Moreover chemometrics techniques have boosted the use of IR instruments. In the present study we aimed to emphasize on the power of FT-IR spectroscopy for discrimination between different oil samples (especially fat from vegetable oils). Also our data were used to compare the performance of different classification methods. FT-IR transmittance spectra of oil samples (Corn, Colona, Sunflower, Soya, Olive, and Butter) were measured in the wave-number interval of 450-4000 cm-1. Classification analysis was performed utilizing PLS-DA, interval PLS-DA, extended canonical variate analysis (ECVA) and interval ECVA methods. The effect of data preprocessing by extended multiplicative signal correction was investigated. Whilst all employed method could distinguish butter from vegetable oils, iECVA resulted in the best performances for calibration and external test set with 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  1. Olive oil, other seasoning fats, and the risk of colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, C; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S; Negri, E; Parpinel, M; Decarli, A; Giacosa, A; Trichopoulos, D

    1998-02-01

    An association between fats and colorectal carcinoma has been suggested, but the epidemiologic evidence by type of dietary fat is far less clear. Colorectal carcinoma rates have been relatively low in Mediterranean countries compared with most other Western countries, but the components of the Mediterranean diet responsible for this favorable pattern are unclear. The relationship between various added (seasoning) fats and colorectal carcinoma risk was investigated using data from a case-control study conducted between January 1992 and June 1996 in six Italian areas. Cases were 1953 patients with incident, histologically confirmed colorectal carcinoma (1225 of the colon and 728 of the rectum) admitted to the major teaching and general hospitals in the study areas. Controls were 4154 subjects with no history of cancer who were admitted to hospitals in the same catchment areas for acute, nonneoplastic diseases unrelated to the the digestive tract and requiring no long term modifications of diet. Dietary habits were investigated using a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 items. Lipid intake was estimated by taking into account the content of seasoning lipids in different dishes, the frequency of consumption and portion size of each dish, and individual fat intake patterns. The odds ratios (OR) for successive tertiles of olive oil intake, compared with the lowest one, were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.01) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.70-0.99) (chi2trend = 4.49, P = 0.03) when colorectal carcinoma was analyzed as a whole, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.98) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-0.99) (chi2trend = 4.05, P = 0.04) for colon carcinoma, and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.77-1.19) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.66-1.12) for rectal carcinoma. For specific seed oils (including sunflower, maize, peanut, and soya), the OR for colorectal carcinoma was 0.91 in the highest tertile of intake, and the corresponding values were 1.01 for mixed seed oils and 0.93 for butter. None of these estimates

  2. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  3. Detailed faecal fat analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: Exploring the possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koninck, Anne-Sophie; Nys, Karen; Vandenheede, Brent; Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Speeckaert, Marijn M; Delanghe, Joris R

    2016-11-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic determination of faecal fat is a simple and elegant alternative for the classical Van De Kamer approach. Besides quantification of the total amount of fat, analysis of the lipase hydrolysis efficiency (fatty acid/triglyceride ratio), fatty acid chain length and trans-unsaturated fatty acids could provide a better monitoring of dietary treatment. Stool samples (26 routine samples and 36 cystic fibrosis patients) were analysed with the Perkin Elmer Spectrum Two® spectrometer (3500-450cm(-1)). Fatty acid/triglyceride ratio was calculated using the absorbance ratio at 2855:1746cm(-1). To estimate lipase hydrolysis efficiency, sample ratios were compared with the ratio of butter and pure free fatty acids. Mean fatty acid chain length was calculated using the absorbance ratio at 2855:1709cm(-1). The absorbance at 966cm(-1) was used to trace the presence of trans-type unsaturated fatty acids. Butter showed a low fatty acid/triglyceride ratio (1.21) and pure free fatty acids a high fatty acid/triglyceride ratio (6.76). Mean fatty acid/triglyceride ratio of routine stool samples was 4.16±1.01. The applicability of fatty acid/triglyceride ratios was also tested in cystic fibrosis patients under treatment with a mean of 4.92±0.98. Relative absorbance contribution per carbon atom was 0.06 (ratio 1.06 for C18 standard, 0.91 for C16 standard). The mean ratio of the stool samples was 1.12 (mean acyl chain length of C19), with values ranging from 0.73 (C12) to 1.68 (C28). The presence of traceable amounts of trans-unsaturated fatty acids was also demonstrated. For the analysis of faecal material, FTIR provides unique information, difficult to obtain using other techniques. These findings offer perspectives for diet monitoring in patients with (non-)pancreatic malabsorption. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [CONSENSUS ON FATS AND OILS IN THE DIET OF S ISH ADULTS; POSITION PAPER OF THE SPANISH FEDERATION OF FOOD, NUTRITION AND DIETETICS SOCIETIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Emilio; López-Miranda, José; Picó, Catalina; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Babio, Nancy; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Escrich, Eduard; Bulló, Mònica; Solanas, Montserrat; Gil Hernández, Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-08-01

