Sample records for butoxy radicals

  1. 40 CFR 721.3435 - Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. 721... Substances § 721.3435 Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as butoxy-substituted ether alkane...

  2. Crystal structure of hexakis(μ2-4-tert-butoxy-4-oxobut-2-en-2-olatotrizinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgerd O. Shtokvish


    Full Text Available The title complex, systematic name hexakis(μ2-4-tert-butoxy-4-oxobut-2-en-2-olato-1:2κ9O2,O4:O2;2:3κ9O2,O4:O2-trizinc, [Zn3(C8H13O36], synthesized from tert-butyl acetoacetate and diethylzinc, consists of trinuclear centrosymmetric molecules of an approximate C3i symmetry. The three metal cations are arranged in a linear fashion, with the central ZnII atom located on a centre of symmetry. All three metal cations exhibit a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The terminal ZnII cations are chelated by three tert-butyl acetoacetate ligands and these units are connected to the central ZnII atom by the bridging enolate O atoms.

  3. DFT/TDDFT investigation on the chemical reactivities, aromatic properties, and UV-Vis absorption spectra of 1-butoxy-4-methoxybenzenepillar[5]arene constitutional isomers. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ren, Shuqing


    We investigate the chemical reactivities, aromatic properties, and UV-Vis absorption spectra of four constitutional isomers of 1-butoxy-4-methoxybenzenepillar[5]arene with the DFT and TDDFT methods. These characteristics in the gas and solvent phases are discussed on the basis of electronic energy, the highest occupied molecular orbital energy, electrophilicity, global hardness, chemical potential, and nucleus-independent chemical shift. The out-of-plane component of the NICS values reveals that there is a great contrast between aromatic rings of the isomer and benzene. The most intense wavelengths of BMpillar[5]arenes are all made up of delocalized-delocalized π → π* transition.

  4. Changing Single-Molecule Magnet Properties of a Windmill-Like Distorted Terbium(III) α-Butoxy-Substituted Phthalocyaninato Double-Decker Complex by Protonation/Deprotonation. (United States)

    Horii, Yoji; Horie, Yusuke; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro


    Synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties of α-butoxy-substituted phthalocyaninato double-decker complexes Tb(α-obPc)2 (1-) (α-obPc: dianion of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octa(n-butoxy)phthalocyaninato) with protonated (1H), deprotonated (1[HDBU]), and diprotonated forms (1H2+) are discussed. X-ray analysis was used to confirm the position of the proton in 1H, and it was revealed that the protonation induced asymmetric distortion in 1H. In contrast, 1[HDBU] was distorted in a highly symmetric windmill-like fashion. 1H is arranged in a slipped column array in the crystal packing, whereas 1[HDBU] is arranged in a one-dimensional fashion, in which the magnetic easy axes of 1[HDBU] lie along the same line. From direct-current (dc) magnetic measurements, ferromagnetic Tb-Tb interactions occur in both 1H and 1[HDBU], and magnetic hysteresis was observed. However, the area of the magnetic hysteresis in 1[HDBU] is larger than that in 1H, meaning that magnetic relaxation time (τ) is longer in 1[HDBU]. In addition, the results of alternating-current magnetic measurements in a zero dc magnetic field indicate that τ of 1[HDBU] is longer as compared to 1H. In other words, protonation/deprotonation affects not only the molecular structures and crystal packing but also the single-molecule magnet properties.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DNA interaction studies on bis(1-amidino-O-2-alkoxyethylurea)Cu(II)nitrate where alkoxy = methoxy, ethoxy or butoxy (United States)

    Shantibala Devi, N.; Jaideva Singh, L.; Pramodini Devi, S.; Bhubon Singh, R. K.; Hemakumar Singh, R. K.; Rajeswari, B.; Kadam, R. M.


    Three new copper(II) complexes, bis(1-amidino-O-2-alkoxyethylurea)Cu(II)nitrate, where alkoxy = methoxy (1), ethoxy (2) or butoxy (3) have been synthesized and characterized. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of complexes 2 and 3 gave half-field signal (ΔMs = ±2) ca. 1600 G, in addition to fine structure due to zero field splitting (ZFS) characteristics of the S = 1 system suggesting the formation of binuclear copper(II) complexes. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of complex 1 revealed that the copper atoms have tetra-coordinated square planar environments formed by two N atoms derived from two different ligands. The interaction of the copper(II) complexes with DNA were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and thermal denaturation studies. The values of binding constant (Kb) and the apparent binding constant (Kapp) calculated from the absorption and fluorescence spectral studies suggest that the binding strength of the three complexes are in the order 3 > 2 > 1. The three complexes interact with CT-DNA primarily by partial or non-intercalative modes.

