WorldWideScience

Sample records for butter based filling

  1. Effect of antibloom fat migration from a nut oil filling on the polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin W; Zand, Imro't; Talbot, Geoff

    2008-03-12

    In confectionery products, loss in texture contrast between chocolate and filling and the appearance of fat bloom on the surface of the chocolate can be caused by fat migration. Bloom is often linked to the transformation of the cocoa butter betaV polymorph into betaVI. A previous study showed that small additions (1%) of nut oil can have a significant impact on the rate of transformation and that migration of nut oil from a filling would increase polymorphic transformation of cocoa butter. In the present study, antibloom fat was added to the filling in a model system. The antibloom fat migrated with the nut oil and inhibited the transformation of cocoa butter from the betaV polymorph into betaVI. Despite experiencing migration of greater amounts of nut oil, cocoa butter closest to the filling transformed more slowly than that farther away (i.e., the reverse of the situation in the absence of antibloom fat).

  2. Development and characterization of cocoa butter alternatives from palm-based oils for chocolate application

    OpenAIRE

    NIRUPAM BISWAS

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) is the main ingredient of chocolate, which is expensive among the vegetable fats/oils. This study was undertaken to produce a suitable alternative to CB in terms of melting profile and chemical composition from palm-based oils using blending and/or enzymatic interesterification. Cocoa butter substitute (CBS) made from palm oil fractions was used to produce dark chocolate and its physical and sensorial properties such as taste, appearance and hardness were evaluated. CBS made...

  3. The effective factors on the structure of butter and other milk fat-based products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2013-01-01

    Butter and other milk fat-based products are valuable products for the dairy industry due to their unique taste, their textural characteristics, and nutritional value. However, an increased consumer demand for low-fat-based products increases the need for an increased essential understanding...... of the effective factors governing the structure of milk fat-based products. Today, 2 manufacturing techniques are available: the churning method and the emulsification method. The first is typically used for production of butter with a globular structure, which has become increasingly popular to obtain low......-fat-based products, typically without presence of milk fat globules. The microstructure of milk fatbased products is strongly related to their structural rheology, hence applications. Structural behavior is not determined by one single parameter, but by the interactions between many. This complexity is reviewed here...

  4. Effect of cocoa butter structure on oil migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleky, Fatemeh; McCarthy, Kathryn L; McCarthy, Michael J; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2012-03-01

    Oil migration from a high oil content filling into adjacent chocolate causes changes in product quality. The objective of this study was to quantify the oil migration from a cream filling system into cocoa butter, which provided a model for the behavior of chocolate-enrobed confectionery products with a soft, creamy center. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to monitor spatial and temporal changes of liquid lipid content. A multislice spin echo pulse sequence was used to acquire images with a 7.8 ms echo time and a 200 ms repetition time using a 1.03 T Aspect Imaging MRI spectrometer. Samples were prepared as a 2-layer model system of cocoa butter and model cream filling. Three methods were used to prepare the cocoa butter: static, seeded, and sheared. Samples were stored at 25 °C for a time frame of 56 d. The rate of oil migration was quantified by a kinetic expression based on the linear dependence of oil uptake by cocoa butter and the square root of the time. Samples showed distinctly different rates of oil migration, as evidenced by quantitative differences in the kinetic rate constant. Practical Application:  This work will be helpful to elucidate the influence of crystallization process and structural properties such as crystal nanostructure and crystal habit on the migration of oil through a crystalline fat matrix. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Effect of co-fractionation technique in the preparation of palm oil and sal fat based cocoa butter equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Ali, A R

    1996-01-01

    Two types of palm oil and sal fat based cocoa butter equivalents, namely fCBE (produced by using co-fractionation method) and mCBE (produced by using conventional method) were prepared. Results showed that the fCBE had triglyceride composition and solidification characteristics closer to the Malaysian cocoa butter than the mCBE produced at the same yield percentage. Increasing acetone washing time had little effect on the fCBE if compared to the effect of increasing palm olein to sal fat blend ratio. Co-fractionation technique increase the compatibility between CBE component triglycerides. Thus, more palm oil can be incorporated in the preparation and the process can be carried out at not low temperature as compared to the conventional method.

  6. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  7. Effects of Aspergillus niger treated Shea butter cake based diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feed intake, weight gain and digestibility when growing Red Sokoto goats consuming Aspergillus niger treated and untreated shea-butter cake (SBC) were determined. Twenty five Red Sokoto goats in a completely randomized design model with 56 d periods consumed diet A (control, without SBC), B (15% ...

  8. MELTED BUTTER TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Melted butter is made from dairy butter by rendering the fat phase. It has specific taste and aroma, high-calorie content and good assimilability. Defects of butter which appeared during the storage causes by the development of microbiological processes or by the chemical oxidation. On the development of these processes influence quality and composition of fresh butter, its physical structure, content of the increased amount of gas phase and content of heavy metals, storage conditions. Microbiological spoilage of butter occurs generally due to damage of plasma which is good environment for the development of microorganisms. Defects of microbiological origin include: unclean, sour, moldy, yeasty, cheesy, bitter taste. Defects of test and smell chemical origin are formed due to hydrolytic digestion of lipids. It's prevailed at long storage of butter in the conditions of freezing temperatures. It's picked out the following main processes of spoiling: souring, acidifying and sallowness. Often these processes take place simultaneously.It has been investigated melted butter with lactated additive. The latter improves the microbiological and toxicological safety, prolongs the storage condition of the products. Technological efficiency of the additives is achieved by a multilayer products formation from the inactive bound water, preventing microorganisms growth and by the barrier layer with lactate inhibiting hydrolytic reactions. Oil samples were obtained with the batch-type butter maker application, then they were melted and after that lactated additive were supplemented. It has been studied organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the melted butter samples. The fatty-acid composition of melted butter were studied. Comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of cow's milk fat and produced melted butter has shown their similarity. Also in the last sample there is increased weight fraction of linoleic and linolenic acids. The obtained

  9. Palm Based Mono-Diacylglyceride as an Emulsifier in Producing Chocolate with Cocoa Butter Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsifier used in the preparation of chocolate has the function to stabilize fat and water that can prevent the occurrence of blooming. Emulsifier generallyused in the preparation of chocolate is lecithin. However as an alternative monodiacylglycerol (MDAG can be used. MDAG can be synthesized from vegetableoil such as palm oil and its fraction. This research was conducted to study the effect of palm MDAG and variation of its concentration on quality of chocolate. The palm MDAG used was palm kernel oil MDAG (MDAG PKO, palm oleinMDAG (MDAG POL, palm stearin MDAG (MDAG PS at the concentration between 0.3 to 0.9%. Results of the study showed that chocolate which usedpalm MDAG did not cause blooming. Increase of MDAG concentration tended to increase fat content but the reverse result was observed in the case of lecithin.The melting point of chocolate tended to increase with increasing concentration of MDAG POL and MDAG PS but the reverse result was observed in lecithin,meanwhile for MDAG PKO similar result was observed. The protein content of chocolate tended to decrease with increasing MDAG concentration but thereverseresult was observed in lecithin. Viscosity of chocolate with lecithin, MDAG PKO and MDAG POL decreased in accordance with increasing concentration,meanwhile in MDAG PS at the concentration of 0.3% in the beginning viscosity decreasedbut later on increased with increasing concentration. The use of emulsifierat the concentration of 0.3–0.9% did not have significant effect on fat content, melting point of fat and protein content, but it had significant effect on viscosity.Results of organoleptic testing showed that the use of palm MDAG have not significant effect on texture, taste, and appearance of chocolate. Types and concentrations of palm MDAG which were highly accepted by the panelist there wereMDAG PS and MDAG PKO with concentration 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. Keywords: chocolate, cocoa butter substitute, lecithin, palm oil

  10. Effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on carcass traits and haematological responses of broiler chickens fed shea butter cake based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal Chukwudi Aguihe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 42-day study was conducted to investigate probiotic supplementation on shea butter cake (SBC based diets of broilers on the carcass traits and haematological indices. A total of 280, 1-day old Arbor acres strain broiler chicks were divided into 7 dietary treatments with 4 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 (control diet has no SBC and probiotic supplementation while remaining 6 diets contained 5, 10, and 15% levels of SBC each with (+ or without (- probiotic supplementation. The results showed that carcass parameters and prime cuts weights increased (p 0.05 except for liver and bursa weight. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin contents were higher (p < 0.05 in birds fed probiotic-SBC diets than the group without probiotic supplementation compared to those on control diet. In conclusion, supplementation of multi-strain probiotic improved carcass traits, prime cut-parts and relative organ weights without any adverse effect on the blood parameters up to 15% inclusion level.

  11. Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes-based matrix solid phase dispersion extraction for determination of hormones in butter by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Wang, Xinghua; Xu, Xu; Wang, Ziming; Li, Dan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xueyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2011-08-05

    The multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-based matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) was applied for the extraction of hormones, including 17-α-ethinylestradiol, 17-α-estradiol, estriol, 17-β-estradiol, estrone, medroxyprogesterone, progesterone and norethisterone acetate in butter samples. The method includes MSPD extraction of the target analytes from butter samples, derivatization of hormones with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride-acetonitrile mixture, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mixture containing 0.30 g graphitized MWCNTs and 0.10 g MWCNTs was selected as absorbent. Ethyl acetate was used as elution solvent. The elution solvent volume and flow rate were 12 mL and 0.9 mL min(-1), respectively. The recoveries of hormones obtained by analyzing the five spiked butter samples were from 84.5 to 111.2% and relative standard deviations from 1.9 to 8.9%. Limits of detection and quantification for determining the analytes were in the range of 0.2-1.3 and 0.8-4.5 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with other traditional methods, the proposed method is simpler in the operation and shorter in the sample pretreatment time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of pH values on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldaiem, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of pH values (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 and 7 on the properties of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads. Sensory evaluation of the samples decreased with an increase in pH values and during the storage periods. In addition, phase separation occurred with pH 6, 6.5 and 7. The differences in peroxide values and oil stability index among the samples compared to the control samples were slight, while peroxide values and oil stability index decreased during the storage periods. Changes in fatty acid composition among the pH treatments and during the storage periods were detected. Differences in solid fat contents among pH treatments separately and during the storage periods were negligible. A decline in the hardness and viscosity of the samples were accompanied by an increase in pH values, and the treatments had increased effects during the storage periods. Generally, an increase of pH values did not affect the melting profiles of the spreads. Additionally, changes between the melting profiles of buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads were detected.El objetivo fue determinar los efectos del pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5 y 7 en las propiedades de mantequillas para untar bajas en grasa de búfalos y vacas. La puntuación sensorial de las muestras disminuyó con el aumento del pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento, además, la separación de fases se produjo con pH de 6, 6,5 y 7. Se observaron diferencias en los valores de peróxido e índice de estabilidad de la grasa de las muestras en comparación con las muestras control, mientras que los valores de peróxido incrementaron, el índice de estabilidad de la grasa disminuyó durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Se observan cambios en la composición de ácidos grasos entre los tratamientos de pH y durante los períodos de almacenamiento. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa sólida entre los tratamientos de pH por separado y durante los

  13. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000095.htm Butter, margarine, and cooking oils To use the sharing features on this ... these oils when possible. What to Use When Cooking When you cook, solid margarine or butter is ...

  14. The effect of butter grains on physical properties of butter-like emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Buldo, Patrizia; Mortensen, Kell; Andersen, Ulf; Knudsen, Jes C; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    observed no difference in either microstructural or rheological properties, indicating that formation of primary bonds occurs primarily within the first day of storage. The rheological behavior of butter-like emulsions is not determined solely by hardness, but also by stiffness related to secondary bonds within the fat crystal network. The complex rheological behavior of milk fat-based emulsions is better characterized using multiple parameters. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pongprueksa, Pong; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBC) using micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRaman). Four bulk-fill RBCs were compared to a conventional RBC. RBC blocks were light-cured using a polywave LED light-curing unit. The 24-h degree of conversion (DC) was mapped along a longitudinal cross-section using μRaman. Curing profiles were constructed and 'effective' (>90% of maximum DC) curing parameters were calculated. A statistical linear mixed effects model was constructed to analyze the relative effect of the different curing parameters. Curing efficiency differed widely with the flowable bulk-fill RBCs presenting a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the fibre-reinforced RBC, which on its turn revealed a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the full-depth bulk-fill and conventional (control) RBC. A decrease in 'effective' curing depth within the light beam was found in the same order. Only the flowable bulk-fill RBCs were able to cure 'effectively' at a 4-mm depth for the whole specimen width (up to 4mm outside the light beam). All curing parameters were found to statistically influence the statistical model and thus the curing profile, except for the beam inhomogeneity (regarding the position of the 410-nm versus that of 470-nm LEDs) that did not significantly affect the model for all RBCs tested. Most of the bulk-fill RBCs could be cured up to at least a 4-mm depth, thereby validating the respective manufacturer's recommendations. According to the curing profiles, the orientation and position of the light guide is less critical for the bulk-fill RBCs than for the conventional RBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  17. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit butter. 150.110 Section 150.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products § 150.110 Fruit butter. (a) The fruit butters...

  18. Oil migration in chocolate-peanut butter paste confectionery as a function of chocolate formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K L; McCarthy, M J

    2008-08-01

    Migration of oil from high oil content filling to the chocolate coating can result in undesirable quality changes in filled chocolate confectionery products. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in a 2-layer chocolate-peanut butter paste model confectionery. Spatial and temporal oil content changes were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Five formulations of chocolate, which varied in chocolate particle size, milk fat content, and emulsifier level, were assessed at 2 temperatures, 20 and 30 degrees C. The spatial and temporal experimental data were modeled using a Fickian-based diffusion model, fitting for the diffusion coefficient, D, over a time frame of 17 d. Values of the diffusion coefficient ranged from 1.82 to 3.23 x 10(-11) m2/s for the chocolate formulations stored at 30 degrees C. No significant mass transfer took place in the 20 degrees C samples over the experimental time frame. This study describes the dynamic nature of the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste layers, quantifies the mass transfer from the peanut butter paste to the chocolate, and reinforces the importance of temperature control.

  19. Experimental Study of Goaf Filling Materials Based on Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Mangen; Gao, Xiaozhen; Guo, Taoming; Hu, Xinping

    2018-01-01

    Red mud as soild waste is difficult to treatment. Goaf filling materials can make a large use of red mud. By the experimental study,we find that the red mud, fly ash, ground slag and desulfida-tion gypsum can be used to make goaf filling materials based on the principle of alkali excitation and metalion stability.Through the control variable method, we find that the optimal proportion of goaf filling materials based on red mud is red mud 55%, fly ash 30%, cement 7.5%, fly ash 2.5%, desulfurization gypsum 5%, admixture 1%, and water solid ratio=1:1.2.The 28days final material strength was 2.0 MPa,which achives the technical specification requirements.Through the test of SEM, XRD and IR, it is indicated that the strength formation of goaf filling material based on red mud is from the unformed linking hydration products of amorphous alkali excitation system. With curing time from 3 to 7 days, the unformed linking hydration products grown a lot of vitreous hydration products. When hydration reaction basicly finished after 28 days, the hydration products have developed into a large volume of massive vitreous with an extremely dense structure. The Ca2SiO3 mineral phase is significantly reduced, which is participate in hydration reactions. The decrease of Ca2SiO3 indicates that the Si-O bond in the system have been ruptured and reorganized.

  20. PRODUCTION OF MELTED BUTTER WITH INCREASED STORAGE STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on melted butter preservation research. It has been conducted analysis of the components applied and their positive impact on the butter storage. To last belong sodium chloride staying the formation of free fatty acids and also additionally contributable lactatecontaining additive. Laboratory studies were carried out in a certain way. A half of each batch of butter were remelted in two versions with the addition of sodium chloride up to 4 % by weight of the butter to precipitate proteins and without the addition of the salt. Food additive with the properties of animal origin products shelf life increase were supplemented into the melted butter. The rest manufacturing operations were performed by the traditional method of melted butter production. It was evaluated the organoleptic characteristics and investigated fat phase acidity and fat peroxide number in the samples of melted butter with a month interval. Also were determinated the transparency of test samples. All test samples in molten state were transparent, they didn't contain suspended particles. Results of the score were summarized and on the base of the total assessment were determinated quality of the product. The carried out researches of samples of melted butter have shown the full conformance with requirements of GOST R 52971 on physicochemical parameters: the weight fraction of fat – 99 %, the weight fraction of moisture – 1 %. It was established that in the samples without food additive maximum values of acid number were received in a month of storage; and in the samples with additive - in 3 months of storage. It was determinated that in samples of butter rented without salting peroxide number increases more intensively than in other test samples. It has been determined increased storage stability of melted butter with salt and food additive.

  1. THE TECHNOLOGY OF MAKING BUTTER

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Farcas; Liviu Giurgiulescu

    2009-01-01

    This work paper has the purpose to mark out the physico-chemical and sensitive characteristics as taste, smell, aspect or consistency of the butter. Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking applications such as baking, sauce making, and frying. Butter consists of butterfat, water and milk proteins.

  2. Butter and butter oil classification by PTR-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Araghipour, N.; Rozijn, M.; Baltussen, M.A.H.; Wisthaler, A.; Mark, T.D.; Frankhuizen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a tool for classification of milk fats was evaluated in relation to quality and authentication issues. Butters and butter oils were subjected to heat and off-flavouring treatments in order to create sensorially defective

  3. Butter, margarine and serum lipoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids unfavorably affects blood lipoproteins. As margarines are a major source of trans, claims for the advantages of margarines over butter need to be scrutinized. Here we review dietary trials that directly compared the effects of butter and margarine on blood lipids. We

  4. Sensory evaluation of buffalo butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.S. Carneiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Butter obtained from buffalo milk was compared with commercial products obtained from cow milk. One buffalo butter and two cow butters were subjected to sensory analysis using non-trained panelists. The acceptance related to sensorial characteristics (color, flavor, and firmness was evaluated through a 9 point structured hedonic scale varying from “I displeased extremely” to “I liked extremely”. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to evaluate the sensory characteristics and the means were compared by Tukey’s Test at 5% of significance. The buffalo butter received lower scores than the others for all attributes. The greatest difference was observed for color, as the buffalo butter exhibited a white color contrasting with the yellow color of commercial butters, which is the pattern expected by the consumers. For flavor and firmness attributes, the buffalo butter received scores similar to the commercial products. These results show. These results shows that the buffalo’s butter has a good acceptance on local market, and this could be improved through the correction of product’s color, what can be obtained by adding a dye.

  5. Keeping the quality of cows' butter by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rady, A.H.; Badr, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows' butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the Other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows' butter and increased its shelf life at 4 +/- 1degreeC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples) without any effects on its sensory properties [es

  6. 7 CFR 58.346 - Whipped butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whipped butter. 58.346 Section 58.346 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.346 Whipped butter. (a) The quality requirements for whipped butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Whipped Butter for U.S. Grade...

  7. 7 CFR 981.466 - Almond butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond butter. 981.466 Section 981.466 Agriculture... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.466 Almond butter. Almond butter as used in § 981.66(c) is hereby... produce chunky style almond butter, almond chunks or pieces may be added up to a maximum of 25 percent by...

  8. Butter and butter oil classification by PTR-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth, van, S.M.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Araghipour, N.; Rozijn, M.; Baltussen, M.A.H.; Wisthaler, A.; Mark, T.D.; Frankhuizen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a tool for classification of milk fats was evaluated in relation to quality and authentication issues. Butters and butter oils were subjected to heat and off-flavouring treatments in order to create sensorially defective samples. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by means of PTR-MS analysis, sensory analysis and classical chemical analysis. Subsequently, partial least square-discriminant analysis models (PLS-DA) ...

  9. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  10. Survival of Salmonella during baking of peanut butter cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Amanda A; Taylor, Tiffany; Schnepf, James

    2014-04-01

    Peanuts and peanut-based products have been the source of recent Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. Because peanut butter is commonly used as an ingredient in baked goods, such as cookies, the potential risk of Salmonella remaining in these products after baking needs to be assessed. This research examines the potential hazard of Salmonella in peanut butter cookies when it is introduced via the peanut-derived ingredient. The survival of Salmonella during the baking of peanut butter cookies was determined. Commercial, creamy-style peanut butter was artificially inoculated with a five-strain Salmonella cocktail at a target concentration of 10(8) CFU/g. The inoculated peanut butter was then used to prepare peanut butter cookie dough following a standard recipe. Cookies were baked at 350 °F (177 °C) and were sampled after 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 min. Temperature profiles of the oven and cookies were monitored during baking. The water activity and pH of the inoculated and uninoculated peanut butter, raw dough, and baked cookies were measured. Immediately after baking, cookies were cooled, and the survival of Salmonella was determined by direct plating or enrichment. After baking cookies for 10 min, the minimum reduction of Salmonella observed was 4.8 log. In cookies baked for 13 and 14 min, Salmonella was only detectable by enrichment reflecting a Salmonella reduction in the range of 5.2 to 6.2 log. Cookies baked for 15 min had no detectable Salmonella. Results of this study showed that proper baking will reduce Salmonella in peanut butter cookies by 5 log or more.

  11. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  12. 7 CFR 58.345 - Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter. 58.345 Section 58.345 Agriculture Regulations... Official Identification § 58.345 Butter. The quality requirements for butter shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Grades of Butter for U.S. Grade AA, U.S. Grade A, or U.S. Grade B, respectively...

  13. How nut and seed butters are processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's food processing column follows the theme "How Is It Porcessed?". It will explore how nut and seed butters are processed. In recent years a variety of new nut and seed butters have entered the marketplace. Their predecessor, peanut butter, as well as these new products and the process...

  14. The correlation between fluid transport and push-out strength in root canals filled with a methacrylate-based filling material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.; Mirmohammadi, H.; Hensbergen, I.A.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Shemesh, H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between fluid transport and dislocation resistance in canals filled with a methacrylate-based filling material. Methodology The root canals in sixty-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to size 40, 0.06 taper. Sixty roots were filled with a single-cone

  15. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of ≥1 MeV at the current of ≈100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of ≈5 kJ with the peak power of ≥100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  16. Multi Response Optimization of the Functional Properties of Rubber Seed – Shear Butter Based Core Oil Using D-Optimal Mixture Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyekwere O.S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rubber seed/shea butter oil was used to formulate core oil. The formulated core oil was characterised. D-optimal mixture design was used for multi response optimisation of the functional properties of rubber seed-shea butter coil oil. Desirable values for some responses might be obtained from a factor combination while for others responses not so desirable values. Through multiple response optimisations, a factor setting that gives the desirable values for all responses was obtained. The selected optimum mixture setting for the formulated core oil is 65.937% Rubber seed and 34.063% Shea butter oil at desirability of 0.924. Under the optimum condition the functional properties of the core oil was found to be 39.57KN/M2, 626.85KN/M2, 36.63KN/M2, 593.906KN/M2, 412.605 and 167.309s for Green Compressive Strength, Dry Compressive Strength, Green Tensile Strength, Dry Tensile Strength, Permeability and Collapsibility respectively. The optimum conditions were validated with less than 0.2% error. The functional properties of the formulated core oil was compared to the functional properties of linseed core oil. It was found that rubber seed-shea butter core oil can be used for producing cores suitable for Aluminium casting.

  17. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  18. Profiling the quality characteristics of the butter of Pentadesma butyracea with reference to shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayegnon, Bernolde P; Kayodé, Adéchola Pp; Tchobo, Fidèle P; Azokpota, Paulin; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Pentadesma butyracea is a tropical plant species. Its kernels are rich in edible butter similar to shea butter. This study evaluated the quality characteristics of the Pentadesma butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin, using a quantitative survey approach and physicochemical and sensorial analysis methods. The butter of Pentadesma is mostly used for food preparation, cosmetic and therapeutic applications. It is characterized by a yellow colour, a hard texture, a relatively sweet taste and a bright appearance. Consumers preferred Pentadesma butter to shea butter for colour, taste, texture and appearance. Instrumental analysis showed that the average water content (6.5 g kg(-1) ) and peroxide value (0.74 mEq O2 kg(-1) ) of Pentadesma butter were lower than those of shea butter, for which average water content and peroxide values were 20.7g kg(-1) and 2.09 mEq O2 kg(-1) respectively. The fatty acid profile of Pentadesma butter is similar to that of shea butter. This study showed that the Pentadesma butyracea butter produced by cottage enterprises in Benin exhibited quality characteristics which are better than that of shea butter. The data generated can be used for a better exploitation of the butter in food and cosmetic industries. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Physicochemical Analysis of Margarine, Butter and Butter Oil Samples of Iran’s Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhila Shabani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Butter, margarine and butter oil are three products which consume daily by Iranian’scommunity. Detection of type and existence of synthetic antioxidants (SAs quantities in the margarine, butter and butter oil samples is so important in point of view of the safety. For this purpose, peroxide value (PV, oxidative stability (OS, iodine value (IV, fatty acid analysis (FA, type and amount of SAs, and its antioxidant activity (AA% of the samples was determined as described methods of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO documents including ISO numbers: 3960, 6886, 3961, 5509, AOCS Ce 6-86, and DPPH assay, respectively. The direct relationship between the quantities of OS, SA and AA% was observed in the samples. It was observed that many of butter oil samples were without SA. In margarine samples, the amount of IV was higher than that of in butter and butter oil samples (P<0.05. The SAs quantities in margarine samples were estimated higher than those of butter and butter oil samples (P<0.05. The AA% was observed in the most of butter and butter oil samples that SA was not detected in them by HPLC which may be depending on the existence of natural bioactive materials including phospholipids having antioxidant activity in butter and butter oil samples.Results showed that propyl gallate (PG was detected in all samples of margarine and the amount of SA in the all samples was lower than that of specified in Iranian National Standards Organization (INSO.

  20. To process or not to process? Factors enabling and constraining shea butter production and income in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Elias, Marlène

    2013-01-01

    countries is commercialised unprocessed. This paper examines the factors enabling and constraining the processing of shea nuts into shea butter in Burkina Faso. Our analysis is based on socio-economic survey data collected from 536 households in the Zoundwéogo and Cascades provinces of Burkina Faso, as well...... as qualitative interview data collected from 74 shea butter producers in the province of Sissili. The factors affecting the selection of shea butter production as a livelihood activity as well as the economic success of this activity are analysed using a Heckman selection model. Moreover, we study the effect...... of locality of residence, defined as place of residence along the rural–urban continuum, on shea butter processing and income. We demonstrate that, among members of a shea butter producer Union, women living in urban areas produce significantly larger quantities of shea butter for sale to the Union and earn...

  1. Physicochemical Analysis of Margarine, Butter and Butter Oil Samples of Iran’s Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhila Shabani; Ladan Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Butter, margarine and butter oil are three products which consume daily by Iranian’scommunity. Detection of type and existence of synthetic antioxidants (SAs) quantities in the margarine, butter and butter oil samples is so important in point of view of the safety. For this purpose, peroxide value (PV), oxidative stability (OS), iodine value (IV), fatty acid analysis (FA), type and amount of SAs, and its antioxidant activity (AA%) of the samples was determined as described methods of the Inte...

  2. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Løje, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis...

  3. Letter to the Editor re: Bittman's "Butter is Back"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Bittman suggests that “Butter Is Back” (column, March 26) based on one highly controversial meta-analysis. There are a number of ways to summarize the available scientific data. The links? Conclusions of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, released last fall, ...

  4. Biological degradation of gas-filled composite materials on the base of polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoreva, E. A.; Kolesnikova, N. N.; Popov, A. A.; Olkhov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-filled composite materials based on polyethylene were obtained. It was assumed that introduction of porosity in polyethylene will improve the biodegradability of synthetic materials. The morphological and structural changes were estimated, physical and mechanical properties, stability in water and soil of these materials were determined. It is stated that filling the polymer matrix with pores increases the ability to degrade in nature.

  5. Shea butter markets: their implications for Ghanian shea butter processors and exporters (NRI report no. 2403)

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Chris; Zewdie-Bosuener, Abebetch

    1999-01-01

    This report was written for the Crop Post Harvest Programme It examines shea butter market developments and suggest ways that the programme can develop the shea butter research that it has already conducted in Ghana. The report also suggests new research avenues that will assist the development of the Ghanaian shea butter industry.

  6. Comparison of the effect of two excipients (karite nut butter and vaseline on the efficacy of Cocos nucifera, Elaeis guineensis and Carapa procera oil-based repellents formulations against mosquitoes biting in Ivory Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Y.L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Repellents in the form of dermal pomades are recommended as a protection against awakening and bedtime mosquito bites. If synthesis repellents are available, they are nevertheless not common and the prices remain out of reach for the communities concerned. The people therefore have to resort more and more to traditional concoctions, some of which have been shown to be effective. After demonstrating that oil-based formulations (lotions, creams, pomades of Cocos nucifera (coconut, Elaeis guineensis (oil palm and Carapa procera (gobi were effective against mosquitoes, it became necessary to study the impact of the two excipients used in their manufacture, on the effectiveness of the repellents. Experiments were carried with Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti under lobaratory conditions and any other mosquitoes collected under field conditions in Ivory Coast. The laboratory results indicate that the average protection times obtained with formulations with karite nut butter as excipient (54.8 ± 37.0 mn and 74.6 ± 26.4 mn respectively on An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti are higher than those recorded with vaseline as excipient (respectively 42.7 ± 30.0 mn and 60.8 ± 33.9 mn. On the other hand, under field conditions, the biting rate percentage reduction obtained with the products with karite nut butter and vaseline excipient were similar (respectively 29.8 % and 35.9 % for all mosquitoes collected and 45.7 % and 47.4 % against An. gambiae. Nevertheless, the use of karite nut butter on repellent products should be encouraged because its sale price is very lower (10 time less than the vaseline's.

  7. Color stability of bulk-fill and incremental-fill resin-based composites polished with aluminum-oxide impregnated disks

    OpenAIRE

    Koc-Vural, Uzay; Baltacioglu, Ismail; Altinci, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and nanohybrid resin-based composites polished with 3 different, multistep, aluminum-oxide impregnated finishing and polishing disks. Materials and Methods Disk-shaped specimens (8 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness) were light-cured between two glass slabs using one nanohybid bulk-fill (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent), one micro-hybrid bulk-fill (Quixfil, Dentsply), and two nanohybrid incremental-fill (Fi...

  8. Production and quality of kefir cultured butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Karaca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream is the main raw material for the butter production and reflects its properties into butter quality. Maturation of cream with appropriate starter culture is important for butter quality, sensory properties and shelf life of the end product. Kefir grains contain important probiotics for healthy nutrition including lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts in high numbers. The aim of this research was to determine the properties of butter produced using natural kefir culture during a 21-day cold storage. Determination of microbial, chemical and sensory properties of butter samples was carried out. Control sample (KOTE had 6.64 log CFU g-1 Lactococcus spp. while kefir cultured butter samples had 8.58 log CFU g-1. Kefir cultured butter contained 5.24 log CFU g-1 L. acidophilus at Day 1, while control samples did not have L. acidophilus. Acetaldehyde content of kefir cultured butter was significantly higher from the uncultured butter. According to sensory evaluation performed by 12 panelists, KKTE samples had better sensory properties than those observed in the KOTE samples.

  9. Evaluation of interference of calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medication in filling root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Deyla Duarte; Neto, Manoel Matos; Villela, Alexandre Mascarenhas; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the interference of the intracanal medication Calen® (SSWhite, Sao Paulo, Brazil) on the filling of simulated lateral canals. Twenty human anterior teeth were used. Before the endodontic filling procedures the access of cavity was made, and after this root canals were made in all the teeth to simulate the presence of lateral canals. After preparation, the teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n=10). In group I, the root canal system was filled directly after chemicalmechanical preparation; in group II, endodontic treatment was performed in multiple sessions, and after preparation the calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medication Calen® was inserted. After the period of 7 days, the root canals were vigorously irrigated and then they were filled. Next, the teeth were radiographed to verify the quality of the filling. The results demonstrated that the teeth treated in a single session, without calcium hydroxide medication, presented 47 canals out of 60 with radiographic evidence of filling, whereas the teeth in which intracanal medication was used, only 07 presented a radiographic image compatible with filling (p < 0.05). The use of the calcium hydroxide-based medication Calen made it difficult to obtain a hermetic filling of the root canal system. The clinical significance of this work basing on the fact that once the dentist knowing that property obliteration of calcium hydroxide can be taken care when they are used in the presence of lateral canals.

  10. Templated synthesis of peptide nucleic acids via sequence-selective base-filling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Jennifer M; Liu, David R

    2009-08-19

    The templated synthesis of nucleic acids has previously been achieved through the backbone ligation of preformed nucleotide monomers or oligomers. In contrast, here we demonstrate templated nucleic acid synthesis using a base-filling approach in which individual bases are added to abasic sites of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Because nucleobase substrates in this approach are not self-reactive, a base-filling approach may reduce the formation of nontemplated reaction products. Using either reductive amination or amine acylation chemistries, we observed efficient and selective addition of each of the four nucleobases to an abasic site in the middle of the PNA strand. We also describe the addition of single nucleobases to the end of a PNA strand through base filling, as well as the tandem addition of two bases to the middle of the PNA strand. These findings represent an experimental foundation for nonenzymatic information transfer through base filling.

  11. Templated Synthesis of Peptide Nucleic Acids via Sequence-Selective Base-Filling Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Heemstra, Jennifer M.; Liu, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The templated synthesis of nucleic acids has previously been achieved through the backbone ligation of preformed nucleotide monomers or oligomers. In contrast, here we demonstrate templated nucleic acid synthesis using a base-filling approach in which individual bases are added to abasic sites of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Because nucleobase substrates in this approach are not self-reactive, a base-filling approach may reduce the formation of nontemplated reaction products. Using either re...

  12. Filling the voids in the SRTM elevation model — A TIN-based delta surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Siebert, Stefan; Buerkert, Andreas

    The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission is the most accurate near-global elevation model that is publicly available. However, it contains many data voids, mostly in mountainous terrain. This problem is particularly severe in the rugged Oman Mountains. This study presents a method to fill these voids using a fill surface derived from Russian military maps. For this we developed a new method, which is based on Triangular Irregular Networks (TINs). For each void, we extracted points around the edge of the void from the SRTM DEM and the fill surface. TINs were calculated from these points and converted to a base surface for each dataset. The fill base surface was subtracted from the fill surface, and the result added to the SRTM base surface. The fill surface could then seamlessly be merged with the SRTM DEM. For validation, we compared the resulting DEM to the original SRTM surface, to the fill DEM and to a surface calculated by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) from the SRTM data. We calculated the differences between measured GPS positions and the respective surfaces for 187,500 points throughout the mountain range (ΔGPS). Comparison of the means and standard deviations of these values showed that for the void areas, the fill surface was most accurate, with a standard deviation of the ΔGPS from the mean ΔGPS of 69 m, and only little accuracy was lost by merging it to the SRTM surface (standard deviation of 76 m). The CIAT model was much less accurate in these areas (standard deviation of 128 m). The results show that our method is capable of transferring the relative vertical accuracy of a fill surface to the void areas in the SRTM model, without introducing uncertainties about the absolute elevation of the fill surface. It is well suited for datasets with varying altitude biases, which is a common problem of older topographic information.

  13. Evaluation of the filling ability of artificial lateral canals using calcium silicate-based and epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers and two gutta-percha filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R; Restrepo, J S; Aristizábal, D C; Álvarez, L G

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the ability of a calcium silicate-based sealer (iRoot SP) and an epoxy resin-based sealer (Topseal) using two gutta-percha filling techniques to fill artificial lateral canals (ALCs). Seventy single-rooted human teeth were selected. Ten of these were used to obtain pilot data. Three ALCs were produced on mesial and distal surfaces of each root, one in each third, using size 10 engine reamers. The roots were randomly assigned to four experimental groups according to the filling technique and sealer used: 1, cold gutta-percha (single-point technique) with iRoot SP (SP-iR); 2, cold gutta-percha (single-point technique) with Topseal (SP-T); 3, continuous wave of condensation technique with iRoot SP (CWC-iR); and 4, continuous wave of condensation technique with Topseal (CWC-T). Digital periapical radiographs were taken. After the sealer had set, the roots were demineralized, cleared in methyl-salicylate and examined under a stereomicroscope. The depth of penetration of sealer and/or gutta-percha into the ALC was scored using a 5-point system, conducting an analysis on four surfaces. Filling scores of 0-1 were considered not acceptable, whilst scores of 2-4 were considered acceptable. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the experimental groups (P epoxy resin-based sealer with both filling techniques was effective in artificial filling lateral canals. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterization of cocoa butter and cocoa butter equivalents by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses: implications for vegetable fat quantification in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, J E; Dionisi, F

    2001-09-01

    The fatty acids from cocoa butters of different origins, varieties, and suppliers and a number of cocoa butter equivalents (Illexao 30-61, Illexao 30-71, Illexao 30-96, Choclin, Coberine, Chocosine-Illipé, Chocosine-Shea, Shokao, Akomax, Akonord, and Ertina) were investigated by bulk stable carbon isotope analysis and compound specific isotope analysis. The interpretation is based on principal component analysis combining the fatty acid concentrations and the bulk and molecular isotopic data. The scatterplot of the two first principal components allowed detection of the addition of vegetable fats to cocoa butters. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk cocoa butter and of the individual fatty acids is related to mixing with other vegetable fats and possibly to thermally or oxidatively induced degradation during processing (e.g., drying and roasting of the cocoa beans or deodorization of the pressed fat) or storage. The feasibility of the analytical approach for authenticity assessment is discussed.

  15. Tunable bandpass filter based on photonic crystal fiber filled with multiple liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scolari, Lara; Tartarini, G.; Borelli, E.

    2007-01-01

    A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC.......A tunable bandpass filter based on a photonic crystal fiber filled with two different liquid crystals is demonstrated. 130 nm bandwidth tunability is achieved by tuning the temperature from 30degC to 90degC....

  16. Oxidative stability of fish oil blended with butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, M; Konishi, H; Tatsumi, K

    1999-09-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil blended with milk products was evaluated. Oxidation of the oil blend was determined by peroxide value and rancimat test. Improved oxidative stability was observed for fish oil blended with butter. Unsalted and salted butters showed no difference in improvement of effect on oxidative stability of fish oil. No influence on oxidative stability for the fish oil was observed with butter oil, which was the oil fraction of butter. These studies suggested that the improved oxidative stability of fish oil-butter blend was due to the hydrophilic fraction of butter and that butter could improve the oxidative stability of polyunsaturated oils such as fish oil.

  17. Effect of bulk-fill base material on fracture strength of root-filled teeth restored with laminate resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Ghannam, A S; Palamara, J E

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of using a bulk-fill flowable base material on fracture strength and fracture patterns of root-filled maxillary premolars with MOD preparations restored with laminate restorations. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were selected for the study. Standardized MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except for intact control. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=10); (Group 1) sound teeth, (Group 2) unrestored teeth; (Group 3) MOD cavities with Vitrebond base and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal); (Group 4) MOD cavities with 2mm GIC base (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal) open laminate, (Group 5) MOD cavities were restored with 4mm of bulk-fill flowable base material (SDR) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal). All teeth were thermocycled and subjected to a 45° ramped oblique load in a universal testing machine. Fracture load and fracture patterns were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Restoration in general increased the fracture strength compared to unrestored teeth. The fracture strength of group 5 (bulk-fill) was significantly higher than the fracture strength of the GIC laminate groups and not significantly different from the intact teeth (355±112N, P=0.118). The type of failure was unfavorable for most of the groups, with the majority being mixed failures. The use of a bulk-fill flowable base material significantly increased the fracture strength of extracted root-filled teeth with MOD cavities; however it did not improve fracture patterns to more favorable ones. Investigating restorative techniques that may improve the longevity of root-filled premolar teeth restored with direct resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of the characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A J; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2007-05-01

    This study identified and explored the sensory characteristics that drive consumer liking of butter. A trained descriptive panel evaluated 27 commercial butters using a defined sensory language. Two focus groups were conducted with butter consumers to gain an understanding of consumer use and consumption habits. Six representative butters and 2 vegetable oil spreads were selected for consumer acceptance testing. Both internal and external preference mapping techniques were applied to interpret consumer data. Key discriminating sensory characteristics of butters included color intensity; diacetyl, cooked, grassy, and milk fat flavors; and salty taste. From focus groups and quantitative consumer testing, the key butter features were a desirable flavor and a natural image. Negative aspects included price and cholesterol. Five consumer clusters with distinct butter and spread flavor likes and dislikes were identified. Butter is a desirable product to consumers. Sensory expectations of butter vary among consumers, and butters with specific sensory characteristics could be marketed to specific target market segments.

  19. Improved gap filling method based on singular spectrum analysis and its application in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhen; Liu, Shuai; Li, Zhi; Gong, Jiancun

    2017-11-01

    Data missing is a common phenomenon in the space environment measurements, which impacts or even blocks the following model-building procedures, predictions and posterior analysis. To fill these data gaps, an improved filling method based on iterative singular spectrum analysis is proposed. It first extracts a distribution array of the gaps and then fills the gaps with all known data. The distribution array is utilized to generate the test sets for cross validation. The embedding window length and principal components are determined by the discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm in a noncontinuous fashion. The effectiveness and adaptability of the filling method are proved by some tests done on solar wind data and geomagnetic indices from different solar activity years.

  20. The research and analysis of the chocolate nut butter with polyfunctional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Кондратюк, Наталія Вячеславівна; Гаркуша, Ігор Миколайович

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of the protein and fat composition consisting of whey and blended mixture of vegetable oils in the production technology of chocolate nut butter with a sweet extract from stevia leaves is theoretically proved and verified under production conditions. The composition of the fatty base of the product comprising a mixture of refined sunflower oil and palm oil is developed. The paper examines the polyfunctionality of the chocolate nut butter on the human body, which is due to a hig...

  1. Linear relationship between increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet and milk fatty acid composition and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud, C; Faucon, F; Couvreur, S; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of increasing amounts of extruded linseed in dairy cow diet on milk fat yield, milk fatty acid (FA) composition, milk fat globule size, and butter properties. Thirty-six Prim'Holstein cows at 104 d in milk were sorted into 3 groups by milk production and milk fat globule size. Three diets were assigned: a total mixed ration (control) consisting of corn silage (70%) and concentrate (30%), or a supplemented ration based on the control ration but where part of the concentrate energy was replaced on a dry matter basis by 2.1% (LIN1) or 4.3% (LIN2) extruded linseed. The increased amounts of extruded linseed linearly decreased milk fat content and milk fat globule size and linearly increased the percentage of milk unsaturated FA, specifically alpha-linolenic acid and trans FA. Extruded linseed had no significant effect on butter color or on the sensory properties of butters, with only butter texture in the mouth improved. The LIN2 treatment induced a net improvement of milk nutritional properties but also created problems with transforming the cream into butter. The butters obtained were highly spreadable and melt-in-the-mouth, with no pronounced deficiency in taste. The LIN1 treatment appeared to offer a good tradeoff of improved milk FA profile and little effect on butter-making while still offering butters with improved functional properties. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents.

  3. Production of Biodiesel from Shea Butter Oil using Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude EJEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the production of biodiesel from shea butter oil using homogenous catalyst was carried out. The properties of the oil obtained were first determined, having an FFA value of 2.279 amongst other properties. Thus, the direct base-catalysis method was used, with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. In a 1 hour batch run, biodiesel was produced with a conversion of 92%, FAME content of 97.1%, cetane number of 46.84 and kinematic viscosity of 4.30mm2/s, conforming to ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 international standards. As such, it was established that shea butter biodiesel could be produced by the direct base catalysis, over a shorter time with low cost chemicals.

  4. Quality assessment of butter cookies applying multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Mette S; Dissing, Bjørn S; Løje, Hanne

    2013-07-01

    A method for characterization of butter cookie quality by assessing the surface browning and water content using multispectral images is presented. Based on evaluations of the browning of butter cookies, cookies were manually divided into groups. From this categorization, reference values were calculated for a statistical prediction model correlating multispectral images with a browning score. The browning score is calculated as a function of oven temperature and baking time. It is presented as a quadratic response surface. The investigated process window was the intervals 4-16 min and 160-200°C in a forced convection electrically heated oven. In addition to the browning score, a model for predicting the average water content based on the same images is presented. This shows how multispectral images of butter cookies may be used for the assessment of different quality parameters. Statistical analysis showed that the most significant wavelengths for browning predictions were in the interval 400-700 nm and the wavelengths significant for water prediction were primarily located in the near-infrared spectrum. The water prediction model was found to correctly estimate the average water content with an absolute error of 0.22%. From the images it was also possible to follow the browning and drying propagation from the cookie edge toward the center.

  5. The research on temperature sensing properties of photonic crystal fiber based on Liquid crystal filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the photonic bandgap-photonic crystal fibers( PBG-PCF fiber core fills the namitic liquid crystal. By readjusting the temperature to change the refractive index, constitute new liquid fiber-optic temperature sensor. In this paper, we use finite element COMSOL software to simulate and analyze photonic crystal optical fiber sensitive properties. The research show that after the PBG – PCF filling the liquid crystal, its mode field distribution, effective refractive index, waveguide dispersion etc changing with temperature is so big. Therefore, the properties that the refractive index of PCF mode CF changing with temperature sensitive medium, provides the theoretical basis for designing optic fiber temperature sensors.

  6. Automatic content extraction of filled-form images based on clustering component block projection vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hanchuan; He, Xiaofeng; Long, Fuhui

    2003-12-01

    Automatic understanding of document images is a hard problem. Here we consider a sub-problem, automatically extracting content from filled form images. Without pre-selected templates or sophisticated structural/semantic analysis, we propose a novel approach based on clustering the component-block-projection-vectors. By combining spectral clustering and minimal spanning tree clustering, we generate highly accurate clusters, from which the adaptive templates are constructed to extract the filled-in content. Our experiments show this approach is effective for a set of 1040 US IRS tax form images belonging to 208 types.

  7. Comparative study of thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. in peanut butter and peanut butter spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut butter has been implicated in multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis in recent years. Studies have shown that Salmonella exhibited increased thermal resistance in peanut butter. However, little is known about the effect of product formulation on the kinetics of survival of Salmonella during...

  8. Cytotoxic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled acrylate-based restorative composite resins: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadda, Harshita; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Satapathy, Bhabani K; Ray, Alok R; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Although the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-filled dental restorative composite resins have been examined, the biocompatibility of these materials has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination. Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software. Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis. The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Color stability of bulk-fill and incremental-fill resin-based composites polished with aluminum-oxide impregnated disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzay Koc-Vural

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and nanohybrid resin-based composites polished with 3 different, multistep, aluminum-oxide impregnated finishing and polishing disks. Materials and Methods Disk-shaped specimens (8 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness were light-cured between two glass slabs using one nanohybid bulk-fill (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent, one micro-hybrid bulk-fill (Quixfil, Dentsply, and two nanohybrid incremental-fill (Filtek Ultimate, 3M ESPE; Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr resin-based composites, and aged by thermocycling (between 5 - 55℃, 3,000 cycles. Then, they were divided into subgroups according to the polishing procedure as SwissFlex (Coltène/Whaledent, Optidisc (Kerr, and Praxis TDV (TDV Dental (n = 12 per subgroup. One surface of each specimen was left unpolished. All specimens were immersed in coffee solution at 37℃. The color differences (ΔE were measured after 1 and 7 days of storage using a colorimeter based on CIE Lab system. The data were analyzed by univariate ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedmann tests (α = 0.05. Results Univariate ANOVA detected significant interactions between polishing procedure and composite resin and polishing procedure and storage time (p 0.05. Polishing reduced the discoloration resistance of Tetric EvoCeram/SwissFlex, Tetric EvoCeram/Praxis TDV, Quixfil-SwissFlex, and all Herculite XRV Ultra groups after 7 days storage (p < 0.05. Conclusions Discoloration resistance of bulk-fill resin-based composites can be significantly affected by the polishing procedures.