    The quality of dietary fat critically influences health. In this consensus document the scientific evidence relating effects of dietary fat quantity and quality on cardiovascular risk is reviewed and recommendations for the Spanish adult population are issued. As a novelty in nutrition guidelines, emphasis is made more on parent foods than on fatty acids per se. In summary, replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces cardiovascular risk. Recent data suggest that SFA proper may be harmful or not depending on the parent food, a reason why an intake threshold is not established, but consumption of foods containing excess SFA, such as butter, some processed meats, and commercial confectionery and fried foods is discouraged. The established threshold of oil versus other fats), and no intake limitations are established.n-6 PUFA are cardioprotective and recommended intakes (5-10 % of energy) are not always fulfilled in the Spanish population, thus increased consumption of their vegetable food sources (seeds, derived oils, and margarines)is encouraged. Marine n-3 PUFA are also cardioprotective and the recommendation stands to eat fatty fish≥2 servings/weeks to reach intake levels of at least 250 mg/day. Increasing evidence suggests that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the vegetable n-3 PUFA, is also cardioprotective,but the parent foods (walnuts, soy products,green-leaf vegetables) may provide benefits beyond ALA itself. Finally, low-fat (high carbohydrate, particularly when having a high glycemic index) diets appear to lack cardiovascular preventive effects, while high-fat,high-vegetable fat dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, are protective, a reason why no upper limit on fat intake is established for the Spanish population.This position statement targets dietitians, nutritionists and other health professionals involved in dietary counsel so they can deliver it rightly and

  5. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  7. Biosorption of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution using activated carbon from shea butter seed shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekola, Folahan A.; Oba, Ismaila A.

    2017-10-01

    The efficiency of prepared activated carbon from shea butter seed shells (SB-AC) for the adsorption of formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of optimization parameters including initial concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and temperature of adsorbate solution on the sorption capacity were studied. The SB-AC was characterized for the following parameters: bulk density, moisture content, ash content, pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal conditions for the adsorption were established and the adsorption data for AA fitted Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm well, whereas FA followed Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic data were examined. It was found that pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to adequately explain the sorption kinetic of AA and FA from aqueous solution. It was again found that intraparticle diffusion was found to explain the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were estimated and the negative values of Δ G showed that the adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous in nature, while the negative values of Δ H indicate that the adsorption process was exothermic. It is therefore established that SB-AC has good potential for the removal of AA and FA from aqueous solution. Hence, it should find application in the regular treatment of polluted water in aquaculture and fish breeding system.

  8. Detection of Butter Adulteration with Lard by Employing (1)H-NMR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Man, Yaakob bin Che; Rohman, Abdul; Rosman, Arieff Salleh; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2015-01-01

    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.

  9. Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on carcass traits and haematological responses of broiler chickens fed shea butter cake based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Chukwudi Aguihe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day study was conducted to investigate probiotic supplementation on shea butter cake (SBC based diets of broilers on the carcass traits and haematological indices. A total of 280, 1-day old Arbor acres strain broiler chicks were divided into 7 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 (control diet has no SBC and probiotic supplementation while remaining 6 diets contained 5, 10, and 15% levels of SBC each with (+ or without (- probiotic supplementation. The results showed that carcass parameters and prime cuts weights increased (p 0.05 except for liver and bursa weight. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin contents were higher (p < 0.05 in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets than the group without probiotic supplementation compared to those on control diet. In conclusion, supplementation of multi-strain probiotic improved carcass traits, prime cut-parts and relative organ weights without any adverse effect on the blood parameters up to 15% inclusion level.

  10. Dietary Fats and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Ristic-Medic

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet can have important effects on prevention and/or improvement clustering metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Fatty acids as food ingredients regulate cholesterol homeostasis and concentrations of blood lipoproteins, and affect the levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors, such as blood pressure, haemostasis, and body weight, through various mechanisms. There is convincing evidence that exchanging dietary saturated fat with...