  10. Color stability of bulk-fill and incremental-fill resin-based composites polished with aluminum-oxide impregnated disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc-Vural, Uzay; Baltacioglu, Ismail; Altinci, Pinar

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and nanohybrid resin-based composites polished with 3 different, multistep, aluminum-oxide impregnated finishing and polishing disks. Disk-shaped specimens (8 mm in diameter and 4 mm in thickness) were light-cured between two glass slabs using one nanohybid bulk-fill (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent), one micro-hybrid bulk-fill (Quixfil, Dentsply), and two nanohybrid incremental-fill (Filtek Ultimate, 3M ESPE; Herculite XRV Ultra, Kerr) resin-based composites, and aged by thermocycling (between 5 - 55℃, 3,000 cycles). Then, they were divided into subgroups according to the polishing procedure as SwissFlex (Coltène/Whaledent), Optidisc (Kerr), and Praxis TDV (TDV Dental) ( n = 12 per subgroup). One surface of each specimen was left unpolished. All specimens were immersed in coffee solution at 37℃. The color differences (ΔE) were measured after 1 and 7 days of storage using a colorimeter based on CIE Lab system. The data were analyzed by univariate ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, and Friedmann tests (α = 0.05). Univariate ANOVA detected significant interactions between polishing procedure and composite resin and polishing procedure and storage time ( p color changes were detected after 1 day storage in coffee solution ( p color-stable after 7 days ( p > 0.05). Polishing reduced the discoloration resistance of Tetric EvoCeram/SwissFlex, Tetric EvoCeram/Praxis TDV, Quixfil-SwissFlex, and all Herculite XRV Ultra groups after 7 days storage ( p bulk-fill resin-based composites can be significantly affected by the polishing procedures.

  11. Effects of Butter and Phytanic acid intake on metabolic parameters and T-cell polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Tue

    dairy fat in general and phytanic acid on metabolic parameters, we performed several studies. First, we investigated effects on hepatic lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and circulating metabolic markers, of high fat diets based on butter from high- or low-yield production, a diet based on high...... oleic acid sunflower oil, and a diet based on grape-seed oil with high amount of linoleic acid, in diet induced obese mice. Second, we investigated phytanic acid effects on similar parameters in obese mice, both as dose response in butter based diets, and in grape-seed oil based diets with and without...... intervention in mice Obesity was induced in mice, by addition of sucrose to the drinking water, and giving high fat diets, based on butter from either grazing or conventional fed cattle, high oleic acid (monounsaturated fatty acid) sunflower oil, or finally from grape-seed oil with high content of the n-6 poly...

  12. Design of Health Monitoring Program for Filling System based on Data Level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Long; Xing Xiaochen; Xie Weiqi; Cheng Rui; Wang Lei

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at filling system health monitoring, the health monitoring type partition based on the data level fusion is studied. The health monitoring type is mainly divided into two parts, fusion-threshold monitoring based on single sensor data and fusion monitoring based on multi-sensor data of the same type. On this basis, Single sensor fusion monitoring based on RTS-TA algorithm and Multi-sensor fusion monitoring based on improved weighted fusion algorithm are designed. For multi-sensor data f...

  13. GIS-Based Locational Analysis of Petrol Filling Stations in Kaduna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara Sanda Tah

    agencies should take appropriate measures to ensure that filling stations operators comply with the standards. ... petroleum products and filling station are the places were fuel are sold. It has been discovered that, petrol filling stations ... Field visit were made to all the filling stations, and coordinate of the filling stations were ...

  14. Push-out bond strength of different tricalcium silicate-based filling materials to root dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Stefaneli Marques

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10: MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80 was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01. MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.

  15. A parylene-filled-trench technique for thermal isolation in silicon-based microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yinhua; Wang Wei; Li Ting; Jin Yufeng; Zhang Haixia; Li Zhihong; Yu Huaiqiang; Luo Yingcun

    2009-01-01

    Microdevices prepared in a silicon substrate have been widely used in versatile fields due to the matured silicon-based microfabrication technique and the excellent physical properties of silicon material. However, the high thermal conductivity of silicon restricts its application in most thermal microdevices, especially devices comprising different temperature zones. In this work, a parylene-filled-trench technique was optimized to realize high-quality thermal isolation in silicon-based microdevices. Parylene C, a heat transfer barricading material, was deposited on parallel high-aspect-ratio trenches, which surrounded the isolated target zones. After removing the remnant silicon beneath the trenches by deep reactive ion etching from the back side, a high-quality heat transfer barrier was obtained. By using narrow trenches, only 5 µm thick parylene was required for a complete filling, which facilitated multi-layer interconnection thereafter. The parylene filling performance inside the high-aspect-ratio trench was optimized by two approaches: multiple etch–deposition cycling and trench profile controlling. A 4 × 6 array, in which each unit was kept at a constant temperature and was well thermally isolated individually, was achieved on a silicon substrate by using the present parylene-filled-trench technique. The preliminary experimental results indicated that the present parylene-filled-trench structure exhibited excellent thermal isolation performance, with a very low power requirement of 0.134 mW (K mm 2 ) −1 for heating the isolated silicon unit and a high thermal isolation efficiency of 72.5% between two adjacent units. Accompanied with high-quality isolation performance, the microdevices embedded the present parylene-filled-trench structure to retain a strong mechanical connection larger than 400 kPa between two isolated zones, which is very important for a high-reliability-required micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) device. Considering its room

  16. Halftone information hiding technology based on phase feature of space filling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianhua; Cao, Peng; Dong, Zhihong; Cao, Xiaohe

    2017-08-01

    To solve the problems of the production of interference fringes (namely moiré in printing) and improve the image quality in printing process of halftone screening for information hiding, a halftone screening security technique based on the phase feature of space filling curves is studied in this paper. This method effectively solves the problem of moire and optimizes the quality of the screening, so that the images presented after screening have achieved good visual effect. The pseudo-random scrambling encryption of the plaintext information and the halftone screening technique based on the phase feature of the space filling curves are carried out when screening,which not only eliminates the common moire in the screening but also improves the image quality and the security of information.

  17. Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

  18. Technological changes in shea butter production in Ghana: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated technological changes in shea butter production in the Yendi District of Ghana and how processing could further be improved. A qualitative research and analysis of six communities and 36 shea butter processors in the Yendi District indicated that shea butter processors have changed from roasting ...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or usual name for the triglyceride 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearin is “cocoa butter substitute primarily...

  20. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and shall...

  1. Microemulsion-based delivery of triamcinolone acetonide to posterior segment of eye using chitosan and butter oil as permeation enhancer: an in vitro and in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Nidhi; Khunt, Dignesh; Misra, Manju

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to formulate a microemulsion (ME) using chitosan (CH) and the butter oil (BO) as a permeation enhancer for targeting drug to the posterior segment of the eye, via topical route. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) was selected as the model drug since it undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, leading to poor oral bioavailability of 23%. For optimisation of BO concentration, different ratios of TA:BO were prepared by simple physical mixing in the ratio of 1:9 to 9:1 and diffusion study was performed. MEs containing TA, TA:BO and TA CH ME were formulated by water titration method. Globule sizes of TA ME, TA:BO ME and TA CH ME were found to be 66.06 ± 0.32 nm, 78.52 ± 1.50 nm and 97.30 ± 2.50 nm, respectively. In ex vivo diffusion studies using goats eye, TA:BO ME (31.33 ± 0.46 and 33.98 ± 0.23) and TA CH ME (24.10 ± 0.41 and 27.00 ± 0.18) showed higher percentage of drug diffusion in comparison to TA ME (13.29 ± 0.41and 15.56 ± 0.34) and TA solution (8.20 ± 1.04 and 10.39 ± 0.22) in presence and in absence of vitreous humour. Fluorescence intensity of coumarin-6 (as a marker) loaded ME with BO and CH was found to be higher, confirming their role in altering membrane permeability and facilitating coumarin-6 diffusion to the posterior chamber. Overall, it was concluded that BO enhances the bioavailability of TA across the retina, thereby proving its potential as permeation enhancer in facilitating drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye.

  2. Effect of root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached-Júnior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza, Angélica Moreira; Macedo, Luciana Martins Domingues; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Silva, Bruno Marques; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different root canal filling techniques on the bond strength of epoxy resin-based sealers. Sixty single-rooted canines were prepared using ProTaper (F5) and divided into the following groups based on the root filling technique: Lateral Compaction (LC), Single Cone (SC), and Tagger Hybrid Technique (THT). The following subgroups (n = 10) were also created based on sealer material used: AH Plus and Sealer 26. Two-millimeter-thick slices were cut from all the root thirds and subjected to push-out test. Data (MPa) was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The push-out values were significantly affected by the sealer, filling technique, and root third (p < 0.05). AH Plus (1.37 ± 1.04) exhibited higher values than Sealer 26 (0.92 ± 0.51), while LC (1.80 ± 0.98) showed greater bond strength than THT (1.16 ± 0.50) and SC (0.92 ± 0.25). The cervical (1.45 ± 1.14) third exhibited higher bond strength, followed by the middle (1.20 ± 0.72) and apical (0.78 ± 0.33) thirds. AH Plus/LC (2.26 ± 1.15) exhibited the highest bond strength values, followed by AH Plus/THT (1.32 ± 0.61), Sealer 26/LC (1.34 ± 0.42), and Sealer 26/THT (1.00 ± 0.27). The lowest values were obtained with AH Plus/SC and Sealer 26/SC. Thus, it can be concluded that the filling technique affects the bond strength of sealers. LC was associated with higher bond strength between the material and intra-radicular dentine than THT and SC techniques.

  3. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; van der Heijden, A.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water

  4. Exposure of Listeria monocytogenes within an epidemic caused by butter in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maijala, R; Lyytikäinen, O; Autio, T; Aalto, T; Haavisto, L; Honkanen-Buzalski, T

    2001-10-22

    Data on the levels of bacteria and the amounts of food consumed in food-borne outbreaks provides an excellent opportunity to study the effects of exposure to Listeria monocytogenes. Between June 1998 and April 1999, an outbreak caused by L. monocytogenes serotype 3a in butter occurred in Finland. The majority of the cases were immunocompromised and hospitalized at the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH), where 7-g butter packages produced by a dairy plant were used as the only butter brand. The butter had also been sold to 10 other central hospitals as well as to the retail market. Based on the data on hospital stay, butter consumption and the qualitative and quantitative analyses of L. monocytogenes in butter, the attack rates and exposure were estimated. Incubation studies on the naturally contaminated small butter packages showed that the levels found in the packages at the time of detection of the outbreak could reliably be used for these estimations. However, the levels of L. monocytogenes in 500-g packages increased. The attack rate among HUCH patients varied from 70 to 117 cases per 1000 patients at risk, depending on which estimate of the contamination level of butter (100-60%) was used. The highest single dose (7.7 x 10(4) CFU in one meal) could have been sufficient to cause the listeriosis cases at HUCH. However, this data also supports another hypothesis, according to which these listeriosis cases were caused by a prolonged daily consumption of contaminated butter during the hospital stay. The estimated daily dose, based on the hospital kitchen data or the highest detected level in a wholesale sample (11,000 CFU/g), would have varied from 1.4 x 10(1) to 2.2 x 10(3) CFU/day or from 2.2 x 10(4) to 3.1 x 10(5) CFU/day, respectively. The choice of the hypothesis has a crucial impact on the interpretation of this data for the dose-response estimations as well as for the discussion on Food Safety Objectives. Due to the susceptibility of hospital

  5. Likelihood-based gene annotations for gap filling and quality assessment in genome-scale metabolic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N Benedict

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-scale metabolic models provide a powerful means to harness information from genomes to deepen biological insights. With exponentially increasing sequencing capacity, there is an enormous need for automated reconstruction techniques that can provide more accurate models in a short time frame. Current methods for automated metabolic network reconstruction rely on gene and reaction annotations to build draft metabolic networks and algorithms to fill gaps in these networks. However, automated reconstruction is hampered by database inconsistencies, incorrect annotations, and gap filling largely without considering genomic information. Here we develop an approach for applying genomic information to predict alternative functions for genes and estimate their likelihoods from sequence homology. We show that computed likelihood values were significantly higher for annotations found in manually curated metabolic networks than those that were not. We then apply these alternative functional predictions to estimate reaction likelihoods, which are used in a new gap filling approach called likelihood-based gap filling to predict more genomically consistent solutions. To validate the likelihood-based gap filling approach, we applied it to models where essential pathways were removed, finding that likelihood-based gap filling identified more biologically relevant solutions than parsimony-based gap filling approaches. We also demonstrate that models gap filled using likelihood-based gap filling provide greater coverage and genomic consistency with metabolic gene functions compared to parsimony-based approaches. Interestingly, despite these findings, we found that likelihoods did not significantly affect consistency of gap filled models with Biolog and knockout lethality data. This indicates that the phenotype data alone cannot necessarily be used to discriminate between alternative solutions for gap filling and therefore, that the use of other information

  6. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.; Kijroongrojana, K.; Chutong, T.

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB) and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO) at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100%) were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory propertie...

  7. Expression of cocoa butter from cocoa nibs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Schouten, N.; Hink, R.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature (40–110 °C), applied mechanical pressure (20–80 MPa), applied pressure profile (constant/linearly increasing) and moisture content (0–8 wt.%, wet basis) on the expression of cocoa nibs were investigated. The maximum cocoa butter yield is achieved at 100 °C. The optimum

  8. An efficient hole-filling method based on depth map in 3D view generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haitao; Su, Xiu; Liu, Yilin; Xu, Huaiyuan; Wang, Yi; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    New virtual view is synthesized through depth image based rendering(DIBR) using a single color image and its associated depth map in 3D view generation. Holes are unavoidably generated in the 2D to 3D conversion process. We propose a hole-filling method based on depth map to address the problem. Firstly, we improve the process of DIBR by proposing a one-to-four (OTF) algorithm. The "z-buffer" algorithm is used to solve overlap problem. Then, based on the classical patch-based algorithm of Criminisi et al., we propose a hole-filling algorithm using the information of depth map to handle the image after DIBR. In order to improve the accuracy of the virtual image, inpainting starts from the background side. In the calculation of the priority, in addition to the confidence term and the data term, we add the depth term. In the search for the most similar patch in the source region, we define the depth similarity to improve the accuracy of searching. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the quality of the 3D virtual view subjectively and objectively.

  9. Electromagnetic and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Epoxy and Vinylester-Based Composites Filled with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Marra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of epoxy or epoxy-based vinyl ester composites with improved mechanical and electromagnetic properties, filled with carbon-based nanomaterials, is of crucial interest for use in aerospace applications as radar absorbing materials at radio frequency. Numerous studies have highlighted the fact that the effective functional properties of this class of polymer composites are strongly dependent on the production process, which affects the dispersion of the nanofiller in the polymer matrix and the formation of micro-sized aggregations, degrading the final properties of the composite. The assessment of the presence of nanofiller aggregation in a composite through microscopy investigations is quite inefficient in the case of large scale applications, and in general provides local information about the aggregation state of the nanofiller rather than an effective representation of the degradation of the functional properties of the composite due to the presence of the aggregates. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic properties of thermosetting polymer composites filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs. Moreover, we propose a novel approach based on measurements of the dielectric permittivity of the composite in the 8–12 GHz range in order to assess the presence of nanofiller aggregates and to estimate their average size and dimensions.

  10. Performance indicators for carrier-based DPIs: Carrier surface properties for capsule filling and API properties for in vitro aerosolisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, E; Zellnitz, S; Wutscher, T; Stranzinger, S; Zimmer, A; Paudel, A

    2018-01-30

    This study investigates engineered carrier, as well as engineered API particles, and shows that there are distinct performance indicators of particle engineering for carrier-based dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Spray dried (SDSS) and jet-milled (JMSS) salbutamol sulphate (SS) was blended with untreated α-lactose monohydrate (LAC_R) and α-lactose monohydrate engineered (LAC_E). Subsequent capsule filling was performed with different process settings on a dosator nozzle capsule filling machine in order to reach a target fill weight of 20-25 mg. To evaluate the performance of the different mixtures, in vitro lung deposition experiments were carried out with a next generation impactor, the emitted dose (ED) and fine particle fraction (FPF) were calculated based on the specification of the European pharmacopoeia. The FPF of micronised powder blends is significantly higher (20%) compared to the FPF of spray dried blends (5%). Compared to API engineering, carrier engineering had a positive effect on the capsule filling performance (weight variability and mean fill weight) at lower compression ratios (setting 1). Results further showed that higher compression ratios appear to be beneficial in terms of capsule filling performance (higher fill weight and less fill weight variation). Concluding, it can be stated that the carrier engineering, or generally carrier properties, govern downstream processing, whereas the API engineering and API properties govern the aerosolisation performance and thereby significantly affect the dose delivery to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of thermoelectric efficiency of CoSb3-based skutterudites by double filling with K and Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Li, Guanghe; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2014-10-01

    The high-temperature thermoelectric properties of thallium (Tl) and potassium (K) double-filled cobalt antimonide (CoSb3)-based skutterudites with nominal compositions TlxK0.3Co4Sb12 (x = 0.1-0.3) were investigated. The filling fraction of Tl in CoSb3 was enhanced by co-filling with K, which resulted in all of the samples showing the filled-skutterudite single phase. Owing to the high filling ratio, the carrier concentration in the sample with x = 0.3 was as high as 4.3 × 1020 cm-3 at room temperature. Furthermore, quite low lattice thermal conductivity (as low as 0.9 W m-1 K-1) was obtained for the sample with x = 0.3, probably because of strong phonon scattering by the Tl and K co-rattling effect, which resulted in a maximum zT of around one at 773 K.

  12. THE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTISOLS BASED EMULSION PVC FILLED WITH CHALK GIDROFOBIZIROVANNYM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baby toys are made using the centrifugal molding plastisol based emulsion of polyvinyl chloride plasticized with dioctylphthalate. To reduce cost and decrease biotelemetry the dioctylphthalate on the surface of the product domestic toys than toys produced in China, there was a necessity of introduction of the filler is chalk from different manufacturers. By using a Brookfield vis-cometer PV-D was studied rheology of filled hydrophobized chalk PVC plastisols in storage conditions for up to 72 hours at temperatures of 14-20°C. It was found that the flow plastisols consistent with pseudo-plastic fluids. Given the flow rates of emulsion PVC plastisols filled to 35 % of the mass. hydrophobized chalk. The influence of the content of the plasticizer dioctylphthalate in a narrow interval (37,0 - 41,4 % of the mass. on the viscosity of polymer pastes and the kinetics of its changes during storage. Revealed a linear dependence of the viscosity of the filled hydrophobized chalk plastisols on the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer and during storage. Given the rate of expansion changes the viscosity of the plastisols of the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer, the rate of change in viscosity and calculation of the initial viscosity. Determined the stability of the dispersion hydrophobized chalk in a colloidal solution of PVC in dioctylphthalate during storage. We determined the variation of the content of chalk (ash with top and bottom layers plastisols height 8 cm after 24 hours storage. It is proved that the temperature of the preparation and storage of polymer pastes were determining factors in the regulation of such technological properties of PVC plastisols in the presence hydrophobized chalkas viscosity, stability of the dispersion of chalk and, consequently, the efficiency of distribution plastisols in the form of a centrifugal molding.

  13. Estimating consumer product characteristics of highly filled polymer-mineral composite material based on polyvinyl chloride and waste TPP

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Barakhtenko

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the performance properties of highly filled polymer-fly ash mineral composite based on polyvinyl chloride which affect the durability of construction outdoor products. The article presents the results of studies to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of polymer-based composite mineral, filled with PVC TPP fly ash, to accelerate climatic tests, sample stability to UV radiation. The purpose of this is to predict the service life of products made from this m...

  14. Shrinkage stress kinetics of Bulk Fill resin-based composites at tooth temperature and long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliecharan, David; Germscheid, William; Price, Richard B; Stansbury, Jeffrey; Labrie, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    To determine the shrinkage stress kinetics at up to 12h after light exposure and at tooth temperature during placement of selected Bulk Fill resin-based composites (RBCs). Five representative Bulk Fill RBCs from four companies were chosen with a wide range of viscosity and filler volume content. The shrinkage stress kinetics at T=33°C was measured continuously over a period of 12h using a modified tensometer with the ability to measure the cantilever beam deflection to better than 40nm accuracy at a sampling rate of up to 200 samples/s, and thermally stable resulting in a measurement accuracy better than 0.05MPa at 12h. The tensometer compliance was 0.105μm/N. A custom made heater was used to control the RBC sample temperature at T=33°C with a temperature gradient across the sample of less than 1°C. The samples were irradiated for 20s with irradiance of 1.1W/cm 2 and total energy density of 22J/cm 2 . Three samples (n=3) were used for each RBCs. The shrinkage stress at 12h for the five Bulk Fill RBCs ranged from 2.21 to 3.05MPa, maximum stress rate ((dS/dt) M ) varied from 0.18 to 0.41MPa/s, time at which the maximum stress rate occurred (t Max ) were between 1.42 to 3.24s and effective gel time (t gel ) varied from 50 to 770ms. Correlations were observed between (dS/dt) M and t Max (r=-0.946), t Max and filler volume fraction (r=-0.999), and between the shrinkage stress at 12h and t gel (r=0.994). However, no correlation was observed between the stress at 12h and filler volume fraction. The shrinkage stress for four of the five Bulk Fill RBCs were not significantly different (p<0.05) at 6h and beyond after photo-curing and that fully developed stress induced by photo-cured RBCs may only be reached at times longer than 12h. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Keeping the quality of cows’ butter by γ-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rady, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to study the use of gamma irradiation for keeping the quality of cows’ butter. Fresh butter samples were exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2.5 and 5 kGy followed by refrigerated storage and the effects of these treatments on the microbiological aspects and lipid characteristics of butter samples were studied. Moreover, fatty acid profiles and unsaponifiable matter constituents were determined by gas chromatographic analysis, while the stability of butter was determined by rancimat. The results indicated that gamma irradiation at 2.5 kGy dose reduced the counts of total bacteria, lipolytic bacteria, coliforms, molds and yeasts, however, these counts gradually increased during cold storage. Also irradiation at 5 kGy dose greatly reduced the total bacterial count which gradually increased upon storage, while completely eliminated the other determined microorganisms. Irradiation treatments increased the acid value and peroxide value of butter, while the iodine number was not altered. Moreover, gas chromatographic analysis showed that gamma irradiation slightly increased the total volatile fatty acids, total saturated fatty acids and total hydrocarbons, while slightly decreased the total unsaturated fatty acids and total sterols. In addition, irradiation of butter decreased its stability as determined by rancimat and upon storage of both irradiated and non irradiated butter samples, the acid value gradually increased, while a flexuous changes in the peroxide value were observed. The present study proved that 2.5 and 5 kGy gamma irradiation doses could keep the quality of cows’ butter and increased its shelf life at 4±1ºC for 8 and 12 weeks as compared to 4 weeks for non irradiated butter (based on the visual appearance of mold growth on the surface of samples without any effects on its sensory properties.En esta investigación se estudió el uso de la radiación gamma para mantener la calidad de

  16. High Resolution Tracking Devices Based on Capillaries Filled with Liquid Scintillator

    CERN Multimedia

    Bonekamper, D; Vassiltchenko, V; Wolff, T

    2002-01-01

    %RD46 %title\\\\ \\\\The aim of the project is to develop high resolution tracking devices based on thin glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator. This technique provides high hit densities and a position resolution better than 20 $\\mu$m. Further, their radiation hardness makes them superior to other types of tracking devices with comparable performance. Therefore, the technique is attractive for inner tracking in collider experiments, microvertex devices, or active targets for short-lived particle detection. High integration levels in the read-out based on the use of multi-pixel photon detectors and the possibility of optical multiplexing allow to reduce considerably the number of output channels, and, thus, the cost for the detector.\\\\ \\\\New optoelectronic devices have been developed and tested: the megapixel Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD), a high resolution image-detector having an outstanding capability of single photo-electron detection; the Vacuum Image Pipeline (VIP), a high-speed gateable pi...

  17. Mode-based microparticle conveyor belt in air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Oliver A; Euser, Tijmen G; Russell, Philip St J

    2013-12-02

    We show how microparticles can be moved over long distances and precisely positioned in a low-loss air-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber using a coherent superposition of two co-propagating spatial modes, balanced by a backward-propagating fundamental mode. This creates a series of trapping positions spaced by half the beat-length between the forward-propagating modes (typically a fraction of a millimeter). The system allows a trapped microparticle to be moved along the fiber by continuously tuning the relative phase between the two forward-propagating modes. This mode-based optical conveyor belt combines long-range transport of microparticles with a positional accuracy of 1 µm. The technique also has potential uses in waveguide-based optofluidic systems.

  18. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Pr-based filled skutterudites: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Priya; Nautiyal, Shashank; Verma, U. P.

    2018-04-01

    Ternary skutterudites materials exhibit good electronic properties due to the unpaired d- and f- electrons of the transition and rare-earth metals, respectively. In this communication, we have performed the structural optimization of Pr-based filled skutterudite (PrCo4P12) for the first time and obtained the electronic band structure, density of states and magnetic moments by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). Our obtained magnetic moment of PrCo4P12 is ˜ 1.8 µB in which main contribution is due to Pr atom. Behavior of this material is metallic and it is most stable in body centered cubic (BCC) structure.

  19. Preliminary Discrimination of Butter Adulteration by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian Cuibus; Rubén Maggio; Vlad Mureșan; Zorița Diaconeasa; Oana Lelia Pop; Carmen Socaciu

    2015-01-01

    The Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)  was applied for the discrimination of butter samples adulterated with solid fraction of palm oil. For FTIR fingerprinting of butter samples, with or without controlled additions of palm oil as adulterant was firstly obtained, using a Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, including a horizontal diamond ATR accessory with reflection in the MIR region (3873-690) cm-1.The spiked butter samples including 0 level...

  20. Microbiological quality of karın butter, a traditionally manufactured butter from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe, Ramazan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Karın butter, which is characterized by being packaged into sheep or goat rumen (karın, is a traditional butter type. Karın used as a packaging material in the butter production and is an important factor for the butter to be more aromatic and delicious. In this study, karın butter samples collected from factories and local markets were investigated for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, Staphilococcus aureus and mould-yeast counts. The results were evaluated with respect to the legal stipulations of Turkey and other scientific studies related to the subject. The microbiological quality of karın butter samples was found to be poor in general.

    La mantequilla Karin, que se caracteriza por ser envasada en el rumen (karin de oveja o cabra, es un tipo de mantequilla tradicional. El karin, usado como un material de envasado en la produción de la mantequilla, es un importante factor para que la mantequilla sea mas aromática y deliciosa. En este estudio, muestras de mantequilla karin, que se recogieron del mercado local y de las factorias de producción, fueron investigadas con respectos las bacteria mesófilas aeróbicas, bacterias coliforme, Staphilococcus aureus y mohos- levaduras. Los resultados fueron evaluados con respecto a los acuerdos legales de Turquía y otros estudios científicos relacionados con el tema. La calidad microbiológica de las muestras de mantequilla karin fue encontrada pobre en general.

  1. Mangifera sylvatica (Wild Mango): A new cocoa butter alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sayma; McDonald, Morag A.; Marriott, Ray

    2016-08-01

    Cocoa butter is the pure butter extracted from cocoa beans and is a major ingredient in the chocolate industry. Global production of cocoa is in decline due to crop failure, diseases and ageing plantations, leading to price fluctuations and the necessity for the industry to find high quality cocoa butter alternatives. This study explored the potential of a wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica), an underutilised fruit in south-east Asia, as a new Cocoa Butter Alternative (CBA). Analyses showed that wild mango butter has a light coloured fat with a similar fatty acid profile (palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and triglyceride profile (POP, SOS and POS) to cocoa butter. Thermal and physical properties are also similar to cocoa butter. Additionally, wild mango butter comprises 65% SOS (1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol) which indicates potential to become a Cocoa Butter Improver (an enhancement of CBA). It is concluded that these attractive properties of wild mango could be prompted by a coalition of policy makers, foresters, food industries and horticulturists to promote more widespread cultivation of this wild fruit species to realise the market opportunity.

  2. Polymorph identification studies on cocoa butter from Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Fadzillah Basri; Fauziah Abdul Aziz; Mohd Omar, A.K.; Nik Norulaini, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyzed and examined the cocoa butter samples from Sabah. This work presence the crystal phases present in cocoa butter sample thus proved the existence of polymorph obtained from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cocoa butter samples were extracted using a conventional method by Soxhlet Extraction method. Crystals were formed under controlled static and tempered conditions. Cocoa butter polymorphism demonstrates that it is the actual crystallization temperature, not the cooling rate that determines the polymorph that crystallizes. (author)

  3. Fluorescence-based remote irradiation sensor in liquid-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeltner, R.; Russell, P. St.J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bykov, D. S.; Xie, S. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Euser, T. G. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-06

    We report an irradiation sensor based on a fluorescent “flying particle” that is optically trapped and propelled inside the core of a water-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. When the moving particle passes through an irradiated region, its emitted fluorescence is captured by guided modes of the fiber core and so can be monitored using a filtered photodiode placed at the fiber end. The particle speed and position can be precisely monitored using in-fiber Doppler velocimetry, allowing the irradiation profile to be measured to a spatial resolution of ∼10 μm. The spectral response can be readily adjusted by appropriate choice of particle material. Using dye-doped polystyrene particles, we demonstrate detection of green (532 nm) and ultraviolet (340 nm) light.

  4. Tunable all-optical devices based on liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    , it is desirable to identify accessible experimental platforms that combine the advantages of high-quality fabricated structures with the attractiveness of tunable and strongly nonlinear materials for light control. In this work we suggest to use liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) for the study...... high-precision fabrication procedures, and provides high tunability and nonlinearity at moderate laser powers while taking advantage of a compact experimental setup. The increasingly broad range of PCF structures available could stimulate further efforts in applying them in discrete nonlinear optics...... and all-optical devices. The long propagation lengths accessible in fiber-based discrete systems could even allow for experimental studies of combined spatial and temporal nonlinear effects and thus pave the road for future demonstrations of spatiotemporal control of light....

  5. Determination of the valence in Sm-based filled skutterudite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumaki, M.; Tsutsui, S.; Tanida, H.; Uruga, T.; Kikuchi, D.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured XAS spectra at Sm L 3 -edge in four Sm-based filled skutterudite compounds. The only XAS spectrum of SmOs 4 Sb 12 around the Sm L 3 -edge exhibit a double peak structure that is the characteristic feature of the mixed valence system due to Sm 2+ and Sm 3+ states whereas those of others exhibit a single peak structure characteristic in Sm 3+ systems. The average valence of Sm ions in SmOs 4 Sb 12 was 2.83. We conclude that the presence of a non-magnetic Sm 2+ state correlates with the unusual heavy fermion state in SmOs 4 Sb 12

  6. Green mine research and evaluation based on using solid wastes in urbanization for mine filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Futong; Ren, Zaixiang

    2017-05-01

    Derived from the disposal problems of construction wastes generated by urbanization and combined with the current situations of mine gob filling, this paper, in accordance with the actual requirements of green mines, probed into the methods of using construction wastes for gob filling, whose technical and economic feasibility was also analyzed. An evaluation system of green-mine filling was established and the goals of green-mine filling were dissected as well. Simultaneously, as a new view and the ultimate evaluation index, environmental protection degree, whose abbreviation is H, was proposed. As for the outcomes of green-mine filling, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was utilized, whose results can more systematically and factually reflect the environmental protection degree of construction wastes for green-mine filling and thus have high application value.

  7. Improvements of fill factor in solar cells based on blends of polyfluorene copolymers as electron donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadisa, Abay; Zhang, Fengling; Sharma, Deepak; Svensson, Mattias; Andersson, Mats R.; Inganaes, Olle

    2007-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of solar cells based on alternating polyfluorene copolymers, poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3' -benzothia diazole)) (APFO-3), and poly(2,7-(9,9-didodecyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3' -benzothiadiazole)) (APFO-4), blended with an electron acceptor fullerene molecule [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), have been investigated and compared. The two copolymers have the same aromatic backbone structure but differ by the length of their alkyl side chain. The overall photovoltaic performance of the solar cells is comparable irrespective of the copolymer used in the active layer. However, the fill factor (FF) values of the devices are strongly affected by the copolymer type. Higher FF values were realized in solar cells with APFO-4 (with longer alkyl side chain)/PCBM bulk heterojunction active layer. On the other hand, devices with blends of APFO-3/APFO-4/PCBM were found to render fill factor values that are intermediate between the values obtained in solar cells with APFO-3/PCBM and APFO-4/PCBM active film. Upon using APFO-3/APFO-4 blends as electron donors, the cell efficiency can be enhanced by about 16% as compared to cells with either APFO-3 or APFO-4. The transport of holes in each polymer obeys the model of hopping transport in disordered media. However, the degree of energetic barrier against hopping was found to be larger in APFO-3. The tuning of the photovoltaic parameters will be discussed based on studies of hole transport in the pure polymer films, and morphology of blend layers. The effect of bipolar transport in PCBM will also be discussed

  8. Integral procedure to assess crack filling and mechanical contribution of polymer-based healing agent in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilabert Villegas, Francisco Antonio; Van Tittelboom, Kim; Van Stappen, J.; Cnudde, Veerle; De Belie, Nele; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an experimental and numerical study to analyze the crack filling process in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete. A specimen consisting of two small concrete blocks has been designed containing capsules filled with a polyurethane-based healing agent. This design enables to

  9. Structural and mechanical properties of a giomer-based bulk fill restorative in different curing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sarp Kaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerization degree of bulk-fill giomer resin cured with three different light-curing units (LCUs: a polywave third-generation (Valo; a monowave (DemiUltra: DU; and a second-generation LED (Optima 10: Opt LCUs by using structural and mechanical properties. Material and methods: Giomer samples of 2 and 4 mm cured with three LCUs were employed in vitro analysis. The degree of curing (DC% was determined with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. Microstructural features were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Flexural strength (FS, compression strength (CS, elastic modulus and fracturing strain were determined for mechanical properties. Surface microhardness (SMH values were also measured. Oneway ANOVA, two-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests were used for statistically analyzing the FS and SMH. Results: DC% values were 58.2, 47.6, and 39.7 for the 2 mm samples cured with DU, Opt., and Valo LCUs, respectively. DC% values of the 4 mm samples were 50.4, 44.6, and 38.2 for DU, Opt, and Valo, respectively. SMH values were Valo, OptBased on the results, it can be concluded that curing device and protocol strongly affect crosslinking reactions and thus DC%, SMH, compressive modulus and strain at break values. Consequently, it can be deduced that curing protocol is possibly the most important parameter for microstructure formation of highly-filled composite restoratives because it may bring some structural defects and physical frailties on restorations due to lower degree of polymerization.

  10. Structural and mechanical properties of a giomer-based bulk fill restorative in different curing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mustafa Sarp; Bakkal, Meltem; Durmus, Ali; Durmus, Zehra

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerization degree of bulk-fill giomer resin cured with three different light-curing units (LCUs): a polywave third-generation (Valo); a monowave (DemiUltra: DU); and a second-generation LED (Optima 10: Opt) LCUs by using structural and mechanical properties. Material and methods Giomer samples of 2 and 4 mm cured with three LCUs were employed in vitro analysis. The degree of curing (DC%) was determined with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Microstructural features were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural strength (FS), compression strength (CS), elastic modulus and fracturing strain were determined for mechanical properties. Surface microhardness (SMH) values were also measured. Oneway ANOVA, two-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests were used for statistically analyzing the FS and SMH. Results DC% values were 58.2, 47.6, and 39.7 for the 2 mm samples cured with DU, Opt., and Valo LCUs, respectively. DC% values of the 4 mm samples were 50.4, 44.6, and 38.2 for DU, Opt, and Valo, respectively. SMH values were Valo, Optcured with Opt and DU exhibited higher FS values than Valo. CS values were similar but compressive modulus and fracturing strain (%) varied depending on the curing protocol. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that curing device and protocol strongly affect crosslinking reactions and thus DC%, SMH, compressive modulus and strain at break values. Consequently, it can be deduced that curing protocol is possibly the most important parameter for microstructure formation of highly-filled composite restoratives because it may bring some structural defects and physical frailties on restorations due to lower degree of polymerization. PMID:29364336

  11. Afterimage watercolours: an exploration of contour-based afterimage filling-in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jan eHazenberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated filling-in of coloured afterimages and compared them with filling-in of ‘real’ colours in the watercolour illusion. We used shapes comprising two thin adjacent undulating outlines of which the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, while the other was achromatic. The outlines could be presented simultaneously, inducing the original watercolour effect, or in an alternating fashion, inducing coloured afterimages of the chromatic outlines. In Experiment 1, using only alternating outlines, these afterimages triggered filling-in, revealing an ‘afterimage watercolour’ effect. Depending on whether the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, filling-in of a complementary or a similarly coloured afterimage was perceived. In Experiment 2, simultaneous and alternating presentations were compared. Additionally, grey and black achromatic contours were tested, having an increased luminance contrast with the background for the black contours. Compared to ‘real’ colour filling-in, afterimage filling-in was more easily affected by different luminance settings. More in particular, afterimage filling-in was diminished when high-contrast contours were used. In the discussion we use additional demonstrations in which we further explore the ‘watercolour afterimage’. All in all, comparisons between both types of illusions show similarities and differences with regard to colour filling-in. Caution, however, is warranted in attributing these effects to different underlying processing differences.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ROOT CANAL FILLINGS BASED ON WARM GUTTA-PERCHA CONDENSATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sînziana Adina SCĂRLĂTESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: comparison of four methods of gutta-percha root canal filling performed by warm vertical condensation, with the conventional method of cold lateral condensation of the gutta-percha. Objectives: to compare the density of root canal fillings by X-rays pictures and volume control. Materials and method: Fifty inferior incisor and premolar root canals have been rotary-shaped with ProTaper files and then randomly divided into 5 groups, each of 10 teeth. The test groups were filled according to 4 distinct vertical warm gutta-percha condensation techniques, as follows: thermal compaction, hybrid technique, continuous wave, and multiple wave. The last 10 teeth of the control group were filled by cold lateral condensation. All root canal fillings were assessed by both X-rays pictures (2D and tooth-clearing method (3D. Results: The density of root canal fillings performed by thermal compaction, hybrid technique, and continuous wave was better than that obtained after using multiple wave. All vertical compaction techniques successfully filled most of the lateral canals situated in the middle third of the root. Conclusions: The highest density of root canal fillings was registered by thermal compaction, the extruded material being not significantly related to the used technique

  13. Afterimage watercolors: an exploration of contour-based afterimage filling-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazenberg, Simon J; van Lier, Rob

    2013-01-01

    We investigated filling-in of colored afterimages and compared them with filling-in of "real" colors in the watercolor illusion. We used shapes comprising two thin adjacent undulating outlines of which the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, while the other was achromatic. The outlines could be presented simultaneously, inducing the original watercolor effect, or in an alternating fashion, inducing colored afterimages of the chromatic outlines. In Experiment 1, using only alternating outlines, these afterimages triggered filling-in, revealing an "afterimage watercolor" effect. Depending on whether the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, filling-in of a complementary or a similarly colored afterimage was perceived. In Experiment 2, simultaneous and alternating presentations were compared. Additionally, gray and black achromatic contours were tested, having an increased luminance contrast with the background for the black contours. Compared to "real" color filling-in, afterimage filling-in was more easily affected by different luminance settings. More in particular, afterimage filling-in was diminished when high-contrast contours were used. In the discussion we use additional demonstrations in which we further explore the "watercolor afterimage." All in all, comparisons between both types of illusions show similarities and differences with regard to color filling-in. Caution, however, is warranted in attributing these effects to different underlying processing differences.

  14. Afterimage watercolors: An exploration of contour-based afterimage filling-in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, S.J.; Lier, R.J. van

    2013-01-01

    We investigated filling-in of colored afterimages and compared them with filling-in of “real” colors in the watercolor illusion. We used shapes comprising two thin adjacent undulating outlines of which the inner or the outer outline was chromatic, while the other was achromatic. The outlines could

  15. Is the metabolic syndrome inversely associates with butter, non-hydrogenated- and hydrogenated-vegetable oils consumption: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hydrogenated- (HVOs) and non-hydrogenated vegetable oils (non-HVOs) and butter and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) after 3-years of follow-up in adults. This study was conducted between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011 within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1582 adults, aged 19-84 years. Intakes of HVOs, non-HVOs and butter were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Based on the consumption of food rich in fat including HVOs, non-HVOs and butter, participants were categorized to consumers and non-consumers. Of 1582 participants during a 3-year follow-up, 15.2% developed MetS. Non-consumption of butter was associated with lower MetS risk compared with its consumption. Among consumers of food rich in fat, intake of HVOs and butter were associated with an increased risk of MetS; ORs in the final multivariate model were 2.70 (95% CI: 1.52-4.78) for HVOs and 2.03 (95% CI: 1.20-3.41) for butter, in the highest, compared to the lowest category of dietary intakes. Intake of non-HVOs was not associated with risk of MetS. Consumption of HVOs and butter were positively associated with an increase risk of MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  17. Assessment of Usage of Upgraded Indigenous Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Agbaku-Eji in Moro Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria, to assess the usage of upgraded indigenous Shea Butter Processing Technology by Women processors. All the 61 members of the Shea Butter Cooperative Society was used for the study. An interview schedule was used to ...

  18. Development and optimization of sweet cream butter from buffaloes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... making methods for getting good quality and yield of butter by standardizing cream fat levels and altering churning ... Key words: Butter quality, churning temperature, optimization, cottage scale, sweet cream. INTRODUCTION ..... fruit concentration on the physical properties of vanilla and fruit ice cream-type ...

  19. 24-Methylenedammarenol: a new triterpene alcohol from shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T

    1975-12-01

    A new triterpene alcohol was isolated from shea butter and its structure was shown to be 24-methylenedammarenol (24-methylene-5alpha-dammar-20[21]-en-3beta-o1). Dammaradienol (5alpha-dammara-20[21],24-dien-3beta-o1) also was isolated from shea butter.

  20. Processors' training needs on modern shea butter processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for continual production of high quality shea butter in Nigeria through the use of modern processing technologies necessitated this study. The study was carried out to ascertain training needs of shea butter processors on modern processing technologies in North Central Agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Primary ...

  1. Butter vs. Margarine: Which Is Better for My Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Which spread is better for my heart — butter or margarine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., ... answers/butter-vs-margarine/faq-20058152 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this ...

  2. Benefits and constraints of shea butter production by women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific objectives included the examination of the socio-economic characteristics of the women involved in shea butter production in Nasarawa, ... The major benefits the respondents believed they derived from their shea butter processing business included better feeding of household (46.9%), more income (100%) ...

  3. Chem I Supplement. Butter and Margarine: Their Chemistry, Their Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, William R.; McGill, Diana Combs

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the differences between margarine and butter, focusing on the chemical differences. Provides a brief historical overview of the development of both commodities. Describes the manufacture of butter and of margarine, and details the differences in chemical composition and nutritive contents. (TW)

  4. Effect of fermented (butter milk) food on fibrinolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, N A; Joshi, V D

    1975-01-01

    Effect of one day fermented milk (butter milk) was studied in 18 medical students between 18 to 20 years of age. Results showed that there is a significant decrease in fibrinolytic activity two hours after giving butter milk and the effect persists even at the end of six hours.

  5. Investigation of the physical properties of tricalcium silicate cement-based root-end filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, L; Mallia, B; Camilleri, J

    2013-02-01

    Tricalcium silicate-based cements have been displayed as suitable root-end filling materials. The physical properties of prototype radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material was used as a control. The physical properties of a prototype zirconium oxide replaced tricalcium silicate cement and two proprietary cements composed of tricalcium silicate namely Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material (IRM) was used as a control. Radiopacity assessment was undertaken and expressed in thickness of aluminum. In addition the anti-washout resistance was investigated using a novel basket-drop method and the fluid uptake, sorption and solubility were investigated using a gravimetric method. The setting time was assessed using an indentation technique and compressive strength and micro-hardness of the test materials were investigated. All the testing was performed with the test materials immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution. All the materials tested had a radiopacity value higher than 3mm thickness of aluminum. IRM exhibited the highest radiopacity. Biodentine demonstrated a high washout, low fluid uptake and sorption values, low setting time and superior mechanical properties. The fluid uptake and setting time was the highest for Bioaggregate. The addition of admixtures to tricalcium silicate-based cements affects the physical properties of the materials. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical Effects of Substituting Butter with Margarine on Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Rossouw, Jacques E; Roberts, Mary B; Liu, Simin; Johnson, Karen C; Shikany, James M; Manson, JoAnn E; Tinker, Lesley F; Eaton, Charles B

    2017-01-01

    Several recent articles have called into question the deleterious effects of high animal fat diets due to mixed results from epidemiologic studies and the lack of clinical trial evidence in meta-analyses of dietary intervention trials. We were interested in examining the theoretical effects of substituting plant-based fats from different types of margarine for animal-based fat from butter on the risk of atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease (CVD). We prospectively studied 71,410 women, aged 50-79 years, and evaluated their risk for clinical myocardial infarction (MI), total coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and atherosclerosis-related CVD with an average of 13.2 years of follow-up. Butter and margarine intakes were obtained at baseline and year 3 by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression using a cumulative average diet method was used to estimate the theoretical effect of substituting 1 teaspoon/day of three types of margarine for the same amount of butter. Substituting butter or stick margarine with tub margarine was associated with lower risk of MI (HRs = 0.95 and 0.91). Subgroup analyses, which evaluated these substitutions among participants with a single source of spreadable fat, showed stronger associations for MI (HRs = 0.92 and 0.87). Outcomes of total CHD, ischemic stroke, and atherosclerosis-related CVD showed wide confidence intervals but the same trends as the MI results. This theoretical dietary substitution analysis suggests that substituting butter and stick margarine with tub margarine when spreadable fats are eaten may be associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction.

  7. Influence of climate on the tocopherol content of shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranz, Steven; Wiesman, Zeev

    2004-05-19

    The shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner, is the source of a commercial seed fat known as shea butter. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the tocopherol content of shea butters from different regions of Africa showed high variability between provenances and a significant effect of climate on alpha-tocopherol levels. The total tocopherol content (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) in 102 shea butter samples from 11 countries ranged from 29 to 805 microg/g of shea butter, with a mean of 220 microg/g. alpha-Tocopherol, the principal form detected, averaged 64% of the total tocopherol content. Shea butters from Vitellaria populations situated in hot, dry climates had the highest levels of alpha-tocopherol (for example, a mean of 414 microg/g in samples from N'Djamena, Chad). The lowest concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were found in samples from cool highland areas, especially in northern Uganda (a mean of 29 microg/g).

  8. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur

    2013-12-15

    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unusual etiology of gastrointestinal symptoms: the case of jojoba butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minckler MR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Minckler,1 Joseph Fisher,2 Rachel Bowers,2 Richard Amini1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona, 2College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Jojoba butter is cyanogenic and has gained attention among herbal supplement consumers due to claims that it may aid in weight loss. Jojoba butter is extracted from the seeds of jojoba shrubs found in the Sonoran Desert. The seeds have long been recognized as inedible, however clinical symptoms following ingestion are not well documented. Case report: This report describes a patient who developed restlessness and gastrointestinal complaints following ingestion of homemade jojoba seed butter. The patient’s presentation following ingestion is discussed, as well as effective workup and treatment. In our case, the patient was monitored and received fluid resuscitation, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine for symptomatic therapy. Conclusion: This case describes the gastrointestinal sequela and effective management following ingestion of jojoba butter. Keywords: jojoba butter, simmondsin, cyanoglycoside, anorectic

  10. Emission of diacetyl (2,3 butanedione) from natural butter, microwave popcorn butter flavor powder, paste, and liquid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, Mark W; Longo, William E

    2010-01-01

    Diacetyl (2,3 butanedione), a butter-flavored diketone, has been linked to a severe lung disease, bronchiolitis obliterans. We tested a total of three natural butters and artificial microwave popcorn butter flavorings (three powders, two pastes, and one liquid) for bulk diacetyl concentration and diacetyl emissions when heated. Pastes and liquid butter flavors contained the highest amount (6% to 10.6%) while natural butter possessed up to 7500 times less diacetyl. All artificial butter flavors studied emitted diacetyl. Dry powders emitted up to 1.62 ppm diacetyl; wetted powders up to 54.7 ppm diacetyl; and pastes emitted up to 34.9 ppm diacetyl. The liquid butter flavor emitted up to 17.2 ppm diacetyl. Microwave popcorn flavoring mixtures emitted up to 11.4 ppm diacetyl. At least 93% of the dry powder particles were inhalable. These studies show that microwave butter flavoring products generate concentrations of diacetyl in the air great enough to endanger those exposed.

  11. Relative filling time delay based on CT perfusion source imaging: a simple method to predict outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W; Campbell, B C V; Dong, Q; Davis, S M; Yan, B

    2014-09-01

    Collateral vessel status is strongly associated with clinical outcome in ischemic stroke but can be challenging to assess. The aim of this study was to develop a tomography perfusion source imaging-based assessment of collateral vessel status. Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke who received intravenous thrombolysis or intra-arterial reperfusion therapy after CTP were retrospectively analyzed. In those with middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery occlusion, CT perfusion source imaging was used to identify the relative filling time delay between the normal MCA Sylvian branches and those in the affected hemisphere. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were used to assess the association of the relative filling time delay with the 24-hour Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score based on noncontrast CT and the 90-day modified Rankin Scale score. There were 217 patients treated in 2009-2011 who had CTP data, of whom 60 had MCA or ICA occlusion and 55 had 90-day mRS data. The intraclass correlation coefficient for relative filling time delay was 0.95. Relative filling time delay was correlated with 24-hour ASPECTS (Spearman ρ=-0.674; Prelative filling time delay was associated with poor radiologic outcome (ASPECTS, 0-7) (area under the curve=0.79, Prelative filling time delay with poor outcome remained significant, independent of age, sex, and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Relative filling time delay is a useful independent predictor of clinical outcome after ischemic stroke. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Physicochemical Properties of Calcium Phosphate Based Coating on Gutta-Percha Root Canal Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Al-Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Gutta-percha (GP is a polymer based standard root canal filling material that has been widely used in dentistry. However, it has an inadequate sealing ability and adhesion to root dentin. The aim of this study is to coat GP with a bioactive material to enhance its sealing ability and adhesion to the root sealer and subsequently to the root dentin. The choice of coating method is limited by the nature of GP as it requires a technique that is not governed by high temperatures or uses organic solvents. In this study, biomimetic coating technique using 1.5 Tas-simulated body fluids (SBF was employed to coat the treated GP cones. The coated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. The presence of hydroxyl, carbonate, and phosphate groups was detected by FTIR while the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA/calcium phosphate was confirmed with XRD. FESEM revealed uniform, thin, and crystalline HA calcium phosphate coating. The adhesion of the coating to the GP substrate was assessed with microscratch technique. It was viable with cohesive failure mode. In conclusion, Tas-SBF is able to coat pretreated GP cones with a crystalline apatitic calcium phosphate layer.

  13. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rate for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The order fill rate (OFR) is sometimes suggested as an alternative to the volume fill rate (VFR) (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. We consider a continuous review, base-stock policy, where replenishment orders have a constant lead time...

  14. Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2004-03-01

    Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

  15. Enhancement of thermoelectric efficiency of CoSb3-based skutterudites by double filling with K and Tl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKurosaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature thermoelectric properties of thallium (Tl and potassium (K double-filled cobalt antimonide (CoSb3-based skutterudites with nominal compositions TlxK0.3Co4Sb12 (x = 0.1–0.3 were investigated. The filling fraction of Tl in CoSb3 was enhanced by co-filling with K, which resulted in all of the samples showing the filled-skutterudite single phase. Owing to the high filling ratio, the carrier concentration in the sample with x = 0.3 was as high as 4.3 × 1020 cm−3 at room temperature. Furthermore, quite low lattice thermal conductivity (as low as 0.9 W m−1 K−1 was obtained for the sample with x = 0.3, probably because of strong phonon scattering by the Tl and K co-rattling effect, which resulted in a maximum zT of around one at 773 K.

  16. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the 13C2H2 P(16) (ν1 + ν3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal...

  17. Numerical modeling study of silver nano-filling based on grapefruit-type photonic crystal fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yibo; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    In this letter, surface plasmon resonance sensors based on grapefruit-type photonic crystal fiber (PCF)with different silver nano-filling structure have been analyzed and compared though the finite element method (FEM). The regularity of the resonant wavelength changing with refractive index of the sample has been numerically simulated. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing properties have been numerically simulated in both areas of resonant wavelength and intensity detection. Numerical results show that excellent sensor resolution of 4.17×10-5RIU can be achieved as the radius of the filling silver nanowires is 150 nm by spectrum detection method. Comprehensive comparison indicates that the 150 nm silver wire filling structure is suitable for spectrum detection and 30 nm silver film coating structure is suitable for the amplitude detection.

  18. A fast position encoding system for a delay line based gas filled area detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, A.; Boulin, C.

    1998-08-01

    Delay line based readout electronics for X-ray area detectors used to carry out kinetic measurements with synchrotron radiation is used mostly because of its relative simplicity and low cost. The key element in the system is a fast multichannel real-time encoding time to digital converter (TDC). For fast time-resolved applications the detector is a 200/spl times/200 mm multi-wire gas filled chamber, coupled to two delay lines of about 250 ns to encode the position of the X-ray photon interaction in the X and Y cathode planes. The anode plane of the detector delivers a fast prompt signal which is characteristic of the arrival time of the event. Our method of measurement consists of the simultaneous capture of five time components. These are a time stamp of the anode signal and the relative time for the two pairs of cathode signals collected at the end of the delay lines. These cathode signals arrive at times that are directly proportional to the X and Y co-ordinates of the event. Our electronics is designed around the commercially available LRS 4208 CAMAC time measurement unit. This unit is modified in a way to allow the direct connection of a daughter board which consists of two Logic Cell Arrays (LCA) and some external synchronization and control logic. The first LCA collects the values of the real-time digital interpolators (I ns resolution) and the first level of real-time counters (8 ns resolution) coming from the LRS 4208. Furthermore, it adds another level of real-time counters and is responsible for the computation of the X and Y locations, as well as the rejection of double or incomplete events.

  19. A fast position encoding system for a delay line based gas filled area detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A.; Boulin, C.

    1998-01-01

    Delay line based readout electronics for X-ray area detectors used to carry out kinetic measurements with synchrotron radiation is used mostly because of its relative simplicity and low cost. The key element in the system is a fast multichannel real-time encoding time to digital converter (TDC). For fast time-resolved applications the detector is a 200 x 200 mm multi-wire gas filled chamber, coupled to two delay lines of about 250 ns to encode the position of the X-ray photon interaction in the X and Y cathode planes. The anode plane of the detector delivers a fast prompt signal which is characteristic of the arrival time of the event. The method of measurement consists of the simultaneous capture of five time components. These are a time stamp of the anode signal and the relative time for the two pairs of cathode signals collected at the end of the delay lines. These cathode signals arrive at times that are directly proportional to the X and Y coordinates of the event. The electronics is designed around the commercially available LRS 4208 CAMAC time measurement unit. This unit is modified in a way to allow the direct connection of a daughter board which consists of two Logic Cell Arrays (LCA) and some external synchronization and control logic. The first LCA collects the values of the real-time digital interpolators (1 ns resolution) and the first level of real-time counters (8 ns resolution) coming from the LRS 4208. Furthermore, it adds another level of real-time counters and is responsible for the computation of the X and Y locations, as well as the rejection of double or incomplete events

  20. Comparative Analysis of Calcium Silicate-based Root Filling Materials Using an Open Apex Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dennis; He, Jianing; Glickman, Gerald N; Woodmansey, Karl F

    2016-04-01

    Many new calcium silicate-based root filling materials have emerged in the market; however, their performance in the orthograde obturation of an open apex has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal adaptation of ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), NeoMTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL), and Endosequence BC RRM-Fast Set Putty (BC RRM-FS; Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA) after orthograde placement in roots with open apices. Palatal roots of maxillary molars were instrumented to create divergent open apices and divided into 4 groups for orthograde obturation: ProRoot MTA, NeoMTA Plus, BC RRM-FS, and BC RRM-FS + BC Sealer. Using a scanning electron microscope, the quality of material adaptation at the anatomic apex was evaluated by 5 blinded examiners; 3 mm of the root end was sectioned, and gap distance was measured at the material-dentin interface. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation among the 4 groups at the level of the anatomic apex (P = .175). BC RRM-FS + BC Sealer had a significantly smaller gap size after 3-mm root end resection compared with the other 3 groups (P < .01). No differences were observed among the other 3 materials. All materials showed comparable marginal adaptation at the anatomic apex when used for orthograde obturation of open apices. Application of BC Sealer before the delivery of BC RRM-FS Putty enhanced the quality of adaptation coronal to the apex. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconfigurable laser arrays with capillary fill microfluidics for chip-based flow cytometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Low cost, portable chip based flow cytometry has great potential for applications in resource poor and point of care settings. Typical approaches utilise low cost silicon or glass substrates with light emission and detection performed either off-chip using external equipment or incorporated on-chip using `pick and place' diode lasers and photo-detectors. The former approach adds cost and limits portability while the sub-micron alignment tolerances imposed by the application make the latter impractical for all but the simplest of systems. Use of an optically active semiconductor substrate, on the other hand, overcomes these limitations by allowing multiple laser/detector arrays to be formed in the substrate itself using high resolution lithographic techniques. The capacity for multiple emitters and detectors on a single chip not only enables parallel measurement for increased throughput but also allows multiple measurements to be performed on each cell as it passes through the system. Several different experiments can be performed simultaneously and throughput demand can be reduced with the facility for error checking. Furthermore, the fast switching times inherent with semiconductor lasers allows the active sections of the device to be reconfigured on a sub-microsecond time scale providing additional functionality. This is demonstrated here in a capillary fill system using pairs of laser/detectors that are operated in pulsed mode and alternated between lasing and detecting in an interleaved manner. Passing cells are alternately interrogated from opposing directions providing information that can be used to correct for differences in lateral cell position and ultimately differentiate blood cell type.

  2. The use of natural blueberry dye producing butter cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Creamy сream - finishing semi-finished product in the manufacture of pastry products. Tinting cream mass in different shades of color can improve the aesthetic appearance of the product appearance and make it more attractive. Natural blueberry anthocyanin dye has antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-sclerotic, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, P-vitamin activity. The influence of the content of blueberry dye to change the chromaticity characteristics, organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, shape keeping capacity, antioxidant activity of the samples of butter cream after manufacture and during storage. Based on the analysis of the results to give a butter cream pleasant pink color can be recommended dosage blueberry dye - 2.5 g / kg, with anthocyanin dye in this case is used as an antioxidant and as its use in the recommended amounts increases the antioxidant activity of 12.5 mg / 100 g (62.8% (relative to unstained samples cream. Pastry with a creamy semi-finished product, colored with natural blueberry dye, demand on the food market of confectionery products, and they can be recommended as the first baby food, people with lowered immunity, the elderly and mass consumption, as products contain vitamin E - 30 mg / 100 g of product (satisfaction of the daily requirement for vitamin makes - 75% and a significant amount of antioxidants. The facts make it possible to expand the range of competitive confectionery functionality diversify colors shades of cream, to improve its taste and aroma properties, enhance the nutritional value and shelf life due to the large amount of co-antioxidants.

  3. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  4. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further....

  5. Filled Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows adjacent impact craters located north-northwest of the Acheron Fossae region of Mars. The two craters are of similar size and formed by meteor impacts. However, one is much more filled than the other, indicating that it is older. The surface of the material in the older, partially-filled crater has a texture similar to the crater's surroundings. The southern (bottom) crater is bowl-shaped and is also partially-filled, however, the filling material seems to be limited to the southern half of the crater. Location near: 44.6oN, 128.4oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  6. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  7. GIS-based locational analysis of petrol filling stations in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of environmental sensitive commercial and service activities in densely populated urban areas are guided by planning principles and standards, expressed in either structure plans or land use development plans. There has been an upsurge of filling stations within Kaduna metropolis thereby raising the questions ...

  8. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  9. FAT CRYSTALS AND THE FLOW RHEOLOGY OF BUTTER AND MARGARINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C; Sherman, P; Matsumoto, S

    1970-03-01

    The viscosities of fat crystals extracted by 1 % Aerosol O.T. from butter and margarine have been studied using a Weissenberg Rheogoniometer. By applying the Brodnyan (1959) equation for non-spherical particles to the viscosity data at high rates of shear, after correcting for secondary flow phenomena, it was deduced that the axial ratios of the margarine fat crystals were between 3.05 and 3.94, with the fat crystals from butter lying midway between the two extremes. By applying viscosity equations of the exponential type to such data, it should be possible to calculate the viscosity of butter and margarine at very high rates of shear when the viscosity of the liquid oil in the fat phase and the volume concentration of water drops are known. This information could be useful for predicting the spreadability characteristics of butter and margarine.

  10. MEMS-based Porous Silicon Preconcentrators Filled with Carbopack-B for Explosives Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Camara , El Hadji Malik; James , Franck; Breuil , Philippe; Pijolat , Christophe; Briand , Danick; De Rooij , Nicolaas F

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we report the detection of explosive compounds using a miniaturized gas preconcentrator (μGP) made of porous silicon (PS) filled in with Carbopack B as an adsorbent material. The μGP includes also a platinum heater patterned at the backside and fluidic connectors sealed on the glass cover. Our μGP is designed and optimized through fluidic and thermal simulations for meeting the requirements of trace explosives detection. The thermal mass of the device was...

  11. Air-Filled Nanopore Based High-Performance Thermal Insulation Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gangåssæter, Haakon Fossen; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Alex Mofid, Sohrab; Gao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art thermal insulation solutions like vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and aerogels have low thermal conductivity, but their drawbacks may make them unable to be the thermal insulation solutions that will revolutionize the building industry regarding energy-efficient building envelopes. Nevertheless, learning from these materials may be crucial to make new and novel high-performance thermal insulation products. This study presents a review on the state-of-the-art air-filled thermal...

  12. EXPERIMENT BASED FAULT DIAGNOSIS ON BOTTLE FILLING PLANT WITH LVQ ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa DEMETGÜL

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an artificial neural network is developed to find an error rapidly on pneumatic system. Also the ANN prevents the system versus the failure. The error on the experimental bottle filling plant can be defined without any interference using analog values taken from pressure sensors and linear potentiometers. The sensors and potentiometers are placed on different places of the plant. Neural network diagnosis faults on plant, where no bottle, cap closing cylinder B is not working, b...

  13. Determination of absorption coefficient based on laser beam thermal blooming in gas-filled tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, B; Peñano, J; Fischer, R; DiComo, G; Ting, A

    2014-08-01

    Thermal blooming of a laser beam propagating in a gas-filled tube is investigated both analytically and experimentally. A self-consistent formulation taking into account heating of the gas and the resultant laser beam spreading (including diffraction) is presented. The heat equation is used to determine the temperature variation while the paraxial wave equation is solved in the eikonal approximation to determine the temporal and spatial variation of the Gaussian laser spot radius, Gouy phase (longitudinal phase delay), and wavefront curvature. The analysis is benchmarked against a thermal blooming experiment in the literature using a CO₂ laser beam propagating in a tube filled with air and propane. New experimental results are presented in which a CW fiber laser (1 μm) propagates in a tube filled with nitrogen and water vapor. By matching laboratory and theoretical results, the absorption coefficient of water vapor is found to agree with calculations using MODTRAN (the MODerate-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database) and HITRAN (the HIgh-resolution atmospheric TRANsmission molecular absorption database).

  14. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  15. EXPERIMENT BASED FAULT DIAGNOSIS ON BOTTLE FILLING PLANT WITH LVQ ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa DEMETGÜL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an artificial neural network is developed to find an error rapidly on pneumatic system. Also the ANN prevents the system versus the failure. The error on the experimental bottle filling plant can be defined without any interference using analog values taken from pressure sensors and linear potentiometers. The sensors and potentiometers are placed on different places of the plant. Neural network diagnosis faults on plant, where no bottle, cap closing cylinder B is not working, bottle cap closing cylinder C is not working, air pressure is not sufficient, water is not filling and low air pressure faults. The fault is diagnosed by artificial neural network with LVQ. It is possible to find an failure by using normal programming or PLC. The reason offing Artificial Neural Network is to give a information where the fault is. However, ANN can be used for different systems. The aim is to find the fault by using ANN simultaneously. In this situation, the error taken place on the pneumatic system is collected by a data acquisition card. It is observed that the algorithm is very capable program for many industrial plants which have mechatronic systems.

  16. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  17. Bulk-filled posterior resin restorations based on stress-decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    This randomized study evaluated a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in posterior restorations and compared it intraindividually with a conventional 2-mm resin composite layering technique over a 6-yr follow-up period. Thirty-eight pairs of Class II restorations and 15 pairs of Class I...... restorations were placed in 38 adults. In all cavities a single-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In the first cavity of each pair, the flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments of up to 4 mm. The occlusal part was completed with a layer of nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X...... mono). In the second cavity of each pair, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2-mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then annually for a time period of 6 yr. After 6 yr, 72 Class II restorations and 26...

  18. Harmonic Mode-Locked Fiber Laser based on Photonic Crystal Fiber Filled with Topological Insulator Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We reported that the photonic crystal fiber (PCF filled with TI:Bi2Te3 nanosheets solution could act as an effective saturable absorber (SA. Employing this TI-PCF SA device; we constructed an ytterbium-doped all-fiber laser oscillator and achieved the evanescent wave mode-locking operation. Due to the large cavity dispersion; the fundamental mode-locking pulse had the large full width at half maximum (FWHM of 2.33 ns with the repetition rate of ~1.11 MHz; and the radio frequency (RF spectrum with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 61 dB. In addition; the transition dynamics from a bunched state of pulses to harmonic mode-locking (HML was also observed; which was up to 26th order.

  19. Study of a through-silicon/substrate via filling method based on the combinative effect of capillary action and liquid bridge rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Jiebin; Li, Xinxin; Liu, Bingjie; Chen, Gaoli

    2016-01-01

    Through-silicon via (TSV) is increasing its importance in advanced device packaging. In this paper, a through-silicon/substrate via filling method based on the combinative effect of liquid bridge rupture and capillary action is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed method is able to achieve alloy vias from the surface of a molten alloy pool. Two different processes were tested in experiments and the results show that one of these processes is able to achieve fully filled vias. In addition, a piece of equipment was specially made for the proposed via filling method. The via filling method studied in this paper has a potential application for TSVs in MEMS packaging. (paper)

  20. High butter-fat diet and bisphenol A additively impair male rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapore, Pheruza; Hennessy, Max; Song, Dan; Ying, Jun; Ouyang, Bin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to xenoestrogens is a probable cause of male infertility in humans. Consumption of high-fat diets and exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is pervasive in America. Here, we test the hypothesis that gestational exposure to high dietary fats and/or BPA disrupt spermatogenesis in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10kcal% butter fat (AIN), 39kcal% butter fat (HFB), or 39kcal% olive oil (HFO), with or without BPA (25μg/kg body weight/day) during pregnancy. One group of male offspring received testosterone (T)- and estradiol-17β (E2)-filled implants or sham-implants from postnatal day (PND)70-210. Another group was naturally aged to 18 months. We found that adult males with gestational exposure to BPA, HFB, or HFB+BPA, in both the aged group and the T+E2-implanted group, exhibited impairment of spermatogenesis. In contrast, gestational exposure to HFO or HFO+BPA did not affect spermatogenesis. Sham-implanted, gestational exposed groups also had normal spermatogenesis. Loss of ERα expression in round spermatids and premature expression of protamine-1 in diplotene spermatocytes were features associated with impaired spermatogenesis. Compared with the single-treatment groups, the HFB+BPA group experienced more severe effects, including atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  2. Fill factor enhancement of organic solar cells based on a wide bandgap phosphorescent material and C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Zang, Yue; Li, Haiqiang; Huang, Jiang

    2012-08-31

    Planar heterojunction organic solar cells using wide bandgap phosphorescent material bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] as electron donor and fullerene (C{sub 60}) as electron acceptor were fabricated. A large open circuit voltage of 0.94 V was achieved due to low highest occupied molecular orbital level of (t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac). The effect of different hole transport layers and substrate heating were investigated to improve fill factor. It is shown that the open circuit voltage is strongly influenced by the interface energy barrier, whereas the fill factor is mainly limited by the charge carrier transport properties in active materials. The fill factor was significantly improved by either using hole transport layer with high carrier mobility or increasing the hole mobility of (t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac). A power conversion efficiency of 2.10% under AM 1.5 solar illumination at an intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} was achieved by heating the substrate during the deposition of active materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic solar cells based on wide bandgap phosphorescent material were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A relatively high open circuit voltage about 0.94 V was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fill factor (FF) is mainly limited by the charge transport properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FF can be improved by using hole transport layers with high mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the mobility of active materials can also enhance the FF.

  3. Based on the Theory of TRIZ Solving the Problem of 18650 Battery Electrolyte Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao-hua, Cui; Jiang-ping, Mei; Ling-hua, Zhang; Xiao, Du

    2017-12-01

    As a type of standardized battery cylindrical 18650 lithium-ion battery is widely used in new energy vehicle industry, It can be produced in large quantities without changing type. Because of its special advantages than others. But due to the pressure of rising capacity, electrolyte filling (which is short for E/L) process has become more and more difficult. While reducing the production efficiency eases the problem of E/L, it also poses performance and security problems. So the issue cannot be solved using the common knowledge of the industry. In this paper, This article does not use lean manufacturing or 6Sigma methods, we use TRIZ theory to analyze the E/L difficulty problem in detail (using causal analysis, technical contradiction analysis, substance - field analysis, physical contradiction analysis and other tools). By creating an atmosphere of vacuum and pressure replace the existing E/L tooling for single cell mechanical structure, through blowing hot air method to increase the temperature of electrolyte, Dissolving the J/R into a electrolyte tank which is full of 0.3Mpa nitrogen. Under the premise of not reducing the production efficiency, at the same time ensuring performance and safety, we try to find out a method to solve the E/L difficulty problem, and would get better application in the construction of new production lines in the new factory.

  4. Induction heating process of ferromagnetic filled carbon nanotubes based on 3-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiak, Sławomir; Firych-Nowacka, Anna; Smółka, Krzysztof; Pietrzak, Łukasz; Kołaciński, Zbigniew; Szymański, Łukasz

    2017-12-01

    Since their discovery by Iijima in 1991 [1], carbon nanotubes have sparked unwavering interest among researchers all over the world. This is due to the unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Carbon nanotubes have excellent mechanical and electrical properties with high chemical and thermal stability. In addition, carbon nanotubes have a very large surface area and are hollow inside. This gives a very broad spectrum of nanotube applications, such as in combination with polymers as polymer composites in the automotive, aerospace or textile industries. At present, many methods of nanotube synthesis are known [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. It is also possible to use carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14], including the destruction of cancer cells using iron-filled carbon nanotubes in the hyperthermia process. Computer modelling results of Fe-CNTs induction heating process are presented in the paper. As an object used for computer model creation, Fe-CNTs were synthesized by the authors using CCVD technique.

  5. Filled Pause Refinement Based on the Pronunciation Probability for Lecture Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan-Hua; Ye, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, although automatic speech recognition has become quite proficient in recognizing or transcribing well-prepared fluent speech, the transcription of speech that contains many disfluencies remains problematic, such as spontaneous conversational and lecture speech. Filled pauses (FPs) are the most frequently occurring disfluencies in this type of speech. Most recent studies have shown that FPs are widely believed to increase the error rates for state-of-the-art speech transcription, primarily because most FPs are not well annotated or provided in training data transcriptions and because of the similarities in acoustic characteristics between FPs and some common non-content words. To enhance the speech transcription system, we propose a new automatic refinement approach to detect FPs in British English lecture speech transcription. This approach combines the pronunciation probabilities for each word in the dictionary and acoustic language model scores for FP refinement through a modified speech recognition forced-alignment framework. We evaluate the proposed approach on the Reith Lectures speech transcription task, in which only imperfect training transcriptions are available. Successful results are achieved for both the development and evaluation datasets. Acoustic models trained on different styles of speech genres have been investigated with respect to FP refinement. To further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, speech transcription performance has also been examined using systems built on training data transcriptions with and without FP refinement. PMID:25860959

  6. Quality of traditionally processed shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and shea butter

    OpenAIRE

    Honfo, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The shea tree is an endogenous and multipurpose tree from the Savanah zone of Africa, mostly used for its fruits and the fat extracted from its kernels, commonly known as shea butter. The butter is used for cooking and medicinal purposes by local populations, and in cosmetic products as well as a cocoa butter substitute in chocolate in others areas of Africa and at the international level. The butter is generally extracted by traditional methods, which vary throughout the production...

  7. Ultrasonic processing of butter oil (Ghee) into oil‐in‐water emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar Vishwanath

    2016-01-01

    Butter oil (ghee) derived from cow or buffalo milk is in semi-solid form at room temperature and contains >99% of lipids. Apparent high viscosity and water immiscibility – owing to the hydrophobic nature of lipid components hinder the applicability of butter oil for formulations. Here, we have employed ultrasonic processing technique to create oil-in-water emulsions of butter oil. We show that the butter oil is capable of self-stabilizing an emulsion at low concentration while higher concentr...

  8. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response. Design: The experiments were designed to provide 20......% of total energy from dairy fat, as either whole milk, mean (+/-SD) 2164 (+/-97) g, butter 93 ( 4) g, and hard cheese 305 (+/-45) g, which were served to 14 healthy young men for three periods of three weeks each, separated by washout periods, in a randomized, cross-over study with strictly controlled...... and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...

  9. Electrically conductive composites based on an elastomeric matrix filled with expanded graphite as a potential oil sensing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Igor; Prostredný, Martin; Špitalský, Zdenko; Krajči, Juraj; AlMaadeed, Mariam Ali S.

    2014-12-01

    The preparation and properties of electrically conductive polymeric composites based on an elastomer matrix (styrene-isoprene styrene block copolymer) filled with expanded graphite are reported in this paper. The developed materials were tested as oil sensors in various modes. The operation of this sensor is based on changes in the electrical resistance R of the composites when exposed to oil. This phenomenon involves both simple geometrical changes and changes in inherent material characteristics such as the specific electrical conductivity (resistivity). An original method for the improvement of the sensors’ response rate based on the application of stretched sensing films was developed. Slightly stretched films (by 4% of the original length) showed a response that was 12.5 times faster with respect to oil absorption than an un-stretched film. The specific electrical conductivity of a material strongly depends on the extent to which it is stretched. For a composite filled with 10 wt.% of the filler, it was found that the electrical conductivity remained constant up to 11% of the sample extension before sharply decreasing. It was also found that an increase in the filler content reduced the response rate of the sensors.

  10. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be of...

  11. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of shea butter sold on Benin markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Hell, K.; Akissoe, N.H.; Linnemann, A.R.; Coulibaly, O.

    2012-01-01

    Shea butter, a fat from the nuts of shea tree, is of great nutritional and commercial value for local communities of Africa. The sanitary and physicochemical qualities of shea butter sold in Benin markets are unknown. This study assesses the quality characteristics of 54 samples of shea butter

  12. 40 CFR 405.40 - Applicability; description of the butter subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... butter subcategory. 405.40 Section 405.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Butter Subcategory § 405.40 Applicability; description of the butter subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  13. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum, stainless...

  14. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling energy and environmental impacts of traditional and improved shea butter production in West Africa for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Colleen C; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2017-01-15

    This study improves the global application of methods and analyses, especially Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), that properly incorporates environmental impacts of firewood and a social sustainability indicator (human energy) as tools for sustainable human development. Specifically shea butter production processes, common throughout sub-Saharan Africa and crucial to food security, environmental sustainability, and women's empowerment, are analyzed. Many economic activities in the world rely on firewood for energy and labor that aren't included in traditional LCAs. Human energy (entirely from women) contributed 25-100% of shea butter production processes (2000-6100kJ/kg of shea butter) and mechanized production processes had reduced human energy without considerably greater total energy. Firewood accounted for 94-100% of total embodied energy (103 and 172MJ/kg of shea butter for improved and traditional shea butter production processes respectively) and global warming potential and 18-100% of human toxicity of the production processes. Implementation of improved cookstoves modeled in this study could reduce: (1) global warming potential by 78% (from 18 to 4.1kg CO 2 eq/kg and 11 to 2.4kg CO 2 eq/kg of shea butter for the traditional and improved processes respectively), (2) the embodied energy of using firewood by 52% (from 170 to 82MJ/kg and 103 to 49MJ/kg for the traditional and improved processes respectively), and (3) human toxicity by 83% for the non-mechanized traditional and improved processes (from 0.041 to 0.0071 1,4 DB eq/kg and 0.025 to 0.0042 1,4 DB eq/kg respectively). In addition, this is the first study to compare Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and process-based LCA in a developing country and evaluate five traditional and improved shea butter production processes over different impact categories. Overall, this study developed a framework to evaluate and improve processes for achievement of the United Nation's Sustainable

  16. In vitro Study on Apical Sealing Ability of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Filled Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudi, S. M.; Luddin, N.; Mohamad, D.; Alkashakhshir, J. J.; Adnan, R.; Ramli, R. A.

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this in vitro study were to evaluate the apical sealing ability of experimental nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-filled epoxy resin based endodontic sealer and to compare it with the commercial AH26 sealant. A total of 76 extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using NiTi files and randomly divided into two groups of 33 teeth each and two control groups of 5 teeth each. The first group was obturated using gutta-percha with AH26 sealer. The second group was obturated with the nano HA-filled epoxy resin based sealer. All teeth were coated with nail polish except 2 mm from foramen apical and then suspended in 2% methylene blue for 7 days. All teeth were sectioned longitudinally for measuring penetration of the dye using stereo-microscope (x36). The result showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in apical sealing ability between AH26 silver-free sealer and nano HA sealer.

  17. Determination of the metal distribution in tooth fillings in real teeth based on element sensitive X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masschaele, B.; Mondelaers, W.; Cauwels, P.; Jolie, J.; Baechler, S.; Materna, T.

    2000-01-01

    Since a couple of centuries people are using metal tooth-fillings in order to protect their teeth. In the beginning of the 19th century the amalgam or silver fillings were introduced for to first time. Nowadays, dentists mostly use amalgam. These fillings are a mixture of silver, tin and mercury. The mercury which is abundant, about 50%, is dangerous for any living organism. Mercury has a particular affinity for the brain tissue but is also accumulated in the liver, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal track and jawbone. Mercury Basely crosses the placenta and is gathered in the heart, pituitary gland and liver of the fetus. It is been proven that the mercury vaporises and enter enters the body via the lungs. Since a couple of years we apply the element sensitive X-ray tomography technique on heavy elements like uranium or lead. By scanning teeth using photons having two different energies, one just below and one just above the K-edge of the element under investigation, the tomography becomes element sensitive. The experiment has been done at the ESRF, beam line ID15A, with a very intense tunable monochromatic high energy X-ray beam. We made tomographies of different teeth with 20 μm image resolution. The slices were 20 μm apart. The results after reconstruction are three dimensional mercury maps which can tell us something about the possibility of mercury diffusion into the roots of the tooth. From there the mercury could enter the blood stream and end up in the organs. (author)

  18. Fluid filling of the digestive tract for improved proton resonance frequency shift-based MR thermometry in the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Cyril J; Bartels, Lambertus W; van Stralen, Marijn; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Moonen, Chrit T W; Bos, Clemens

    2018-03-01

    To demonstrate that fluid filling of the digestive tract improves the performance of respiratory motion-compensated proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS)-based magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry in the pancreas. In seven volunteers (without heating), we evaluated PRFS thermometry in the pancreas with and without filling of the surrounding digestive tract. All data acquisition was performed at 1.5T, then all datasets were analyzed and compared with three different PRFS respiratory motion-compensated thermometry methods: gating, multibaseline, and referenceless. The temperature precision of the different methods was evaluated by assessing temperature standard deviation over time, while a simulation experiment was used to study the accuracy of the methods. Without fluid intake, errors in temperature precision in the pancreas up to 10°C were observed for all evaluated methods. After liquid intake, temperature precision improved to median values between 1.8 and 2.9°C. The simulations showed that gating had the lowest accuracy, with errors up to 7°C. Multibaseline and referenceless thermometry performed better, with a median error in the pancreas between -3 and +3°C after fluid intake, for all volunteers. Preparation of the digestive tract near the pancreas by filling it with fluid improved MR thermometry precision and accuracy for all common respiratory motion-compensated methods evaluated. These improvements are attributed to reducing field inhomogeneity in the pancreas. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:692-701. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Meneco, a Topology-Based Gap-Filling Tool Applicable to Degraded Genome-Wide Metabolic Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Prigent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amounts of sequence data are becoming available for a wide range of non-model organisms. Investigating and modelling the metabolic behaviour of those organisms is highly relevant to understand their biology and ecology. As sequences are often incomplete and poorly annotated, draft networks of their metabolism largely suffer from incompleteness. Appropriate gap-filling methods to identify and add missing reactions are therefore required to address this issue. However, current tools rely on phenotypic or taxonomic information, or are very sensitive to the stoichiometric balance of metabolic reactions, especially concerning the co-factors. This type of information is often not available or at least prone to errors for newly-explored organisms. Here we introduce Meneco, a tool dedicated to the topological gap-filling of genome-scale draft metabolic networks. Meneco reformulates gap-filling as a qualitative combinatorial optimization problem, omitting constraints raised by the stoichiometry of a metabolic network considered in other methods, and solves this problem using Answer Set Programming. Run on several artificial test sets gathering 10,800 degraded Escherichia coli networks Meneco was able to efficiently identify essential reactions missing in networks at high degradation rates, outperforming the stoichiometry-based tools in scalability. To demonstrate the utility of Meneco we applied it to two case studies. Its application to recent metabolic networks reconstructed for the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus and an associated bacterium Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi revealed several candidate metabolic pathways for algal-bacterial interactions. Then Meneco was used to reconstruct, from transcriptomic and metabolomic data, the first metabolic network for the microalga Euglena mutabilis. These two case studies show that Meneco is a versatile tool to complete draft genome-scale metabolic networks produced from

  20. Development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, K. K.; Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Cho, J. H.; Song, I. T.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.; Kim, I. J.; Park, W. K.

    1999-12-01

    Butter-fly valves are advantageous over gate, globe, plug, and ball valves in a variety of installations, particularly in the large sizes. The purpose of this project development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve (intelligent butter-fly valve system). The intelligent butter-fly valve system consist of a valve body, micro controller. The micro controller consist of torque control system, pressure censor, worm and worm gear and communication line etc. The characteristics of intelligent butter-fly valve system as follows: Linear flow rate control function. Digital remote control function. guard function. Self-checking function. (author)

  1. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-11-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  2. Penetration of a resin-based filling material into lateral root canals and quality of obturation by different techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelotto, André Luiz da Costa; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Araki, Angela Toshie; Akisue, Eduardo; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a resin/polyester polymer-based material (Resilon Real Seal; SybronEndo Corp., Orange, USA) into simulated lateral canals, and the quality of obturations by different techniques. A total of 30 standardized simulated canals were divided into three groups according to the technique of obturation used: MS (McSpadden), SB (SystemB/Obtura II), and LC (Lateral Condensation). To analyze the penetration of the filling material, the simulated canals were digitalized and the images were analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro v2.3 software. The data of the middle and apical thirds were separately submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey's test for the comparison of the techniques. Results showed a significant difference (p test on interexaminer agreement and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant difference between filling techniques. It was concluded that Resilon achieves greater levels of penetration when associated with thermoplastic obturation techniques.

  3. Development of span 80-tween 80 based fluid-filled organogels as a matrix for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charulata Bhattacharya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organogels are defined as 3-dimensional networked structures which immobilize apolar solvents within them. These gelled formulations are gaining importance because of their ease of preparation and inherent stability with improved shelf life as compared to the ointments. Aim: Development of span 80-tween 80 mixture based organogels for the first time by fluid-filled fiber mechanism. Materials and Methods: Span 80 and tween 80 were used as surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The surfactant mixtures were dissolved in oil followed by the addition of water which led to the formation of organogels at specific compositions. The formulations were analyzed by microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, time-dependent stability test and accelerated thermal stability test by thermocycling method. Ciprofloxacin, a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, was incorporated within the organogels. The antimicrobial activity of the drug loaded organogels and in vitro drug release from the gels was also determined. Results and Conclusions: Microscopic results indicated that the gels contained clusters of water-filled spherical structures. XRD study indicated the amorphous nature of the organogels. The release of the drug was found to be diffusion controlled and showed marked antimicrobial property. In short, the prepared organogels were found to be stable enough to be used as pharmaceutical formulation.

  4. A wave-based finite element analysis for acoustic transmission in fluid-filled elastic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplow, Andrew T

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes an original numerical prediction technique developed for the analysis of coupled vibro-acoustic problems in fluid waveguides. Specifically it is a wave-based method that adopts a spectral element approach. Unlike the conventional element-based methods, this technique uses wave functions that satisfy the governing equations to describe the dynamic variables exactly. One advantage is that fine domain discretizations, used by element-based methods near the fluid-structure interface typically, are no longer required. Hence the resulting model sizes are much smaller than element-based methods yielding a more time-efficient prediction technique that may allow handling of mid-frequency applications. Another advantage is that dispersion relations between propagating and excitation wavenumbers are easily obtained, and an example to show this, as well as a discussion on how the wave-based prediction technique can be used for two coupled vibro-acoustic problems: a cavity with a non-reflecting boundary and a silencer duct problem, is presented. Its beneficial characteristics compared to element-based methods are demonstrated through the validation study and transmission loss examples.

  5. Long-term exposure to a butter-rich diet induces mild-to-moderate steatosis in Chang liver cells and Swiss albino mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalloor, Thomas John Philip; Kumar, Nitesh; Narayanan, Kasinathan; Palanimuthu, Vasanth Raj

    2017-05-01

    Butter is one of the widely used fats present in the diet. However, there is no satisfactory study available that evaluates the effect of a high-fat diet containing butter as the principal fat on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, butter was used for the development of steatosis in Chang liver cells in an in vitro study and Swiss albino mice in an in vivo study. In vitro steatosis was established, and butter was compared with oleic acid in Chang liver cells using an oil red O (ORO)-based colorimetric assay. In the in vivo study, a butter-rich special diet was fed for 15 weeks to mice, who showed no significant change in body weight. The expression pattern of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and miR-21 was compared by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Special diet-fed animals showed downregulated PTEN compared to normal diet-fed animals, while levels of miR-21 remained the same. Elevations in biochemical parameters, viz., triglycerides and liver function tests showed symptoms of onset of NAFLD. Histophathological study of livers of test animals confirmed mild-to-moderate degree of NAFLD.

  6. Discovery of new lactones in sweet cream butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Elise; Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain; Aeberhardt, Kasia; Rubin, Mark

    2011-06-22

    Sweet cream butter oil was analyzed to identify new volatile compounds that may contribute to its flavor, with an emphasis on lactones. The volatile part of butter oil was obtained by using short-path distillation. As some previously unknown lactones were detected in this first extract, it was fractionated further. The fatty acids were removed, and the extract was fractionated by flash chromatography. Three lactonic fractions possessing a creamy, buttery, and fatty character were investigated in depth by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) (EI and CI) and high-resolution GC-time-of-flight MS. Many lactones were identified by their mass fragmentation and by comparison with reference materials synthesized during this work. Six γ-lactones, five δ-lactones, and one ε-lactone were identified for the first time in butter oil, seven of them for the first time in a natural product. The possible contribution of these new lactones to the aroma of butter oil is briefly discussed.

  7. Perception of Modern Processing Technology by Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Nigeria is abundantly blessed with Shea trees (vitellaria paradoxa) which could be harnessed for the industrial development of the country. The white ivory colour fat extracted from the nut is called Shea butter which has many uses in the edible oil, chocolate and beverage as well as pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  8. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of milk, butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the physicochemical, microbial load and sensory properties of milk, butter with or without garlic was carried out using fresh milk from white Fulani cow for eight weeks of the lactation. The milk used was milked manually by the Fulanis early in the morning. Fat content was highest in milk (4.13±0.16) and least in ...

  9. Characteristics of traditionally processed shea kernels and butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Akissoe, N.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional production of shea butter requires a heat treatment of the nuts. This study compared the end products derived by two commonly used heat treatments, namely smoking and boiling followed by sun-drying. Neither treatment influenced the moisture content of the kernels (8–10%), but the

  10. Biodiesel production from butter factory effluent | Schabort | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in energy demand coupled with the depletion of fossil fuels has increased the need for renewable and sustainable energy sources. Butter waste effluent was identified as a possible feedstock for biodiesel. The effects of the temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration and the reaction time were ...

  11. Soap Production From Shea nut Butter | Warra | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to explore the use of shea butter for soap production. The traditional method of extraction of the shea nut oil was employed. A simple cold-process alkali hydrolysis of the shea nut oil, which is a village adoptable technology was used in producing the soap. The chemical analysis of the oil revealed ...

  12. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in…

  13. Perception of Modern Processing Technology by Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perception of Shea butter processors to modern processing technology in Kwara State. Multi stage sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents. Data was collected using interview schedule and analysed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that 88.3% of the ...

  14. "The Butter Battle Book": Engaging Children's Thoughts of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how "The Butter Battle Book" by Dr. Seuss can be used to introduce the moral issue of war to young children. Studies the written responses of 1,187 children in grades kindergarten to 6 to the story. Notes that only the fourth- through sixth-grade students (who felt themselves beyond Dr. Seuss) understood the allegorical nature…

  15. strength properties of shea-butter nuts under compressive loading

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Edible oil (shea-butter oil) is extracted from the kernel and the cake from which the oil is extracted is used in livestock production. (Purseglove [1]). According to Purseglove [1], Nigeria,. Ghana, Burkinafaso, Senegal, Mali and. Benin Republic are the principal exporters of shea-burter nuts. Formerly, Belgium and.

  16. High conversion self-curing sealer based on a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bin [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zuo, Yi, E-mail: zoae@scu.edu.cn [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Jidong; Wang, Li [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tang, Kuangyun [The State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Orthognathic Surgery, Sichuan University West China College of Stomatology, Chengdu 610064 (China); Huang, Di; Du, Jingjing; Luo, Peipei; Li, Yubao [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Low monomer–polymer conversion is the key factor leading to cytotoxicity for resin-containing restorative materials. This paper provides a new root canal filling system based on self-curing injectable polyurethane which can achieve high conversion in a short time. Traced FTIR spectra show more than 90% NCO group participated in the curing reaction after 4 h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. The calculated data also testified the curing process supports a third-order reaction, and this efficient and sufficient reaction is postulated to weaken the toxic stimulation. By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer is shown to be favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. Then physicochemical properties of the injectable PU-based sealer were evaluated according to the Standard [ISO 6876:2001 (E)] for clinical application. A series of physicochemical properties of PU sealer have been tested comparing with AH Plus and Apexit Plus. And the results present that the self-curing PU sealer could not only match the clinic requirements, but even has better properties than the other two commercial sealers. We expect the high conversion PU sealer has a tremendous potential in the field of root canal filling after further biological evaluation. - Highlights: • A new root canal sealer based on self-curing injectable polyurethane was provided. • More than 90% NCO group reacted after 4h, and only about 5% remained after 24 h. • By culturing with L929 murine fibroblasts, the PU sealer showed perfect cytocompatibility. • Volumetric dilatancy after curing will make the sealer achieve a tight seal.

  17. Mechanical and thermal properties of hydroxyapatite filled poly(methyl methacrylate) heat processed denture base material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.H.; Arifin, A.; Mohd Ishak, Z.A.; Nizam, A.; Samsudin, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powder-to-liquid ratio on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the tensile properties of denture base material prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) previously treated with 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (γ-MPS). Specimens for, mechanical testing were prepared by adding composites powder (PMMA, BPO and RA) to the monomer (MMA and EGDMA) followed by hand mixing as in dental laboratory description usage. The glass transition temperature was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSQ. It was observed that the tensile properties and the Tg were affected by the powder-to-liquid ratio. The mechanical characterization of the materials were performed by using single edge notch-tension (SEN-T) specimens; the fracture toughness was slightly higher in formulation which contained RA filler compared to commercial denture base material. (Author)

  18. Simultatenous determination of diacetyl and acetoin in traditional turkish butter stored in sheep’s rumen (Karinyagi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce, R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Karinyagi (traditionally named karin is made of cows’ milk cream and is produced by filling butter in cleaned sheep’s rumen. The effect of butter storage in sheep’s rumen on the production of diacetyl and acetoin was investigated. These compounds were determined by GC-MS and they are the typical butter flavor commonly found in fermented dairy products. The modified method for the simultaneous extraction of diacetly and acetoin from butter samples was accurate and precise. The recoveries of diacetyl and acetoin were 94.7 and 110.8%, respectively, while the detection limits were 1.83 and 0.51 mg·L-1, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the monitoring of aroma compounds in Karin butter samples during different time intervals. The concentration of acetoin remained stable through 0–50 days while the concentration of diacetyl increased to 33.0 μg·g-1 up to 40 days and remained constant through 40–50 days.El Karinyagi comercial (nombre tradicional Karin está hecho de crema de leche de vaca, y producido llenando con mantequilla el rumen limpio de ovejas. Se ha investigado el efecto del almacenamiento de la mantequilla en el rumen de ovejas sobre la formación de diacetilo y acetoína. Estos compuestos son el típico flavor a mantequilla que se detecta comúnmente en los productos lácteos fermentados y han sido determinados mediante GC-MS. El método modificado para la extracción simultánea de diacetilo y acetoína en mantequilla resultó ser exacto y preciso y las recuperaciones de 94,7 y 110,8 % respectivamente, mientras que los límites de detección fueron 1.83 y 0,51 mg·L-1, respectivamente. El método propuesto se aplicó al control de compuestos aromáticos en Karin y muestras de mantequilla, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. La concentración de acetoína se mantuvo estable entre 0–50 días mientras que la concentración de diacetilo aumentó a 33,0 mg·g-1 hasta 40 días y se mantuvo constante

  19. Preparation and magnetic properties of polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate resin filled with nickel plating graphite nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yi, E-mail: zhangyi520love@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Qi Shuhua; Zhang Fan; Yang Yongqing; Duan Guochen [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Nickel plating graphite nanosheets (Ni/GNs) were prepared by electroless plating method using graphite nanosheets (GNs). Then a novel polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate pressure-sensitive adhesive (acrylate PSA) filled with Ni/GNs were fabricated by solution blend method. The Ni/GNs and acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All results showed that relatively uniform and compact Ni layer is successfully coated onto GNs under the given conditions, furthermore, Ni/GNs are homogeneously dispersed in acrylate PSA. The VSM results showed that the saturation magnetization of acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites increases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs while the coercivity decreases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs. When the content of GNs is 20 wt%, acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites exhibites good mechanical properties.

  20. Preparation and magnetic properties of polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate resin filled with nickel plating graphite nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi; Qi Shuhua; Zhang Fan; Yang Yongqing; Duan Guochen

    2011-01-01

    Nickel plating graphite nanosheets (Ni/GNs) were prepared by electroless plating method using graphite nanosheets (GNs). Then a novel polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate pressure-sensitive adhesive (acrylate PSA) filled with Ni/GNs were fabricated by solution blend method. The Ni/GNs and acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). All results showed that relatively uniform and compact Ni layer is successfully coated onto GNs under the given conditions, furthermore, Ni/GNs are homogeneously dispersed in acrylate PSA. The VSM results showed that the saturation magnetization of acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites increases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs while the coercivity decreases with an increasing content of Ni/GNs. When the content of GNs is 20 wt%, acrylate PSA/Ni/GNs composites exhibites good mechanical properties.