  11. Composition and Microstructure of Commercial Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, V. V.; Anderson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the composition of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses and to evaluate their microstructure. Commercial cheeses evaluated included full-fat and low-fat Cheddar, Mozzarella , processed, and Swiss cheeses. Cheddar cheeses ranged from 8.2% fat and 5 1.1% moisture in the 75% low-fat product to 33.2% fat and 35.9% moisture in the full-fat cheese . Mozzarella cheeses ranged in fat from a low of 2. I% to a high of 24% with corresponding moisture content...

  12. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seven, Serap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES. In the kernels and peanut butter, acidity, iodine and peroxide value, relative density, refractive index, tocopherol, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter have been determined. In the seed and butter oils of ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars, respectively; myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidic, gadoleic and behenic acids were identified mainly by gas chromatography. The major fatty acids of peanut seeds and butter of both cultivar were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Both variety exhibited higher concentrations of oleic acid. Consequently, peanut seeds and butters of ÇOM and NC-7 were found rich in oil, protein, oleic and linoleic acids and mineral compositions. Increasing of high oleic / linoleic ratio and tocopherol contents are very important due to stability of oil. Also, the peanut butter are nutritionally equivalent to peanut kernel.En las muestras de dos diferentes tipos de cacahuete y manteca de cacahuete, obtenidas de localidades diferentes de la misma región, se han determinado: humedad, proteína, grasa, celulosa, ceniza y energía. Por otro lado, se ha medido el peso de 1000 semillas y sus tamaños. En las muestras se han estudiado mediante un Espectrofotómetro de Emisión Atómica - Plasma con Acoplamiento Inductivo (ICP-AES el contenido en Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se y V. En los granos y en la manteca de cacahuete se ha determinado la acidez, el índice de iodo, el índice de per

  13. Fast non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography separation of triacylglycerol regioisomers with isocratic mobile phase. Application to different oils and fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba Sompila, Arnaud W G; Héron, Sylvie; Hmida, Dorra; Tchapla, Alain

    2017-01-15

    The distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-1/3 position or the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural fats and oils affects their physical and nutritional properties. In fats and oils, determining the presence of one or two regioisomers and the identification of structure, where they do have one, as well as their separation, became a problem of fundamental importance to solve. A variety of instrumental technics has been proposed, such as MS, chromatography-MS or pure chromatography. A number of studies deal with the optimization of the separation, but very often, they are expensive in time. In the present study, in order to decrease the analysis time while maintaining good chromatographic separation, we tested different monomeric and polymeric stationary phases and different chromatographic conditions (mobile phase composition and analysis temperature) using Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP-LC). It was demonstrated that mixed polymeric stationary bonded silica with accessible terminal hydroxyl groups leads to very good separation for the pairs of TAGs regioisomers constituted by two saturated and one unsaturated fatty acid (with double bond number: from 1 to 6). A Nucleodur C18 ISIS percolated by isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/2-propanol) at 18°C leads to their separations in less than 15min. The difference of retention times between two regioisomers XYX and XXY are large enough to confirm, as application, the presence of POP, SOP, SOS and PLP and no PPO, SPO, SSO and PPL in Theobroma cacao butter. In the same way, this study respectively shows the presence of SOS, SOP and no SSO, PSO in Butyrospermum parkii butter, POP, SOP, SOS and no PPO, PSO and SSO in Carapa oil and finally POP and no PPO in Pistacia Lentiscus oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of 1, 3 Regiospecific Lipase From Bacillus sp. RK-3: Its Potential to Synthesize Cocoa Butter Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutt, K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bacillus sp. RK-3 isolated from soil initially produced 3.28 IU/mL of 1, 3 regiospecific lipase in medium containing 1.0% olive oil. After process optimization, 10.56 IU/mL of lipase was produced in medium containing sunflower oil 1.5 %, tryptone 2 %, Ca2+ 20 mM using 3 % inoculum in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 mL of the medium at pH 7.0, 250 rpm and 30 °C for 36 h. Scale up in 10 L bioreactor with 7.5 L of the optimized medium yielded 16.41 IU/mL in 30 h resulting in net 6.0 fold increase in enzyme units as against initial units of 3.28 IU/mL obtained under unoptimized conditions. The productivity in 10 L bioreactor is 0.547 IU/mL/h as against initial of 0.091 IU/mL/h. The lipase exhibited 95.12 % stability in hexane, followed by THF (75.83 % and petroleum ether (73.85 % after 24 h of incubation. Cocoa butter substitute (CBS synthesis was attempted in a reaction containing 1.2 IU/mg of lipase using palm oil and methyl stearate in hexane. The reaction product being formed was analyzed qualitatively using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and quantified by gas chromatography (GC which showed 83.17 % conversion efficiency for CBS in 24 h.