  1. Protection of bronze artefacts through polymeric coatings based on nanocarriers filled with corrosion inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Martina Salzano; Buonocore, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Gabriella; Giuliani, Chiara; Ingo, Gabriel M.; Lavorgna, Marino

    2016-05-01

    Protective coatings based on polymers synthesized from renewable sources (chitosan or an amorphous vinyl alcohol based polymer) have been prepared for the protection of bronze artifacts from corrosion. Besides acting as an effective barrier against corrosive species present in the environment, the efficiency of the coatings has been improved by adding corrosion inhibitor compounds (benzotriazole or mercaptobenzothiazole) to the formulations. The liquid medium of the formulations has been carefully selected looking at maximizing the wettability on the bronze substrate and optimizing the solvent evaporation rate. The minimum amount of inhibitor compounds has been optimized by performing accelerated corrosion tests on coated bronze substrates. The inhibitors have been directly dissolved in the coating-forming solutions and/or introduced by means of nanocarriers, which allow to control the release kinetics. The free dissolved inhibitor molecules immediately provide a sufficient protection against corrosion. On the other hand, the inhibitor molecules contained in the nanocarriers serve as long-term reservoir, which can be activated by external corrosion-related stimuli in case of particularly severe conditions. Particular attention has been paid to other features which affect the coating performances. Specifically, the adhesion of the protective polymer layer to the bronze substrate has been assessed, as well as its permeability properties and transparency, the latter being a fundamental feature of protective coating for cultural heritages. Finally, the protective efficiency of the produced smart coatings has been assessed through accelerated corrosion tests.

  2. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  3. Laser frequency standards based on gas-filled hollow-core fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco

    within precision spectroscopy with the scope of developing a fiber-based, portable optical frequency standard in the telecommunication band. Nowadays, portable optical frequency standards are important not only in metrology and telecommunication industry but also for remote sensing applications. Since...... technology, which has been widely investigated in the past decades, using many different molecular and atomic transitions as optical reference. One of the recommended references in the telecommunication region of the light spectrum is given by a specific absorption line in 13C2H2 acetylene. However, many...... other molecular references (e.g. methane and carbon dioxide) maybe interesting for remote sensing applications in the near infrared region. Typically, molecules are weakly absorbing in the telecommunication band and, hence, they require a long interaction length to be detected. For these reasons...

  4. A Micro-Pressure Sensing Method Based on the Micropatterned Electrodes Filled with the Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the core component of the sense of touch, flexible pressure sensors are critical to synchronized interactions with the surrounding environment. Here, we introduce a new type of flexible capacitive pressure sensor based on a template of electrodes, with a one-dimensional pyramid micropatterned structure on a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS substrate and a dielectric layer of polystyrene (PS microspheres. The proposed sensor exhibits a stable and high sensing sensitivity of 0.741 kPa−1 to capacitance, good durability over 1000 cycles, and fast response time (<150 ms. Our flexible capacitive sensor responds not only to pressure but also to bending forces. Our device can be used to monitor the location and distribution of weight pressure. The proposed capacitive pressure sensor has itself been applied foreground in lots of aspects, such as electronic skins, wearable robotics, and biomedical devices.

  5. Reduced graphene oxide filled poly(dimethyl siloxane) based transparent stretchable, and touch-responsive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Cabibihan, John-John; Yoon, W. Jong; Kumar, Bijandra

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing revolution in touch panel technology and electronics demands the need for thin films, which are flexible, stretchable, conductive, and highly touch responsive. In this regard, conductive elastomer nanocomposites offer potential solutions for these stipulations; however, viability is limited to the poor dispersion of conductive nanomaterials such as graphene into the matrix. Here, we fabricated a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer based transparent and flexible conductive touch responsive film by dispersing rGO honeycombs uniformly into PDMS elastomer through an ionic liquid (IL) modification. Pursuing a simple, scalable, and safe method of solution casting, this provides a versatile and creative design of a transparent and stretchable rGO/IL-PDMS capacitive touch responsive, where rGO acts as a sensing element. This transparent film with ∼70% transmittance exhibits approximately a five times faster response in comparison to rGO/PDMS film, with negligible degradation over time. The performance of this touch screen film is expected to have applications in the emerging field of foldable electronics.

  6. Microcapsules Filled with a Palm Oil-Based Alkyd as Healing Agent for Epoxy Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshafiza Shahabudin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches to prolong the service lifespan of polymeric material is the development of self-healing ability by means of embedded microcapsules containing a healing agent. In this work, poly(melamine-urea-formaldehyde (PMUF microcapsules containing a palm oil-based alkyd were produced by polymerization of melamine resin, urea and formaldehyde that encapsulated droplets of the suspended alkyd particles. A series of spherical and free-flowing microcapsules were obtained. The chemical properties of core and shell materials were characterized by Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis showed a glass transition around −15 °C due to the alkyd, and a melting temperature at around 200 °C due to the shell. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results showed that the core and shell thermally degraded within the temperature range of 200–600 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM examination of the ruptured microcapsule showed smooth inner and rough outer surfaces of the shell. Flexural strength and microhardness (Vickers of the cured epoxy compound were not affected with the incorporation of 1%–3% of the microcapsules. The viability of the healing reactions was demonstrated by blending small amounts of alkyd with epoxy and hardener at different ratios. The blends could readily cure to non-sticky hard solids at room temperature and the reactions could be verified by ATR-FTIR.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide filled poly(dimethyl siloxane) based transparent stretchable, and touch-responsive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Cabibihan, John-John; Yoon, W. Jong; Kumar, Bijandra

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing revolution in touch panel technology and electronics demands the need for thin films, which are flexible, stretchable, conductive, and highly touch responsive. In this regard, conductive elastomer nanocomposites offer potential solutions for these stipulations; however, viability is limited to the poor dispersion of conductive nanomaterials such as graphene into the matrix. Here, we fabricated a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer based transparent and flexible conductive touch responsive film by dispersing rGO honeycombs uniformly into PDMS elastomer through an ionic liquid (IL) modification. Pursuing a simple, scalable, and safe method of solution casting, this provides a versatile and creative design of a transparent and stretchable rGO/IL-PDMS capacitive touch responsive, where rGO acts as a sensing element. This transparent film with ˜70% transmittance exhibits approximately a five times faster response in comparison to rGO/PDMS film, with negligible degradation over time. The performance of this touch screen film is expected to have applications in the emerging field of foldable electronics.

  8. Reduced graphene oxide filled poly(dimethyl siloxane) based transparent stretchable, and touch-responsive sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P. O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Cabibihan, John-John [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Yoon, W. Jong [School of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, University of Washington, Bothell, Washington 98011 (United States); Kumar, Bijandra, E-mail: bijandra.kumar@louisville.edu [Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Research and Development Centre in Pharmaceutical Science and Applied Chemistry, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Erandawane, Pune 411038 (India)

    2016-04-25

    The ongoing revolution in touch panel technology and electronics demands the need for thin films, which are flexible, stretchable, conductive, and highly touch responsive. In this regard, conductive elastomer nanocomposites offer potential solutions for these stipulations; however, viability is limited to the poor dispersion of conductive nanomaterials such as graphene into the matrix. Here, we fabricated a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer based transparent and flexible conductive touch responsive film by dispersing rGO honeycombs uniformly into PDMS elastomer through an ionic liquid (IL) modification. Pursuing a simple, scalable, and safe method of solution casting, this provides a versatile and creative design of a transparent and stretchable rGO/IL-PDMS capacitive touch responsive, where rGO acts as a sensing element. This transparent film with ∼70% transmittance exhibits approximately a five times faster response in comparison to rGO/PDMS film, with negligible degradation over time. The performance of this touch screen film is expected to have applications in the emerging field of foldable electronics.

  9. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Calcium Silicate-Based Endodontic Cement as Root-End Filling Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Küçükkaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of three types of calcium silicate-based endodontic cement after different incubation periods with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from extracted third molars and seeded in 96-well plates. MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, and Biodentine were prepared and added to culture insert plates which were immediately placed into 96-well plates containing cultured cells. After incubation periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours, cell viability was determined with WST-1 assay. Data were analysed statistically by ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni tests. There was no significant difference in cell viability amongst the test materials after each incubation period (P>0.05. MTA and CEM presented more than 90% cell viability after 24 and 48 hours of incubation and showed statistically significant decrease in cell viability after 72 hours of incubation (P<0.05. Biodentine showed significantly less cell viability (73% after 24 hours of incubation, whereas more than 90% cell viability was seen after 48 and 72 hours of incubation (P<0.05. Despite the significant changes in cell viability over time, materials presented similar cytotoxicity profile. Biodentine and CEM can be considered as alternative materials for root-end surgery procedures.

  10. Filling the Gap: Simulation-based Crisis Resource Management Training for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Parsons

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In today’s team-oriented healthcare environment, high-quality patient care requires physicians to possess not only medical knowledge and technical skills but also crisis resource management (CRM skills. In emergency medicine (EM, the high acuity and dynamic environment makes CRM skills of physicians particularly critical to healthcare team success. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medicine Education Core Competencies that guide residency program curriculums include CRM skills; however, EM residency programs are not given specific instructions as to how to teach these skills to their trainees. This article describes a simulation-based CRM course designed specifically for novice EM residents. Methods The CRM course includes an introductory didactic presentation followed by a series of simulation scenarios and structured debriefs. The course is designed to use observational learning within simulation education to decrease the time and resources required for implementation. To assess the effectiveness in improving team CRM skills, two independent raters use a validated CRM global rating scale to measure the CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns in a pretest and posttest during the course. Results The CRM course improved leadership, problem solving, communication, situational awareness, teamwork, resource utilization and overall CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns. While the improvement from pretest to posttest did not reach statistical significance for this pilot study, the large effect sizes suggest that statistical significance may be achieved with a larger sample size. Conclusion This course can feasibly be incorporated into existing EM residency curriculums to provide EM trainees with basic CRM skills required of successful emergency physicians. We believe integrating CRM training early into existing EM education encourages continued deliberate practice, discussion, and improvement of essential CRM skills.

  11. Filling the Gap: Simulation-based Crisis Resource Management Training for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jessica R.; Crichlow, Amanda; Ponnuru, Srikala; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Goswami, Varsha; Griswold, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Introduction In today’s team-oriented healthcare environment, high-quality patient care requires physicians to possess not only medical knowledge and technical skills but also crisis resource management (CRM) skills. In emergency medicine (EM), the high acuity and dynamic environment makes CRM skills of physicians particularly critical to healthcare team success. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medicine Education Core Competencies that guide residency program curriculums include CRM skills; however, EM residency programs are not given specific instructions as to how to teach these skills to their trainees. This article describes a simulation-based CRM course designed specifically for novice EM residents. Methods The CRM course includes an introductory didactic presentation followed by a series of simulation scenarios and structured debriefs. The course is designed to use observational learning within simulation education to decrease the time and resources required for implementation. To assess the effectiveness in improving team CRM skills, two independent raters use a validated CRM global rating scale to measure the CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns in a pretest and posttest during the course. Results The CRM course improved leadership, problem solving, communication, situational awareness, teamwork, resource utilization and overall CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns. While the improvement from pretest to posttest did not reach statistical significance for this pilot study, the large effect sizes suggest that statistical significance may be achieved with a larger sample size. Conclusion This course can feasibly be incorporated into existing EM residency curriculums to provide EM trainees with basic CRM skills required of successful emergency physicians. We believe integrating CRM training early into existing EM education encourages continued deliberate practice, discussion, and improvement of essential CRM skills. PMID:29383082

  12. Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate based dental filling and regeneration materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-K; Lim, B-S; Kim, C-W

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) for possible dental applications with varied liquid and powder compositions under the same testing condition. Cements studied in this experiment were divided into two groups of CPC not containing polymer and polymeric CPC (PCPC). Cement powder was formed by combining equimolar amounts of dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and tetracalcium phosphate, or acrylic resin polymer powder mixture. The CPC specimens for the compressive strength (CS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) measurements were prepared by mixing powder and liquid for 30 s with a powder/liquid ratio of 3:1, and subsequently packing the paste into a brass mould. The specimens were kept at 37 degrees C and 100% relative humidity for 24 h before measurements were conducted on a Universal Testing Machine with a cross-head speed of 1 mm min-1. The CS of CPC was 0.14-10.29 MPa and that of PCPC was 0.26-117.58 MPa. The DTS of CPC was 0.10-4.56 MPa and that of PCPC was 0.07-22.54 MPa. The CS and DTS were very diverse depending on the composition of powder and liquid. Some compositions showed higher values than commercial liners. Thus compositions of 2% carboxymethyl cellulose + 35% citric acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 20% gelatin in PBS, 2% sodium alginate in PBS, 20-40% aqueous acrylic-maleic copolymer solution, and some of the HPMC and PMVE-Ma solutions exhibited promising formulae for dentine regenerating materials. Acrylic resin-PCPC group showed generally higher CS and DTS values. Based on this study, further studies on the reaction with odontoblast and resultant dentine regeneration should be performed using promising compositions.

  13. Filling the Gap: Simulation-based Crisis Resource Management Training for Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jessica R; Crichlow, Amanda; Ponnuru, Srikala; Shewokis, Patricia A; Goswami, Varsha; Griswold, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    In today's team-oriented healthcare environment, high-quality patient care requires physicians to possess not only medical knowledge and technical skills but also crisis resource management (CRM) skills. In emergency medicine (EM), the high acuity and dynamic environment makes CRM skills of physicians particularly critical to healthcare team success. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medicine Education Core Competencies that guide residency program curriculums include CRM skills; however, EM residency programs are not given specific instructions as to how to teach these skills to their trainees. This article describes a simulation-based CRM course designed specifically for novice EM residents. The CRM course includes an introductory didactic presentation followed by a series of simulation scenarios and structured debriefs. The course is designed to use observational learning within simulation education to decrease the time and resources required for implementation. To assess the effectiveness in improving team CRM skills, two independent raters use a validated CRM global rating scale to measure the CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns in a pretest and posttest during the course. The CRM course improved leadership, problem solving, communication, situational awareness, teamwork, resource utilization and overall CRM skills displayed by teams of EM interns. While the improvement from pretest to posttest did not reach statistical significance for this pilot study, the large effect sizes suggest that statistical significance may be achieved with a larger sample size. This course can feasibly be incorporated into existing EM residency curriculums to provide EM trainees with basic CRM skills required of successful emergency physicians. We believe integrating CRM training early into existing EM education encourages continued deliberate practice, discussion, and improvement of essential CRM skills.

  14. PZT-Based Detection of Compactness of Concrete in Concrete Filled Steel Tube Using Time Reversal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart aggregate-based approach is proposed for the concrete compactness detection of concrete filled steel tube (CFST columns. The piezoceramic-based smart aggregates (SAs were embedded in the predetermined locations prior to the casting of concrete columns to establish a wave-based smart sensing system for the concrete compactness detection purpose. To evaluate the efficiency of the developed approach, six specimens of the CFST columns with the rectangular cross-section were produced by placing some artificial defects during casting of concrete for simulating various uncompacted voids such as cavities, cracks, and debond. During the test, the time reversal technology was applied to rebuild the received signals and launch the reversed signals again by SAs, to overcome the issue of the lack of the prototype. Based on the proposed nonprototype, two indices of time reversibility (TR and symmetry (SYM were applied to relatively evaluate the level of concrete compactness in the range of the two SAs. The experimental results show that the developed method can effectively detect the compactness of concrete in CFST columns.

  15. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF ALLOY 152 WELD BUTTER NEAR THE LOW ALLOY STEEL INTERFACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreanu, Bogdan; Chen, Yiren; Natesan, Ken; Shack, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain SCC growth data in Alloy 152 weld butter near the interface with Low Alloy Steel (LAS), which is a region where some dilution of Cr was expected to have occurred, thus presumably exhibiting an increased SCC-susceptibility vs. the bulk of the weld. The LAS piece used in this application was Alloy 533-Gr B from the Midland reactor lower head, and the Alloy 152 weld butter received a prototypical Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) prior to joining by Alloy 152 to an Alloy 690 piece according to a procedure qualified to ASME IX. The compact tension specimens for SCC testing were aligned in the first layer of the Alloy 152 butter. The experimental approach based on tracking environmental enhancement vs. location was successful in identifying SCC-susceptible locations, and SCC rates ranging from 10-12 m/s to as high as 10-10 m/s were measured. The post-test examination of the specimens found that the fracture had the intergranular/interdendritic appearance typical of welds, and that the propagation was arrested wherever an intersection with the LAS occurred. The large range of SCC rates measured does not appear to correlate well with the local concentration of Cr (approx. 25% at the SCC locations), and, in fact, low Cr (20%) – high Fe “streaks” seemed to slow/arrest crack propagation. In short, simple “Cr dilution” does not seem to fully account for the “SCC-susceptible” microstructure that yielded the 10-10 m/s growth rate in this weld.

  16. [Design and implementation of real-time control of changes to national Chinese medicine resources fill system based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Li, Jun-de; Cheng, Meng; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhong-Bin; Shen, Yi-Hua; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The dynamic monitoring data of traditional Chinese medicine resources is one of the important tasks of the dynamic monitoring system of Chinese medicine resources,the system has formed a periodic monitoring data reporting mechanism. Data authenticity and accuracy are the basis for the sustainable and healthy development of Chinese medicine resources dynamic monitoring,information technology is an effective means to improve the efficiency of data reporting, reporting quality. Data production based on dynamic monitoring is of great significance for grasp the trend of change and development of Chinese medicine resources. In order to achieve the real-time control of changes to the national Chinese medicine resources, we build the Chinese medicine resources dynamic monitoring system. In order to solve the problems in practice, we have upgraded the fill system by using the data of GIS. In order to achieve the multidimensional, improve safety, practicality and standardization of the data, which laid a foundation for subsequent processing of data. The system can collect the information of the cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines,production and sales of daily reporting data, provide the Chinese herbal medicine market,fast growing industry environment such as positioning center. In this paper, the design and implementation of the system are expounded.According to the business requirements, we designed 12 forms, 98 collection indicators to meet the needs of dynamic monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine resources. This paper will introduce the development content, design and implementation, main function characteristics and application effect of the national Chinese medicine resources fill System. To explain the role that GIS technology plays in the system and how to realize the cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines, production and sales of daily reporting data, provide the Chinese herbal medicine market,fast growing industry environment such as positioning center

  17. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (Pbutter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on butter flavor and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A J; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Dean, L L; Drake, M A

    2008-02-01

    Butter is often stored for extended periods of time; therefore, it is important for manufacturers to know the refrigerated and frozen shelf life. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the sensory and physical characteristics of butter. Fresh butter was obtained on 2 occasions from 2 facilities in 113-g sticks and 4-kg bulk blocks (2 facilities, 2 package forms). Butters were placed into both frozen (-20 degrees C) and refrigerated storage (5 degrees C). Frozen butters were sampled after 0, 6, 12, 15, and 24 mo; refrigerated butters were sampled after 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 mo. Every 3 mo, oxidative stability index (OSI) and descriptive sensory analysis (texture, flavor, and color) were conducted. Every 6 mo, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFV), fatty acid profiling, vane, instrumental color, and oil turbidity were examined. A mixed-model ANOVA was conducted to characterize the effects of storage time, temperature, and package type. Storage time, temperature, and package type affected butter flavor, OSI, PV, and FFV. Refrigerated butter quarters exhibited refrigerator/stale off-flavors concurrent with increased levels of oxidation (lower oxidative stability and higher PV and FFV) within 6 mo of refrigerated storage, and similar trends were observed for refrigerated bulk butter after 9 mo. Off-flavors were not evident in frozen butters until 12 or 18 mo for quarters and bulk butters, respectively. Off-flavors in frozen butters were not correlated with instrumental oxidation measurements. Because butter is such a desirable fat source in terms of flavor and textural properties, it is important that manufacturers understand how long their product can be stored before negative attributes develop.

  19. Modeling phosphate transport and removal in a compact bed filled with a mineral-based sorbent for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Inga; Jourak, Amir; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hedström, Annelie; Lundström, T Staffan; Viklander, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Phosphorus filter units containing mineral-based sorbents with a high phosphate (PO4) binding capacity have been shown to be appropriate for removing PO4 in the treatment of domestic wastewater in on-site facilities. However, a better understanding of their PO4 removal mechanisms, and reactions that could lead to the formation of PO4 compounds, is required to evaluate the potential utility of candidate sorbents. Models based on data obtained from laboratory-scale experiments with columns of selected materials can be valuable for acquiring such understanding. Thus, in this study the transport and removal of PO4 in experiments with a laboratory-scale column filled with a commercial silicate-based sorbent were modeled, using the hydro-geochemical transport code PHREEQC. The resulting models, that incorporated the dissolution of calcite, kinetic constrains for the dissolution of calcium oxide (CaO) and wollastonite (CaSiO3), and the precipitation of amorphous tricalcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2, successfully simulated the removal of PO4 observed in the experiments. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding butter with elevated content of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid to lean rats does not impair glucose tolerance or muscle insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanson, Amanda; Hopkins, Loren E; AlZahal, Ousama; Ritchie, Ian R; MacDonald, Tara; Wright, David C; McBride, Brian W; Dyck, David J

    2014-06-23

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of isolated CLA supplementation on glucose homeostasis in humans and rodents. However, both the amount and relative abundance of CLA isomers in supplemental form are not representative of what is consumed from natural sources. No study to date has examined the effects of altered CLA isomer content within a natural food source. Our goal was to increase the content of the insulin desensitizing CLAt10,c12 isomer relative to the CLAc9,t11 isomer in cow's milk by inducing subacute rumenal acidosis (SARA), and subsequently investigate the effects of this milk fat on parameters related to glucose and insulin tolerance in rats. We fed female rats (~2.5 to 3 months of age) CLA t10,c12 -enriched (SARA) butter or non-SARA butter based diets for 4 weeks in either low (10% of kcal from fat; 0.18% total CLA by weight) or high (60% of kcal from fat; 0.55% total CLA by weight) amounts. In an effort to extend these findings, we then fed rats high (60% kcal) amounts of SARA or non-SARA butter for a longer duration (8 weeks) and assessed changes in whole body glucose, insulin and pyruvate tolerance in comparison to low fat and 60% lard conditions. There was a main effect for increased fasting blood glucose and insulin in SARA vs. non-SARA butter groups after 4 weeks of feeding (p butter, but not glucose or pyruvate tolerance. The non-SARA butter did not impair tolerance to glucose, insulin or pyruvate. This study suggests that increasing the consumption of a naturally enriched CLAt10,c12 source, at least in rats, has minimal impact on whole body glucose tolerance or muscle specific insulin response.

  1. Antimicrobial Membranes of Bio-Based PA 11 and HNTs Filled with Lysozyme Obtained by an Electrospinning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bugatti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based membranes were obtained using Polyamide 11 (PA11 from renewable sources and a nano-hybrid composed of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs filled with lysozyme (50 wt % of lysozyme, as a natural antimicrobial molecule. Composites were prepared using an electrospinning process, varying the nano-hybrid loading (i.e., 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 wt %. The morphology of the membranes was investigated through SEM analysis and there was found to be a narrow average fiber diameter (0.3–0.5 μm. The mechanical properties were analyzed and correlated to the nano-hybrid content. Controlled release of lysozyme was followed using UV spectrophotometry and the release kinetics were found to be dependent on HNTs–lysozyme loading. The experimental results were analyzed by a modified Gallagher–Corrigan model. The application of the produced membranes, as bio-based pads, for extending the shelf life of chicken slices has been tested and evaluated.

  2. Tropical vegetable fats and butters: properties and new alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Salas Joaquín

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical fats and butters are characterized by their high contents of saturated fatty acids, which confer to them melting points and rheological properties adequate for the production of high valuable food commodities. We can distinguish 3 groups of tropical fats: those having medium chain fatty acids, like coconut or palm kernel oils, those rich in palmitic acid, like palm oil and its fractions, and those rich in stearic acid like cocoa butter. Modern biotechnology has provided with alternatives to these species in engineered common oil crops enriched in saturated fatty acids and processes aimed to enrich common oils in disaturated TAGs by enzymatic transesterification. The present and future of these new sources of saturated fats are discussed in this work.

  3. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  4. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-01-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg. PMID:6808919

  5. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-01-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg.

  6. Occurrence of aflatoxins in oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, S J

    1982-05-01

    Four oilseeds providing cocoa-butter substitutes--shea, pentadecima, illipe, and salseed--when tested as substrates for aflatoxin production by two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus, gave varying levels of aflatoxin. Aflatoxins were found at low levels occurring naturally in moldy shea-nuts, but none of 21 commercial shea-nut samples contained greater than 20 micrograms of aflatoxin B1 per kg.

  7. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  8. Rheo-NMR Measurements of Cocoa Butter Crystallized Under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, E.; Mazzanti, G.

    2009-01-01

    Modifications of a benchtop NMR instrument were made to apply temperature control to a shearing NMR cell. This has enabled the determination in situ of the solid fat content (SFC) of cocoa butter under shearing conditions. The cocoa butter was cooled at 3 C/min to three final temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 C with applied shear rates between 45 and 720 s-1. Polymorphic transitions of the cocoa butter were determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with an identical shearing system constructed of Lexan. Sheared samples were shown to have accelerated phase transitions compared to static experiments. In experiments where form V was confirmed to be the dominant polymorph, the final SFC averaged around 50%. However, when other polymorphic forms were formed, a lower SFC was measured because the final temperature was within the melting range of that polymorph and only partial crystallization happened. A shear rate of 720 s-1 delayed phase transitions, likely due to viscous heating of the sample. Pulsed NMR is an invaluable tool for determining the crystalline fraction in hydrogen containing materials, yet its use for fundamental and industrial research on fat or alkanes crystallization under shear has only recently been developed.

  9. Contemporary carbon content of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, T; Ondov, J M; Buchholz, B A; VanDerveer, M C

    2016-01-01

    The fraction of naturally produced bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous plasticizer known to contaminate packaged foods, was determined for each of five 1.10 kg samples of unsalted market butter by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After extraction and concentration enrichment with liquid-liquid extraction, flash column chromatography, and preparative-scale high performance liquid chromatography, each sample provided ≈ 250 μg extracts of DEHP with carbon purity ranging from 92.5 ± 1.2% (n = 3, 1σ) to 97.1 ± 0.8% (n = 3, 1σ) as measured with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After corrections for method blank DEHP, co-eluting compounds, and unidentified carbon, the mean fraction of naturally produced DEHP in butter was determined to be 0.16 ± 0.12 (n = 5, 1σ). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the contemporary fraction of DEHP isolated from market butter in the U.S. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The excipient properties of shea butter compared with vaseline and lanolin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioune, Oumar; Khouma, Barham; Diarra, Mounibé; Diop, Alioune B; Lô, Issa

    2003-01-01

    A shea butter ointment containing 3% aureomycin (clortetracyclin hydrocloride) was prepared and some of its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were evaluated. Then, the release of the active ingredient was compared by UV spectrophotometry with those obtained when excipients such as petroleum jelly and lanoline were used. Results had shown that the shea butter ointment had satisfactory characteristics. In the other hand, it was found that shea butter released the aureomycin easily and at a faster rate than the other excipients.

  11. Use of landsat ETM+ SLC-off segment-based gap-filled imagery for crop type mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, S.K.; Craig, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) on the Landsat ETM+ sensor has had a major impact on many applications that rely on continuous medium resolution imagery to meet their objectives. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Cropland Data Layer (CDL) program uses Landsat imagery as the primary source of data to produce crop-specific maps for 20 states in the USA. A new method has been developed to fill the image gaps resulting from the SLC failure to support the needs of Landsat users who require coincident spectral data, such as for crop type mapping and monitoring. We tested the new gap-filled method for a CDL crop type mapping project in eastern Nebraska. Scan line gaps were simulated on two Landsat 5 images (spring and late summer 2003) and then gap-filled using landscape boundary models, or segment models, that were derived from 1992 and 2002 Landsat images (used in the gap-fill process). Various date combinations of original and gap-filled images were used to derive crop maps using a supervised classification process. Overall kappa values were slightly higher for crop maps derived from SLC-off gap-filled images compared to crop maps derived from the original imagery (0.3–1.3% higher). Although the age of the segment model used to derive the SLC-off gap-filled product did not negatively impact the overall agreement, differences in individual cover type agreement did increase (−0.8%–1.6% using the 2002 segment model to −5.0–5.1% using the 1992 segment model). Classification agreement also decreased for most of the classes as the size of the segment used in the gap-fill process increased.

  12. Image-Based 3D Treatment Planning for Vaginal Cylinder Brachytherapy: Dosimetric Effects of Bladder Filling on Organs at Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Jennifer; Shen Sui; De Los Santos, Jennifer F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States); Kim, Robert Y., E-mail: rkim@uabmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama Medical Center, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric effects of bladder filling on organs at risk (OARs) using three-dimensional image-based treatment planning for vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with endometrial or cervical cancer underwent postoperative high-dose rate vaginal cylinder brachytherapy. For three-dimensional planning, patients were simulated by computed tomography with an indwelling catheter in place (empty bladder) and with 180 mL of sterile water instilled into the bladder (full bladder). The bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and small bowel (OARs) were contoured, and a prescription dose was generated for 10 to 35 Gy in 2 to 5 fractions at the surface or at 5 mm depth. For each OAR, the volume dose was defined by use of two different criteria: the minimum dose value in a 2.0-cc volume receiving the highest dose (D{sub 2cc}) and the dose received by 50% of the OAR volume (D{sub 50%}). International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bladder and rectum point doses were calculated for comparison. The cylinder-to-bowel distance was measured using the shortest distance from the cylinder apex to the contoured sigmoid or small bowel. Statistical analyses were performed with paired t tests. Results: Mean bladder and rectum D{sub 2cc} values were lower than their respective ICRU doses. However, differences between D{sub 2cc} and ICRU doses were small. Empty vs. full bladder did not significantly affect the mean cylinder-to-bowel distance (0.72 vs. 0.92 cm, p = 0.08). In contrast, bladder distention had appreciable effects on bladder and small bowel volume dosimetry. With a full bladder, the mean small bowel D{sub 2cc} significantly decreased from 677 to 408 cGy (p = 0.004); the mean bladder D{sub 2cc} did not increase significantly (1,179 cGy vs. 1,246 cGy, p = 0.11). Bladder distention decreased the mean D{sub 50%} for both the bladder (441 vs. 279 cGy, p = 0.001) and the small bowel (168 vs. 132 cGy, p = 0.001). Rectum

  13. Highly Efficient Porphyrin-Based OPV/Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells with Extended Photoresponse and High Fill Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ke; Zhu, Zonglong; Xu, Bo; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kan, Yuanyuan; Peng, Xiaobin; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2017-12-01

    Employing a layer of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic semiconductors on top of perovskite to further extend its photoresponse is considered as a simple and promising way to enhance the efficiency of perovskite-based solar cells, instead of using tandem devices or near infrared (NIR)-absorbing Sn-containing perovskites. However, the progress made from this approach is quite limited because very few such hybrid solar cells can simultaneously show high short-circuit current (J SC ) and fill factor (FF). To find an appropriate NIR-absorbing BHJ is essential for highly efficient, organic, photovoltaics (OPV)/perovskite hybrid solar cells. The materials involved in the BHJ layer not only need to have broad photoresponse to increase J SC , but also possess suitable energy levels and high mobility to afford high V OC and FF. In this work, a new porphyrin is synthesized and blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to function as an efficient BHJ for OPV/perovskite hybrid solar cells. The extended photoresponse, well-matched energy levels, and high hole mobility from optimized BHJ morphology afford a very high power conversion efficiency (PCE) (19.02%) with high V oc , J SC , and FF achieved simultaneously. This is the highest value reported so far for such hybrid devices, which demonstrates the feasibility of further improving the efficiency of perovskite devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. RESEARCH CONCERNING INSTALATION OF ALTERATIVE PROCESSES IN COW AND BUFFALO BUTTER DURING FREEZING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Lup –Dragomir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and freshness indicators of cow and buffalo butter during freezing (-15 ... -18oC storage were studied. Changes in freshness parameters and alterative processes installation, when butter becomes improperly for consumption were studied, inducing acidity, peroxide value (PV, iodine value (IV andthe presence of epyhidrinic aldehyde. There was an increase of titrable acidity during storage, cow butter hydrolysis was installed after 35 days and after 30 days for buffalo butter. Hydrolysis processes are installed more quickly in terms of freezing than oxidative processes, being intensified by a higher water content inproduct and by hydrolitic enzymes presence.

  15. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material used ...

  16. Association between dental amalgam fillings and Alzheimer's disease: a population-based cross-sectional study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Hua; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Huang, Jing-Yang; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-11-12

    The potential effects of amalgam fillings on the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between dental amalgam fillings and Alzheimer's disease in Taiwanese population aged 65 and older. Data were retrieved from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID 2005 and 2010). The study enrolled 1,943,702 beneficiaries from the LHID database. After excluding death cases and individuals aged 65 and under, 207,587 enrollees were finally involved in the study. Dental amalgam fillings are coded as 89001C, 89002C, 89003C, 89101C, 89102C, or 89103C in the national health insurance research database (NHIRD). Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 331.0. Individuals exposed to amalgam fillings had higher risk of Alzheimer's disease (odds ratio, OR = 1.105, 95 % confidence interval, CI = 1.025-1.190) than their non-exposed counterparts. Further analysis showed that the odds ratio of Ahlzheimer's disease was 1.07 (95 % CI = 0.962-1.196) in men and 1.132 (95 % CI = 1.022-1.254) in women. Women who were exposed to amalgam fillings were 1.132 times more likely to have Alzheimer's disease than were their non-exposed counterparts.

  17. Synchrotron-based phase contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography reveals delaminations and material tearing in water-expandable root fillings ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.; Farack, L.; Wilde, F.; Shemesh, H.; Zaslansky, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated the integrity of calcium silicate sealer–based fillings made with hygro-expandable cones (HEC) that are commercially known as CPoint or Smartpoint. Methods: Fourteen human canines were prepared according to a standardized, conventional endodontic treatment protocol

  18. Application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis for rapid estimation of butter adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzlillah, Nurrulhidayah Ahmad; Rohman, Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khatib, Alfi

    2013-01-01

    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.

  19. Survival and Heat Resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Peanut Butter ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Significant differences (P butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment. PMID:21965404

  20. Survival and heat resistance of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingshu; Guo, Dongjing; Yang, Jingyun; Tortorello, Mary Lou; Zhang, Wei

    2011-12-01

    Significant differences (P butter with different formulations and water activity. High carbohydrate content in peanut butter and low incubation temperature resulted in higher levels of bacterial survival during storage but lower levels of bacterial resistance to heat treatment.

  1. Trace-level determination of polar flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adahchour, M; Vreuls, R J; van der Heijden, A; Brinkman, U A

    1999-06-04

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aromas of butter. A simple technique for the determination of these components is described which is based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) after melting of the butter and separation of the aqueous phase from the fat. Volatile flavours present in the water fraction are collected by off-line SPE on cartidges packed with a copolymer sorbent. After desorption with 500 microliters of methyl acetate, 1-microliter aliquots are quantified and/or identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The procedure was tested with respect to recovery, linearity and limit of detection in real-life samples using five polar model analytes. It allows the characterisation of polar flavour compounds in butter prior to and after heat treatment at 170 degrees C. From the five model compounds, vanillin, traces of diacetyl and maltol were found to be present in the butter samples. After heat treatment 500-1000-fold increased concentration of maltol, and substantial amounts of furaneol were detected.

  2. Ultrasensitive Mach-Zehnder Interferometric Temperature Sensor Based on Liquid-Filled D-Shaped Fiber Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A liquid-filled D-shaped fiber (DF cavity serving as an in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated for temperature sensing with ultrahigh sensitivity. The miniature MZI is constructed by splicing a segment of DF between two single-mode fibers (SMFs to form a microcavity (MC for filling and replacement of various refractive index (RI liquids. By adjusting the effective RI difference between the DF and MC (the two interference arms, experimental and calculated results indicate that the interference spectra show different degrees of temperature dependence. As the effective RI of the liquid-filled MC approaches that of the DF, temperature sensitivity up to −84.72 nm/°C with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9953 has been experimentally achieved for a device with the MC length of 456 μm, filled with liquid RI of 1.482. Apart from ultrahigh sensitivity, the proposed MCMZI device possesses additional advantages of its miniature size and simple configuration; these features make it promising and competitive in various temperature sensing applications, such as consumer electronics, biological treatments, and medical diagnosis.

  3. The role of mixing temperature on microstructure and rheological properties of butter blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that the rheological properties of butter blends can be modified by the applied mixing temperature. Blends were prepared by mixing 10 or 25% of rapeseed oil (RO) with butter, at three different temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C). Afterwards the blends were stored at 5 ...

  4. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of shea butter under tropical climatic conditions. Five packaging materials traditionally used in shea butter value chain were tested for their efficacy in storing shea butter freshly produced. Total germs, yeasts and mould varied with packaging materials and storage duration. After 2 months of storage, moisture content of butter remained constant (5%) whereas acid value increased from 3.3 to 5.4 mg KOH/g, peroxide value from 8.1 to 10.1 meq O2/kg and iodine value dropped from 48.8 to 46.2 mg I2/100 g in shea butter irrespectively to the storage materials used. The basket papered with jute bag was the less effective in ensuring the quality of butter during storage while plastic containers and plastic bags seemed to be the best packaging materials.

  5. Quality of traditionally processed shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels and shea butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    The shea tree is an endogenous and multipurpose tree from the Savanah zone of Africa, mostly used for its fruits and the fat extracted from its kernels, commonly known as shea butter. The butter is used for cooking and medicinal purposes by local populations, and

  6. Nutritional Composition of Shea Products and Chemical Properties of Shea Butter: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Akissoe, N.; Linnemann, A.R.; Soumanou, M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand of shea products (kernels and butter) has led to the assessment of the state-of-the-art of these products. In this review, attention has been focused on macronutrients and micronutrients of pulp, kernels, and butter of shea tree and also the physicochemical properties of shea

  7. Optimizing Microwave-assisted Crude Butter Extraction from Carabao Mango (Mangifera indica Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo V. Casas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabao mangoes are among the highly produced fruit crops in the Philippines. The processing and consumption of carabao mangoes leave a significant amount of waste seeds. Mango kernel butter extracted from waste seed kernels is a potential additive to cosmetic products or as a cocoa butter substitute. This study determined the pretreatment conditions that produce optimum yield prior to the mechanical extraction of the crude butter. Moreover, this study provided a general sensory evaluation of the finished product. Microwave power (160, 500, and 850 W, microwave exposure time (2.0, 3.5, and 5.0 min, and size levels (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mm were tested for their effects on the yield of the mechanically extracted crude butter in wet basis percentage. The optimization procedures resulted to optimum pretreatment conditions of 160 W, 4.25 min, and 1.5 mm. Size level was the most significant factor in the crude butter yield. Sensory evaluation of the crude butter extracted at optimum pretreatment conditions through acceptance test by a test panel resulted to below neutral scores in visual appearance and odor, and above neutral score in texture, indicating the potential of mango butter as a good substitute to cocoa butter in cosmetic products.

  8. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    either butter (B) or an interesterified mixture (IM) of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT),and safflower oils. Blood drawn during weeks 5 and 10 of feeding was analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C),LDL-C, and triacylglycerols (TAG). Mean plasma levels...

  9. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  10. Phase equilibria and physical properties of CO2-saturated cocoa butter mixtures at elevated pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, M.J.; Willems, P.; Kareth, S.; Weidner, E.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The melting point and phase behaviour of cocoa butter under CO2 pressure were observed in a high-pressure view cell. The melting point decreases from 35 to 23 °C at CO2 pressures higher than 5 MPa. A static analytical procedure was used to measure the solubility of CO2 in cocoa butter at 40, 80 and

  11. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. Objective: To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter Methods: A total of 60 random ...

  12. Computation of order and volume fill rates for a base stock inventory control system with heterogeneous demand to investigate which customer class gets the best service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one ...... customer class will get the best service. That theoretical result is validated through a series of numerical experiments which also reveal that it is quite robust.......We consider a base stock inventory control system serving two customer classes whose demands are generated by two independent compound renewal processes. We show how to derive order and volume fill rates of each class. Based on assumptions about first order stochastic dominance we prove when one...

  13. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 American

  14. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based......To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon...... at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the whole value chain—from cow to consumer—is essential for efficient production....

  15. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from...

  16. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption......,of cheese and butter (animal fat) for each study. FAO's food balance sheets were used to classify the countries according to consumption trends of these foodstuffs. Results: In all countries higher social classes used more cheese than lower classes. The results for butter were less consistent. In the Nordic...... countries higher social classes used less butter than lower ones. In the other countries an opposite pattern or no differences could be observed. However, in countries where the use of both butter and animal fats could be analysed, animal fats were used more by the lower social classes. Conclusions: Higher...

  17. Polymorphism, microstructure and rheology of butter. Effects of cream heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian

    2012-12-01

    The effect of cream heat treatment prior to butter manufacturing, fluctuating temperatures during storage and presence of fat globules vs. no fat globules was examined in laboratory scale produced butter. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry was used to study crystallization behaviour and nuclear magnetic resonance to measure solid fat content and water droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the crystal structure was linked to the rheological properties and microstructure of the butter using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Butter produced from non-matured cream mainly formed α- and β'-crystals with minor traces of β-crystals. Maturing of the cream caused a transition from α- to β'- and β-form. The rheological behaviour of slow cooled butter deviated from the matured ones by having a lower elastic modulus, caused by a weaker crystal network. Presence of fat globules did not affect the rheological properties significantly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G; Losi, G; Frega, N; Lercker, G; Cocchi, M; Gori, A; Cerretani, L

    2012-01-01

    The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation) ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not all fats are harmful

  19. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a flowable resin composite (SDR) bulk fill technique in posterior restorations and to compare it intraindividually with a conventional 2mm resin composite curing technique in a 3-year....... In all cavities a single step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In one of the cavities of each pair, a flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with a nano......-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  20. A comparison between the order and the volume fill rates for a base-stock inventory control system under a compound renewal demand process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Thorstenson, Anders

    The order fill rate is less commonly used than the volume fill rate (most often just denoted fill rate) as a performance measure for inventory control systems. However, in settings where the focus is on filling customer orders rather than total quantities, the order fill rate should...

  1. Apical root-end filling with tricalcium silicate-based cement in a patient with diabetes mellitus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biočanin Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The material used for root-end filling has to be biocompatible with adjacent periapical tissue and to stimulate its regenerative processes. Tricalcium silicate cement (TSC, as a new dental material, shows good sealing properties with dentin, high compression strengths and better marginal adaptation than commonly used root-end filling materials. Although optimal postoperative healing of periapical tissues is mainly influenced by characteristics of end-root material used, it could sometimes be affected by the influence of systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM. Case report. We presented apical healing of the upper central incisor, retrofilled with TSC, in a diabetic patient (type 2 DM with peripheral neuropathy. Standard root-end resection of upper central incisor was accompanied by retropreparation using ultrasonic retrotips to the depth of 3 mm and retrofilling with TSC. Post-operatively, the surgical wound healed uneventfully. However, the patient reported undefined dull pain in the operated area that could possibly be attributed to undiagnosed intraoral diabetic peripheral neuropathy, what was evaluated clinically. Conclusion. Although TSC presents a suitable material for apical root-end filling in the treatment of chronic periradicular lesions a possible presence of systemic diseases, like type 2 DM, has to be considered in the treatment outcome estimation.

  2. Milk and butter. From the Neolithic to the current nutritional aspects

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    G. Caramia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution in the history of nutrition knowledge towards dairy products, is strictly related to the socio-cultural development of humans. In fact, milk and butter have accompanied humans since ancient times, which traces of the consumption of such products are dated back about the earliest times after the last (glaciation ice age, while the application for extra nutritional uses, such as cosmetics and ceremonial rites, are reported in the writings of the Old Testament. Even in Italy, before the Roman Empire, were known rudimentary techniques of production and storage of dairy products. But only with the advent of the Etruscans, and the Romans later, that the use of milk and dairy products reach a wide diffusion in several applications. Since the advent of Christ until today, milk and its derivatives have maintained a privileged place in the human diet, but it is only with the advent of modern medicine and new findings in lipidic chemistry that emerged multiple biological and nutritional properties, very important for human health. After a short summary of the ancient history of the milk and butter, the role of dairy products in cancer, in hypercholesterolemia, and cardiovascular disease are reported. Moreover, the current opinions on saturated fatty acids, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their lipid mediators obtained by the action of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and the cytochrome P450 enzymes, are treated. Even if sometimes mistreated, the milk, but most of all its high fat content derivatives such as butter, is a rich source of biologically active compounds that foster a controversial action against neolplastic and cardiovascular disease. These compounds, mainly contained in the lipid fraction, for the more obvious relationships that exist between nutrition and health status, have been the subject in the last decades of intense scientific investigation in which there were expressed lights and shadows, but recognizing that not

  3. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2012-09-15

    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Kinetics Study on Electrical Resistivity Transition of In Situ Polymer Aging Sensors Based on Carbon-Black-Filled Epoxy Conductive Polymeric Composites (CPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qizhen; Nyugen, Mark T.; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Watkins, Ken; Morato, Lilian T.; Wong, Ching Ping

    2013-06-01

    Sensors based on carbon-black-filled bisphenol A-type epoxy conductive polymeric composites (CPCs) have been prepared and applied to monitor thermal oxidation aging of polymeric materials. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is applied to characterize weight loss of epoxy resin in the aging process. By using a mathematical model based on the Boltzmann equation, a relationship between the electrical resistivity of the sensors based on epoxy/carbon black composites and aging time is established, making it possible to monitor and estimate the aging status of polymeric components in situ based on a fast and convenient electrical resistance measurement.

  5. Long-Term Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Filled with Various Calcium Silicate-Based Materials

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    Yeliz Guven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term fracture resistance of simulated human immature permanent teeth filled with BioAggregate™ (BA, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, and EndoSequence® Root Repair Material (ERRM. Material and Methods. 40 teeth, simulated to average root length of 13±1 mm (Cvek’s stage 3, were included in the study. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: DiaRoot® BA, Group 2: MTA-Plus™ (MTA-P, Group 3: MTA-Angelus (MTA-A, and Group 4: ERRM. The root canal filling materials were applied according to the manufacturers’ instructions. After 24 months of incubation, the roots of the teeth were embedded in acrylic blocks and subjected to fracture testing. The resultant data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results. Mean (±SD failure loads (MPa were 20.46±2.53 for BA, 18.88±5.13 for MTA-P, 14.12±1.99 for MTA-A, and 17.65±4.28 for ERRM groups. BA group exhibited the highest and MTA-A group showed the lowest resistance to fracture. Significant differences in fracture resistance were found between the groups of BA and MTA-A (p<0.001, MTA-P and MTA-A (p<0.05, and ERRM and MTA-A (p<0.05. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, data suggests that BA-filled immature teeth demonstrate higher fracture resistance than other groups at 24 months appearing to be the most promising material tested.

  6. An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

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    Dennis Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent changes to the common agricultural policy (CAP saw a shift to greater market orientation for the EU dairy industry. Given this reorientation, the volatility of EU dairy commodity prices has sharply increased, creating the need to develop proper risk management tools to protect farmers’ income and to ensure stable prices for processors and consumers. In addition, there is a perceived threat that these commodities may be replaced by cheaper substitutes, such as palm oil, as dairy commodity prices become more volatile. Global production of palm oil almost doubled over the last decade while butter production remained relatively flat. Palm oil also serves as a feedstock for biodiesel production, thus establishing a new link between agricultural commodities and crude oil. Price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices, as well as between butter, palm oil and crude oil prices, before and after the Luxembourg agreement, are analysed. Vector autoregression (VAR models are applied to capture price transmission effects between these markets. These are combined with a multivariate GARCH model to account for potential volatility transmission. Results indicate strong price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices. EU butter shocks further spillover to palm oil volatility. In addition, there is evidence that oil prices spillover to World butter prices and World butter volatility.

  7. An Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Animal Butter at the Market Level in Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzadazar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butter is one of the oldest dairy products known in the world and plays an important role in human nutrition. The aim of this study was evaluating of the microbial quality of traditional and industrial butter marketed in Zanjan. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 29 samples of butter were investigated in 2 groups which 24 samples were of traditionally producedl butter and 5 industrially produced butter samples, randomly collected from the market in Zanjan, Iran. All samples were evaluated for total bacterial count, Staphylococci, coliform, fungi and mold. Results: Fourteen samples of traditional butter had higher coliform load than allowed in standards. Eighteen samples were contaminated with Staphylococcus, and mold was found in 8 samples. Also, fifteen samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli. Among the industrial samples, one was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus but no contamination by coliform, Escherichia coli and mold and mold was observed. Conclusion: 58.33%, 75%, 33.33% and 62.5% of the traditional butter samples had higher coliform, Staphylococcus, mold and E. coli contamination, respectively than standard limit. One of the industrial samples was contaminated with Staphylococcus. It is recommended that higher supervision on the production and distribution of these products is applied.

  8. Thermal stability of butter oils produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA POP

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from non-pasteurized and pasteurized sheep’s milk were studied. Thermal stability of samples was estimated by using the accelerated shelf-life testing method. Samples were stored at 50, 60 and 70oC in the dark and the reaction was monitored by measuring peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. The peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of acid values of the two samples was not significant. A slight increase in free fatty acid value showed that hydrolytic reactions were not responsible for the deterioration of butter oil samples in thermal stability studies. When compared, butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk has higher thermal stability than butter oil produced from non-pasteurized sheep’s milk. Although butter oil produced from non-pasteurized milk was not exposed to any heat treatment, the shelf-life of this product was lower than the shelf-life of butter oil produced from pasteurized sheep’s milk. Therefore, heat treatment for pasteurization did not affect the thermal stability of butter oil.

  9. Characterization of butter spoiling yeasts and their inhibition by some spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Bayram, Okan; Kesmen, Zulal; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the yeasts in packaged and unpackaged butters and screen antiyeast activity of spices, including marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), and black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) against the most dominant yeast species in the packaged and unpackaged butters. Mean total yeast populations were 5.40 log CFU/g in unpackaged butter samples and 2.22 log CFU/g in packaged butter samples, indicating better hygienic quality of packaged samples. Forty-nine yeast species were isolated and identified from butter samples with the most prevalent isolates belonging to genera Candida-C. kefyr, C. zeylanoides, and C. lambica-and with moderate number of isolates belonging to genera Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. Black cumin exhibited the highest antiyeast activity against C. zeylanoides and C. lambica species, even inhibited these species, while summer savory inhibited C. kefyr. The results of this study revealed clear antimicrobial potential of black cumin against the yeast species isolated from butters. Marjoram, summer savory, and black cumin could be used as natural antimicrobial agents against spoilage yeasts in food preservation, especially in butter. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Dairy fat in cheese raises LDL cholesterol less than that in butter in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, P J; Chronopulos, A; Cehun, M

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether dairy fat in cheese raises low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as much as in butter, since epidemiology suggests a different impact on cardiovascular disease. A randomised crossover trial testing the daily consumption of 40 g dairy fat as butter or as matured cheddar cheese, each of 4 weeks duration, was preceded by and separated by 2-week periods when dietary fat was less saturated. Free-living volunteers. A total of 14 men and five women of mean age 56+/-8 y, with mean total cholesterol of 5.6+/-0.8 mmol/l. Plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol and glucose. Saturated fat intake was significantly lower during the run-in than during the cheese and butter periods. Mean lipid values did not differ significantly between the cheese and run-in periods, but total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher with butter: total cholesterol (mmol/l): butter 6.1+/-0.7; run-in 5.6+/-0.8 (P cheese 5.8+/-0.6 (P > 0.05); median LDL-C (mmol/l): butter 3.9 (3.5-4.1) vs run-in 3.4 (3.0-4.1) (P cheese 3.7 (3.3-3.9) (P > 0.05). Among 13 subjects whose initial LDL-C was >4 mmol/l, the difference between butter (4.4+/-0.3 mmol/l) and cheese (3.9+/-0.3 mmol/l) was significant (P = 0.014). HDL-C was highest with butter and triacylglycerol with cheese (neither was significant). A total of 40 g dairy fat eaten daily for 4 weeks as butter, but not as cheese, raised total and LDL cholesterol significantly compared with a diet containing significantly less saturated fat. Dietary advice regarding cheese consumption may require modification.

  11. A Highly Flexible Supercapacitor Based on MnO2/RGO Nanosheets and Bacterial Cellulose-Filled Gel Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojie Fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The flexible supercapacitors (SCs of the conventional sandwich-type structure have poor flexibility due to the large thickness of the final entire device. Herein, we have fabricated a highly flexible asymmetric SC using manganese dioxide (MnO2 and reduced graphene oxide (RGO nanosheet-piled hydrogel films and a novel bacterial cellulose (BC-filled polyacrylic acid sodium salt-Na2SO4 (BC/PAAS-Na2SO4 neutral gel electrolyte. Apart from being environmentally friendly, this BC/PAAS-Na2SO4 gel electrolyte has high viscosity and a sticky property, which enables it to combine two electrodes together. Meanwhile, the intertangling of the filled BC in the gel electrolyte hinders the decrease of the viscosity with temperature, and forms a separator to prevent the two electrodes from short-circuiting. Using these materials, the total thickness of the fabricated device does not exceed 120 μm. This SC device demonstrates high flexibility, where bending and even rolling have no obvious effect on the electrochemical performance. In addition, owing to the asymmetric configuration, the cell voltage of this flexible SC has been extended to 1.8 V, and the energy density can reach up to 11.7 Wh kg−1 at the power density of 441 W kg−1. This SC also exhibits a good cycling stability, with a capacitance retention of 85.5% over 5000 cycles.

  12. Study of the pore filling fraction of carbazole-based hole-transporting materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Ben Manaa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbazole-based molecular glasses have emerged as a promising alternative to the widely used hole-transporting materials (HTM spiro-OMeTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The pore filling fraction (PFF of the mesoporous TiO2 layer by the HTM appears as a key parameter determining the final efficiency of a DSSC. In this work, the pore-filling properties of a family of carbazole-based HTMs are investigated for the first time and the photovoltaic behavior of DSSC devices (fabricated using the D102 dye is discussed in light of the present findings. It is found that N-aryl substituted 3,6-bis(diphenylaminyl-carbazole derivatives exhibit relatively low PFF of ca. 60%. Methoxy groups on the diphenylamine moieties have little influence on the PFF, indicating that the strong enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE is not related to an improved filling of the pores by the HTM. N-alkylated HTMs lead to higher PFF, increasing with the alkyl chain length, up to 78%.

  13. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet.

  14. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    A complex mixture of chlorinated organic compounds is located in an unconfined carbonated bedrock aquifer with low permeability in a former industrial area next to Barcelona (NE Spain). The site exhibited an especially high complexity due to the presence of multiple contaminant sources, wide variety of pollutants (mainly chlorinated ethenes but also chlorinated methanes) and unknown system of fractures (Palau et al., 2014). Interception trenches were installed in the place of the removed pollution sources and were filled with construction wastes with the aim of retaining and treating the accumulated contaminated recharge water before reaching the aquifer. Recycled concrete-based aggregates from a construction and demolition waste recycling plant were used to maintain alkaline conditions in the water accumulated in the trenches (pH 11.6±0.3) and thus induce chloroform (CF) degradation by alkaline hydrolysis. An efficacy of around 30-40% CF degradation in the interception trenches was calculated from the significant and reproducible CF carbon isotopic fractionation (-53±3o obtained in batch experiments (Torrentó et al., 2014). Surprisingly, although hydrolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CT) is extremely slow, a significant CT carbon isotopic enrichment was also observed in the trenches. The laboratory experiments verified the low capability of concrete to hydrolyze the CT and showed the high adsorption of CT on the concrete particles (73% after 50 days) with invariability in its δ13C values. Therefore, the significant CT isotopic fractionation observed in the interception trenches could point out the occurrence of other degradation processes distinct than alkaline hydrolysis. Geochemical speciation modelling using the code PHREEQC showed that water collected at the trenches is supersaturated with respect to several iron oxy-hydroxides and therefore, CT degradation processes related to these iron minerals cannot be discarded. In addition, the combination of alkaline

  15. Large temperature sensitivity of fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer based on polymer-filled glass capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guilin; Yang, Minghong; Wang, Min

    2013-12-01

    A novel and low cost fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) is proposed. The EFPI is fabricated at the fiber tip by inserting a single mode fiber (SMF) into a partially polymer-filled glass capillary to form an air micro-cavity, which can be precisely controlled with a three-dimensional translation stage. The optimal EFPI has a loss less than 10 dB and a fringe visibility more than 30 dB. Application of the EFPI for temperature measurement is experimentally demonstrated. Due to the high thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of the polymer, the sensor exhibits a good linear response and large temperature sensitivity of ˜5.2 nm/°C, which is almost three orders larger than that of the current F-P temperature sensors. Therefore, it may be applied to the surrounding temperature sensing.

  16. Magnetic discharge accelerating diode for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators based on inertial confinement of ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskij, K. I.; Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Shatokhin, V. L.; Isaev, A. A.; Martynenko, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with magnetic discharge diode module with inertial electrostatic ions confinement for the gas-filled pulsed neutron generators. The basis of the design is geometry with the central hollow cathode surrounded by the outer cylindrical anode and electrodes made of permanent magnets. The induction magnitude about 0.1-0.4 T in the central region of the discharge volume ensures the confinement of electrons in the space of hollow (virtual) cathode and leads to space charge compensation of accelerated ions in the centre. The research results of different excitation modes in pulsed high-voltage discharge are presented. The stable form of the volume discharge preserveing the shape and amplitude of the pulse current in the pressure range of 10-3-10-1 Torr and at the accelerating voltage up to 200 kV was observed.

  17. Intradentinal antimicrobial action and filling quality promoted by ultrasonic agitation of epoxy resin-based sealer in endodontic obturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Amorso-Silva, Pablo Andrés; Andrade, Flaviana Bombarda de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of ultrasonic activation (UA) of AH Plus to improve canal and isthmus filing, and analyse the antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules. Thirty mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected and divided into 2 groups (n = 15): with and without UA of the sealer. Then the root canals were filled by using the single cone technique, and the specimens were sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex for stereomicroscope and confocal laser scanner microscopy (CLSM) analysis. In addition, 30 bovine incisors were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and divided into 3 groups (n = 10). The specimens were obturated by using the single cone technique with (G1) and without (G2) UA of the sealer and G3 as the control group. All were sectioned into 6 mm-long cylinders and stained with LIVE/DEAD to assess bacterial viability by CLSM. The UA of the sealer significantly reduced the presence of unfilled areas in the canal and isthmus area in all sections (p<0.05), and there was a significant increase in sealer penetration in both canals and isthmuses (p<0.05). As regards gaps, a significant reduction was found at 2 and 6 mm in the isthmus area of the UA group (p<0.05). Moreover, UA of the sealer significantly reduced bacterial viability in the superficial dentine when compared with the other groups (p<0.05). Ultrasonic activation of the AH Plus sealer promoted a better quality of root canal filling and increased the intratubular penetration of sealer, especially in the isthmus area. Additionally, ultrasonic activation of the sealer increased the intradentinal antimicrobial action against Enterococcus faecalis, mainly in the superficial dentine of the root canal.

  18. Intradentinal antimicrobial action and filling quality promoted by ultrasonic agitation of epoxy resin-based sealer in endodontic obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Priori Alcalde

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was evaluate the influence of ultrasonic activation (UA of AH Plus to improve canal and isthmus filing, and analyse the antimicrobial effect against Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules. Material and Methods: Thirty mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected and divided into 2 groups (n = 15: with and without UA of the sealer. Then the root canals were filled by using the single cone technique, and the specimens were sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex for stereomicroscope and confocal laser scanner microscopy (CLSM analysis. In addition, 30 bovine incisors were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and divided into 3 groups (n = 10. The specimens were obturated by using the single cone technique with (G1 and without (G2 UA of the sealer and G3 as the control group. All were sectioned into 6 mm-long cylinders and stained with LIVE/DEAD to assess bacterial viability by CLSM. Results: The UA of the sealer significantly reduced the presence of unfilled areas in the canal and isthmus area in all sections (p<0.05, and there was a significant increase in sealer penetration in both canals and isthmuses (p<0.05. As regards gaps, a significant reduction was found at 2 and 6 mm in the isthmus area of the UA group (p<0.05. Moreover, UA of the sealer significantly reduced bacterial viability in the superficial dentine when compared with the other groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Ultrasonic activation of the AH Plus sealer promoted a better quality of root canal filling and increased the intratubular penetration of sealer, especially in the isthmus area. Additionally, ultrasonic activation of the sealer increased the intradentinal antimicrobial action against Enterococcus faecalis, mainly in the superficial dentine of the root canal.

  19. Lack of correlation between tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and leakage in roots filled with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo; Silva Neto, Ulisses Xavier da; Carneiro, Everdan; Fariniuk, Luiz Fernando; Westphalen, Vânia Portela Ditzel; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches

    2014-01-01

    To analyze possible correlations among tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and apical leakage in fillings performed with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin. Sixty similar, extracted human mandibular central incisors were irrigated, instrumented and filled following the same protocol. First, apical leakage was quantified by fluid filtration tests. Then, these same specimens were sectioned for analysis of tubular dentine cement penetration and the middle thirds were submitted to push-out tests to analyze the adhesiveness of the fillings. In brief, the means and standard deviations with a confidence interval of 95% were as follows: tubular dentine cement penetration (8.875±4.540), adhesiveness (4.441±2.683) and apical leakage (0.318±0.215). The data were confronted using the Pearson's test (P>0.05), and it was possible to prove that there was no correlation between (1) tubular dentine cement penetration and apical leakage (r2: 0.08276), (2) tubular dentine cement penetration and adhesiveness (r2: -0.2412) and (3) adhesiveness and apical leakage (r2: 0.1340). After analysis of these data, it could be observed that there exists no correlation among the variables analyzed in this study.

  20. Process of nitrogen transformation and microbial community structure in the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier filled in biological aerated filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Li, Jinlong

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen pollutants in low-organic carbon wastewater are difficult to biodegrade. Therefore, the Fe(0)-carbon-based bio-carrier (FCBC) was firstly used as hydrogen producer in a biological-aerated filter (BAF) to make up for the lack of organic carbon in biological nitrogen removal. Physical and chemical properties of FCBC were detected and compared in this study. The nitrogen removal rate for low COD/TN ratio wastewater, nitrogen transformation process, and microbial communities in the FCBC filled in BAF were investigated. Results showed that the nitrogen removal rates was 0.38-0.41 kg N m(-3) day(-1) in the FCBC filled BAF and reached 0.62 kg N m(-3) day(-1) within the filter depth of 60-80 cm, under the conditions of the dissolved oxygen 3.5 ± 0.2 mg L(-1) and the inlet pH 7.2 ± 0.1. Hydrogenophaga (using hydrogen as electron donor), Sphaerotilus (absorbing [Fe(3+)]), Nitrospira (nitrificaion), and Nitrosomonas (ammonia oxidation) were found to be the predominant genera in the reactor. The reaction schemes in the FCBC filled in BAF was calculated: hydrogen and [Fe(3+)] were produced by Fe(0)-C galvanic cells in the FCBC, ammonia was oxidized into nitrate by Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira genera, hydrogen was used as electron donors by Hydrogenophaga genus to reduce nitrate into N2, and [Fe(3+)] was partly absorbed by Sphaerotilus and diverted via sludge discharging.

  1. Effects of dietary calcium soaps of unsaturated fatty acids on digestion, milk composition and physical properties of butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Bayourthe, C; Vernay, M; Moncoulon, R

    1997-05-01

    Dairy cows fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were utilized to investigate the effects of feeding with Ca soaps (CaS) of palm fatty acids (FA) and rapeseed FA. Diets compared were control diet based on maize silage and concentrate, and two diets with 40 g CaS of palm oil FA or rapeseed oil FA/kg diet, replacing part of the concentrates of the control diet. Total digestibilities of dry matter, fibre and fat, and ruminal fermentation were not significantly altered by giving CaS; the extent of ruminal biohydrogenation of total unsaturated C18 FA was significantly reduced by both CaS diets. Apparent intestinal digestibility of FA was not different among diets, although the amount of FA absorbed with the CaS diets was twice that with the control diet. No difference among diets was observed for milk production, or fat and protein contents. Giving CaS diets decreased the proportions of 4:0 to 14:0 FA in milk fat, and increased cis-18:1n-9, compared with control diet. The rapeseed diet lowered the content of 16:0, and increased the contents of 18:0 and trans-18:1n-7. CaS diets did not result in a marked increase of polyunsaturated FA content in milk fat. Butter from cows fed on the CaS diets contained more liquid fat at 6 and 14 degrees C than butter from the cows fed on the control diet. Incorporating CaS, particularly those from rapeseed, in dairy cows' diets increased C18 FA in milk and improved butter spreadability.

  2. A l2-month longitudinal in vitro leakage study on a new silicon-based root canal filling material (Gutta-Flow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontakiotis, Evangelos G; Tzanetakis, Giorgos N; Loizides, Alexios L

    2007-06-01

    This study was performed to determine in vitro the short- and long-term sealing ability of a recently developed silicon-based root canal filling material (Gutta-Flow). Sixty human upper central incisors were divided into 3 groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented and obturated with laterally compacted gutta-percha and AH26 sealer (group 1), continuous-wave thermal compaction (System B technique) and AH26 sealer (group 2), and Gutta-Flow technique (group 3). Leakage along entire root canal fillings was measured by the movement of an air bubble in a micropipette connected to the experimental root using a fluid-transport model. Short-term leakage measurements were carried out for 3 hours after 24 hours of equilibrium establishment. Leakage was measured again and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the initial measurement. At the 3-hour measurement, no significant differences were found among the 3 experimental groups. Long-term leakage measurements showed that at 3 and 6 months no significant differences were existed between Gutta-Flow and the other 2 techniques. However, at 12 months, root canal fillings with Gutta-Flow leaked significantly less than fillings of lateral compaction and System B technique. Gutta-Flow technique showed a similar sealing ability to either lateral compaction or System B technique. This comparison improved significantly over time. These findings may be related to the possible expanding capacity of the material and the partial dissolution of the sealer over time in the other 2 groups.

  3. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  4. Effect of cocoa butter and sunflower oil supplementation on performance, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Cınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, Ilkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  5. Preliminary studies on nasal decongestant activity from the seed of the shea butter tree, Butyrospermum parkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, A

    1979-05-01

    1 The seed of Butyrospermum parkii yields shea butter which according to local traditional healers relieves inflammation of the nostrils. 2 Since there is as yet no absolutely satisfactory nasal decongestant in clinical use, it was decided to investigate the effects of shea butter in nasal congestion. The substance was prepared in the laboratory. 3 The human subjects used were those suffering from rhinitis with moderate to severe nasal congestion. They were divided into the test group which received shea butter, the control group which was treated with xylometazoline and the 'placebo' group which received white petroleum jelly B.P. 4 The results showed that nasal congestion was relieved more satisfactorily in the test group than in the other two groups. 5 It is concluded that shea butter may prove more efficacious in nasal congestion than conventional nasal drops.

  6. 24-Methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3beta-ol, new triterpene alcohol from shea butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T

    1975-08-01

    A new triterpene alcohol was isolated fron shea butter and its structure was shown to be 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3beta-ol. Gas chromatographic correlations between this triterpene alcohol and other related compounds are discussed.

  7. Absorption difference between diacylglycerol oil and butter blend containing diacylglycerol oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Jørgensen, Henry; Mu, Huiling

    2012-01-01

    butter blend (BDAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) butter blend (BTAG), DAG oil (ODAG) or TAG oil (OTAG) were prepared, and each was fed to a group of 8 male Wistar rats. The design of the experiment was a combined balance and feeding experiment. The rats fed the BTAG and ODAG‐diets had a significantly higher......This study aims at investigating whether the intake of butter blends containing diacylglycerol (DAG) oil may result in reduced fat accumulation, in similarity to DAG oil, and the potential metabolic differences between butter blends and DAG oil. Four experimental diets containing either 10 wt% DAG...... protein content than rats fed the BDAG and OTAG‐diets, and the fat content was significantly lower in rats fed the ODAG‐diet as compared to rats fed the OTAG and BDAG‐diets. A significantly higher content of ash was observed in rats fed the two TAG diets. The ratio of abdominal fat weight/body weight...

  8. Properties and stability of butter oil obtained from milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, A

    2000-04-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from cow's milk by two different methods were studied. Butter oil samples from cow's milk were made (i) directly from milk and (ii) from yoghurt. Samples were autoxidized at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C in the dark and the reaction monitored by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. Peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of the acid value was not significant. The thermal stability was highest in butter oil produced from yoghurt. Oxidative changes compared to hydrolytic changes are of greater significance in the thermal stability of butter oil samples. Arrhenius parameters and activation energies were calculated for the peroxide value data. The percent loss of linolenic acid was about 3 times faster than that of linoleic acid.

  9. Comparison of vegetable shortening and cocoa butter as vehicles for cortisol manipulation in Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates that vegetable shortening and cocoa butter are two effective vehicles for intraperitoneal cortisol implants in juvenile teleosts, specifically brown trout Salmo trutta, residing in north temperate freshwater environments. Each vehicle showed a different pattern of cortisol...... elevation. Vegetable shortening was found to be a more suitable vehicle for long-term cortisol elevation [elevated at 3, 6 and 9 days post treatment (dpt)], while cocoa butter may be better suited for short-term cortisol elevation (only elevated at 3 dpt). Additionally, plasma cortisol levels were higher...... with cortisol–vegetable shortening than with cortisol–cocoa butter implants. Plasma glucose levels were elevated 6 and 9 dpt for fishes injected with cortisol–vegetable shortening, but did not change relative to controls and shams in cortisol–cocoa butter fishes. In conclusion, vegetable shortening and cocoa...

  10. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SongQing; Wei, HaiLiu; Guo, ShaSha; Li, Lin; Hou, Yi

    2011-02-01

    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions. In this paper the organoleptic flavor of yak butter was estimated, and 28 kinds of substance with different flavors were identified with the technique of coupling gas chromatography to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that there are many microorganisms in yak butter with natural inoculation, which contribute to the formation of its special flavors. It was found that three of these 15 microorganisms, identified as Saccharomycetaceae, Penicillium and Asperillus separately, contributed the most to flavors. The microorganisms are expected to be applied in the food industry, especially to produce dairy food with the unique flavor of yak butter. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  12. Effect of feeding fresh forage and marine algae on the fatty acid composition and oxidation of milk and butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K E; Budge, S; Rose, M; Rupasinghe, H P V; Maclaren, L; Green-Johnson, J; Fredeen, A H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding fresh forage either as pasture plus a concentrate (PAS) or as a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), combined with either a ruminally inert lipid supplement high in saturated fatty acids (-) or a ruminally protected microalgae containing 22 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/100 g of fatty acids (+) on the fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidation of milk and butter. For the 8 mid-lactation Holstein cows in this study, milk yield was not significantly affected by treatment, averaging 32.3 ± 1.28 kg/d. Milk fat content was higher for PAS⁻, averaging 5.05 compared with 4.10 ± 0.17% for the mean of other treatments, and was significantly depressed with microalgae supplementation (3.97 vs. 4.69 ± 0.17%). The saturated fatty acid level in the milk of cows fed TMR⁻ was significantly higher than that of the other treatments (66.9 vs. 61.2 g/100 g of FA). The level of monounsaturated FA was lowered by feeding TMR⁻ (27.4 vs. 32.0 g/100 g of FA), whereas levels of polyunsaturated FA were elevated by feeding PAS+ compared with the mean of the other treatments (6.54 vs. 5.07 g/100 g of FA). Feeding the rumen-protected microalgae increased the DHA content of milk more than 4-fold (0.06 to 0.26 g/100g of FA) with the PAS treatment. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk was highest for PAS+ compared with the other treatments (4.18 vs. 3.41 g/100g of FA). In general, the fatty acid composition of butter followed that of milk. Overall, feeding the TMR supplemented with the rumen-protected microalgae increased the levels of volatile products of oxidation in milk and butter. No effect of forage type or microalgae supplementation was observed on the oxidative stability or antioxidant capacity of milk, although the oxidative stability of butter exposed to UV was reduced with microalgae supplementation, particularly with TMR, as assessed by using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy

  13. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter

    OpenAIRE

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical charac...

  14. Composition and properties of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R J; Ryali, J; Schingoethe, D J; Kasperson, K M; Donovan, D C; Hippen, A R; Franklin, S T

    2001-02-01

    A control diet and a fish oil diet were fed to 12 multiparous Holstein cows to determine how the incorporation of Menhaden fish oil in the diet would influence the fatty acid composition, especially the conjugated linoleic acid and transvaccenic acid, contents of milk and butter. The control diet consisted of a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate, and the fish oil diet consisted of the control diet with 2% (on a dry matter basis) added fish oil. Milk from cows fed the control diet contained higher average concentrations of milk fat (3.37%) compared with milk from cows fed the fish oil diet (2.29%). Milk from cows fed fish oil contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and total unsaturated fatty acids (0.68 and 2.51; 1.42 and 6.28; and 30.47 and 41.71 g/100 g of fat, respectively). Butter made from the fish oil diet milk also had higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and unsaturated fatty acids. Penetrometer readings indicated fish oil diet butters were softer at 4 and 20 degrees C than the control diet butters. Acid degree values were similar in the fish oil butters compared with the control butters. No significant difference was found in the flavor characteristics of milk and butter from cows fed the control and fish oil diets. Production of milk and butter with increased amounts of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and other beneficial fatty acids may have a desirable impact on the health of consumers and lead to increased sales.

  15. Quality changes of stabilizer-free natural peanut butter during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rozalli, N. H.; Chin, N. L.; Yusof, Y. A.; Mahyudin, N.

    2015-01-01

    The storage stability of preservative-free peanut butter was evaluated for changes in physicochemical quality including moisture content and water activity, microbiological properties, oxidative stability and textural quality in terms of spreadability and firmness. The study was conducted for 16 weeks at storage temperature of 10, 25 and 35 °C on natural and pure peanut butter produced from two varieties of peanuts, the Virginia and Spanish TMV-2 varieties of China and India origin, respectiv...

  16. Development of large-volume, high-resolution tracking detectors based on capillaries filled with liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Penso, G.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    Searches for the decay of short-lived particles require real time, high-resolution tracking in active targets, which in the case of neutrino physics should be of large volume. The possibility of achieving this by using glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator is being investigated in the framework of the CHORUS experiment at CERN. In this paper, after outlining the application foreseen, advances in the tracking technique are discussed and results from tests are reported. An active target of dimensions 180x2x2 cm 3 has been assembled from capillaries with 20 μm diameter pores. The readout scheme currently in operation allows the reading of similar 5x10 5 channels using a single chain of image intensifiers having a resolution of σ similar 20 μm. Following the development of new liquid scintillators and purification methods an attenuation length of similar 3 m has been obtained. This translates into a hit density of 3.5 per mm for a minimum-ionizing particle that crosses the active target at a distance of 1 m from the readout end. (orig.)

  17. Preparation of mixed matrix PES-based nanofiltration membrane filled with PANI-co-MWCNT composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheripour, Ehsan; Moghadassi, Abdolreza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Mixed matrix polyethersulfone/PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle nanofiltration membrane was prepared by casting solution technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was also used as membrane pore former in membrane fabrication. The effect of polyaniline-co-multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution on membrane structure and performance was investigated. Scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, FTIR analysis, porosity, mean pore size, contact angle, water content, NaCl/Na2SO4 rejection, water flux, tensile strength measurements and 3D surface image were also carried out in membrane characterization. SOM images showed nanoparticle agglomeration at high additive loading ratio. SEM images showed the membrane sub-layer porosity and thickness were changed by use of nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The membrane water content, porosity and pore size were increased by increase of nanoparticle concentration, except for 1%wt. Use of PANI-co- MWCNT nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused a decrease of membrane contact angle from 63.43 to 46.76o. Salt rejection and water flux were improved initially by increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 0.1%wt and then decreased by more additive concentration. In addition, the membranes tensile strength was reduced by increase of PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle concentration. 3D surface images showed a smoother surface for mixed matrix membrane filled with 0.1wt% PANI-co-MWCNTs. Modified membrane containing 0.1wt% composite nanoparticles showed better performance compared to others.

  18. Preparation of mixed matrix PES-based nanofiltration membrane filled with PANI-co-MWCNT composite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheripour, Ehsan; Moghadassi, Abdolreza; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mixed matrix polyethersulfone/PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle nanofiltration membrane was prepared by casting solution technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was also used as membrane pore former in membrane fabrication. The effect of polyaniline-co-multi walled carbon nanotubes composite nanoparticle concentration in the casting solution on membrane structure and performance was investigated. Scanning optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, FTIR analysis, porosity, mean pore size, contact angle, water content, NaCl/Na2SO4 rejection, water flux, tensile strength measurements and 3D surface image were also carried out in membrane characterization. SOM images showed nanoparticle agglomeration at high additive loading ratio. SEM images showed the membrane sub-layer porosity and thickness were changed by use of nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The membrane water content, porosity and pore size were increased by increase of nanoparticle concentration, except for 1%wt. Use of PANI-co- MWCNT nanoparticles in the membrane matrix caused a decrease of membrane contact angle from 63.43 to 46.76o. Salt rejection and water flux were improved initially by increase of nanoparticle concentration up to 0.1%wt and then decreased by more additive concentration. In addition, the membranes tensile strength was reduced by increase of PANI-co-MWCNTs composite nanoparticle concentration. 3D surface images showed a smoother surface for mixed matrix membrane filled with 0.1wt% PANI-co-MWCNTs. Modified membrane containing 0.1wt% composite nanoparticles showed better performance compared to others.

  19. Fluid emulsion base potential of shea butter | Oyedele | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SB emulsion formulations were prepared from the fluid SB/LP blends by homogenizing each at 1:9 ratio (v/v) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 M concentration, respectively), and with 0.2 M KOH at different mixing ratios (2:8, 3:7, 4:6, or 5:5 v/v), respectively. The physical consistency and ...

  20. Microbiological quality and safety of cooking butter in Beni-Suef governorate-Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshref, A M S

    2010-06-01

    Cooking butter is one of the most popular types of fat consumed in Egyptian houses. It is produced in villages by rural women that are usually using their traditional knowledge during manufacturing. To study the rate of contamination and hygienic quality of cooking butter A total of 60 random samples of cooking butter, were collected from different farmers' houses in different villages, Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. Cooking butter samples were examined for psychrotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and molds and yeasts counts. Additionally examination for the presence of pathogenic bacteria like E.coli, S.aureus and Ps.aeruginosa were also performed. The microbiological examination revealed that 100, 100, 36.7, 31.7, 31.7 and 23.3% of the examined samples were contaminated by psychrotrophic bacteria, molds and yeasts, coliforms, faecal coliforms, E.coli and S.aureus, respectively. None of the examined cooking butter samples contained Ps.aeruginosa. The means values of sodium chloride and titratable acidity were 0.57 ± 0.05 % and 0.20 ± 0.013%, respectively. The present study showed that cooking butter is produced under unhygienic condition and without good manufacturing practice. The Public health significance and suggestive control measures are discussed.

  1. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow optical fiber filled with radial-aligned liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Bo-Yan; Hwang, Shug-June; Peng, Fenglin; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a high sensitivity all-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on radial-aligned liquid crystal (LC) in a hollow optical fiber (HOF). The transmission spectrum of the liquid crystal-filled fiber MZI (LCF-MZI) was measured at different temperatures, and the thermal-induced wavelength shift of the interference spectrum probed. The experimental results indicate that the LC alignment and refractive indices inside the hollow capillary are significantly influenced by the temperature, which in turn changes the optical properties of LCF-MZI. Our experimental data on notch wavelength shift agree well with the measured refractive index temperature gradient. (paper)

  3. Lowering greening of cookies made from sunflower butter using acidic ingredients and effect on reducing capacity, tryptophan and protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sihui; Tran, Hanh Lan; Were, Lilian

    2018-06-30

    Lowering of greening formed from oxidized chlorogenic acid (CGA) and amino groups, and favoured at alkaline pH, was investigated using acidic ingredients (sour cream, buttermilk, yoghurt, and honey) in sunflower butter cookies. Cookies with maple syrup added were used as a positive control. Changes in greening intensity, greening reactants (total phenols, CGA, protein), antioxidant capacity, tryptophan and Schiff base fluorescence were measured. Percentage greening, pH and a w of cookies followed the same order: maple syrup > sour cream ≥ buttermilk > yoghurt > honey. pH was positively correlated with greening intensity (r = 0.77) and negatively correlated with CGA (r = -0.96). Total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, tryptophan and Schiff bases were similar among cookies. The results suggest it is possible to decrease greening by minimizing storage time and using acidic ingredients. Minimal greening with acidic ingredients can extend the application of sunflower butter as a baking ingredient without loss of free radical-scavenging capacity, or higher protein oxidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Filling gaps in notification data: a model-based approach applied to travel related campylobacteriosis cases in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amene, E; Horn, B; Pirie, R; Lake, R; Döpfer, D

    2016-09-06

    Data containing notified cases of disease are often compromised by incomplete or partial information related to individual cases. In an effort to enhance the value of information from enteric disease notifications in New Zealand, this study explored the use of Bayesian and Multiple Imputation (MI) models to fill risk factor data gaps. As a test case, overseas travel as a risk factor for infection with campylobacteriosis has been examined. Two methods, namely Bayesian Specification (BAS) and Multiple Imputation (MI), were compared regarding predictive performance for various levels of artificially induced missingness of overseas travel status in campylobacteriosis notification data. Predictive performance of the models was assessed through the Brier Score, the Area Under the ROC Curve and the Percent Bias of regression coefficients. Finally, the best model was selected and applied to predict missing overseas travel status of campylobacteriosis notifications. While no difference was observed in the predictive performance of the BAS and MI methods at a lower rate of missingness (campylobacteriosis cases was estimated at 0.16 (0.02, 0.48). The use of BAS offers a flexible approach to data augmentation particularly when the missing rate is very high and when the Missing At Random (MAR) assumption holds. High rates of travel associated cases in urban regions of New Zealand predicted by this approach are plausible given the high rate of travel in these regions, including destinations with higher risk of infection. The added advantage of using a Bayesian approach is that the model's prediction can be improved whenever new information becomes available.

  5. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Ebru; Çınar, Miyase; Yalçınkaya, İlkay; Ekici, Hüsamettin; Atmaca, Nurgül; Güncüm, Enes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  6. Synthesis and properties of a photovoltaic cell based on polystyrene-functionalised Si nanowires filled into a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, Sadok, E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, Facultes des sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Jarzouna-Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, CNRS UMR5223, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon1, 15 boulevard Latarget, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, Ramzi [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, Facultes des sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Jarzouna-Bizerte (Tunisia); Beyou, Emmanuel, E-mail: beyou@univ-lyon1.fr [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, CNRS UMR5223, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon1, 15 boulevard Latarget, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Davenas, Joel [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, CNRS UMR5223, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon1, 15 boulevard Latarget, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, David [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, F34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-10-15

    Grafting of polystyrene (PS) from silica coating of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has improved the dispersion of SiNWs in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix to form a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) hybrid photovoltaic (HPV) cell. First, an alkoxyamine, based on N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl) nitroxide (DEPN) was covalently attached onto SiNWs through free surface silanol groups. Then, polystyrene chains with controlled molecular weights and narrow polydispersities were grown from the alkoxyamine-functionalized SiNWs surface in the presence of a 'free' sacrificial styrylDEPN alkoxyamine. Both the initiator and the polystyrene chains were characterized by FTIR and {sup 13}C Solid-State NMR and quantified by TGA. The hybrid layer of SiNWs and PVK, results in cell performance improvement in respect to a reference cell based on PVK alone. A fill factor of 50% is achieved upon inclusion of PS grafted SiNWs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grafting of well defined PS chains onto silicon nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of PS@SiO{sub 2}@SiNWs core-shell nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous dispersion of PS-grafted-SiNWs in PVK matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good photovoltaic performances including a fill factor of 0.5.

  7. Influence of 2% chlorhexidine on pH, calcium release and setting time of a resinous MTA-based root-end filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Linhares-Farina, Giane; Sposito, Otávio da Silva; Zanchi, César Henrique; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The addition of chlorhexidine (CHX) to a resinous experimental Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (E-MTA) based root-end filling material is an alternative to boost its antimicrobial activity. However, the influence of chlorhexidine on the properties of this material is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2% chlorhexidine on the pH, calcium ion release and setting time of a Bisphenol A Ethoxylate Dimethacrylate/Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (Bis-EMA/MTA) based dual-cure experimental root-end filling material (E-MTA), in comparison with E-MTA without the addition of CHX and with conventional white MTA (W-MTA). The materials were placed in polyethylene tubes, and immersed in deionized water to determine pH (digital pH meter) and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrometry technique). The setting time of each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of 5%. E-MTA + CHX showed an alkaline pH in the 3 h period of evaluation, the alkalinity of which decreased but remained as such for 15 days. The pH of E-MTA + CHX was higher than the other two materials after 7 days, and lower after 30 days (p pH and calcium ion release. However, it also prevented setting of the material.

  8. Development and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a Shea Butter-Containing Lipid Nutrition Supplement for Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloffer, Elizabeth M; Gaur, Shashank; Engeseth, Nicki J; Andrade, Juan E

    2017-11-08

    Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID's A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree ( Vitellaria paradoxa ), a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed. LNS formulas were batched (0.8 kg) in a wet grinder, sealed under nitrogen in three-layer mini-pouches (20 g), and underwent ASLT at 40 ± 2 °C for six months with sampling every eight weeks. At each time point, water activity, moisture, peroxide value, oil separation, vitamin C content, and hardness were evaluated. Results showed comparable stability among all formulas with an increase in Aw ( p Shea butter improved the LNS's hardness, which remained stable over time. Modifying fat profile in LNS can improve its texture and essential fatty acid content without affecting its storage stability.

  9. Development and Physico-Chemical Characterization of a Shea Butter-Containing Lipid Nutrition Supplement for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Sloffer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID’s A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree (Vitellaria paradoxa, a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed. LNS formulas were batched (0.8 kg in a wet grinder, sealed under nitrogen in three-layer mini-pouches (20 g, and underwent ASLT at 40 ± 2 °C for six months with sampling every eight weeks. At each time point, water activity, moisture, peroxide value, oil separation, vitamin C content, and hardness were evaluated. Results showed comparable stability among all formulas with an increase in Aw (p < 0.05 but no change in vitamin C, oil separation, or peroxide value. Addition of Shea butter improved the LNS’s hardness, which remained stable over time. Modifying fat profile in LNS can improve its texture and essential fatty acid content without affecting its storage stability.

  10. Influence of water activity on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in peanut butter by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 915 MHz microwave with 3 different electric power levels to inactivate three pathogens in peanut butter with different aw. Peanut butter inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes (0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 aw) were treated with a 915 MHz microwave with 2, 4, and 6 kW for up to 5 min. Six kW 915 MHz microwave treatment for 5 min reduced these three pathogens by 1.97 to >5.17 log CFU/g. Four kW 915 MHz microwave processing for 5 min reduced these pathogens by 0.41-1.98 log CFU/g. Two kW microwave heating did not inactivate pathogens in peanut butter. Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models were used to describe the survival curves of three pathogens because they exhibited shouldering behavior. Td and T5d values were calculated based on the Weibull and Log-Linear + Shoulder models. Td values of the three pathogens were similar to D-values of Salmonella subjected to conventional heating at 90 °C but T5d values were much shorter than those of conventional heating at 90 °C. Generally, increased aw resulted in shorter T5d values of pathogens, but not shorter Td values. The results of this study can be used to optimize microwave heating pasteurization system of peanut butter. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    -blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed...

  12. Environmental impacts of milk powder and butter manufactured in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, William; Goggins, Jamie; Clifford, Eoghan; Zhan, Xinmin

    2017-02-01

    The abolition of the milk quota system that was in place in Europe was abolished in 2015, which instigated an immediate increase in milk production in many European countries. This increase will aid in addressing the world's ever growing demand for food, but will incur increased stresses on the environmental impact and sustainability of the dairy industry. In this study, an environmental life cycle assessment was performed in order to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of milk powder and butter in the Republic of Ireland. A farm gate to processing factory gate analysis, which includes raw milk transportation, processing into each product and packaging, is assessed in this study. Operational data was obtained from 5 dairy processing factories that produce milk powder (4 of which also produce butter). Results for each environmental impact category are presented per kilogram of product. Energy consumption (raw milk transportation and on-site electrical and thermal energy usage) contributes, on average, 89% and 78% of the total global warming potential, for milk powder and butter respectively, for the life cycle stages assessed. Similarly, energy consumption contributes, on average, 86% and 96% of the total terrestrial acidification potential for milk powder and butter respectively, for these life cycle stages. Emissions associated with wastewater treatment contribute approximately 10% and 40% to the total freshwater eutrophication potential and marine eutrophication potential, respectively, for both milk powder and butter production. In addition, packaging materials also has a significant contribution to these environmental impact categories for butter production. Results were also presented for three milk powder products being manufactured by the factories surveyed: skim milk powder, whole milk powder and full fat milk powder. The analysis presented in this paper helps to identify opportunities to reduce the environmental impacts

  13. Spatial gradients of OCPs in European butter--integrating environmental and exposure information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jana; Müller, Anne; Vives, Ingrid; Mariani, Giulio; Umlauf, Gunther

    2013-05-01

    The Stockholm Convention and the Global Monitoring Plan encourage the production of monitoring data to effectively evaluate the presence of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all regions, in order to identify changes in levels over time, as well as to provide information on their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we report the first step of two to investigate whether butter is a feasible matrix to screen with the purpose to reflect regional ambient atmospheric air levels of POPs. The first step described here is to generate monitoring data; the second is to investigate the relationship between the two matrixes, i.e., POP concentrations in air and butter, which will be reported in another article published in this journal. Here, the 27 organochlorine pesticides listed under the Stockholm Convention have been analyzed in 75 butter samples from Europe. The general conclusions were as follows: Total organochlorine pesticide concentration is lower in butter from northern and central Europe. The spatial gradient of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane and hexachlorocyclohexane is increasing in the eastern region of Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine), dieldrin towards France, and endosulfan levels were elevated on the Azores Island in the Atlantic Ocean. One butter sample from Romania exceeded the European Maximum Residue Limit value for lindane, but the other butter pesticide levels were all below the limit values. The dataset reported here can be used for the calibration of the air-grass-dairy products model, which would support the feasibility to use butter as biomonitor for measuring POP levels in ambient air.

  14. The butter flavorant, diacetyl, exacerbates β-amyloid cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S; Vartak, Ashish P; Vince, Robert

    2012-10-15

    Diacetyl (DA), an ubiquitous butter-flavoring agent, was found to influence several aspects of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation--one of the two primary pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thioflavin T fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic measurements revealed that DA accelerates Aβ¹⁻⁴² aggregation into soluble and ultimately insoluble β-pleated sheet structures. DA was found to covalently bind to Arg⁵ of Aβ¹⁻⁴² through proteolytic digestion-mass spectrometric experiments. These biophysical and chemical effects translated into the potentiation of Aβ¹⁻⁴² cytotoxicity by DA toward SH-SY5Y cells in culture. DA easily traversed through a MDR1-MDCK cell monolayer, an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier. Additionally, DA was found not only to be resistant to but also inhibitory toward glyoxalase I, the primary initiator of detoxification of amyloid-promoting reactive dicarbonyl species that are generated naturally in large amounts by neuronal tissue. In light of the chronic exposure of industry workers to DA, this study raises the troubling possibility of long-term neurological toxicity mediated by DA.

  15. Evaluation of the hypersensitivity potential of alternative butter flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E; Franko, Jennifer; Wells, J R; Lukomska, Ewa; Meade, B Jean

    2013-12-01

    Concern has been raised over the association of diacetyl with lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans in food manufacturing workers. This has resulted in the need for identification of alternative chemicals to be used in the manufacturing process. Structurally similar chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione, 2,3-hexanedione, 3,4-hexanedione and 2,3-heptanedione, used as constituents of synthetic flavoring agents have been suggested as potential alternatives for diacetyl, however, immunotoxicity data on these chemicals are limited. The present study evaluated the dermal irritation and sensitization potential of diacetyl alternatives using a murine model. None of the chemicals were identified as dermal irritants when tested at concentrations up to 50%. Similar to diacetyl (EC3=17.9%), concentration-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed following exposure to all four chemicals, with calculated EC3 values of 15.4% (2,3-pentanedione), 18.2% (2,3-hexanedione), 15.5% (3,4-hexanedione) and 14.1% (2,3-heptanedione). No biologically significant elevations in local or total serum IgE were identified after exposure to 25-50% concentrations of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the potential for development of hypersensitivity responses to these proposed alternative butter flavorings and raise concern about the use of structurally similar replacement chemicals. Additionally, a contaminant with strong sensitization potential was found in varying concentrations in diacetyl obtained from different producers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Optimisation of enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from high oleic sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Sheida; De Clercq, Nathalie; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-05-01

    High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture were inter-esterified in a solvent-free system catalysed by Lipozyme RM IM to produce a cocoa butter equivalent (CBE). The effects of reaction conditions on the percentage of saturate-oleoyl-saturate (SOS) and saturate-saturate-oleoyl (SSO) triacylglycerols (TAGs) were studied. The process was further optimised by response surface methodology. A five-factor response surface design was used to investigate the influences of the five major factors and their mutual relationships. The five factors were substrate ratio (A, FA/HOSO, mol mol⁻¹), enzyme load (B, wt% based on substrates), water content (C, wt% based on substrates), reaction temperature (D,°C) and reaction time (E, in hours) varying at three levels together with two star point levels. The highest yield (59.1% SOS) and lowest acyl migration (2.9% SSO) was obtained at 10% enzyme load, 1% water content, 1:7 substrate mole ratio, 65°C reaction temperature and 6 h reaction time. All the investigated factors except substrate ratio had significant effect on acyl migration. The quadratic response models sufficiently described the acidolysis reaction. All parameters had significant effect on the percentage of SOS TAGs. Based on the models, the reaction was optimised to obtain a maximum yield of SOS TAGs. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Polarization-dependent transverse-stress sensing characters of the gold-coated and liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Zhu, Chenghao; Wang, Yan; Tan, Ce; Li, Hongwei

    2018-03-01

    A transverse-stress sensor with enhanced sensitivity based on nematic liquid crystal (NLC) filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is proposed and analyzed by using the finite element method (FEM). The central hole of the PCF is infiltrated with NLC material with an adjustable rotation angle to achieve the polarization-dependent wavelength-selective sensing. And the combined use of side-hole structure and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology enhanced the transverse-stress sensitivity enormously. Results reveal that the sensor can achieve a high sensitivity based on the polarization filter characteristic at special wavelengths. Besides that, the temperature and the transverse-stress in either direction can be effectively discriminated through dual-parameter demodulation method by adjusting the rotation angle of the NLC to introduce a new degree of freedom for sensing.

  18. Fill tube fitted spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature diffusion technique for fuel filling of some future direct drive cryogenic ICF targets may be unacceptable. The following describes a technique of fitting a 1 mm diameter x 6 μm thick glass microsphere with an approx. 50 μm O.D. glass fill tube. The process of laser drilling a 50 μm diameter hole in the microsphere wall, technique for making the epoxy joint between the sphere and fill tube, as well as the assembly procedure are also discussed

  19. A Gap-Filling Procedure for Hydrologic Data Based on Kalman Filtering and Expectation Maximization: Application to Data from the Wireless Sensor Networks of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, A.; Avanzi, F.; Akella, R.; Conklin, M. H.; Bales, R. C.; Glaser, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Automatic meteorological and snow stations provide large amounts of information at dense temporal resolution, but data quality is often compromised by noise and missing values. We present a new gap-filling and cleaning procedure for networks of these stations based on Kalman filtering and expectation maximization. Our method utilizes a multi-sensor, regime-switching Kalman filter to learn a latent process that captures dependencies between nearby stations and handles sharp changes in snowfall rate. Since the latent process is inferred using observations across working stations in the network, it can be used to fill in large data gaps for a malfunctioning station. The procedure was tested on meteorological and snow data from Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in the American River basin of the Sierra Nevada. Data include air temperature, relative humidity, and snow depth from dense networks of 10 to 12 stations within 1 km2 swaths. Both wet and dry water years have similar data issues. Data with artificially created gaps was used to quantify the method's performance. Our multi-sensor approach performs better than a single-sensor one, especially with large data gaps, as it learns and exploits the dominant underlying processes in snowpack at each site.