  15. Daily scheduled high fat meals moderately entrain behavioral anticipatory activity, body temperature, and hypothalamic c-Fos activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA, is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, daily timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet daily meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903. In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body temperature revealed a moderate preprandial increase in temperature in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a daily fatty palatable meal.

  16. Physical and chemical analysis and fatty acid composition of peanut, peanut oil and peanut butter from ÇOM and NC-7 cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Seven, Serap; Özcan, Musa

    2003-01-01

    In the samples of two different peanuts and peanut butters which were obtained from different locations of the same region, moisture, protein, oil, cellulose, ash and energy have been determined. Furthermore, the weight of 1000 seeds peanuts and their sizes have been measured. In the samples, Na, K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, Al, As, B, Cs,Cr, Li, Pb, Se and V amounts have been established by using Inductivelly Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). In the kernels an...

  17. Desenvolvimento de metodologia para determinação de piretroides em manteiga Development of a metodology for analysis of pyrethroids in butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyse de Brito Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique associated with purification at low temperature for the determination of pyrethroids in butter. Evaluated parameters included: sample/adsorbent ratio, type of adsorbent and extractor solvent. The optimized method was validated based on predetermined requirements. The detection limits of the pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 0.082 and 0.11 μg g-1, and quantification limit were 0.28 and 0.32 μg g-1, respectively, with extraction percentages near 90% and coefficients of variation less than of 10%..

  18. Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-α mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female

  19. Identification of a food pattern characterized by high-fiber and low-fat food choices associated with low prospective weight change in the EPIC-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Mandy; Nöthlings, Ute; Hoffmann, Kurt; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify a dietary pattern predictive of subsequent annual weight change by using dietary composition information. Study subjects were 24,958 middle-aged men and women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort. To derive dietary patterns, we used the reduced rank regression method with 3 response variables presumed to affect weight change: fat density, carbohydrate density, and fiber density. Annual weight change was computed by fitting a linear regression line to each person's body weight data (baseline, and 2- and 4-y follow-up) and determining the slope. In linear regression models, the pattern score was related to annual weight change. We identified a food pattern of high consumption of whole-grain bread, fruits, fruit juices, grain flakes/cereals, and raw vegetables, and of low consumption of processed meat, butter, high-fat cheese, margarine, and meat to be predictive of subsequent weight change. Mean annual weight gain gradually decreased with increasing pattern score (P for trend < 0.0001), i.e., subjects scoring high for the pattern maintained their weight or gained significantly less weight over time compared with subjects with an opposite pattern. However, the prediction of annual weight change by the food pattern was significant only in nonobese subjects. In this study population, we identified a food pattern characterized by high-fiber and low-fat food choices that can help to maintain body weight or at least prevent excess body weight gain.

  20. Cholesterol and fats in Brazilian foods: implications for prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto

    2009-03-01

    In order to perform food surveys and prescribe diets, food composition tables have to be consulted. However, these tables are limited to the description of fatty acids and cholesterol contents and do not provide information on the different preparation methods. Based on data derived from an extensive analysis of the chemical composition of Brazilian foods, we assessed the impact of certain types of foods on diets recommended for the prevention of coronary disease. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of some types of foods and different preparation methods were analyzed. These results were used according to the recommendations of the American Heart Association for an 1,800 calorie diet. Cholesterol found in 100g of eggs (400mg) or fried beef liver (453mg) exceeds the amount recommended for secondary prevention, and there is no difference in cholesterol content between factory-farmed eggs and free-range eggs. The eggs had an average of 400mg of cholesterol per 100g, thus exceeding the recommended amount of up to 300mg. Each egg has 50g on average; one egg can be consumed provided that not more than 100mg of cholesterol are consumed per day. As regards saturated fat, butter (55.2g), margarine (19.4g), tilsit cheese (20.4g), Brazilian Dutch Edam cheese (19.9g), yellow (16.8g) and fresh white cheese (15.5g) exceed the 14g recommended if 100g or more are consumed. The same is true for soy oil (17.5g) and corn oil (16.1g). Better knowledge on fat and cholesterol contents in foods allows the prescription of amounts not exceeding the recommended values for prevention, and this may result in better compliance to diets.