  20. Filling America's fiber intake gap: summary of a roundtable to probe realistic solutions with a focus on grain-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; Kranz, Sibylle; Mobley, Amy R; Nicklas, Theresa A; Raimondi, Mary Pat; Rodriguez, Judith C; Slavin, Joanne L; Warshaw, Hope

    2012-07-01

    Current fiber intakes are alarmingly low, with long-term implications for public health related to risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, certain gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, and the continuum of metabolic dysfunctions including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Eating patterns high in certain fibers are known to lower LDL cholesterol and blood pressure, lower blood glucose, and decrease insulin resistance in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes; help with both weight loss and maintenance; and improve bowel regularity and gastrointestinal health. With >90% of adults and children who fall short of meeting their daily fiber recommendations, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans once again classified fiber as a nutrient of concern. Despite efforts over the past decade to promote adequate fiber through fruit, vegetable, and whole-grain intakes, fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half the daily recommended amount. The public health implications of inadequate fiber intake prompted the roundtable session "Filling America's Fiber Gap: Probing Realistic Solutions," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators, and communicators to identify challenges, opportunities, and realistic solutions to help fill the current fiber gap. The roundtable discussions highlighted the need for both consumer and professional education to improve acceptance for and inclusion of grain-based foods with added fiber as one strategy for increasing fiber intakes within daily energy goals.

  1. Gas-filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This chapter deals with the nature of the interaction of radiation with gas-filled radiation detectors. A description of the theory of operation of the ionization chamber and Geiger-Mueller counter is included

  2. Effects of oil content on the sensory, textural, and physical properties of pecan butter (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Emily A; Kerr, William L

    2017-10-20

    It has been difficult to produce acceptable pecan butters as the high oil content results in a product that flows and separates too easily. The objective of this work was to create pecan butters with varying oil levels (50-70%) and determine which would give the most acceptable product. Consumers rated pecan butters with 55-60% oil the most acceptable, whether roasted or not. Acceptability varied most in terms of texture and spreadability, but not flavor. Under large deformation firmness varied from 51.8 g (70% oil) to 4,880 g (50%) oil, while "spreadability" ranged from 19.2 to 7748 (g/s). Samples with 70% oil had the lowest viscosity and were Newtonian. Pecan butters with 50-55% oil had high viscosity and were shear thinning. Yield stress decreased with oil content, ranging from 0.014 to 500 Pa. The storage modulus (G') increased from ∼7 Pa for samples with 70% oil up to 260,000 Pa for those with 50% oil. In conjunction, tan δ decreased from 1 to 0.07, showing the products take on much more solid-like behavior as oil is removed. In conclusion, the rheological properties of pecan butter were quite sensitive to the amount of oil in the product. Differences in acceptability were primarily due to "texture" and "spreadability," suggesting there is a limited range of firmness and spreadability that consumers will deem acceptable. There has been considerable demand for butters and spreads made from a variety of culinary nuts. Pecans generally have too much oil (∼70%) to make a product with proper consistency and stability. In this study, some of the oil was removed to overcome this problem. It was found that pecan butter with 55-60% oil was most acceptable to consumers and with the level of firmness, yield stress, and spreadability most similar to commercial nut butters. The oil was relatively simple to remove from unroasted nuts, thus manufacturers could easily produce more acceptable pecan butter for the market. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Minimal effects of high-pressure treatment on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated into peanut butter and peanut products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Somerville, Jeremy A; Balasubramaniam, V M; Lee, Ken

    2010-10-01

    About 1.2 billion pounds of peanut butter are consumed annually in the United States. In 2008 to 2009, an outbreak involving Salmonella Typhimurium in peanut butter led to a recall of over 3900 products by over 200 companies. More than 700 people became sick, 100 were hospitalized, and 9 people died from this outbreak. This study examines the efficacy of high-pressure processing (HPP) to decrease S. Typhimurium American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 53647 inoculated into peanut butter and model systems. The viability of S. Typhimurium in peanut butter stored at room temperature was investigated. A culture of S. Typhimurium (6.88 log CFU/g) was inoculated into peanut butter. Following 28 d at 20 °C there was a 1.23-log reduction. Approximately 10(6) to 10(7) CFU/g S. Typhimurium were inoculated into 4 brands of peanut butter, 3 natural peanut butters and peanut flour slurries at 2, 5, and 10% peanut flour protein in peanut oil and in distilled water. All were treated at 600 MPa for 5 min at 45 °C. While significant differences were found between natural peanut butter and peanut protein mixtures, the reduction was oil mixtures had a 1.7, 1.6, and 1.0-log reduction from HPP (2, 5, and 10% protein, respectively) whereas peanut flour/water mixtures had a 6.7-log reduction for all protein levels. Oil had a protective effect indicating HPP may not help the microbial safety of water-in-oil food emulsions including peanut butter. Practical Application: There have been multiple outbreaks of foodborne illness involving peanut butter products. This study looks at the potential use of high-pressure processing to reduce the bacteria that may be in peanut butter.

  4. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  5. Mapping the North Sea base-Quaternary: using 3D seismic to fill a gap in the geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    The identification and mapping of the base-Quaternary boundary in the central parts of the North Sea is problematic due to the change from an unconformable transition between Pliocene and Pleistocene deltaic deposits in the southern North Sea to a conformable one further north (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). The best estimates of the transition use seismic reflection data to identify a 'crenulated reflector' (Buckley 2012), or rely on correlating sparse biostratigraphy (Cameron et al 1987). Recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) allows greater confidence in the correlation to a regional 3D seismic dataset and show that the base-Quaternary can be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The mapped horizon is presented here alongside the difference between this new interpretation and the previously interpreted base-Quaternary (Buckley 2012). The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT or approximately 1120 m (assuming average velocity of 1800 m/s) showing an elongate basin shape that follows the underlying structure of the Central Graben. The difference between the revised base-Quaternary and the traditional base-Quaternary reaches a maximum of over 600 ms TWT or approximately 540 m in the south-west with over 300 ms TWT or approximately 270 m at the Josephine well (56° 36.11'N, 2° 27.09'E) in the centre of the basin. Mapping this new base-Quaternary allows for the interpretation of the paleo-envionrment during the earliest Quaternary. Seismic attribute analysis indicates a deep water basin with sediment deposition from multiple deltas and redistribution by deep

  6. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, Lene Normann; Christensen, Robin D K; Sandström, Brittmarie

    2004-04-01

    To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response. The experiments were designed to provide 20% of total energy from dairy fat, as either whole milk, mean (+/-SD) 2164 (+/-97) g, butter 93 (+/-4) g, and hard cheese 305 (+/-45) g, which were served to 14 healthy young men for three periods of three weeks each, separated by washout periods, in a randomized, cross-over study with strictly controlled dietary intake. Fasting blood samples were taken at the end of the study periods. Measurements of the postprandial effect of the three different dairy test products (0.7 g of milk fat/kg body weight) were carried out on day 4 of each intervention period. Blood samples were taken before and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p = 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet x time interaction). A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further.

  7. Evaluation of high oleic-high stearic sunflower hard stearins for cocoa butter equivalent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootello, Miguel A; Hartel, Richard W; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2012-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) are produced from vegetable fats by blending palm mid fraction (PMF) and tropical butters coming from shea, mango kernel or kokum fat. In this regard, high oleic-high stearic (HOHS) sunflower hard stearins from solvent fractionation can be used in CBE production since their compositions and physical properties are similar to those found in the above-mentioned tropical butters. In this work, three sunflower hard stearins (SHS) ranging from 65% to 95% of disaturated triacylglycerols and a shea stearin (used as reference) were blended with PMF to evaluate their potential use in CBEs formulation. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of PMF/SHS showed eutectic formation for SHS 65 and SHS 80, but monotectic behaviour with softening effect for SHS 95. Three CBEs from SHS and shea stearin were formulated according to phase behaviour diagrams and solid fat content data at 25 °C. Isosolid phase diagrams of mixtures of these CBEs with cocoa butter showed no eutectic behaviour. Therefore, CBEs elaborated from SHS exhibited full compatibility with cocoa butter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional composition of shea products and chemical properties of shea butter: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honfo, Fernande G; Akissoe, Noel; Linnemann, Anita R; Soumanou, Mohamed; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand of shea products (kernels and butter) has led to the assessment of the state-of-the-art of these products. In this review, attention has been focused on macronutrients and micronutrients of pulp, kernels, and butter of shea tree and also the physicochemical properties of shea butter. Surveying the literature revealed that the pulp is rich in vitamin C (196.1 mg/100 g); consumption of 50 g covers 332% and 98% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) of children (4-8 years old) and pregnant women, respectively. The kernels contain a high level of fat (17.4-59.1 g/100 g dry weight). Fat extraction is mainly done by traditional methods that involve roasting and pressing of the kernels, churning the obtained liquid with water, boiling, sieving, and cooling. The fat (butter) is used in food preparation and medicinal and cosmetics industries. Its biochemical properties indicate some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Large variations are observed in the reported values for the composition of shea products. Recommendations for future research are presented to improve the quality and the shelf-life of the butter. In addition, more attention should be given to the accuracy and precision in experimental analyses to obtain more reliable information about biological variation.

  9. The effect of butter oil on avoidance memory in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Khadije; Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Shahriari, Ali; Jafari, Ramezan Ali

    2012-07-01

    Since diabetes mellitus is accompanied by cognitive impairment in diabetic patient and animal models and since lipids play important roles in neuronal membrane composition, structure and function; we intended to evaluate the effect of dietary butter oil on passive avoidance memory of streptoztosin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats in this study. THIRTY SIX ADULT MALE RATS WERE RANDOMLY ALLOCATED TO FOUR EQUAL GROUPS: normal (N) and diabetic control (D) groups with free access to regular rat diet; but the diet of normal butter oil (NB) and diabetic butter oil (DB) groups was supplemented with 10% butter oil. Diabetes in D and DB groups was induced by intravenous (i.v.) injection of 50 mg/kg.bw of STZ. Passive avoidance memory and cholesterol of brain and hippocampal tissues has been measured six weeks after diabetes confirmation. Diabetes, especially in diabetic butter oil group decreased the abilities of learning and memory. The level of cholesterol in hippocampus was higher in NB (Pbutter oil may worsen cognitive impairment of diabetic animal. This may be related to the higher elevation of cholesterol in the hippocampus of diabetic animals.

  10. Release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Maxine J; Burri, Betty J; Singh, R Paul

    2012-09-26

    The objective of this study was to determine the release and bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter using in vitro digestion models. Two types of fortifiers were investigated: β-carotene oil (oil) and whey protein isolate (WPI)-alginate-chitosan capsules containing β-carotene oil (capsule). Shaking water bath and Human Gastric Simulator (HGS) digestion models assessed the impact of gastric peristalsis on the release of β-carotene. Bioaccessibility of β-carotene was measured as percent recovered from the micelle fraction. There was greater release of β-carotene from oil fortified almond butter in the HGS model (87.1%) due to peristalsis than the shaking water bath model (51.0%). More β-carotene was released from capsule fortified almond butter during intestinal digestion. However, more β-carotene was recovered from the micelle fraction of oil fortified almond butter. These results suggest that a WPI-alginate-chitosan capsule coating may inhibit the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from fortified almond butter.

  11. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  12. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p probiotic products stored at different temperatures, Bifidobacterium had the greatest survivability, followed by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus. The probiotics used in the study had different surviving patterns, and their survival was influenced by storage conditions. Fat content of peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Sumner, S S; Herbein, J H

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation and firmness of butter and ice cream made with modified milkfat containing enhanced amounts of linoleic acid or oleic acid. The influence of the fatty acid profile of the HO milkfat relating to product properties as compared with the influence the fatty acid profile of the HL milkfat was the main focus of the research. Altering the degree of unsaturation in milkfat may affect melting characteristics and oxidation rates, leading to quality issues in dairy products. Three milkfat compositions (high-oleic, high-linoleic, and control) were obtained by modifying the diets of Holstein cows. Ice cream and butter were processed from milkfat obtained from cows in each dietary group. Butter and ice cream samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid profile and firmness. High-oleic milkfat resulted in a softer butter. Solid fat index of high-oleic and high-linoleic milkfat was lower than the control. Control ice cream mix had higher viscosity compared with high-oleic and high-linoleic, but firmness of all ice creams was similar when measured between -17 and -13 degrees C. Nutritional and textural properties of butter and ice cream can be improved by modifying the diets of cows.

  14. (Box-filling-model)-based ONU schedule algorithm and bandwidth-requirement-based ONU transfer mechanism for multi-subsystem-based VPONs' management in metro-access optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Gan, Chaoqin; Gou, Kaiyu; Hua, Jian

    2017-07-01

    ONU schedule algorithm and ONU transfer mechanism for multi-subsystem-based VPONs' management is proposed in this paper. To avoid frequent wavelength switch and realize high system stability, ONU schedule algorithm is presented for wavelength allocation by introducing box-filling model. At the same time, judgement mechanism is designed to filter wavelength-increased request caused by slight bandwidth fluctuation of VPON. To share remained bandwidth among VPONs, ONU transfer mechanism is put forward according to flexible wavelength routing. To manage wavelength resource of entire network and wavelength requirement from VPONs, information-managed matrix model is constructed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation and analysis.

  15. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific.

  16. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiken, Kimberly; McElree, Brian; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in response to object relative (OR) clauses compared to subject relative clauses. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken and Pylkkänen (2014) showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG) that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to verb phrase ellipsis (VPE), which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including right node raising structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific. PMID:26635655

  17. Filling predictable and unpredictable gaps, with and without similarity-based interference: Evidence for LIFG effects of dependency processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLeiken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG in response to object relative clauses (ORs compared to subject relative clauses (SRs. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken & Pylkkänen (2014 showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE, which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including Right Node Raising (RNR structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific.

  18. Color stability of nano-filled, micro-hybrid, and silorane-based dental composite resin materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saud M ALShetili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of nano-hybrid, micro-hybrid, and silorane-based composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to staining agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty composites samples were prepared, 40 from each composite material (Filtek ® Z350, Filtek ® P90, and Filtek ® Z250. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups (10 of each sample. The specimens were incubated for 24 h in distilled water and then for 72 h in corresponding mediums (distilled water, red grape juice, green tea, coffee. The color of all the specimens was assessed before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer and total color change (ΔE was calculated using ΔEFNx01 = [(ΔLFNx012 + (ΔaFNx012 + (ΔbFNx012]1/2. The data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the means of the solutions were compared by Tukey′s honestly significant difference (HSD (P 0.05 discoloration compared with other media. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that silorane-based composites are more resistant to discoloration than bis-GMA-based composites and coffee had the highest effect on composite discoloration compared to other media.

  19. Development and Implementation of Team-Based Panel Management Tools: Filling the Gap between Patient and Population Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Brook; Lawrence, Renée H; Drawz, Paul; Carter, Cameron; Shumaker, Amy Hirsch; Kern, Elizabeth F

    2016-08-01

    Effective team-based models of care, such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home, require electronic tools to support proactive population management strategies that emphasize care coordination and quality improvement. Despite the spread of electronic health records (EHRs) and vendors marketing population health tools, clinical practices still may lack the ability to have: (1) local control over types of data collected/reports generated, (2) timely data (eg, up-to-date data, not several months old), and accordingly (3) the ability to efficiently monitor and improve patient outcomes. This article describes a quality improvement project at the hospital system level to develop and implement a flexible panel management (PM) tool to improve care of subpopulations of patients (eg, panels of patients with diabetes) by clinical teams. An in-depth case analysis approach is used to explore barriers and facilitators in building a PM registry tool for team-based management needs using standard data elements (eg, laboratory values, pharmacy records) found in EHRs. Also described are factors that may contribute to sustainability; to date the tool has been adapted to 6 disease-focused subpopulations encompassing more than 200,000 patients. Two key lessons emerged from this initiative: (1) though challenging, team-based clinical end users and information technology needed to work together consistently to refine the product, and (2) locally developed population management tools can provide efficient data tracking for frontline clinical teams and leadership. The preliminary work identified critical gaps that were successfully addressed by building local PM registry tools from EHR-derived data and offers lessons learned for others engaged in similar work. (Population Health Management 2016;19:232-239).

  20. Influence of 2% chlorhexidine on pH, calcium release and setting time of a resinous MTA-based root-end filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Castilho JACINTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of chlorhexidine (CHX to a resinous experimental Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (E-MTA based root-end filling material is an alternative to boost its antimicrobial activity. However, the influence of chlorhexidine on the properties of this material is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 2% chlorhexidine on the pH, calcium ion release and setting time of a Bisphenol A Ethoxylate Dimethacrylate/Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (Bis-EMA/MTA based dual-cure experimental root-end filling material (E-MTA, in comparison with E-MTA without the addition of CHX and with conventional white MTA (W-MTA. The materials were placed in polyethylene tubes, and immersed in deionized water to determine pH (digital pH meter and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrometry technique. The setting time of each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles. The data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of 5%. E-MTA + CHX showed an alkaline pH in the 3 h period of evaluation, the alkalinity of which decreased but remained as such for 15 days. The pH of E-MTA + CHX was higher than the other two materials after 7 days, and lower after 30 days (p < 0.05. All of the materials were found to release calcium ions throughout the 30 days of the study. The addition of CHX increased the calcium ion release of E-MTA to levels statistically similar to W-MTA. E-MTA showed shorter initial and final setting time, compared with W-MTA (p < 0.05. The addition of 2% CHX to MTA prevented setting of the material. The addition of CHX to E-MTA increased its pH and calcium ion release. However, it also prevented setting of the material.

  1. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma...

  2. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel

    2008-11-01

    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  3. 7 CFR 58.336 - Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products. (a) Microbiological. Samples... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Frequency of sampling for quality control of cream, butter and related products. 58.336 Section 58.336 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  4. Electro-activate styrene-based shape memory polymer nanocomposite filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haibao; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Du, Shanyi

    2007-07-01

    The fabrication and characterization, especially mechanical and electrical properties, of styrene-based shape memory polymer mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are presented in this paper. It is found that surface-modified MWNTs incorporated very well with resin processed by royal water, and dispersion was achieved by high-energy sonication in the solution. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is shown that the particulate additives were dispersed homogeneously within matrix and served as local conductive paths. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composite containing MWNTs is lower than that of the pure SMP obtained from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). With the increasing filler content, resulting in the reduction of Tg increases. The composites have a better thermodynamic stability awarding to the results of Thermal Gravity Analyzer (TGA). The vibration of MWNTs in composite system was obtained from Raman spectrums. For the mechanical property of SMP composite with 8 wt% MWNTs, its Young's modulus increases by 12.1% and the tensile strength by 8.1% as compared with that of the pure SMP. Four-point Van De Pauw method is introduced to investigate the electrical property of composites. An electrical conductivity of 1.25×10 -3 S/cm is obtained for 8 wt% MWNTs composite.

  5. Pulsed neutron generators based on the sealed chambers of plasma focus design with D and DT fillings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkov, D I; Dulatov, A K; Lemeshko, B D; Golikov, A V; Andreev, D A; Mikhailov, Yu V; Prokuratov, I A; Selifanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Development of neutron generators using plasma focus (PF) chambers is being conducted in the All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA) during more than 25 years. PF is a source of soft and hard x-rays and neutrons 2.5 MeV (D) or 14 MeV (DT). Pulses of x-rays and neutrons have a duration of about several tens of nanoseconds, which defines the scope of such generators—the study of ultrafast processes. VNIIA has developed a series of pulse neutron generators covering the range of outputs 10 7 –10 12 n/pulse with resources on the order of 10 3 –10 4 switches, depending on purposes. Generators have weights in the range of 30–700 kg, which allows referring them to the class of transportable generators. Generators include sealed PF chambers, whose manufacture was mastered by VNIIA vacuum tube production plant. A number of optimized PF chambers, designed for use in generators with a certain yield of neutrons has been developed. The use of gas generator based on gas absorber of hydrogen isotopes, enabled to increase the self-life and resource of PF chambers. Currently, the PF chambers withstand up to 1000 switches and have the safety of not less than 5 years. Using a generator with a gas heater, significantly increased security of PF chambers, because deuterium-tritium mixture is released only during work, other times it is in a bound state in the working element of the gas generator. (paper)

  6. Investigation on the fiber based approach to estimate the axial load carrying capacity of the circular concrete filled steel tube (CFST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscesa, B.; Attard, M. M.; Suprobo, P.; Samani, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    External confining devices are often used to enhance the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete columns. Among the available external confining devices, steel tube is one of the most widely used in construction. However, steel tube has some drawbacks such as local buckling which needs to be considered when estimating the axial load carrying capacity of the concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) column. To tackle this problem in design, Eurocode 4 provided guidelines to estimate the effective yield strength of the steel tube material. To study the behavior of CFST column, in this paper, a non-linear analysis using a fiber-based approach was conducted. The use of the fiber-based approach allows the engineers to predict not only the axial load carrying capacity but also the complete load-deformation curve of the CFST columns for a known confining pressure. In the proposed fiber-based approach, an inverse analysis is used to estimate the constant confining pressure similar to design-oriented models. This paper also presents comparisons between the fiber-based approach model with the experimental results and the 3D non-linear finite element analysis.

  7. Assessment of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) butter content and composition throughout fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servent, Adrien; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice; Pinot, Marie-Neige; Tardan, Eric; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Hue, Clotilde

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity (free and total fat), extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador. Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter. A 4.71% increase in free fat was measured in the Ecuadorian samples fermented for 144 h. Conversely, total fat content remained stable throughout fermentation. Protein and polyphenol contents decreases were linked to fat content augmentation by a strong negative interaction. Triglyceride and total and linked fatty acid kinetics (0 to 6 days) of the butter remained statistically stable during fermentation, as did unsaponifiable matter. The origin of fermentation had a predominant and significant impact on composition, revealed by PCA. This work underlines and explains the importance of fermentation process in improving yield of fat that can be extracted while preserving the composition of this cocoa butter. This study highlights an interaction in cocoa unfermented or partially fermented beans. This phenomenon causes butter content retention but is slowly broken after 72 h fermentation. Therefore, fermentation appears to be also necessary to enhance the cocoa butter content extracted from the nibs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Filling-in of Far-Red and Near-Infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial and Atmospheric Effects: Simulations and Space-Based Observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Yoshida, Y.; Kuse, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space is of interest because it can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Space-based measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is challenging, because its signal is small as compared with the much larger reflectance signal. Ground- and aircraft-based approaches have made use of the dark and spectrally-wide O2-A ( approx 760 nm) and O2-B (approx 690 nm) atmospheric features to detect the weak fluorescence signal. More recently, Joiner et al. and Frankenberg et al. focused on longer-wavelength solar Fraunhofer lines that can be observed with space-based instruments such as the currently operational GOSAT. They showed that fluorescence can be detected using Fraunhofer lines away from the far-red chlorophyll-a fluorescence peak even when the surface is relatively bright. Here, we build on that work by developing methodology to correct for instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in signals that can bias fluorescence retrievals. We also examine other potential sources of filling-in at far-red and NIR wavelengths. Another objective is to explore the possibility of making fluorescence measurements from space with lower spectral resolution instrumentation than the GOSAT interferometer. We focus on the 866nm Ca II solar Fraunhofer line. Very few laboratory and ground-based measurements of vegetation fluorescence have been reported at wavelengths longer than 800 nm. Some results of fluorescence measurements of corn leaves acquired in the laboratory using polychromatic excitation at wavelengths shorter than 665nm show that at 866 nm, the measured signal is of the order of 0.1-0.2 mW/sq m/nm/sr. In this work, we use the following satellite observations: We use SCIAMACHY channel 5 in nadir mode that covers wavelengths between 773 and 1063nm at a spectral

  9. Filling-in of Far-Red and Near-Infrared Solar Lines by Terrestrial and Atmospheric Effects: Simulations and Space-Based Observations from SCHIAMACHY and GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Kuze, A.; Corp, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space is of interest because it can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Space-based measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is challenging, because its signal is small as compared with the much larger reflectance signal. Ground- and aircraft-based approaches have made use of the dark and spectrally-wide 02-A (approx 760 nm) and O2-B (approx 690 nm) atmospheric features to detect the weak fluorescence signal. More recently, Joiner et a1. and Frankenberg et a1. focused on longer-wavelength solar Fraunhofer lines that can be observed with space-based instruments such as the currently operational GOSAT. They showed that fluorescence can be detected using Fraunhofer lines away from the far-red chlorophyll-a fluorescence peak even when the surface is relatively bright. Here, we build on that work by developing methodology to correct for instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in signals that can bias fluorescence retrievals. We also examine other potential sources of filling-in at far-red and NIR wavelengths. Another objective is to explore the possibility of making fluorescence measurements from space with lower spectral resolution instrumentation than the GOSAT interferometer. We focus on the 866 nm Ca II solar Fraunhofer line. Very few laboratory and ground-based measurements of vegetation fluorescence have been reported at wavelengths longer than 800 mn. Some results of fluorescence measurements of corn leaves acquired in the laboratory using polychromatic excitation at wavelengths shorter than 665 nm show that at 866 nm, the measured signal is of the order of 0.1-0.2 mw/sq m/nm/sr. In this work we use the following satellite observations: We use SCIAMACHY channel 5 in nadir mode that covers wavelengths between 773 and 1063 nm at a

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-06-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air-grass-yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air-butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of saturation and chain length of fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of cocoa butter-like lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael; Wei, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Chain length and degree of saturation plays an important role for the characteristics of various products derived from fatty acids, such as fuels, cosmetics, and food additives. The seeds of Theobroma cacao are the source of cocoa butter, a natural lipid of high interest for the food and cosmetics...... industry. Cocoa butter is rich in saturated fatty acids that are stored in the form of triacylglycerides (TAGs). One of the major TAG species of cocoa butter, consisting of two stearic acid molecules and one oleic acid molecule (stearic acid-oleic acid-stearic acid, sn-SOS), is particularly rare in nature...... as the saturated fatty acid stearic acid is typically found only in low abundance. Demand for cocoa butter is increasing, yet T. cacao can only be cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Alternative means of production of cocoa butter lipids (CBLs) are, therefore, sought after. Yeasts also store fatty acids...

  12. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...... blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower...

  13. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    There is a long term interest of lipase applications in lipid modifications because of the inherent advantages over chemical methods such as more specific reactions involved, less energy used, moderate reaction conditions and so on. In this work, cocoa butter-like fats (CBF) were produced using......-8%. And about 90% of the present PPP and PPSt triglycerides were separated from the product. Under above parameters, the final pilot products had similar compositions to those of cocoa butter. In this research, IPPL showed initial interesterification activity at the similar level as Lipozyme IM from Novo...

  14. Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pimpin

    Full Text Available Dietary guidelines recommend avoiding foods high in saturated fat. Yet, emerging evidence suggests cardiometabolic benefits of dairy products and dairy fat. Evidence on the role of butter, with high saturated dairy fat content, for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the association of butter consumption with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in general populations.We searched 9 databases from inception to May 2015 without restriction on setting, or language, using keywords related to butter consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Prospective cohorts or randomized clinical trials providing estimates of effects of butter intake on mortality, cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, or diabetes in adult populations were included. One investigator screened titles and abstracts; and two reviewed full-text articles independently in duplicate, and extracted study and participant characteristics, exposure and outcome definitions and assessment methods, analysis methods, and adjusted effects and associated uncertainty, all independently in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by a modified Newcastle-Ottawa score. Random and fixed effects meta-analysis pooled findings, with heterogeneity assessed using the I2 statistic and publication bias by Egger's test and visual inspection of funnel plots. We identified 9 publications including 15 country-specific cohorts, together reporting on 636,151 unique participants with 6.5 million person-years of follow-up and including 28,271 total deaths, 9,783 cases of incident cardiovascular disease, and 23,954 cases of incident diabetes. No RCTs were identified. Butter consumption was weakly associated with all-cause mortality (N = 9 country-specific cohorts; per 14g(1 tablespoon/day: RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.03, P = 0.045; was not significantly associated with any

  15. Is Butter Back? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Butter Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Total Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, Laura; Wu, Jason H Y; Haskelberg, Hila; Del Gobbo, Liana; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend avoiding foods high in saturated fat. Yet, emerging evidence suggests cardiometabolic benefits of dairy products and dairy fat. Evidence on the role of butter, with high saturated dairy fat content, for total mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the association of butter consumption with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in general populations. We searched 9 databases from inception to May 2015 without restriction on setting, or language, using keywords related to butter consumption and cardiometabolic outcomes. Prospective cohorts or randomized clinical trials providing estimates of effects of butter intake on mortality, cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, or diabetes in adult populations were included. One investigator screened titles and abstracts; and two reviewed full-text articles independently in duplicate, and extracted study and participant characteristics, exposure and outcome definitions and assessment methods, analysis methods, and adjusted effects and associated uncertainty, all independently in duplicate. Study quality was evaluated by a modified Newcastle-Ottawa score. Random and fixed effects meta-analysis pooled findings, with heterogeneity assessed using the I2 statistic and publication bias by Egger's test and visual inspection of funnel plots. We identified 9 publications including 15 country-specific cohorts, together reporting on 636,151 unique participants with 6.5 million person-years of follow-up and including 28,271 total deaths, 9,783 cases of incident cardiovascular disease, and 23,954 cases of incident diabetes. No RCTs were identified. Butter consumption was weakly associated with all-cause mortality (N = 9 country-specific cohorts; per 14g(1 tablespoon)/day: RR = 1.01, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.03, P = 0.045); was not significantly associated with any cardiovascular disease (N

  16. Space-filling Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and computer applications for the last 20 years. He has been a National Science. Talent awardee of. NCERT in mathematics. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Space-filling Curves. ReMittal. In this article some Peano curves are exhibited and some of their recent applications are dis- cussed. A C++ program to draw the ...

  17. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. The impact of amalgam dental fillings on the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection and H. pylori eradication rates in patients treated with concomitant, quadruple, and levofloxacin-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Bora; Başyiğit, Sebahat; Yüksel, Osman; Akkan, Tolga; Atbaşı, Suna Tülin; Uzman, Metin; Yılmaz, Barış; Şimşek, Gülçin; Nazlıgül, Yaşar

    2015-07-01

    Mercury exposure is encountered most commonly in individuals with amalgam fillings. The toxic, bactericidal, and immunosuppressive effects of mercury are well known. Furthermore, multiple antibiotic resistance can be transferred, together with mercury resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients with amalgam fillings and the effect of the amalgam fillings on H. pylori eradication rates in these patients. Four hundred and seventy-five patients who presented with dyspeptic complaints and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and gastric biopsy were included in this study. One hundred and sixty-nine (35.6%) patients were negative and 306 (64.4%) patients were positive for H. pylori. All of the participants underwent dental examinations in a blinded manner. The participants were divided into two groups on the basis of the presence of amalgam fillings. The H. pylori-positive patients were divided randomly into three subgroups: patients who received concomitant therapy (CT) (rabeprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin-metronidazole for 14 days; n=122); patients who received quadruple therapy (QT) (rabeprazole-tetracycline-metronidazole-colloidal bismuth subcitrate for 10 days; n=97); and patients who received levofloxacin-based therapy (LT) (rabeprazole-amoxicillin-levofloxacin for 10 days; n=87). Eradication success was detected by a urea breath test 6 weeks after the end of treatment. The frequency of H. pylori infection was significantly lower in the filling group compared with the nonfilling group (53.7 and 78.8%, respectively; PP=0.001, 0.003, 0.012, 0.14, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed that the absence of amalgam filling exerts independent effects on the increased frequency of H. pylori infection and increased rate of H. pylori eradication. This is the first study to show a lower frequency of H. pylori colonization in patients with amalgam fillings than without and that

  19. Effect of Nd:YAG and Diode Lasers on Apical Seal of Root Canals Filled with AH Plus and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate-Based Sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Khoshbin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, may increase the success rate of endodontic treatments. This study aimed to assess the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG and diode lasers on the apical seal of the root canals filled with AH Plus® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based sealers.Materials and Methods: This in-vitro experimental study was conducted on 96 single-rooted, single-canal extracted human teeth with closed apices. The root canals were prepared by using ProTaper® rotary instruments and were randomly divided into six groups (n=16: 940-nm diode laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 1, Nd:YAG laser and AH Plus® sealer (group 2, AH Plus® sealer (group 3, 940-nm diode laser and MTA-based sealer (group 4, Nd:YAG laser and MTA-based sealer (group 5, MTA-based sealer (group 6, as well as positive and negative control groups. A bacterial leakage model was used for microleakage assessment. Qualitative assessment was done by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at the significance level of 0.05.Results: There were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P=0.002. The laser-treated groups showed a lower apical microleakage compared to the non-laser-treated groups, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. No significant differences were noted between the two lasers in terms of the apical microleakage, irrespective of the type of sealer (P>0.05.Conclusions: Laser irradiation, as an adjunct to root canal preparation, has no significant effect on the level of apical microleakage.

  20. 7 CFR 2902.20 - Fluid-filled transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid-filled transformers. 2902.20 Section 2902.20... Items § 2902.20 Fluid-filled transformers. (a) Definition. (1) Synthetic ester-based fluid-filled transformers. Electric power transformers that are designed to utilize a synthetic ester-based dielectric (non...

  1. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Pcoconut and safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (Pcoconut diets. These data suggest that cholesterol synthesis is lower during diets rich in coconut fat and safflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  2. Fourth-Grade Primary School Students' Thought Processes and Challenges Encountered during the Butter Beans Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Neslihan; Eraslan, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with mathematical modeling studies that have gradually drawn interest in recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the thought processes of fourth-grade students in the Butter Beans Problem and to identify possible challenges in this process. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted at a university-foundation…

  3. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption...

  4. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate...

  6. Industrial application of different heat treatments and cream fat contents for improving the spreadability of butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondhoosh, Arash; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    the fat content of cream (from 40 to 45 %) and holding time (from 3h to 5h) in mid-temperature (18 °C) and reducing the churning temperature (from 12 °C to 10 °C), resulted in soft butter texture and improved butter spreadability. Loss Tangent (tan δ) was increased from 0.11 to 0.74 (T=15 °C;f=1Hz...... hardening of texture especially in winter. Methods: Firstly, Pasteurized cream with different fat contents (40 & 45% fat) was passed through heat treatments, and then it was injected to a continuous churn. Textural and melting behavior and fatty acid composition of butter were analyzed. Results: Increasing......). The melting temperature of butter was decreased from 36°C to 32°C and total trans fatty acid content was decreased from 3.2 % to 1.87 %. Conclusion: It was concluded that such heating process (which has been studied and reported in patents) absorbs the low- SFC fats of the cream, integrates them...

  7. Monitoring of butter and animal fat oxidation stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Sadadinović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of fat is one of the basic reactions which causes the depletion of butter and animal fat quality as well as other products containing them. Since the most of reaction products of fat oxidation are harmful for consumers' health, inadequate and scarce monitoring of edible fats and fat containing products quality, presents increased health risk as well as financial loss for the producers. In fat oxidation stability estimation, standard chemical methods were used (iodine number, acid number, peroxide number, anisidine number etc., which require time and chemical usage. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis presents the simple and efficient way for butter and animal fats oxidation stability estimation. Laboratory investigations were performed to monitor oxidation stability of butter and animal fat in fresh state, as well as in spent phase, used in frying process. The results obtained were compared to the results of standard chemical analysis, and they confirmed the reproducibility and applicability of differential scanning calorimetry in oxidation stability of butter and animal fats monitoring.

  8. Regional variation in shea butter lipid and triterpene composition in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Daria; Maranz, Steve; Serraiocco, Arnaldo; Vito, Raffaella; Wiesman, Zeev; Bianchi, Giorgio

    2005-09-21

    The triacylglycerol, fatty acid, and polycyclic triterpene compositions of shea butter were determined for 150 samples from the sub-Saharan countries of Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda. The compositional profiles showed high variability in all three classes of compounds. Shea butter is made up mainly of four triglycerides (TAG) differing in carbon number (CN) by two, starting from CN 50 to CN 56. The greatest source of variation was in the CN 54 TAG. Shea butter is characterized by 16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in greatly varying proportion, the major ones being the even homologues in the range of C(16)-C(20). Oleic acid is dominant in Ugandan provenances, whereas stearic acid is dominant in West African shea butter. Acetyl and cinnamyl polycyclic triterpene means for countries ranged from 3.69 to 12.57%, with the highest values found in Nigerian provenances. Statistical comparisons of fat composition show that the geographic distance between shea populations is reflected in the degree of separation of their chemical profiles.

  9. Effect of cheese and butter intake on metabolites in urine using an untargeted metabolomics approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Ritz, Christian; Schou, Simon Stubbe

    2014-01-01

    affects cholesterol concentrations. Twenty-three subjects collected 2 × 24 h urine samples after 6 weeks of cheese and 6 weeks of butter intake with equal amounts of fat in a cross-over intervention study. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS. A two-step univariate data analysis approach using linear...

  10. Increased adiposity induced by high dietary butter oil increases vertebrae trabecular structural indices in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity has been associated with both improved and impaired bone health, and other dietary factors apparently affect the nature of the association. An experiment was performed to determine whether increased adiposity induced by high dietary butter oil impairs bone structure and whether that effect ...

  11. Physical and processing properties of milk, butter, and cheddar cheese from cows fed supplemental fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramis, C A; Wang, H; McBride, B W; Wright, T C; Hill, A R

    2003-08-01

    Physical, chemical, sensory and processing properties of milk produced by feeding a rumen-undegradable fish meal protein supplement to Holstein cows were investigated. The supplement contained (as fed basis) 25% soft-white wheat, 60% herring meal, and 15% feather meal. The total fat level in the milk decreased to 2.43%. For both pasteurized and ultra-high temperature processed drinking milk, no difference was found between fish meal (FM) milk and control milk in terms of color, flavor and flavor stability; in particular, no oxidized flavor was observed. Cheddar cheese made from FM milk ripened faster after 3 mo of ripening and developed a more desirable texture and stronger Cheddar flavor. The yield efficiencies for FM and control cheese, 94.4 (+/- 2.44 SE) and 96.4 (+/- 2.26 SE), respectively, were not different. Relative to controls, average fat globule size was smaller in FM milk and churning time of FM cream was longer. FM butter had softer texture and better cold spreadability, and butter oils from FM enriched milk had lower dropping points compared to control butter oil (average 32.89 versus 34.06 degrees C). These differences in physical properties of butter fat were greater than expected considering that iodine values were not different. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing high quality products from milk naturally supplemented with FM, but the results also show that dietary changes affect processing properties.

  12. Cold-storage defects in butter and their relation to the autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badings, H.T.

    1970-01-01

    In this thesis investigations are described of the identification of aroma compounds which are formed as a result of oxidative deterioration of butter during cold storage, producing a typical trainy (fishy) off-flavour. As these flavour defects are caused chiefly by autoxidative breakdown of

  13. Impact of lactic acid bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid content and atherogenic index of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Roufegari-Nejad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a study aimed to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Sterptococcus thermophilus (as thermophilic culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, cremoris and diacetylactis, Leuconostoc citrovorum (as mesophilic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium lactis and a mixed culture of L.acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis on fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and atherogenic index (AI of butter. Fatty acid analysis with gas chromatography indicated that application of thermophilic and mixed culture decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid; whereas, the butters made with L. acidophilus had the highest content of CLA. Moreover, AI in the samples prepared with thermophilic cultures was the least. Sensory evaluation of the treatments revealed no significant differences (p> 0/05 in appearance and color. However, the butters prepared with thermophilic and mesophilic cultures had more desirable taste in comparison with the samples made with L. acidophilus, L. casei and B. lactis. From the nutritional point of view, the adverse effect of butter could be diminished via the application of selected lactic acid bacteria.

  14. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... syneresis, add flavor, extend shelf life, improve appearance, and add sweetness. The product may contain..., organoleptic characteristics, functional properties, shelf life) of the product shall be similar to butter as... syneresis, add flavor, extend shelf life, improve appearance, or add sweetness and water added to replace...

  15. Measures of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures associate with pulmonary arterial pressure in the general population : Results from the population-based Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billar, R.J. (Ryan J.); M.J.G. Leening (Maarten); D. Merkus (Daphne); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); H.A. Ghofrani; O.H. Franco (Oscar); H. Gall (Henning); J.F. Felix (Janine)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPulmonary hypertension is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the elderly population. Heart failure is a common cause of pulmonary hypertension. Yet, the relation between left heart parameters reflective of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures,

  16. Comparison of sunscreens Containing Titanium Dioxide Alone Or In Association With Cocoa, Murumuru Or Cupuaçu Butters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marronato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingredients of natural origin may represent alternatives for formulating sunscreens, without compromising their effectiveness. The literature has shown the antioxidant potential of compounds existing in murumuru (Astrocaryum murmuru, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum and cocoa (Theobroma cacao butters that recommends further investigation. The objectives of this research were: (1 to develop bioactive photoprotective formulations containing cocoa, murmuru or cupuaçu butters in association with a physical sunscreen (titanium dioxide (TiO2 and (2 determine the possible photoprotective activity of butters and their interactions with the sunscreen. Cocoa, cupuaçu and murumuru butter were individually associated to TiO2 in O / W emulsions. The anti-UVA and UVB efficacy in vitro was estimated by diffuse transmittance analysis in a Labsphere® UV2000S, using quartz plates and Transpore® tape to obtain the SPF (sun protection factor and critical wavelength. Photoprotective formulations containing titanium dioxide and bioactive butters were obtained using Aristoflex® AVC and triglycerides of caprylic capric acid (GTCC. The SPF of the samples containing only TiO2 and formulations containing cocoa, murumuru or cupuassu butters associated with TiO2 ranged from 4 to 5. The critical wavelength values for these formulations ranged from 383.0 to 386.7 nm. The results indicated no increase in the SPF value for formulations containing vegetable butters. The critical wavelength values indicated their potential to absorb part of the UVA radiation.

  17. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng; Lauritzen, Lotte; Mu, Huiling

    2008-10-01

    The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition. No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower concentration of triacylglycerols in the plasma 2 h after the meal in comparison with the commercial butter blend (p = 0.02); there was, however, no significant difference 24 h after the meal. In conclusion, fish oil-enriched butter blend provides a source to increase the intake of n-3 LCPUFA in the population, but has no acute effect on cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol concentration in human.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air, grass and yak butter from Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaohua; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies on bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along terrestrial food chains were conducted. The food chain air–grass–yak (butter) in the pasture region of Namco in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) was chosen for study. The air, grass and butter POPs in the TP were at the lower end of the concentrations generally found around the globe. HCB was the main pollutant in air and butter. Besides HCB, β-HCH and p,p′-DDE were the other major compounds in butter. Along the food chain, DDTs and high molecular weight PCB-138, 153 and 180 had higher Biological Concentration Factor values. The air–butter transfer factors of POPs were derived and demonstrated the practical advantage in predicting the atmospheric OCPs and PCBs to the TP. This study sheds light on the transfer and accumulation of POPs along the terrestrial food chain of the TP. - Highlights: • Air, grass and butter POPs in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) were at the lower end of the global levels. • The pasture of the TP was found to be a “sink” of DDTs. • Bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the food chain: air–grass–yak. • The TF A:B was tested to be an excellent tool to predict air OCPs and PCBs in the TP. - Transfer and bioaccumulation of OCPs and PCBs happened along the terrestrial food chain: air–grass–yak (butter)

  19. Microstructure Filled Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thomas, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reese, T. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-24

    We propose replacing the gas fill in a hohlraum with a low average density, variable uniformity 3D printed structure. This creates a bimodal hohlraum which acts like a vacuum hohlraum initially during the picket, but could protect the capsule from glint or direct illumination, and then once expanded, homogenizes to behave like a variable z gas-fill during peak portion of the drive. This is motivated by a two main aims: 1) reduction of the Au bubble velocity to improve inner beam propagation, and 2) the introduction of a low density, high-Z, x-ray converter to improve x-ray production in the hohlraum and uniformity of the radiation field seen by the capsule.

  20. Dynamic performance of a multi-ribbed belt based on an overlay constitutive model of carbon-black-filled rubber and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yumei; Zhu, Hao; Zhu, W. D.; Li, Changlong; Pi, Yangjun

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this work is the accurate prediction of dynamic mechanical performances of a multi-ribbed belt span. An overlay constitutive model, which consists of hyperelastic, viscoelastic and elastoplastic parts coupled in parallel, is established to describe mechanical properties of carbon-black-filled rubber material used in the belt. A uniaxial tensile test and a uniaxial compressional test are conducted to obtain the hyperelastic material parameters of the constitutive model, and a simple dynamic shear test is used to identify the viscoplastic material parameters via a standard genetic algorithm. Finite element (FE) simulations with the constitutive model are performed to simulate static and hysteretic dynamic characteristics of rubber specimens in these tests. By comparing the simulation results with experiments, the accuracy of the constitutive model and its material parameters is validated. A three-dimensional FE model based on the constitutive model is established to predict both longitudinal and transverse dynamic performances of the multi-ribbed belt span and its good agreements with experimental results are achieved.

  1. Final results of an experimental study of a large-area planar drift chamber filled with a He-based mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnello, M.; Amaudruz, P.A.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Busso, L.; Calvo, D.; Cerello, P.; Fanara, C.; Filippi, A.; Iazzi, F.; Marcello, S.; Minetti, B.; Mirfakhrai, N.; Morra, O.; Raimondo, A.; Rossetto, E.; Sharma, A.; Zenoni, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the final results of an accurate and complete experimental study of the performance of a large-area (1150 x 566 mm 2 ) planar drift chamber filled with a He-iC 4 H 10 (70%-30%) mixture. Sixteen chambers of this type will constitute the elements of the central part of the tracking device of FINUDA, one of the two spectrometers approved for running at DAΦNE. The measured spatial resolution across the full drift cell ranges from 80 to 120 μm for particles at normal incidence angle, and the measured spatial resolution along the sense wire, as measured by the charge division method, was better than 1% of the wire length. Efficiency, space-time relationship, long term stability and Lorentz angle were measured as well. Particular care was devoted to the study of the spatial resolution as a function of the incidence angle. The conclusion of this study is that the chamber performances are the same or better than those obtained with Ar-based mixtures. (orig.)

  2. Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures (including nano-plates and nano-rods (NRs)) are grown in various temperatures and Ar/O2 flow rates using thermal chemical vapor deposition, which affect the structure, nano-plate/NR population, and the quality of ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) attests that the peak intensity of the crystallographic plane (1 0 0) is correlated to nano-plate abundance. Moreover, optical properties elucidate that the population of nano-plates in samples strongly affect the band gap, binding energy of the exciton, and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption and spectral luminescence emissions. In fact, the exciton binding energy reduces from ~100 to 80 meV when the population of nano-plates increases in samples. Photovoltaic characteristics based on the drop-casting on Si solar cells reveals three dominant factors, namely, the equivalent series resistance, decreasing reflectance, and down-shifting, in order to scale up the absolute efficiency by 3%. As a consequence, the oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanostructures give rise to the down-shifting and increase of free-carriers, leading to a reduction in the equivalent series resistance and an enlargement of fill factor. To obtain a larger I sc, reduction of spectral reflectance is essential; however, the down-shifting process is shown to be dominant by lessening the surface electron-hole recombination rate over the UV-blue spectral range.

  3. A Study on Aging Characteristics of Silicone Oil in HV Oil-filled Cable Termination Based on Infrared Thermal Imaging Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the aging characteristics of Silicone oil in the high voltage oil-filled cable termination after being operated 12 years, the silicone oil in service were studied using the infrared imaging detection, Fourier infrared spectrum analysis, and dielectric properties and micro water content test. The relationship between the infrared thermal imaging temperature and the physical and chemical properties was considered. The results indicate that, the operating temperature of silicone oil within the terminal based on the infrared thermal imaging testing can be characterization of silicone oil aging state. The aging characteristic peak of Silicone oil is P-H key stretching vibration peak, which is near 2360cm− 1, Si-CH3, -CH3 and Si-O-Si keys have no influence of before and after aging. In addition, the aging properties of silicone oil can be reviewed by the change of the dielectric properties, and the decline of the dielectric properties is caused by the aging and water content of materials. The results will be helpful for research of silicone oil aging and optimization design of anti-aging, serving as references for the manufacture, design, and operation.

  4. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Wilson

    Full Text Available Establishing an association between possible food sources and clinical isolates requires discriminating the suspected pathogen from an environmental background, and distinguishing it from other closely-related foodborne pathogens. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS to Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee (S. Tennessee to describe genomic diversity across the serovar as well as among and within outbreak clades of strains associated with contaminated peanut butter. We analyzed 71 isolates of S. Tennessee from disparate food, environmental, and clinical sources and 2 other closely-related Salmonella serovars as outgroups (S. Kentucky and S. Cubana, which were also shot-gun sequenced. A whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach to infer phylogenetic relationships. Several monophyletic lineages of S. Tennessee with limited SNP variability were identified that recapitulated several food contamination events. S. Tennessee clades were separated from outgroup salmonellae by more than sixteen thousand SNPs. Intra-serovar diversity of S. Tennessee was small compared to the chosen outgroups (1,153 SNPs, suggesting recent divergence of some S. Tennessee clades. Analysis of all 1,153 SNPs structuring an S. Tennessee peanut butter outbreak cluster revealed that isolates from several food, plant, and clinical isolates were very closely related, as they had only a few SNP differences between them. SNP-based cluster analyses linked specific food sources to several clinical S. Tennessee strains isolated in separate contamination events. Environmental and clinical isolates had very similar whole genome sequences; no markers were found that could be used to discriminate between these sources. Finally, we identified SNPs within variable S. Tennessee genes that may be useful markers for the development of rapid surveillance and typing methods, potentially aiding in traceback efforts

  5. From margarine to butter: predictors of changing bread spread in an 11-year population follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prättälä, Ritva; Levälahti, Esko; Lallukka, Tea; Männistö, Satu; Paalanen, Laura; Raulio, Susanna; Roos, Eva; Suominen, Sakari; Mäki-Opas, Tomi

    2016-06-01

    Finland is known for a sharp decrease in the intake of saturated fat and cardiovascular mortality. Since 2000, however, the consumption of butter-containing spreads - an important source of saturated fats - has increased. We examined social and health-related predictors of the increase among Finnish men and women. An 11-year population follow-up. A representative random sample of adult Finns, invited to a health survey in 2000. Altogether 5414 persons aged 30-64 years at baseline in 2000 were re-invited in 2011. Of men 1529 (59 %) and of women 1853 (66 %) answered the questions on bread spreads at both time points. Respondents reported the use of bread spreads by choosing one of the following alternatives: no fat, soft margarine, butter-vegetable oil mixture and butter, which were later categorized into margarine/no spread and butter/butter-vegetable oil mixture (= butter). The predictors included gender, age, marital status, education, employment status, place of residence, health behaviours, BMI and health. Multinomial regression models were fitted. Of the 2582 baseline margarine/no spread users, 24.6% shifted to butter. Only a few of the baseline sociodemographic or health-related determinants predicted the change. Finnish women were more likely to change to butter than men. Living with a spouse predicted the change among men. The change from margarine to butter between 2000 and 2011 seemed not to be a matter of compliance with official nutrition recommendations. Further longitudinal studies on social, behavioural and motivational predictors of dietary changes are needed.

  6. Robust new NIRS coupled with multivariate methods for the detection and quantification of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Abbas, Ghulam; Jabeen, Farah; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hamaed, Ahmad M; Hussain, Javid; Al-Nabhani, Mahmood; Al Shukaili, Maryam S; Khan, Alamgir; Manzoor, Suryyia

    2018-03-01

    Cows' butterfat may be adulterated with animal fat materials like tallow which causes increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels upon consumption. There is no reliable technique to detect and quantify tallow adulteration in butter samples in a feasible way. In this study a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was developed to detect as well as quantify the level of tallow adulterant in clarified butter samples. For this investigation the pure clarified butter samples were intentionally adulterated with tallow at the following percentage levels: 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% and 20% (wt/wt). Altogether 99 clarified butter samples were used including nine pure samples (un-adulterated clarified butter) and 90 clarified butter samples adulterated with tallow. Each sample was analysed by using NIR spectroscopy in the reflection mode in the range 10,000-4000 cm -1 , at 2 cm -1 resolution and using the transflectance sample accessory which provided a total path length of 0.5 mm. Chemometric models including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and partial least-squares regressions (PLSR) were applied for statistical treatment of the obtained NIR spectral data. The PLSDA model was employed to differentiate pure butter samples from those adulterated with tallow. The employed model was then externally cross-validated by using a test set which included 30% of the total butter samples. The excellent performance of the model was proved by the low RMSEP value of 1.537% and the high correlation factor of 0.95. This newly developed method is robust, non-destructive, highly sensitive, and economical with very minor sample preparation and good ability to quantify less than 1.5% of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

  7. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  8. Method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ in cheese and butter by HPLC using an immunoaffinity column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Hisako; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kawakami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive convenient method for determination of aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) in cheese and butter by HPLC was developed and validated. The method employs a safe extraction solution (mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water) and an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up. Compared with the widely used method employing chloroform and a Florisil column, the IAC method has a short analytical time and there are no interference peaks. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of the IAC method were 0.12 and 0.14 µg/kg, while those of the Florisil column method were 0.47 and 0.23 µg/kg in cheese and buffer, respectively. The recovery and relative standard deviation (RSD) for cheese (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 92% and 7%, respectively, while for the Florisil column method the corresponding values were 76% and 10%. The recovery and RSD for butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) in the IAC method were 97% and 9%, and those in the Florisil method were 74% and 9%, respectively. In the IAC method, the values of in-house precision (n=2, day=5) of cheese and butter (spiked at 0.5 µg/kg) were 9% and 13%, respectively. The IAC method is superior to the Florisil column method in terms of safety, ease of handling, sensitivity and reliability. A survey of AFM₁ contamination in imported cheese and butter in Japan was conducted by the IAC method. AFM₁ was not detected in 60 samples of cheese and 30 samples of butter.

  9. Contamination of U.S. butter with polybrominated diphenyl ethers from wrapping paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Smith, Sarah; Colacino, Justin; Malik, Noor; Opel, Matthias; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to report the first known incidence of U.S. butter contamination with extremely high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Ten butter samples were individually analyzed for PBDEs. One of the samples and its paper wrapper contained very high levels of higher-brominated PBDEs. Dietary estimates were calculated using the 2007 U.S. Department of Agriculture Loss-Adjusted Food Availability data, excluding the elevated sample. The highly contaminated butter sample had a total upper bound PBDE level of 42,252 pg/g wet weight (ww). Levels of brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-206, -207, and -209 were 2,000, 2,290, and 37,600 pg/g ww, respectively. Its wrapping paper contained a total upper-bound PBDE concentration of 804,751 pg/g ww, with levels of BDE-206, -207, and -209 of 51,000, 11,700, and 614,000 pg/g, respectively. Total PBDE levels in the remaining nine butter samples ranged from 180 to 1,212 pg/g, with geometric mean of 483 and median of 284 pg/g. Excluding the outlier, total PBDE daily intake from all food was 22,764 pg/day, lower than some previous U.S. dietary intake estimates. Higher-brominated PBDE congeners were likely transferred from contaminated wrapping paper to butter. A larger representative survey may help determine how frequently PBDE contamination occurs. Sampling at various stages in food production may identify contamination sources and reduce risk.

  10. Bioactive lipids in the butter production chain from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M; Gori, Alessandro; Losi, Giuseppe; Caboni, Maria F

    2013-11-01

    Bovine milk contains hundreds of diverse components, including proteins, peptides, amino acids, lipids, lactose, vitamins and minerals. Specifically, the lipid composition is influenced by different variables such as breed, feed and technological process. In this study the fatty acid and phospholipid compositions of different samples of butter and its by-products from the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area, produced by industrial and traditional churning processes, were determined. The fatty acid composition of samples manufactured by the traditional method showed higher levels of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with industrial samples. In particular, the contents of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids were higher in samples produced by the traditional method than in samples produced industrially. Sample phospholipid composition also varied between the two technological processes. Phosphatidylethanolamine was the major phospholipid in cream, butter and buttermilk samples obtained by the industrial process as well as in cream and buttermilk samples from the traditional process, while phosphatidylcholine was the major phospholipid in traditionally produced butter. This result may be explained by the different churning processes causing different types of membrane disruption. Generally, samples produced traditionally had higher contents of total phospholipids; in particular, butter produced by the traditional method had a total phospholipid content 33% higher than that of industrially produced butter. The samples studied represent the two types of products present in the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese area, where the industrial churning process is widespread compared with the traditional processing of Reggiana cow's milk. This is because Reggiana cow's milk production is lower than that of other breeds and the traditional churning process is time-consuming and economically disadvantageous. However, its products have been demonstrated to

  11. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix–uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix–uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% ± 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  12. Optimization of a two stage process for biodiesel production from shea butter using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ajala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA shea butter (SB necessitated this study. The reduction of %FFA of SB by esterification and its subsequent utilization by transesterification for biodiesel production in a two stage process for optimization studies was investigated using response surface methodology based on a central composite design (CCD. Four operating conditions were investigated to reduce the %FFA of SB and increase the %yield of shea biodiesel (SBD. The operating conditions were temperature (40–60°C, agitation speed (200–1400 rpm, methanol (MeOH: oil mole ratio: 2:1–6:1 (w/w for esterification and 4:1–8:1 (w/w for transesterification and catalyst loading: 1–2% (H2SO4, (v/v for esterification and KOH, (w/w for transesterification. The significance of the parameters obtained in linear and non-linear form from the models were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The optimal operating conditions that gave minimum FFA of 0.26% were 52.19°C, 200 rpm, 2:1 (w/w and 1.5% (v/v, while those that gave maximum yield of 92.16% SBD were 40°C, 800 rpm, 7:1 (w/w and 1% (w/w. The p-value of <0.0001 for each of the stages showed that the models were significant with R2 of 0.96 each. These results indicate the reproducibility of the models and showed that the RSM is suitable to optimize the esterification and transesterification of SB for SBD production. Therefore, RSM is a useful tool that can be employed in industrial scale production of SBD from high FFA SB.

  13. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  14. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  15. Filled/Eroded Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    14 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows rugged terrain in northern Arabia Terra. The circular features are the remains of old meteor impact craters -- either the eroded remnants of the interiors of craters, or the remains of craters that were filled by layered material. The martian bedrock has craters of all sizes and states of erosion interbedded with its layered materials. Location near: 31.4oN, 299.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  16. Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bo; He, Xiaoying; Wang, D N

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate a nanosecond-pulse erbium-doped fiber laser that is passively mode locked by a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution. Owing to the good solution processing capability of few-layered graphene oxide, which can be filled into the core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber through a selective hole filling process, a graphene saturable absorber can be successfully fabricated. The output pulses obtained have a center wavelength, pulse width, and repetition rate of 1561.2 nm, 4.85 ns, and 7.68 MHz, respectively. This method provides a simple and efficient approach to integrate the graphene into the optical fiber system. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials | Yildirim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x‑tra Base Bulk Fill). Materials and Methods: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared, and ...

  18. Radiopacity of bulk fill flowable resin composite materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-23

    Aug 23, 2015 ... Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of currently marketed bulk fill flowable dental composite materials (Beautifil Bulk Flowable, SDR Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, and x‑tra Base Bulk Fill). Materials and Methods: Six specimens of each material with a thickness of 1 mm were ...

  19. Study of 5f electron based filled skutterudite compound EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, a thermoelectric (TE) material: FP-LAPW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, A., E-mail: amitshan2009@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Rai, D.P., E-mail: dibyaprakashrai@gmail.com [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, 3 Heqing Road, Beijing 100084 (China); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modlisation Mathmatique (LPQ3M), Dpartement de Technologie, Universit de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Maibam, J. [Department of Physics, Assam University, Silchar 788011 (India); Sandeep, E-mail: sndp.chettri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India); Thapa, R.K., E-mail: r.k.thapa@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mizoram University, Aizawl 796004 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The compound EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} shows a semi-metallic behavior with pseudo gap. • The inherent dense band near E{sub F} facilitate the charge carriers. • The magnetic moment within LSDA and mBJ are underestimated. • The inclusion of onsite Coulomb repulsion (U) in LSDA has improved the result. • The results obtained from LSDA + U are consistent with the experimental data. - Abstract: We have studied the elastic, electronic and magnetic properties along with the thermoelectric properties of an undoped filled skutterudite EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The LSDA, LSDA + U and a new exchange-correlation functional called modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential based on density functional theory (DFT) were used for studying material properties. The Eu-f and Fe-d are strongly correlated elements thus the inclusion of Coulomb repulsion (U) expected to give an exact ground state properties. The exchange-splitting of Eu-4f states were analyzed to explain the ferromagnetic behavior of EuFe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (half-metallic behavior). The numerical values of isotropic elastic parameters and related properties are estimated in the framework of the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation. The calculation of thermal transport properties at various temperature shows the high value of Seebeck coefficient and figure of merit (ZT) = 0.25 at room temperature in consistent to the experimental results.

  20. Reliance on social security benefits by Swedish patients with ill-health attributed to dental fillings: a register-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimi-Akbar Aron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some people attribute their ill health to dental filling materials, experiencing a variety of symptoms. Yet, it is not known if they continue to financially support themselves by work or become reliant on different types of social security benefits. The aim of this study was to analyse reliance on different forms of social security benefits by patients who attribute their poor health to dental filling materials. Methods A longitudinal cohort study with a 13-year follow up. The subjects included were 505 patients attributing their ill health to dental restorative materials, who applied for subsidised filling replacement. They were compared to a cohort of matched controls representing the general population (three controls per patient. Annual individual data on disability pension, sick leave, unemployment benefits, and socio-demographic factors was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between cohorts in number of days on different types of social security benefits. Results The cohort of dental filling patients had a significantly higher number of days on sick leave and disability pension than the general population. The test of an overall interaction effect between time and cohort showed a significant difference between the two cohorts regarding both sick leave and disability pension. In the replacement cohort, the highest number of sick-leave days was recorded in the year they applied for subsidised replacement of fillings. While sick leave decreased following the year of application, the number of days on disability pension increased and peaked at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Ill health related to dental materials is likely to be associated with dependence on social security benefits. Dental filling replacement does not seem to improve workforce participation.

  1. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  2. Effect of randomization of mixtures of butter oil and vegetable oil on absorption and lipid metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, C.; Lund, Pia; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2001-01-01

    of the dietary fats compared. Data on the fate of such lipids beyond the bloodstream is rather scarce and animal model studies are needed. Aim of the study To compare the metabolism of butter oil and mixtures of butter and rapeseed oil, native or randomized, in a model. The regiospecific fatty acid distribution...... present in dietary fats was followed through absorption, chylomicron formation, and deposition in adipose tissue and in different liver lipids (triacylglycerols, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). Methods Rats were fed for 6 weeks from weaning either butter oil (BO), a butteroil- rapeseed oil mixture...... (interesterification) of butter oil with rapeseed oil (65:35 w/w) for use as edible fat did not have any impact on the fatty acid composition beyond the chylomicron step when compared to the native mixture....

  3. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA, GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM, GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE, SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, AND SUYA SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant properties, anti-nutritional factors and sensory evaluation. Saponification value ranged from 47.7 mg KOH/g -104.5 mg KOH/g while shea butter + spices exhibited lower values compared to 100% shea butter (control. It was observed that iodine value of both the blends and control decreased as storage days increased except for samples of shea butter + ginger (SGG and shea butter + suya spice (SSS at 70:30 ratio. Addition of spices to shea butter increased the 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH values (44.96%-77.98% and total phenol content (0.36 mg TAE/g-0.51 mg TAE/g of the crude shea butter significantly. Phytate content of the blends increased upon addition of spices, whereas, a drastic reduction was observed in the alkaloid contents of the blends from 29.79% (control to 2.29% in shea butter + scent leave. The sensory evaluation result revealed that the general acceptability of shea butter treated with suya spice (70:30 and 100% shea butter were scored above average and were not different significantly.

  4. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  5. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  6. Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Maryam; Murphy, Gwen; Etemadi, Arash; Dawsey, Sanford M; Liao, Linda M; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-09-01

    Background: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of colorectal, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic cancers. Polyphenols, fiber, vitamins, and minerals in nuts may confer this observed protective effect. To our knowledge, no prospective study has evaluated the effect of nut consumption on esophageal and gastric cancers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations between nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancers and their different subtypes. Design: In this study we used data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 566,407 persons who were 50-71 y old at baseline (1995-1996). The median follow-up time was 15.5 y. Intakes of nuts and peanut butter were assessed through the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancers and their subtypes. Results: We identified 966 incident cases of esophageal adenocarcinomas, 323 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 698 cases of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 732 cases of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. Compared with those who did not consume nuts or peanut butter [lowest category of consumption (C0)], participants in the highest category of nut consumption (C3) had a lower risk of developing gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.94)]. This inverse association was also seen for peanut butter consumption [C3 compared with C0, HR: 0.75 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.94)]. We observed no significant associations between the highest and lowest intakes of nuts or peanut butter and the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, esophageal adenocarcinoma, or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: Among older American adults, both nut and peanut butter consumption were inversely associated with the risk of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  7. Conditions associated with Clostridium sporogenes growth as a surrogate for Clostridium botulinum in nonthermally processed canned butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R H; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Jefferies, L K; Eggett, D L; Steele, F M

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the effect of butter composition and emulsion structure on growth and survival of Clostridium sporogenes, used as a surrogate for C. botulinum in canned butter. The lack of a thermal process step in commercially available canned butter raises questions of potential safety, because it is hermetically sealed and generally exhibits anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or hurdles, within butter include: reduced water activity, acidity in cultured products, elevated salt content, and the micro-droplet nature of the aqueous phase in the butter emulsion. It was hypothesized that a normal, intact butter emulsion would have sufficient hurdles to prevent C. botulinum growth, whereas a broken butter emulsion would result in a coalesced aqueous phase that would allow for C. botulinum growth. Batch-churned butter was inoculated with C. sporogenes; butter samples with varying salt contents (0, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% wt/wt NaCl) were prepared and stored in coated steel cans for varying times (1 or 2 wk) and temperatures (22 or 41°C) to determine temperature and emulsion structure effects on C. sporogenes growth. Samples stored at 41°C showed a significant increase in C. sporogenes growth compared with those stored at 22°C. Furthermore, NaCl addition was found to have a significant effect on C. sporogenes growth, with 0.8% NaCl promoting more growth than 0%, but with decreases in growth observed at 1.6 and 2.4%. Uninoculated control plates were also found to have bacterial growth; this growth was attributed to other anaerobic bacteria present within the cream. It was concluded that removal of the hurdle created by the micro-droplet size of the emulsion aqueous phase could result in C. botulinum growth even at elevated salt

  8. Influence of Roasting of Shea Kernels on Their Fat Content and Some Quality Characteristics of Shea Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Honfo, G.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Guo, Meng; Akissoe, N.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van, T.

    2017-01-01

    In shea production zones in Sub-Saharan Africa, shea butter is mostly produced by women using traditional methods. Improvement of their practices would allow them to obtain better monetary returns for their activities. Roasting of crushed shea kernels is a processing step that has a major influence on the quantity and quality of extracted shea butter. Using a central composite face-centered design (CCFD), the effect of roasting, specifically roasting time and temperature was investigated. Bot...

  9. Body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese Zucker rats fed soybean oil or butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Valérie; Roseau, Suzanne; Fromentin, Gilles; Nicolaidis, Stylianos; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fat composition is thought to affect body weight regulation independent of the amount of fat ingested. We analyzed the feeding behavior, body weight gain, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese rats fed a diet in which fat was in the form of either butter or soybean oil. Ten lean (Fa/?) and 10 obese (fa/fa) adult Zucker rats were divided into 4 groups according to a 2 x 2 experimental design. They were fed a normally balanced diet over 11 wk in which 30% of energy was either soybean oil or butter. Food intake, body weight gain, and body composition were measured. Indirect calorimetry was used to study energy metabolism at rest and in relation to feeding and activity. Food intake increased similarly in lean and obese rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain increased in obese rats and decreased in lean rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain in obese rats was due mainly to an increase in the weight of lean tissues besides muscle, whereas adiposity and distribution of fat between the various pads did not change. Resting metabolic rates and postprandial lipid oxidation increased in butter-fed obese rats. Lipid oxidation during exercise was not significantly different between obese and lean rats. Fat oxidation increased in butter-fed lean rats during treadmill running at moderate intensity. In obese rats, basal metabolism and postprandial lipid oxidation increased during butter feeding, which appeared to prevent fat accumulation in the long term. In lean rats, butter feeding favored lipid utilization by working muscles, an observation that deserves further investigation in terms of endurance and performance.

  10. The Quality of Milk Chocolate Bars by Substitution of Cocoa Butter, Milk Powder and Lecithin Soya – A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hasni Dian; Rahmad Dedy

    2015-01-01

    Milk chocolate is most important products of confectionary that are well-known for its consumer, and a precious ended product in entirely value added chain in cacao. In chocolate industry, each ingredient plays an important role in product quality. This research aims to assess the possibility of substitution of cocoa butter and its impact on physiological appearance and sensory quality hedonically, to formulate optimum formulation of palm oil as cocoa butter substitute (0%; 10%; 20%), milk po...

  11. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ting Hung; Chi-Te Liu; I-Chen Peng; Chin Hsu; Roch-Chui Yu; Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and doc...

  12. Effects of the voids filling on the lattice vibrations for the CoSb3-based thermoelectric materials-Raman scattering spectra and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Pengxian; Shen Zigang; Hu Xing

    2010-01-01

    The unfilled CoSb 3 and the voids filled skutterudites (La, Ce and La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) Fe 3 CoSb 12 powders were synthesized via a hydrothermal route and the effects of the La and Ce filling in the voids on the Raman scattering spectra were investigated. The results suggest that the phonon vibration frequencies of the filled skutterudites in the lower frequency range shift down significantly, while the others in the higher frequency range shift up slightly as compared with the unfilled CoSb 3 . The calculated phonon frequencies for the (La, Ce and La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) Fe 3 CoSb 12 indicate that all the frequencies shift down, but the frequency shifting down in the lower frequency range is more remarkable than that in the higher frequency range. By comparing the electron density differences of the unfilled CoSb 3 and the voids filled (La, Ce and La 0.5 Ce 0.5 ) Fe 3 CoSb 12 , the frequency shifting phenomena observed in the Raman scattering spectra may be attributed to the complex bonding behaviors between the La or Ce atoms with the parent Co and Sb atoms.

  13. A project in two parts: Developing fire histories for the eastern U.S. and creating a climate-based continental fire frequency model to fill data gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Guyette; Michael Stambaugh; Daniel. Dey

    2011-01-01

    Tree-ring dated fire scars provide long-term records of fire frequency, giving land managers valuable baseline information about the fire regimes that existed prior to Euro-American settlement. However, for the East, fire history data prove difficult to acquire because the generally moister climate of the region causes rapid decay of wood. In an endeavor to fill data...

  14. Differences in physical characteristics and sealing ability of three tricalcium silicate-based cements used as root-end-filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmuss, Maximilian; Preis, Carolina Elisabeth; Kist, Stefan; Hickel, Reinhard; Huth, Karin Christine

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate differences in physical characteristics and sealing ability of root-end-fillings made with these materials compared to the gold standard (ProRoot MTA). The physical characteristics of ProRoot MTA, Medcem MTA and Biodentine were evaluated regarding setting time, flow, film thickness, solubility and radiopacity according to the German Institute for Standardization (EN-ISO 6878). To investigate their sealing ability as root-end-fillings, a glucose penetration model was used. 60 human extracted single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated, root-end resections performed and divided in three groups of 20 teeth, using either ProRoot MTA, Medcem MTA or Biodentine as root-end-filling material. After 30 days, glucose concentrations were determined photometrically, followed by statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test). Biodentine showed the fastest setting time (Biodentine showed lower leakage than ProRoot MTA (P= 0.031). As Medcem MTA showed significantly lower leakage than the other materials tested, it may be an alternative for root-end-fillings with comparable physical characteristics to the current gold standard. With the exception of the high solubility, Biodentine performed well regarding leakage and setting time.

  15. Effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins in persons with moderately elevated cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Mann, J; Sutherland, W; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1995-08-01

    The physiological effects of coconut oil, butter, and safflower oil on lipids and lipoproteins have been compared in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals. Twenty eight participants (13 men, 15 women) followed three 6-week experimental diets of similar macronutrient distribution with the different test fats providing 50% total dietary fat. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P coconut oil diet (6.4 +/- 0.8; 4.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l) when levels were significantly higher (P coconut oil (157 +/- 17 mg/dl) and on butter (141 +/- 23 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (132 +/- 22 mg/dl). Apolipoprotein B was also higher on butter (86 +/- 20 mg/dl) and coconut oil (91 +/- 32 mg/dl) than on safflower oil (77 +/- 19 mg/dl). However gender differences were apparent. In the group as a whole, high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly on the three diets whereas levels in women on the butter and coconut oil diet were significantly higher than on the safflower oil diet. Triacylglycerol was higher on the butter diet than on the safflower and coconut oil diets but the difference only reached statistical significance in women. Cholesteryl ester transfer activity was significantly higher on butter than safflower oil in the group as a whole and in women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Julie; Krogh, Anne Louise; Jensen, Mette Behrmann; Guo, Zheng; Mu, Huiling

    2007-09-05

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues.

  17. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  18. Association between History of Dental Amalgam Fillings and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Chuang; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Hsin-Lin; Chuang, Chuan-Chung; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Li, Wan-Yun; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Fu, Earl

    2016-01-01

    The impact of dental amalgam on the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still uncertain, although a positive association between dental amalgam and PD has been found in a few case-control studies. The patients with amalgam fillings restored between 2000 and 2008 were identified by using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. The same number of patients who had no new amalgam filling restored was matched by sex, age, and treatment date. Both cohorts were followed up from the treatment date until the date of diagnosis of PD, death, or the end of the year 2008. The individuals who received amalgam fillings had a significantly higher risk of PD afterward (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.583, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.122-2.234, p=0.0089) than those who did not. In the individuals who received amalgam fillings, being diagnosed with diabetes or hyperlipidemia demonstrated a significantly lower HR of PD occurrence than in the patients without diabetes or hyperlipidemia (HR=0.449, 95% CI=0.254-0.794, p=0.0059; HR=0.445, 95% CI=0.260-0.763, p=0.0032) after adjusting for comorbidities and Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores. Meanwhile, hypertension increased the hazard risk of PD (HR=1.645, 95% CI=1.098-2.464, p=0.0159). The patients exposed to dental amalgam fillings were 1.583 times more likely to have PD afterward compared to their non-exposed counterparts after adjusting for comorbidities and CCI scores.

  19. Association between History of Dental Amalgam Fillings and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chuang Hsu

    Full Text Available The impact of dental amalgam on the development of Parkinson's disease (PD is still uncertain, although a positive association between dental amalgam and PD has been found in a few case-control studies. The patients with amalgam fillings restored between 2000 and 2008 were identified by using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD in Taiwan. The same number of patients who had no new amalgam filling restored was matched by sex, age, and treatment date. Both cohorts were followed up from the treatment date until the date of diagnosis of PD, death, or the end of the year 2008. The individuals who received amalgam fillings had a significantly higher risk of PD afterward (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.583, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.122-2.234, p=0.0089 than those who did not. In the individuals who received amalgam fillings, being diagnosed with diabetes or hyperlipidemia demonstrated a significantly lower HR of PD occurrence than in the patients without diabetes or hyperlipidemia (HR=0.449, 95% CI=0.254-0.794, p=0.0059; HR=0.445, 95% CI=0.260-0.763, p=0.0032 after adjusting for comorbidities and Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index (CCI scores. Meanwhile, hypertension increased the hazard risk of PD (HR=1.645, 95% CI=1.098-2.464, p=0.0159. The patients exposed to dental amalgam fillings were 1.583 times more likely to have PD afterward compared to their non-exposed counterparts after adjusting for comorbidities and CCI scores.

  20. Heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2006-11-01

    Recent large foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovars have been associated with consumption of foods with high fat content and reduced water activity, even though their ingredients usually undergo pasteurization. The present study was focused on the heat tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovars Agona, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium in peanut butter. The Salmonella serovars in the peanut butter were resistant to heat, and even at a temperature as high as 90 degrees C only 3.2-log reduction in CFU was observed. The obtained thermal inactivation curves were upwardly concave, indicating rapid death at the beginning (10 min) followed by lower death rates and an asymptotic tail. The curves fitted the nonlinear Weibull model with beta parameters pasteurization process cannot be improved significantly by longer treatment or higher temperatures.

  1. Enzymatic synthesis of cocoa butter equivalent from olive oil and palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.

  2. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en diferentes proporciones. Sus propiedades y particularmente el índice de grasa sólida, ayudaron mucho en la selección de la mezcla más adecuada para la producción de chocolate local. Se encontró que las mezclas con el 10% o 15% de lllexao en manteca de cacao, dieron los resultados más satisfactorios con respecto a la palatabilidad, dureza y consistencia.

  3. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1......, cocoa butter-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are not among the major TAG forms in yeast. TAG biosynthesis is mainly catalyzed by three enzymes:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT......), and it is essential to modulate the yeast TAG biosynthetic pathway for higher CBL production.Results: We cloned seven GPAT genes and three LPAT genes from cocoa cDNA, in order to screen for CBL biosynthetic gene candidates. By expressing these cloned cocoa genes and two synthesized cocoa DGAT genes in S. cerevisiae...

  4. Effect of freeze storage on the volátiles of butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Mageed, Magda A.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the volatile components of three butter samples during freeze storage for 7.5 months were studied. The storage had a significant effect on the carbonyl and lactone components analyzed. The increase in the yield of the carbonyls caused by peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids was taken as indicator for the deterioration of the butter samples during storage.

    Se han estudiado los cambios en los componentes volátiles de tres muestras de mantequilla durante su almacenamiento en estado congelado por siete meses y medio. El almacenamiento tuvo un efecto significativo en los componentes carbonilos y lactonas analizadas. El aumento en el rendimiento de los carbonilos causado por la peroxidación de ácidos grasos insaturados se tomó como indicador en la deterioración de las muestras de mantequilla durante el almacenamiento.

  5. Analisis Asam Lemak Trans Pada Produk Cocoa Butter Substitute Dari Minyak Sawit Dan Minyak Inti Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Sundari, Yuyun

    2011-01-01

    The processing of palm oil and palm kernel oil into Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS) can be through fractionation and hydrogenation process. Partial hydrogenation process may result in trans fatty acid formation. The aim of this study were to determine the trans fatty acid content in CBS and the branded chocolate product. The sample analysed in this study were CBS consist of Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO), Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Olein (HPKL), Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Stearin (HPKS), a...

  6. Monitoring of butter and animal fat oxidation stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Sadadinović; Snežana Mičević; Nusreta Đonlagić; Ramzija Topčagić; Zumra Berbić

    2005-01-01

    Oxidation of fat is one of the basic reactions which causes the depletion of butter and animal fat quality as well as other products containing them. Since the most of reaction products of fat oxidation are harmful for consumers' health, inadequate and scarce monitoring of edible fats and fat containing products quality, presents increased health risk as well as financial loss for the producers. In fat oxidation stability estimation, standard chemical methods were used (iodine number, acid nu...

  7. The Effect of Butter Oil on Avoidance Memory in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zare, Khadije; Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Shahriari, Ali; Jafari, Ramezan Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s): Since diabetes mellitus is accompanied by cognitive impairment in diabetic patient and animal models and since lipids play important roles in neuronal membrane composition, structure and function; we intended to evaluate the effect of dietary butter oil on passive avoidance memory of streptoztosin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats in this study. Materials and Methods: Thirty six adult male rats were randomly allocated to four equal groups: normal (N) and diabetic control (D) groups wi...

  8. Application of peanut butter to improve fatty acid composition of biscuits

    OpenAIRE

    Gajera, H. P.; Kapopara, M. B.; Patel, V. H.

    2010-01-01

    Biscuits prepared with different levels of hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) butter (PB) (100:00, 75:25, 50;50, 25;75, 00:100) were evaluated for their fatty acid composition and textural property. Saturated fatty acids like myristic, palmitic, stearic acids were higher in control biscuits (100% vanaspati), which decreased with increasing proportion of PB in the experimental biscuits. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were lowest in control biscuits and it gradually inc...

  9. Analysis of chicken fat as adulterant in butter using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrulhidayah, A. F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Butter may be adulterated with cheaper animal fats, such as chicken fat (CF. Thus, the detection and quantification of butter adulteration with CF was monitored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, combined with chemometric of partial least square (PLS at the frequency regions of 1200-1000cm–1. FTIR measurements were made on pure butter and that adulterated with varying concentrations of CF (0-100% w/w in butter. PLS calibration exhibits a good relationship between actual and FTIR predicted values of CF with a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.981. The root means standard error of calibration (RMSEC and during cross validation (RMSECV obtained using six principal components (PCs are 2.08 and 4.33% v/v, respectively.La mantequilla puede ser adulterada con grasas animales más baratas, como la grasa de pollo (GP. Así, la detección y cuantificación de la adulteración de mantequilla con GP se controló usando transformada de Fourier infrarroja (FTIR, combinada con técnicas quimiométricas de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS en las regiones de frecuencia de 1200-1000cm–1. Las medidas FTIR se realizaron sobre la mantequilla pura y adulterada con diferentes concentraciones de GP (0-100% w/w en la mantequilla. La calibración de PLS presenta una buena relación entre los valores reales y los valores pronosticados de FTIR de la GP con un coeficiente de determinación (R2 de 0.981. La raíz del error estándar de calibración (RMSEC durante la validación cruzada (RMSECV obtenido utilizando seis componentes principales (PC fueron 2,08 y 4,33% v/v, respectivamente.

  10. Occurrence, isolation and DNA identification of streptococcus thermophilus involved in algerian traditional butter 'Smen'

    OpenAIRE

    Labtar, Asmaa; Delorme, Christine; Renault, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus isolates from traditional butter 'Smen', a fermented product from cow's and ewe's milk in arid area was subjected to taxonomical investigations. The identification procedure included phenotypic approaches, molecular characterization by using genus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications for sodA gene encoding the manganese-dependant superoxide dismutase A, and species-specific primers from gene encoding glucose kinase (glcK), gene encoding DNA polymerase III ...

  11. ASIDOLISIS ENZIMATIK FRAKSI TENGAH MINYAK SAWIT DENGAN ASAM STEARAT UNTUK SINTESIS COCOA BUTTER EQUIVALENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenar Soekopitojo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic acidolysis of palm midfraction (PMF with stearic acid for the synthesis of cocoa butter equivalents (CBE. CBE have chemical and physical pro­per­ties compatible with those of cocoa butter (CB and can be used to replace CB in chocolate confectionery product formulation. The main analysis were triacylglycerol (TAG composition, solid fat content (SFC and slip melting point (SMP. Enzymatic acidolysis of the substrates resulted in the formation of a complex mixture of acylgly­ce­rols and free fatty acids. Concentration of several TAG were increased, some were decreased, and several new TAGs were formed. Synthesis of target TAG (POS, SOS increased with increasing proportion of stearic acid to 5:4 weight ratio in the subs­trates. The resulting changes in the TAG composition of the substrates were reflected in the SFC profiles and SMP values. The SFC values could be predicted from the proportion of MMM, StStM and StStD TAG groups, either single or combined. Asidolisis Enzimatik Fraksi Tengah Minyak Sawit dengan Asam Stearat untuk Sintesis Cocoa Butter Equivalents (CBE. CBE mempunyai sifat-sifat kimia dan fisik yang kompatibel dengan cocoa butter (CB dan dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti CB dalam formu­lasi produk cokelat confectionery. Analisis utama meliputi komposisi triasilgliserol (TAG, solid fat content (SFC dan slip melting point (SMP. Asidolisis enzimatik dari substrat menghasilkan terbentuknya campuran kompleks asilgliserol dan asam lemak bebas (ALB. Konsentrasi beberapa TAG meningkat, beberapa menurun dan beberapa TAG baru terbentuk. Sintesis TAG target (POS, SOS meningkat dengan meningkatnya proporsi asam stearat sampai rasio berat 5:4 dalam substrat. Perubahan dalam komposisi TAG substrat tercermin pada profil SFC dan nilai SMP. Nilai SFC dapat diprediksi dari proporsi kelompok TAG MMM, StStM dan StStD, secara tunggal atau gabungan.

  12. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains during their growth. As a type of natural fiber obtained from agroindustrial waste, RH can be used as filler in composites materials in various polymer matrices. This review paper is aimed at highlighting previous works of RH filled polymer composites to provide information for applications and further research in this area. Based on the information gathered, application of RH filled composites as alternative materials in building and construction is highly plausible with both light weight and low cost being their main driving forces. However, further investigations on physical and chemical treatment to further improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix are needed as fiber-polymer interaction is crucial in determining the final composite properties. Better understanding on how the used polymer blends as the matrix and secondary fillers may affect the properties would provide interesting areas to be explored.

  13. Enhancement of oleic acid in butter oil by high oleic fraction of moringa oleifera oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Oleic acid in butter oil (BO) was enhanced by a high oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO). HOF was blended with BO at four different concentrations i.e. 5%, 10 percent, 15% and 20% (HOF-5, HOF-10, HOF-15 and HOF-20, respectively), compared with a control (BO). The oleic acid in HOF increased from 71.55 percent to 80.25%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content of HOF was 76.88% and 34.52 mg/100 g. Supplementation of butter oil with 20% HOF, decreased the cholesterol from 224 to 177 mg/100 g. Peroxide value of three months stored HOF-20 was 1.18 (meqO/sub 2/ kg) as compared to control, 3.15 (meqO/sub 2/kg). Induction period of HOF-20 was 4.07 h greater than control. These results evidenced that oleic acid in butter oil can be substantially increased by HOF of MOO. (author)

  14. Structured emulsions as butter substitutes: effects on physicochemical and sensory attributes of shortbread cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Elena; Federici, Enrico; Diantom, Agoura; Carini, Eleonora; Pizzigalli, Emanuele; Wu Symon, Veronica; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Vittadini, Elena

    2018-01-24

    Reformulation of foods products to reduce total and saturated fats while maintaining acceptable structure, texture and mouthfeel poses an important challenge to the food industry. In this work, the use of structured emulsions (fibre-induced oil-in-water biphasic systems with reduced total and saturated fats) is proposed to replace butter in shortbread cookies. Use of structured emulsions resulted in softer dough that was still workable using a traditional process. Shortbread cookies containing structured emulsions were harder and paler than the butter control but had a significantly reduced saturated fat content. They also received promising scores in the sensory analysis in terms of texture and overall acceptability, despite the butter product still being the preferred sample. The results of this study indicated that structured emulsions represent a good solution to produce nutritionally improved shortbreads. Optimization of the structured emulsion formulation can provide further improvement of the nutritional, sensory and physicochemical properties of shortbread cookies. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Optimization of solvent extraction of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) using response surface methodology and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, E O; Aberuagba, F; Olaniyan, A M; Onifade, K R

    2016-01-01

    Shea butter (SB) was extracted from its kernel by using n-hexane as solvent in an optimization study. This was to determine the optima operating variables that would give optimum yield of SB and to study the effect of solvent on the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition of SB extracted using n-hexane. A Box-behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization study while statistical analysis using ANOVA was used to test the significance of the variables for the process. The variables considered for this study were: sample weight (g), solvent volume (ml) and extraction time (min). The physico-chemical properties of SB extracted were determined using standard methods and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical composition. The results of RSM analysis showed that the three variables investigated have significant effect (p shea butter extracted using traditional method (SBT) showed that it is a more suitable raw material for food, biodiesel production, cosmetics, medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes than shea butter extracted using solvent extraction method (SBS). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results obtained for the two samples were similar to what was obtainable from other vegetable oil.

  16. Optimization of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) butter quality using screw expeller extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezahegn, Yonas A; Emire, Shimelis A; Asfaw, Sisay F

    2016-11-01

    The quality of Shea butter is highly affected by processing factors. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of conditioning duration (CD), moisture content (MC), and die temperature (DT) of screw expeller on Shea butter quality. A combination of 3 3 full factorial design and response surface methodology was used for this investigation. Response variables were refractive index, acid value, and peroxide value. The model enabled to identify the optimum operating settings (CD = 28-30 min, MC = 3-5 g/100 g, and DT = 65-70°C) for maximize refractive index and minimum acid value. For minimum peroxide value 0 min CD, 10 g/100 g MC, and 30°C were discovered. In all-over optimization, optimal values of 30 min CD, 9.7 g/100 g MC, and 70°C DT were found. Hence, the processing factors must be at their optimal values to achieve high butter quality and consistence.

  17. Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Butter Production and Resource Use by Urban and Rural Processors in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfred Seidu Jasaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of field experimentation in presenting an account of input inventory, material quantities, and the process flow for shea butter production in Ghana. The shea fruit is a non-timber forest product (NTFP that is indigenous to ecosystems in semi-arid regions of Africa. Current methods and equipment for processing shea kernel into butter impose a dilemma of excessive harvesting of fuel wood for heating and the use of large quantities of water. Thus, the nature of input requirement and production process presents implications for conflict over natural resource use and for sustainability as more processing takes place. Material flow analysis was applied to the data generated from the processing experiments. The outcome was discussed in focus group discussion sessions and individual interviews as a way of data triangulation to validate study parameters. Results from this experiment showed that the quantity of water used in urban processing sites was higher than that used in rural sites. On the other hand, fuel wood use and labor expended were found to be higher in rural sites per unit processing cycle. The nature of the processing equipment, accessibility to input resources, and target market for shea butter were key determinants of the varying resource quantities used in the production process.

  18. Toxic and essential elements in butter from the Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Guvenc, Dilek; Atmaca, Enes; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 88 randomly selected samples of butter produced in the Black Sea region of Turkey were purchased from different retail markets during different periods and investigated for toxic and essential elements content. Quantitative analyses of elements in the samples were performed using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Mean concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn in the butter samples were 18.93, 100.32, 384.66, 4199.1, 887.47, 168.64, 56.13, 16.34 and 384.66 µg kg(-1), respectively. Cd and Co were detected in 19 (mean content 0.29 µg kg(-1)) and 81 (mean content 3.81 µg kg(-1)) samples of 88 butter samples, respectively. However, the dietary intake of these elements by the population of the Black Sea region is currently well below the dietary reference intake (DRI) and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) levels of essential and toxic elements.

  19. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    -fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...... (TAG), serum free fatty acid and leptin between the groups. However, the butter-fed rats had a lower content of TAG in the white gastrocnemius muscle (7.7  1.5 vs. 23.1  6.2 mg/g tissue, p=0.01), and a much higher n-3 PUFA content (total n-3 PUFAs 1,43  0.06 vs 0.73  0.02g/mg tissue, p

  20. A Study on Aging Characteristics of Silicone Oil in HV Oil-filled Cable Termination Based on Infrared Thermal Imaging Test

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhiyong; Tang Jie; Luo Chuanxian; Zhang Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the aging characteristics of Silicone oil in the high voltage oil-filled cable termination after being operated 12 years, the silicone oil in service were studied using the infrared imaging detection, Fourier infrared spectrum analysis, and dielectric properties and micro water content test. The relationship between the infrared thermal imaging temperature and the physical and chemical properties was considered. The results indicate that, the operating temperature of silico...

  1. Proteomics analysis of maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on iTRAQ reveals molecular mechanisms of poor grain filling in inferior grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Li, Geng; Liu, Peng; Dong, Shuting; Zhang, Jiwang; Zhao, Bin

    2017-06-01

    In maize, inferior grains (IG) located on the upper part of the ear have poor grain filling process compared to superior grains (SG) located on the middle and lower parts of the ear. This difference limits satisfactory yield and quality; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technology, the proteomes of IG and SG during early and middle grain filling stages were investigated. In total, 4720 proteins were identified in maize grain and 305 differentially accumulated proteins (DiAPs) were detected between IG and SG. These DiAPs were involved in diverse cellular and metabolic processes with preferred distribution in protein synthesis/destination and metabolism. Compared to SG, DiAPs related to cell growth/division and starch synthesis were lag-accumulated and down-regulated in IG, respectively, resulting in smaller sink sizes and lower sink activities in IG. Meanwhile, impediment of the glycolysis pathway in IG may lead to reduce energy supply and building materials for substance synthesis. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and the defense system were disturbed in IG, which might lead to reduce protection against various environmental stresses. The present study provides new information on the proteomic differences between IG and SG, and explains possible molecular mechanisms for poor grain filling in IG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytochemistry and Agro-Industrial Potential of Native Oilseeds from West Africa: African Grape (Lannea microcarpa, Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, and Butter Tree (Pentadesma butyracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Hilou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical investigations on local oilseed species in Burkina Faso revealed that oils from tree oilseeds are frequently used for food, cosmetics and traditional medicine by local people. To test the bio-preservative capacity, the effect of the oilseed extracts on the stabilization of Shea butter was evaluated. Levels of bioactive phyto-components were evaluated through several methods. Some aspects of the quality of oilcakes were evaluated based on their inhibitory capacity on the endogenous digestive enzymes of cattle. For fat stabilizing quality, the extract from Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Krause has showed the largest increase (91.47% in the Rancimat induction time (TIR of Shea butter. Using DPPH and FRAP methods for prevention or scavenging of free radicals, the results evidenced the highest activity with extracts of L. microcarpa. With respect to the feed quality of the oilcakes, the IC50 obtained with α-amylase and trypsin have showed that the ethanolic extracts of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (1824 is less toxic for cattle. These results suggest that phenolic compounds extracted from these native oilseeds, especially those of Lannea microcarpa, can be used as biological antioxidants for bio-preservation of edible fats. In addition, the by-products of the oil-extraction can be valorized as nontoxic and protein-rich oilcakes for livestock feed.

  3. PRODUCTION OF BREAD–SPREAD FROM BLENDS OF SHEA BUTTER (VITELLARIA PARADOXA), GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM), GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE), SCENT LEAF (OCCIMUM GRATISSIMUM), AND SUYA SPICE

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice O.T. Ifesan; Olufunmilayo S. Fasasi F.A. Ehoniyotan

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at production of bread-spread from blends of shea butter with spices such as ginger, garlic, scent leaf, and suya spice. Two different ratios, 70% shea butter: 30% spices and 85% shea butter:15% spices were prepared from raw shea butter and various spices. The treatments were packaged in a transparent plastic bowl and stored at room temperature for 4 weeks while samples were taken for analysis at 0, 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Samples were examined for chemical, antioxidant pro...

  4. The effects of co-administration of butter on the absorption, metabolism and excretion of catechins in rats after oral administration of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Han, Yuhui; Xu, Liwei; Liang, Yuhong; Chen, Xin; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    In Southwest China, tea polyphenols are usually utilized by way of butter tea. Tea polyphenols inhibit the absorption and biosynthesis of fatty acids in vivo, but the effects of butter on the pharmacokinetics of tea polyphenols have drawn less concern. A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method was used to quantitatively determine the catechins in the plasma, feces and bile of rats after the oral administration of tea polyphenol or its combination with butter. In comparison with the single tea polyphenol treatment, the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG, GC and ECG significantly decreased after the co-administration of butter. The mean residence times (MRT) of the free EGCG, EGC, EC, GC and ECG were also significantly prolonged. When the plasma samples were treated with β-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the total catechins (free and conjugated forms) were not affected by the co-administration of butter. These results indicated that the total absorption of catechins was not affected by butter, but the metabolism of catechins had been changed. Furthermore, the fecal catechins were significantly increased by butter. The total fecal amount and excretion ratio of all catechins were increased highly. The biliary excretion of EGCG, EGC, EC, GCG and GC was significantly increased by the co-administration of butter. To sum up, the butter changed the metabolism of catechins in vivo by decreasing the plasma concentration of the free catechins but increasing the conjugated catechins.

  5. An increase in liver PPARγ2 is an initial event to induce fatty liver in response to a diet high in butter: PPARγ2 knockdown improves fatty liver induced by high-saturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Shiraishi, Sayaka; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2011-06-01

    The effects of a diet rich in saturated fat on fatty liver formation and the related mechanisms that induce fatty liver were examined. C57BL/6J mice were fed butter or safflower oil as a high-fat (HF) diet (40% fat calories) for 2, 4, 10, or 17 weeks. Although both HF diets induced similar levels of obesity, HF butter-fed mice showed a two to threefold increase in liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentration compared to HF safflower oil-fed mice at 4 or 10 weeks without hyperinsulinemia. At 4 weeks, increases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), CD36, and adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) mRNAs were observed in HF butter-fed mice; at 10 weeks, an increase in sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) was observed; at 17 weeks, these increases were attenuated. At 4 weeks, a single injection of adenoviral vector-based short hairpin interfering RNA against PPARγ2 in HF butter-fed mice reduced PPARγ protein and mRNA of its target genes (CD36 and ADRP) by 43%, 43%, and 39%, respectively, with a reduction in liver TG concentration by 38% in 5 days. PPARγ2 knockdown also reduced mRNAs in lipogenic genes (fatty-acid-synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1) without alteration of SREBP-1c mRNA. PPARγ2 knockdown reduced mRNAs in genes related to inflammation (CD68, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). In conclusion, saturated fatty acid-rich oil induced fatty liver in mice, and this was triggered initially by an increase in PPARγ2 protein in the liver, which led to increased expression of lipogenic genes. Inactivation of PPARγ2 may improve fatty liver induced by HF saturated fat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total quantities the order fill rate would be the preferred service level...... measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...

  7. ["Butter, my love" joy, sorrow and rehabilitation: not simply cholesterol and saturated fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G

    2014-01-01

    The author refers to his "love" for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD) epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of "cherry picking", i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: "If you were to give each the right amount of

  8. Butter, my love” Joy, Sorrow and Rehabilitation: Not simply Cholesterol and Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to his “love” for butter and joy to eat and enjoy, during his childhood, bread, butter and jam at a time in which butter was still made with milk from cows that grazed and/or ate the hay. Subsequently the great bitterness occurred, due to the fact that many distinguished researchers have attributed to the the saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol, abundant in butter, the origin of atherosclerotic cardio vascular diseases (CVD epidemic exploded in North America from the years 1920-1930. This happened in spite of the fact that various data did not overlap, and also that the most famous of cardiologists, worldwide known at the time, had written and pointed out that, if such a condition were caused by saturated fat animals, a corresponding increase in their consumption in the diet would be recorded, while it had actually dropped 20 percent. The prestige of some, alongside the desire to win their case, associated to the modest epidemiological skills of the time, have led them to fall into the error of “cherry picking”, i.e. to choose only those data in support of their theory while ignoring others that contradicted that, for decades, the SFA were banned by encouraging the consumption of margarine and vegetable oils. Only in recent times it has emerged from indisputable surveys, that in the diet, if an excess of SFA is harmful, even an excess of simple carbohydrates or protein or polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6 are responsible for atherosclerotic CVD. The problem is not to eliminate from the SFA diet, as they look toxic while actually in some situations are indispensable, but to reach a correct balance of all the different nutrients in the diet, and not only of the SFA, plus physical activity. Butter, then, also in the light of new and important acquisitions, was rehabilitated. This brings to mind a claim issued by Hippocrates (460-377 BC, the pioneer of Western medicine, about 2400 years ago: “If you were to give

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of shea butter through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines via the Nf-κB pathway in LPS-activated J774 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nandini; Chakrabarti, Rina; Das, Rakha H; Gautam, Hemant K

    2012-01-12

    Shea butter is traditionally used in Africa for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In this study we explored the anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of shea butter (SBE) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage cell line J774. It was observed that SBE significantly reduced the levels of LPS-induced nitric oxide, Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins, 1β (IL-1β), and -12 (IL-12) in the culture supernatants in a dose dependent manner. Expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were also inhibited by SBE. These anti-inflammatory effects were due to an inhibitory action of SBE on LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 mRNA expressions. Moreover, SBE efficiently suppressed IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation induced by LPS. These findings explain the molecular bases of shea butter's bioactivity against various inflammatory conditions and substantiate it as a latent source of novel therapeutic agents.

  10. Butter feeding enhances TNF-alpha production from macrophages and lymphocyte adherence in murine small intestinal microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Yoichi; Hokari, Ryota; Miura, Soichiro; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Oyama, Tokushige; Kurihara, Chie; Nagata, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2007-11-01

    Dietary fat is known to modulate immune functions. Intake of an animal fat-rich diet has been linked to increased risk of inflammation; however, little is known about how animal fat ingestion directly affects intestinal immune function. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of butter feeding on lymphocyte migration in intestinal mucosa and the changes in adhesion molecules and cytokines involved in this effect. T-lymphocytes isolated from the spleen were fluorescence-labeled and injected into recipient mice. Butter was administered into the duodenum, and villus microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa were observed under an intravital microscope. mRNA expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines in the intestinal mucosa were determined by quantitative PCR. The effect of butter feeding on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression of intestinal macrophages was also determined. Intraluminal butter administration significantly increased lymphocyte adherence to intestinal microvessels accompanied by increases in expression levels of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1. This accumulation was significantly attenuated by anti-MAdCAM-1 and anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Butter administration significantly increased TNF-alpha in the lamina proprial macrophages but not interleukin-6. Anti-TNF-alpha treatment attenuated the enhanced expression of adhesion molecules induced by butter administration. T-lymphocyte adherence to microvessels of the small intestinal mucosa was significantly enhanced after butter ingestion. This enhancement is due to increase in expression levels of adhesion molecules of the intestinal mucosa, which is mediated by TNF-alpha from macrophages in the intestinal lamina propria.

  11. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpsted, Julie; Leedo, Eva; Tholstrup, Tine

    2011-12-01

    Despite its high content of saturated fatty acids, cheese does not seem to increase plasma total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations when compared with an equivalent intake of fat from butter. This effect may be due to the high calcium content of cheese, which results in a higher excretion of fecal fat. The objective was to compare the effects of diets of equal fat content rich in either hard cheese or butter or a habitual diet on blood pressure and fasting serum blood lipids, C-reactive protein, glucose, and insulin. We also examined whether fecal fat excretion differs with the consumption of cheese or butter. The study was a randomized dietary intervention consisting of two 6-wk crossover periods and a 14-d run-in period during which the subjects consumed their habitual diet. The study included 49 men and women who replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 13% of energy from cheese or butter. After 6 wk, the cheese intervention resulted in lower serum total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and higher glucose concentrations than did the butter intervention. Cheese intake did not increase serum total or LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the run-in period, during which total fat and saturated fat intakes were lower. Fecal fat excretion did not differ between the cheese and butter periods. Cheese lowers LDL cholesterol when compared with butter intake of equal fat content and does not increase LDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01140165.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the fracture resistance of teeth prepared with rotary system, filled with single cone gutta-percha and laterally condensed with zinc oxide eugenol and resin based (AH26) sealers to that of Resilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, P Kashi; Muliyar, Sabir; Chavan, Prakash; Reddy, P Manoranjan; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Nilawar, Sanjay

    2012-11-01

    To compare the fracture resistance of teeth prepared with rotary system and filled with single cone guttapercha followed by lateral condensation with different sealers like zinc oxide eugenol and resin based (AH26) to that of resilon. A total number of 70 extracted intact human permanent maxillary incisors were selected. All prepared samples were divided into one control group (n = 10) and three experimental groups (n = 20 per group). Group 1 control. This group received no obturation; the root canal opening was sealed with a temporary filling material (Cavit, Premier Dental Products, Plymouth Meeting, PA) Group 2: Gutta-Percha and zinc oxide Eugenol sealer. Group 3: Gutta-Percha and AH26 sealer. (DiaDent, Korea) dipped in AH26 sealer. Group 4: Resilon cones and RealSeal Resin Sealer. Obturation was accomplished using a 0.06 taper size 40 gutta-percha master point. All the root samples were stored in 100% humidity at 37 °C for 2 weeks to allow the sealer to set completely. The root samples were then prepared for mechanical testing and the data was recorded and analyzed statistically. One-way ANOVA and Post hoc test (Duncan Multiple range test) were employed to determine possible statistical variation among the groups tested in this study. The force for group 2 was significantly greater than that for the control group 1 (no obturation).The force for group 3 was significantly greater than that for group 2. The force for group 4 was significantly greater than that for group 3. All other groupwise comparisons were not significant at 5% level. Group 4 seemed to have the greatest force among the three groups of interest in the study. Root canals filled with Resilon increased the in vitro resistance of single canal extracted teeth compared to other experimental groups. The mean fracture resistance value for the experimental groups in ascending order was as follows: Root canals instrumented but not filled, filled with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer, filled

  13. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de filme antimicrobiano na conservação de manteiga Development and evaluation of antimicrobial film on butter conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Robledo Fialho e Moraes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A indústria alimentícia, buscando atender a um mercado consumidor cada vez mais exigente, vem desenvolvendo embalagens ativas para proporcionar qualidade e segurança aos produtos acondicionados. Neste sentido, esta pesquisa objetivou desenvolver filmes ativos incorporados com agente antimicrobiano e avaliá-los na conservação de manteiga. Os filmes de base celulósica foram incorporados com 0% (controle e 7% (ácido sórbico. Teste de halo de inibição em presença de fungos mostrou um halo de 3,4 cm. Amostras de manteiga foram fatiadas e inoculadas com 1 x 10(8 UFC.mL-1 de fungos filamentosos e leveduras, previamente isolados de manteiga. As amostras foram envolvidas com o filme ativo, embaladas em papel alumínio e armazenadas sob temperatura de refrigeração. As análises microbiológicas da manteiga foram realizadas após 0, 10 e 20 dias de armazenamento à temperatura de 7 ± 2 ºC. A contagem inicial de fungos filamentosos com leveduras na manteiga foi de 3 x 10(6 UFC.g-1 e após 10 e 20 dias de estocagem observou-se redução de 1 ciclo log (9 x 10(5 UFC.g-1 e 2 ciclos log (8 x 10(4 UFC.g-1 para a manteiga embalada com filme incorporado com 7% de ácido sórbico, respectivamente. Os valores de espessuras foram de 22,5 ± 3 µm e 25 ± 5 µm, de carga máxima: 37,4 ± 7 N e 52,4 ± 7 N, e de alongamento 1,7 ± 0,7% e 2,3 ± 0,7%, para os filmes incorporados com 0 e 7% de ácido sórbico, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que o filme antimicrobiano apresentou maior resistência e alongamento, além de ter sido eficiente na redução de fungos filamentosos e leveduras em manteiga.Food industry aiming to attend consumer's requirements is developing active packaging to provide quality and safety for packed foods. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop active films incorporated with antimicrobial compounds and evaluate their efficacy in butter conservation. Celulosic based-films were incorporated with 0 (control and 7% of

  14. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  15. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  16. Comprehensive analysis of polar and apolar constituents of butter and margarine by nuclear magnetic resonance, reflecting quality and production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Jan

    2008-04-23

    The separation of butter or margarine into polar (soluble in water) and apolar fractions (soluble in chloroform) and subsequent analysis of these fractions by (1)H NMR permits a comprehensive analysis of its constituents. In the polar fraction the preservatives benzoic and sorbic acid, the organic acids citric, lactic, butyric, acetic, and formic acid, and, furthermore, the carbohydrate lactose were quantified. In the apolar fraction the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) rumenic acid, diglycerides, and linoleic acid were quantified. Rumenic acid is a characteristic component of ruminant fats and was found in all butter samples. The levels varied between 0.50 and 1.08%. Ten brands of Brazilian butter were investigated as was one brand from Norway. Also, two brands of margarine were investigated for comparison. A large variation in especially polar constituents was found between the butter samples, revealing the presence of preservatives in five brands of butter from Brazil, remarkable because these additives are legally not allowed. Furthermore, the levels of organic acids and lactose permitted conclusions about the production process and quality; for example, the presence of higher levels of free butyric acid indicate lipolysis, leading to a lower quality, and low levels of lactose indicate that after churning the residual milk fluids have been removed by an additional washing step in the production process.

  17. NSLS-II filling pattern measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Hu; Dalesio, L.B.; Kiman Ha; Pinayev, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-bunch injection will be deployed at NSLS-II. High bandwidth diagnostic beam monitors with high speed digitizers are used to measure bunch-by-bunch charge variation. In order to minimize intensity-correlated orbit oscillations due to uneven bunch patterns, we need to measure the filling pattern (also named bunch pattern or bunch structure). This paper focuses on filling pattern measurements: how to measure bunch structure and make this information available in EPICS-based control system. This measurement requires combination of 3 types of beam monitors (Wall Current Monitor, Fast Current Transformer and Beam Position Monitor), data acquisition and controls (fast digitizer, EPICS software, etc.) and Event Timing system. High-bandwidth filling pattern monitor requires high-speed digitizer to sample its analog output signal. The evaluation results of commercial fast digitizer Agilent Acqiris and high bandwidth detector Bergoz FCT are presented. We have also tested the algorithm software for filling pattern measurement as well as the interface to event timing system. It appears that filling pattern measurement system is well understood and the tests for control hardware and software have given good results

  18. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Retail Conventional, Organic, and Grass Full-Fat Butters by Their Fat Contents, Free Fatty Acid Contents, and Triglyceride and Fatty Acid Profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pustjens, Annemieke; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Koot, Alex; Rozijn, Maikel; Ruth, Van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, butter is produced from milk originating from three different production systems: conventional, organic, and grass-fed cows. The aim of the current study was to characterize these types of butters, and pinpoint distinct compositional differences. Retail conventional (n = 28),

  20. Quality of milk used in informal artisanal production of coalho and butter cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina de Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal cheeses such as coalho and butter participate in the socio-cultural identity of people and deserve recognition. Like many artisanal cheeses, it is common to produce coalho and butter cheeses from raw milk. For this reason, it is essential that the raw material from dairies is of good quality to minimize risks to consumers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of milk in artisanal cheese factories in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Fifty samples were collected from areas that stand out in dairy production in the state. These samples underwent microbiological and physical–chemical analysis, as well as antibiotic residue and fraud searches. Viable strict and facultative mesophilic bacteria were surveyed, in addition to total and thermotolerant coliforms, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus; titratable acidity in Dornic degrees, density, cryoscopy, stability to alizarol, and percentages of protein, lactose, and fat contents were also measured, and tests for residues and recurrent fraud in milk were conducted. In general, all samples exceeded the limit established by law for mesophilic bacteria counting; Salmonella sp. was found in one sample. Given this contamination, the acidity of 76% of the samples was higher than allowed by the legislation. Regarding fat and protein parameters, 14% and 10% of the samples were below the required values by the legislation, respectively. Furthermore, there is suspicion of fraud by adding water in 24% of samples. Chlorides were found in 16% and antimicrobial residues in 46% of samples. Therefore, the quality of the milk used in informal artisanal cheese making in the state of Rio Grande do Norte is poor and may pose a risk to consumers, with the loss of quality of coalho and butter cheeses.

  1. Low-level gamma and neutron monitoring based on use of proportional counter filled with 3He in polythene moderator: study of the responses to gamma and neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszona, S; Bantsar, A; Tulik, P; Wincel, K; Zaręba, B

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that a proportional counter filled with (3)He placed centrally inside a polythene sphere opens a new possibility for measuring gamma photons and neutrons in the separate pulse-height windows. The responses to gamma and neutrons (in terms of ambient dose equivalent) of the detector assembly consisting of 203-mm polythene sphere with centrally positioned 40-mm diameter (3)He proportional counter have been studied. The response to secondary gammas from capture process in hydrogen has also been studied. The rather preliminary studies indicate that the proposed measuring system has very promising features as an ambient dose equivalent device for mixed gamma-neutron fields. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Calculation and affection of pH value of different desulfurization and dehydration rates in the filling station based on Aspen Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, J. X.; Wang, B. F.; Nie, L. H.; Xu, R. R.; Zhou, J. Y.; Hao, Y. J.

    2018-01-01

    The simulation process of the whole CNG filling station are established using Aspen Plus V7.2. The separator (Sep) was used to simulate the desulfurization and dehydration equipment in the gas station, and the flash module separator Flash 2 was used to simulate the gas storage well with proper temperature and environmental pressure. Furthermore, the sensitivity module was used to analyse the behaviour of the dehydration and desulfurization rate, and the residual pH value of the gas storage wells was between 2.2 and 3.3. The results indicated that the effect of water content on pH value is higher than that of hydrogen sulphide in the environment of gas storage wells, and the calculation process of the pH value is feasible. Additionally, the simulation process provides basic data for the subsequent anticorrosive mechanism and work of gas storage well and has great potential for practical applications.

  3. Effect of churning temperature on water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter during four weeks of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønholt, Stine; Madsen, Ann Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2014-01-01

    The effect of churning temperature (10 °C vs. 22 °C) is evaluated with respect to water content, rheology, microstructure and stability of butter produced using the batch churning method with a temperature ramp of 4 °C/min. Using pulsed-nuclear magnetic resonance, an increase in relative solid fat...... content from 44% to 49.5% was observed when decreasing the churning temperature. Due to lower solid fat content formed upon churning at high temperatures, average water droplet size significantly increased from 5.5 μm to 18.5 μm and less water could be incorporated into the butter during mixing. Using...... differential scanning calorimetry, it was observed that water addition as well as churning at low temperatures induced a transition toward more stable crystal structures, as the melting point in the high melting fraction was slightly lower for butter churned at high temperature. This did, however, not reflect...

  4. Healing after Root-end Microsurgery by Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and a New Calcium Silicate–based Bioceramic Material as Root-end Filling Materials in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ian; Karabucak, Bekir; Wang, Cong; Wang, Han-Guo; Koyama, Eiki; Kohli, Meetu R.; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Kim, Syngcuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare healing after root-end surgery by using grey mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence Root Repair Material (RRM) as root-end filling material in an animal model. Methods Apical periodontitis was induced in 55 mandibular premolars of 4 healthy beagle dogs. After 6 weeks, root-end surgeries were performed by using modern microsurgical techniques. Two different root-end filling materials were used, grey MTA and RRM. Six months after surgery, healing of the periapical area was assessed by periapical radiographs, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), micro computed tomography (CT), and histology. Results Minimal or no inflammatory response was observed in the majority of periapical areas regardless of the material. The degree of inflammatory infiltration and cortical plate healing were not significantly different between the 2 materials. However, a significantly greater root-end surface area was covered by cementum-like, periodontal ligament–like tissue, and bone in RRM group than in MTA group. When evaluating with periapical radiographs, complete healing rate in RRM and MTA groups was 92.6% and 75%, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P = .073). However, on CBCT and micro CT images, RRM group demonstrated significantly superior healing on the resected root-end surface and in the periapical area (P = .000 to .027). Conclusions Like MTA, RRM is a biocompatible material with good sealing ability. However, in this animal model RRM achieved a better tissue healing response adjacent to the resected root-end surface histologically. The superior healing tendency associated with RRM could be detected by CBCT and micro CT but not periapical radiography. PMID:25596728

  5. Direct valorisation of waste cocoa butter triglycerides via catalytic epoxidation, ring‐opening and polymerisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Dorota D; Strobel, Vinzent; Heer, Parminder Kaur KS; Sellars, Andrew B; Hoong, Seng‐Soi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Development of circular economy requires significant advances in the technologies for valorisation of waste, as waste becomes new feedstock. Food waste is a particularly important feedstock, containing large variation of complex chemical functionality. Although most food waste sources are complex mixtures, waste from food processing, no longer suitable for the human food chain, may also represent relatively clean materials. One such material requiring valorisation is cocoa butter. RESULTS Epoxidation of a triglyceride from a food waste source, processing waste cocoa butter, into the corresponding triglyceride epoxide was carried out using a modified Ishii‐Venturello catalyst in batch and continuous flow reactors. The batch reactor achieved higher yields due to the significant decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the laminar flow tubular reactor. Integral and differential models describing the reaction and the phase transfer kinetics were developed for the epoxidation of cocoa butter and the model parameters were estimated. Ring‐opening of the epoxidised cocoa butter was undertaken to provide polyols of varying molecular weight (Mw = 2000–84 000 Da), hydroxyl value (27–60 mg KOH g−1) and acid value (1–173 mg KOH g−1), using either aqueous ortho‐phosphoric acid (H3PO4 ) or boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3 ·OEt2)‐mediated oligomerisation in bulk, using hexane or tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvents. The thermal and tensile properties of the polyurethanes obtained from the reaction of these polyols with 4,4′‐methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) are described. CONCLUSION The paper presents a complete valorisation scheme for a food manufacturing industry waste stream, starting from the initial chemical transformation, developing a process model for the design of a scaled‐up process, and leading to synthesis of the final product, in this case a polymer. This work describes aspects of optimisation of the conversion route

  6. Direct valorisation of waste cocoa butter triglycerides via catalytic epoxidation, ring-opening and polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Dorota D; Strobel, Vinzent; Heer, Parminder Kaur Ks; Sellars, Andrew B; Hoong, Seng-Soi; Clark, Andrew J; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-01

    Development of circular economy requires significant advances in the technologies for valorisation of waste, as waste becomes new feedstock. Food waste is a particularly important feedstock, containing large variation of complex chemical functionality. Although most food waste sources are complex mixtures, waste from food processing, no longer suitable for the human food chain, may also represent relatively clean materials. One such material requiring valorisation is cocoa butter. Epoxidation of a triglyceride from a food waste source, processing waste cocoa butter, into the corresponding triglyceride epoxide was carried out using a modified Ishii-Venturello catalyst in batch and continuous flow reactors. The batch reactor achieved higher yields due to the significant decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the laminar flow tubular reactor. Integral and differential models describing the reaction and the phase transfer kinetics were developed for the epoxidation of cocoa butter and the model parameters were estimated. Ring-opening of the epoxidised cocoa butter was undertaken to provide polyols of varying molecular weight (M w = 2000-84 000 Da), hydroxyl value (27-60 mg KOH g -1 ) and acid value (1-173 mg KOH g -1 ), using either aqueous ortho-phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) or boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF 3 · OEt 2 )-mediated oligomerisation in bulk, using hexane or tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvents. The thermal and tensile properties of the polyurethanes obtained from the reaction of these polyols with 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) are described. The paper presents a complete valorisation scheme for a food manufacturing industry waste stream, starting from the initial chemical transformation, developing a process model for the design of a scaled-up process, and leading to synthesis of the final product, in this case a polymer. This work describes aspects of optimisation of the conversion route, focusing on clean synthesis and also demonstrates

  7. Functional properties of butter oil made from bovine milk with experimentally altered fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonzalez, G; Jimenez-Flores, R; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H; DePeters, E J; Schmidt, S J; Drackley, J K

    2007-11-01

    Modification of milk fat composition might be desirable to alter manufacturing characteristics or produce low saturated fat dairy products that more closely meet consumer dietary preferences. The aim of this research was to evaluate functional properties of butter oil obtained from milks with fat composition modified by altering the profile of long-chain fatty acids (FA) absorbed from the small intestine of cows. A control and 5 mixtures of long-chain free FA were infused into the abomasum of lactating dairy cows in a 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) control (no FA infused), 2) mostly saturated FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 3) low-linoleic palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.85), 4) palm FA (C16:C18 = 0.72), 5) soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.10), and 6) high-palmitic soy FA (C16:C18 = 0.68). All treatments included meat solubles and Tween 80 as emulsifiers. Solid fat content (from 0 to 40 degrees C), melting point, and force at fracture were determined in butter oil. Milk fat from cows infused with palm FA (treatment 4) exhibited functionality equal to or better than control butter oil. Infusion with palm FA increased amounts of triglyceride (TG) fractions with 48, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, 36, and 42 carbon numbers. Infusion with soy FA increased TG with 26, 38, 40, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 34, 42, and 46 carbons. Infusion of the mostly saturated FA increased TG with 38, 50, 52, and 54 carbon numbers but decreased TG with 32, 34, and 42 carbon numbers. These TG groups were consistently correlated with functional properties of butter oils from different treatments. The content of palmitic acid is important for maintaining functionality in the presence of increased polyunsaturated FA. The composition of milk fat may be able to be optimized through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows if the optimal composition of FA and TG is defined for a particular dairy product.

  8. ESC resistance of commercial grade polycarbonates during exposure to butter and related chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellander, Carina Koch; Nielsen, Tenna B; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    differences in ESC resistance could be related to their structural or chemical properties. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that Makrolon Rx:1805 contains a low molar mass material characterised as poly(propylene glycol)p, which was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and H-1 NMR. Some "non-absorbing" chemicals......, such as butter, cause the PCs to be less resistant to ESC under stress. The reason for this is that these chemicals and the PCs have sufficiently similar Hansen solubility parameters to allow surface conformational changes even though absorption is non-existent or extremely small. ATR-FTIR was used to detect...

  9. Radiopacity of root filling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer-Olsen, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for measuring the radiopacity of root filling materials is described. Direct measurements were made of the optic density values of the materials in comparison with a standard curve relating optic density to the thickness of an aluminium step wedge exposed simultaneously. By proper selection of film and conditions for exposure and development, it was possible to obtain a near-linear standard curve which added to the safety and reproducibility of the method. The technique of radiographic assessment was modified from clinical procedures in evaluating the obturation in radiographs, and it was aimed at detecting slits or voids between the dental wall and the filling material. This radiographic assessment of potensial leakage was compared with actual in vitro lekage of dye (basic fuchsin) into the roots of filled teeth. The result of the investigation show that root filling materials display a very wide range of radiopacity, from less than 3 mm to more than 12 mm of aluminium. It also seem that tooth roots that appear to be well obturated by radiographic evaluation, stand a good chance of beeing resistant to leakage in vitro, and that the type of filling material rather than its radiographic appearance, determines the susceptibility of the filled tooth to leakage in vitro. As an appendix the report contains a survey of radiopaque additives in root filling materials

  10. Enhancing optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by nanopatterning on indium tin oxide with tunable fill factor using multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Xiong, Zhuo; Chen, Yu; Zhen, Aigong; Shan, Liang; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Qiang; Li, Jinmin; Wang, Junxi [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-11-21

    In this study, the multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography method utilizing the polystyrene nanospheres with focusing behavior is investigated and introduced to fabricate diverse photonic crystals (PCs) on indium tin oxide to enhance the optical output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED). Simulated results indicate that the focused light intensity decreases with increasing tilted angle due to the shadow effect introduced by adjacent nanospheres. The fill factor of nanopattern is tunable by controlling tilted angles and exposure times. To attain quadruple PC without overlapping patterns, mathematical calculation model is used to define the optimum range of tilted angles. Angular emission patterns and three-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulated results indicate that the enhanced light extraction of PC LEDs results mainly from diffused scattering effects, and the diffraction effects of PC on light extracted efficiency increase with the increase of fill factor. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the multiple PC can extract more light from GaN into air than common PC with same period and fill factor.

  11. Comparison of the impact of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Allaire, Janie; Rajendiran, Ethendhar; She, Yongbo; Ramprasath, Vanu; Gigleux, Iris; Talbot, Denis; Levy, Emile; Tremblay, Angelo; Jones, Peter Jh; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    Background: Controversies persist concerning the association between intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cardiovascular disease risk. Objective: We compared the impact of consuming equal amounts of SFAs from cheese and butter on cardiometabolic risk factors. Design: In a multicenter, crossover, randomized controlled trial, 92 men and women with abdominal obesity and relatively low HDL-cholesterol concentrations were assigned to sequences of 5 predetermined isoenergetic diets of 4 wk each separated by 4-wk washouts: 2 diets rich in SFAs (12.4-12.6% of calories) from either cheese or butter; a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, MUFAs: 19.6%); a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet (SFAs: 5.8%, PUFAs: 11.5%); and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (fat: 25%, SFAs: 5.8%). Results: Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations were similar after the cheese and butter diets but were significantly higher than after the carbohydrate diet (+3.8% and +4.7%, respectively; P cheese diet were lower than after the butter diet (-3.3%, P cheese only among individuals with high baseline LDL-cholesterol concentrations. There was no significant difference between all diets on inflammation markers, blood pressure, and insulin-glucose homeostasis. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that the consumption of SFAs from cheese and butter has similar effects on HDL cholesterol but differentially modifies LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the effects of carbohydrates, MUFAs, and PUFAs, particularly in individuals with high LDL cholesterol. In contrast, SFAs from either cheese or butter have no significant effects on several other nonlipid cardiometabolic risk factors. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02106208. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Properties of cholesterol-reduced butter made with beta-cyclodextrin and added evening primrose oil and phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J J; Jung, T H; Ahn, J; Kwak, H S

    2006-12-01

    The present study was carried out to examine changes in the chemical and sensory properties of butter in which the cholesterol was reduced and to which evening primrose oil (EPO) and phytosterols were added. Crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) made from adipic acid was used, and approximately 90% of the cholesterol was removed. The color measurement values "L" and "a" were significantly different between the control (butter with no beta-CD treatment and no added EPO and phytosterols) and treatment A (butter treated with 10% crosslinked beta-CD); however, the color values for "L" and "a" were similar. The color value "b" in treatment B (butter treated with 10% crosslinked beta-CD and 5% phytosterols and 3% EPO added) was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The thiobarbituric acid value of treatment B was significantly higher than that of the control and treatment A. Scores for hardness, elasticity, and cohesiveness were significantly lower in the control than in treatment A. Differences in sensory characteristics did not result from the beta-CD treatment but from the addition of EPO and phytosterols. In microscopic examinations, no noticeable differences were found among the treatments, and a smooth texture and a fine, uniform crystalline structure were observed. Results indicated that about 90% of the cholesterol was reduced by crosslinked beta-CD and that the beta-CD treatment itself did not adversely influence the chemical and sensory properties of the butter. However, the addition of EPO and phytosterols to the butter appeared to impair its sensory properties, especially in terms of rancidity and overall acceptability.

  13. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    .4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P ... was observed for triacylglycerol, hsCRP, insulin, and glucose concentrations. The intake of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher in the butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P cholesterol and LDL......BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...

  14. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...

  15. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  16. Dielectric Properties of Water in Butter and Water-AOT-Heptane Systems Measured using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe; Folkenberg, Jacob Riis; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dielectric properties of water confined in nanometer-sized inverse micelles in mixtures of water, AOT, and heptane. We show that the dielectric properties of the confined water are dependent on the water pool size and different from those of bulk water. We also discuss...... the dielectric properties of different vegetable oils, lard, and butter, and use these properties to deduce the dielectric properties of water in butter, which are shown to deviate significantly from the dielectric properties of bulk water....

  17. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  18. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-08-01

    Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. We compared the effects of moderate butter intake, moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m²) of 40.4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P butter resulted in increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum, whereas moderate butter intake may be considered part of the diet in the normocholesterolemic population. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  20. The order and volume fill rates in inventory control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstenson, Anders; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper differentiates between an order (line) fill rate and a volume fill rate and specifies their performance for different inventory control systems. When the focus is on filling complete customer orders rather than total demanded quantity the order fill rate would be the preferred service...... level measure. The main result shows how the order and volume fill rates are related in magnitude. Earlier results derived for a single-item, single-stage, continuous review inventory system with backordering and constant lead times controlled by a base-stock policy are extended in different directions...... extensions consider more general inventory control review policies with backordering, as well as some relations between service measures. A particularly important result in the paper concerns an alternative service measure, the customer order fill rate, and shows how this measure always exceeds the other two...

  1. Influence of the nature of surface-active substances on rheology of high-filled pastelike compositions on a base on liquid diene rubber and disperse filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Surovtcev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches on reception of pastelike high-filled compositions and estimation of their rheological properties with use cone – plate rheometer are presented. Liquid diene rubber with end hydroxyl groups (as binding, surfaceactive substance (PEAHENS and disperse filler are entered into structure of compositions. The estimation of sedimentation firmness of compositions and their fluidity in the range of pressure of shift 1 – 30 кPа and temperatures from 30 to 50°С is executed. By results of an estimation of influence of concentration dependence of PEAHENS on a viscosity indicator it is shown that its introduction in a pastelike composition at level 0.5 mas. % is expedient. For considered in work low polar liquid diene rubber more effective decrease in viscosity of a pastelike composition provide polyoxypropylene, especially on the average an interval of pressure of shift which basically can be used in practice. Slightly concede them titanorganic derivatives of oligomer polyoxypropylene. The greatest effect of decrease in viscosity for compositions will reach at use oligomer polyoxypropylene with molecular weight 480, in this case viscosity of a composition is at level of 10 Pa ⋅ s for rather wide interval of pressure of shift.

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotube filled polypropylene nanocomposites based on masterbatch route: Improvement of dispersion and mechanical properties through PP-g-MA addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs filled polypropylene (PP nanocomposites were prepared through diluting a PP/MWNT masterbatch in a PP matrix by melt compounding with a twin screw extruder. Polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA was used to promote the carbon nanotubes dispersion. The effect of PP-g-MA addition on the rheological, mechanical and morphological properties of the nanocomposites was assessed for different MWNTs loadings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM has shown that nanotubes are distributed reasonably uniformly. A better dispersion and good adhesion between the nanotubes and the PP matrix is caused by wrapping of PP-g-MA on MWNTs. When PP-g-MA is added, dynamic moduli and viscosity further increases compared to PP/MWNT nanocomposites. The rheological percolation threshold drops significantly. Tensile and flexural moduli and Charpy impact resistance of the nanocomposites also increases by the addition of PP-g-MA. The present study confirms that PP-g-MA is efficient to promote the dispersion of MWNTs in PP matrix and serves as an adhesive to increase their interfacial strength, hence greatly improving the rheological percolation threshold and mechanical properties of PP/MWNT nanocomposites.

  3. High-birefringence photonic crystal fiber polarization filter with gold-coated and liquid-filled air holes based on surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Junbo; Li, Shuguang; Cheng, Tonglei; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuenan

    2018-01-01

    A high-birefringence photonic crystal fiber polarization filter is proposed. The coupling theory is used to explain full and incomplete couplings. The resonance point can be adjusted to the communication band by optimizing the fiber structure parameters. Numerical simulation results indicate that the resonance strength can reach 924.96 and 710.28 dB.cm-1 at the communication wavelength of 1.31 and 1.55 μm in x- and y-polarized directions, respectively. By filling liquid analyte, the confinement loss can reach 804.52 dB.cm-1 at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. Furthermore, when the fiber length of L equals 500 μm, the peak value of the cross talk (CT) can reach 389.15 and -280.52 dB, respectively. When the length of the fiber L equals 200 μm, the bandwidth of the CT better than 20 dB is up to 120 nm at the wavelength of 1.31 μm, and the bandwidth of the CT<-20 dB is up to 140 nm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. These properties make it a good candidate for designing types of polarization filter devices.

  4. Lactic acid bacteria from "Sheep's Dhan", a traditional butter: Isolation, identification and major technological traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six lactic acid bacteria were isolated from sheep’s Dhan, a traditional butter made from sheep’s milk in Jijel (East of Algeria. These strains belong to three genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. The results showed that Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis was the predominant species in this traditional butter. The results of the assessment of the technological aptitude indicate that a major strain has a good acidification aptitude, some of them show good proteolytic activity and only Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum isolates were able to produce exopolysaccharide.

    Veintiséis bacterias lácticas fueron aisladas de “Sheep´s Dhan”, una mantequilla tradicional hecha con leche de oveja en Jijel (al Este de Argelia. Estas cepas pertenecen a tres géneros: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc y Lactobacillus. Los resultados mostraron que Lactococcus lactis ssp diacetylactis fue la especie predominante en esta mantequilla tradicional. Los resultados de la evaluación de la aptitud tecnológica indican que la principal cepa tiene una buena aptitud de acidificación, algunas de ellas mostraron una buena actividad proteolítica y únicamente Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum fue capaz de producir exopolisacárido.

  5. [Inflammatory ointment from shea butter and hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks (Cailcederat)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioune, O; Ahodikpe, D; Dieng, M; Diop, A B; Ngom, S; Lo, I

    2000-01-01

    In a former study, it was proved that the alcoholic solution of hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks had an anti-inflammatory activity on animals after a local application. In this work, ointments made from the same extract and three different excipients (vaseline, lanoline and shea butter (crude and refined)) have been prepared and tested by the method of the croton oil inhibited ear oedema. Results showed inhibition percentages of the ear oedema of 58.8%, 66.7% and 75.4% when the hydro-alcoholic extract was tested at respective doses of 1%, 2% and 3% in shea butter. The two other excipients, (vaceline and Lanoline) tested at the dose of 3% showed between 52% and 58% of inhibitions. The interest of this study was to demonstrate the possibility to maintain the anti-inflammatory activity of Khaya senegalensis barks by using them in a galenic form, easy to prepare and which is, in addition, more adapted than the extract to possible clinical trials.

  6. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of aflatoxins in peanut butter and other commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, E J; Hanchay, J P; Scott, P M

    1984-01-01

    A combination of the extraction and cleanup procedures of Pons and Franz with the liquid chromatographic (LC) derivatization technique of Beebe is proposed as an accurate, precise, and sensitive method for determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in various foodstuffs. Mean recoveries of total aflatoxins added in the range 15-34 ng/g to peanut butter were 86-94% in 2 laboratories. Recovery of total aflatoxins (30 ng/g) from shelled peanuts, shelled Brazil nuts, pistachios, cashews, walnuts, and filberts exceeded 86% and from pumpkin seeds was 80%. Coefficients of variation for total aflatoxins were less than 7% for spiked samples and 15% for peanuts naturally contaminated with 16.7 ng/g of total aflatoxin (B1 + B2). Analyses of peanut meal, yellow corn meal, and peanut butter check samples (AOCS Smalley Series 1980/81 and 1981/82, IARC Series 1982/83) by this method compared favorably with reported averages. The detection limit is about 0.3 ng/g for each aflatoxin.

  7. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Kaphueakngam, Phimnipha; Flood, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) was produced from a blend of mango kernel fat (MKF) and palm oil mid-fraction (PMF). Five fat blends with different ratios of MKF/PMF (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 (%wt)) and pure MKF, PMF and cocoa butter (CB) were characterized. Similar to CB, all fat blends contained palmitic (P), stearic (S) and oleic (O) acids as the main fatty acid components. The triglyceride compositions of all blends were significantly different from CB. However, blend 80/20, which contained higher content of SOS, similar content of POP and lower content of POS compared to CB, exhibited a slip melting point, crystallization and melting behavior most similar to CB and hence it was recommended as CBE. The chosen CBE was then mixed with CB in a ratio of 1:5.64 (wt), mimicking that of typical dark chocolate where 5 % of CBE is added to the finished product. The crystallization behavior, the crystal morphology and bloom behavior of the mixture was investigated and was found to be not significantly different from CB.

  8. 'Don't play the butter notes': jazz in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Melissa; Harper, Darryl V; Ryan, Mark H; Vanderbilt, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally - attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing - his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, 'Don't play the butter notes'. In medical education, 'don't play the butter notes' suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  9. ‘Don’t play the butter notes’: jazz in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bradner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazz has influenced world music and culture globally – attesting to its universal truths of surviving, enduring, and triumphing over tragedy. This begs the question, what can we glean in medical education from this philosophy of jazz mentoring? Despite our training to understand disease and illness in branching logic diagrams, the human experience of illness is still best understood when told as a story. Stories like music have tempos, pauses, and silences. Often they are not linear but wrap around the past, future, and back to the present, frustrating the novice and the experienced clinician in documenting the history of present illness. The first mentoring lesson Hancock discusses is from a time he felt stuck with his playing – his sound was routine. Miles Davis told him in a low husky murmur, ‘Don’t play the butter notes’. In medical education, ‘don’t play the butter notes’ suggests not undervaluing the metacognition and reflective aspects of medical training that need to be fostered during the early years of clinical teaching years.

  10. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 o C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s -1 and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material

  11. A Butter Aroma Recombinate Activates Human Class-I Odorant Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithe, Christiane; Andersen, Gaby; Malki, Agne; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-11-04

    With ∼400 olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), humans sensitively perceive ∼230 key aroma compounds as best natural agonists of ∼10000 food volatiles. An understanding of odorant coding, thus, critically depends on the knowledge about interactions of key food aroma chemicals and their mixtures with their cognate receptors. Genetically designed test cell systems enable the screening, deorphaning, and characterization of single odorant receptors (OR). This study shows for the food aroma-specific and quantitative butter aroma recombinate, and its single components, specific in vitro class-I OR activity patterns, as well as the activation of selected OR in a concentration-dependent manner. Recently, chemosensory receptors, especially class-I OR, were demonstrated to be expressed on blood leukocytes, which may encounter foodborne aroma compounds postprandially. This study shows that butter aroma recombinate induced chemotaxis of isolated human neutrophils in a defined gradient, and in a concentration-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting at least a GPCR-mediated activation of blood leukocytes by key food odorants.

  12. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid-enriched Butter After 24 hours of Intestinal Mucositis Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira de; Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos; Andrade, Maria Emília Rabelo; da Gama, Marco Antonio Sundfeld; Lopes, Fernando Cesar Ferraz; de Sales E Souza, Éricka Lorenna; Martins, Flaviano Dos Santos; Miranda, Sued Eustáquio Mendes; Fernandes, Simone Odília Antunes; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Mucositis is the most common side effect due to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It refers to the inflammation of intestinal mucous membranes, and it is associated with complications such as diarrhea, weight loss, and increased intestinal permeability (IP). This study was designed to evaluate the effect of diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched butter on intestinal damage and inflammatory response after 24 h of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced mucositis. Mice were divided into four groups: CTL; CLA; 5-FU, and CLA 5-FU, and they were fed for 31 days. On the 30th experimental day, mucositis was induced by unique injection of 300 mg/kg of 5-FU. After 24 h (31st experimental day), IP was evaluated; ileum and fecal material were collected to determine cytokine level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). The 5-FU group showed an increase in IP and MPO activity (CTL vs. 5-FU: P butter exacerbating the 5-FU-induced intestinal damage. Safety concerns regarding the use of CLA require further investigation.

  13. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D J

    2011-07-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material \\'entombs\\' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as a result other materials such as Resilon have been investigated as alternatives. The aim of this review was to analyse the literature to consider whether Resilon is a suitable root canal filling material. A MEDLINE and Cochrane library search including various keyword searches identified several papers which investigated or discussed Resilon or RealSeal\\/Epiphany. Analysis of the literature demonstrated that the bulk of the literature is in vitro in nature, based largely on leakage-type studies, and demonstrates a wide variety of methodologies with conflicting findings; as a result meaningful conclusions are difficult. Within the limit of these in vitro studies Resilon appears to perform adequately in comparison to gutta-percha, however, as a result of the questionable merit of such studies, it cannot presently be considered an evidence-based alternative to the current gold standard gutta-percha. It is imperative that before Resilon is considered as a replacement material, a better understanding of the physical properties of the resin sealer and the reality of the adhesive \\'monoblock\\' are elucidated. The literature also demonstrates a paucity of quality long-term clinical outcome studies which will need to be addressed before firm conclusions can be reached.

  14. Influence of probiotics, included in peanut butter, on the fate of selected Salmonella and Listeria strains under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klu, Y A K; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study observed the behaviour of probiotics and selected bacterial pathogens co-inoculated into peanut butter during gastrointestinal simulation. Peanut butter homogenates co-inoculated with Salmonella/Listeria strains (5 log CFU ml(-1) ) and lyophilized or cultured probiotics (9 log CFU ml(-1) ) were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions for 24 h at 37°C. Sample pH, titratable acidity and pathogen populations were determined. Agar diffusion assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effect of probiotic culture supernatants with either natural (3·80 (Lactobacillus), 3·78 (Bifidobacteirum) and 5·17 (Streptococcus/Lactococcus)) or neutralized (6·0) pH. Antibacterial effect of crude bacteriocin extracts were also evaluated against the pathogens. After 24 h, samples with probiotics had lower pH and higher titratable acidity than those without probiotics. The presence of probiotics caused a significant reduction (P pH diminished their antibacterial activities. Crude bacteriocin extracts had a strain-specific inhibitory effect only towards Listeria monocytogenes. Probiotics in 'peanut butter' survived simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Salmonella/Listeria. Peanut butter is a plausible carrier to deliver probiotics to improve the gastrointestinal health of children in developing countries. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Influence of Roasting of Shea Kernels on Their Fat Content and Some Quality Characteristics of Shea Butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Guo, Meng; Akissoe, N.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van T.

    2017-01-01

    In shea production zones in Sub-Saharan Africa, shea butter is mostly produced by women using traditional methods. Improvement of their practices would allow them to obtain better monetary returns for their activities. Roasting of crushed shea kernels is a processing step that has a major influence

  16. Effects of Sesame Butter (Ardeh) versus Sesame Oil on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Zarei, Mehdi; Gorji, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is related to oxidative-stress-induced diseases. Given the role of dietary antioxidants in the control and prevention of diabetes, this study aimed to examine the effects of sesame butter versus sesame oil on the serum levels of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rats. Forty male albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 4 groups (i.e., nondiabetic control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with sesame butter, and diabetic rats treated with sesame oil). Experimental diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Sesame butter (1.25 g/kg) and sesame oil (0.5 g/kg) were given by oral gavage to the diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Finally, serum glucose, lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured and analyzed statistically. Our data showed that the diabetic groups treated with sesame butter and sesame oil had significantly lower levels of glucose and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein than did the diabetic control group at the end of the study (Pbutter supplementation also increased TAC and decreased MDA concentrations significantly in the diabetic rats (Pbutter make it an excellent candidate for future human studies on diabetes, although further research is needed to determine the exact dose and duration of supplementation.

  17. Cocoa butter-like lipid production ability of non-oleaginous and oleaginous yeasts under nitrogen-limited culture conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans is the main raw material for chocolate production. However, growing chocolate demands and limited CB production has resulted in a shortage of CB supply. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), POP (C16:0–C18:1–C16...

  18. Environmental aspects of dental filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenholt-Bindslev, D

    1998-04-01

    In recent years, the possible environmental impact caused by certain routines in dental practice has attracted attention among regulators. As part of point source reduction strategies, the discharge of mercury/amalgam-contaminated wastes has been regulated in a number of countries, even though it has been documented that by adopting appropriate mercury hygiene measures, including installation of amalgam-separating devices, the environmental impact of amalgam use in dentistry is minimal. There are, so far, no data indicating the environmental impact of methacrylate-based dental filling materials. As to the occupational environment, recent reports have stated that when normal occupational recommendations for proper mercury hygiene routines are followed (e.g., water spray coolant and high vacuum suction during removal of amalgam restorations), no occupational health risk can be assumed. An increasing number of reports on occupational allergic reactions to components of polymer-based dental filling materials call for attention to the sensitizing potential of certain ingredients in these products.

  19. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  20. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, G; Zimmerman, S; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Porter, P A; Luhman, C M; Beitz, D C

    2007-06-01

    Changing the milk fatty acid composition can improve the nutritional and physical properties of dairy products and their acceptability to consumers. A more healthful milk fatty acid composition can be achieved by altering the cow's diet, for example, by feeding supplemental fish oil (FO) or roasted soybeans (RSB), or by selecting cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition. We examined whether feeding supplemental FO or RSB to cows that had a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition acted additively to produce butter with improved fatty acid composition and texture. Using a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 2 replications, we fed diets to multiparous Holstein cows (60 to 200 DIM) chosen for producing either more or less unsaturated milk fatty acid composition (n = 6 for each group) for three 3-wk periods. The control diet contained 3.7% crude fat and the 2 experimental diets contained, on a dry matter basis, 0.8% of additional lipids in the form of 0.9% of FO or 5% of RSB. The milk, collected in the third week of feeding, was used to make butter, which was analyzed for its fatty acid composition and physical properties. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not significantly affected by cow diet or by cow selection. Cows that produced a more unsaturated and healthful milk fat prior to the feeding study, according to a "health-promoting index" [HPI = (sum of % of unsaturated fatty acids)/ (%12:0 + 4 x %14:0 + %16:0)], maintained a higher HPI in their butter during the feeding study than did cows with a low HPI. Milk from cows fed supplemental FO or RSB yielded more unsaturated butters with a higher HPI. This butter also was softer when the cows were fed RSB. Feeding RSB to cows chosen for their high milk HPI yielded the most unsaturated butter with the highest HPI and softest texture. Thus, selecting cows with a more health-promoting milk fatty acid composition and feeding supplemental RSB can be used in combination to produce butter