  6. Radical versus Non-Radical Inventions


    Schoenmakers, Wilfred; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim


    This paper looks at the special characteristics of radical inventions. It tries to identify those variables that differentiate radical inventions from non-radical inventions. Since radical inventions are very important for the economy as a whole and for the individual firm performances, understanding what makes radical inventions differ from non-radical inventions is very important. For our research we made use of the EPO (European Patent Office) database on patents. We used...

  7. A radical approach to radical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)


    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  8. Metal-independent decomposition of hydroperoxides by halogenated quinones: detection and identification of a quinone ketoxy radical. (United States)

    Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Shan, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Chun-Hua; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Mao, Li; Du, Yu-Guo


    We have shown recently that halogenated quinones could enhance the decomposition of hydroperoxides and formation of alkoxyl/hydroxyl radicals through a metal-independent mechanism. However, neither the proposed quinone enoxy radical intermediate, nor the major reaction products were unambiguously identified. In the present study, one of the major reaction products between 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ) and t-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) was isolated and purified by semipreparative HPLC, and identified as 2-hydroxy-3-t-butoxy-5-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone [CBQ(OH)-O-t-Bu], which is the rearranged isomer of the postulated quinone-peroxide reaction intermediate. The formation of CBQ(OH)-O-t-Bu was found to be inhibited by the spin trapping agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), and concurrently, a new DMPO adduct with 1-chlorine isotope peak clusters at m/z 268 was observed. Further electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping, (1)H-NMR and HPLC/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometric studies with oxygen-17-labeled and unlabeled hydrogen peroxide strongly suggest that the radical trapped by DMPO is a carbon-centered quinone ketoxy radical, which is the spin isomer of the proposed oxygen-centered quinone enoxy radical. Analogous results were observed when DCBQ was substituted by other halogenated quinones. This study represents the first detection and identification of an unusual carbon-centered quinone ketoxy radical, which provides direct experimental evidence to further support and expand our previously proposed mechanism for metal-independent decomposition of hydroperoxides by halogenated quinones.

  9. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW


    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  10. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design


    Roberts, Nancy C.


    This article offers a conceptual framework to understand radical change. It opens with a typology that defines change in terms of its pace and scope, and defines radical change as the swift transformation of an entire system. How radical change in public policy has occurred in the past is then documented. We find examples of radical change by chance, radical change by consensus, radical change by learning, and radical change by entrepreneurial design. Radical chang...

  11. Online Radicalization: Bangladesh Perspective (United States)


    develop a sustainable counter radicalization mechanism without impinging citizens’ democratic rights. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bangladesh, cyber, online, social... sustainable counter radicalization mechanism without impinging citizens’ democratic rights. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS At first, I would like to convey my... restaurant in the Dhaka diplomatic zone that became a lead story in the world media. The Government of Bangladesh claims the militants to be home-grown

  12. Physiology of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka


    Full Text Available Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•, superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, peroxyl radical (ROO•, alcoxyl radical (RO• and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•. However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents, such as: singlet oxygen (1O2, peroxynitrite (ONOO-, hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2, hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl and ozone (O3. High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort, the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.

  13. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, M; VanDriel, MF; Schultz, WCMW; Mensink, HJA

    Objective To evaluate the ability to obtain and the quality of orgasm after radical prostatectomy, Patients and methods The orgasms experienced after undergoing radical prostatectomy were evaluated in 20 men (median age 65 years, range 56-76) using a semi-structured interview and a self-administered

  14. On the Radicalization Process. (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J


    This study aimed to provide an in-depth description of the radicalization process, which is a very important step in terrorist activities. The author proposes a translational analysis that is first based on the author's experience in the psychological evaluation of terrorist behavior and second on an exhaustive review of the current literature. The search terms "terrorism," "radicalization," "social psychology," and "psychopathology" were used to identify relevant studies in the following databases: Scopus, Medline, PubCentral, and Science Direct. Because of its importance, understanding radicalization process should be one of the priorities of behavioral scientists. International studies should be performed with a focus on several aspects, such as radicalization risk factors, brainwashing, the role of the media, and finally, in de-radicalization programs. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. The Origins of Radical Inventions




    This paper looks at the special characteristics of radical inventions. It tries to identify those variables that differentiate radical inventions from non-radical inventions. Since radical inventions are very important for the economy as a whole and for the individual firm performances, understanding what makes radical inventions differ from non-radical inventions is very important. For our research we made use of the EPO (European Patent Office) database on patents. We used the number of for...

  16. The Nature of Radical Inventions




    Inventions come in many different forms ranging from incremental technical change to radical inventions. Radical inventions are very important for industry competition as well as for individual firm survival. In spite of many theoretical discussions on the effect of radical inventions the specific nature of radical inventions has so far remained relatively unclear. We try to shed some light on the nature of these radical inventions by investigating a group of radical, as well as a group of no...

  17. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  18. Gnosticism and Radical Feminism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan


    and radical feminism would easily fall under this definition. There is, however, one major difference: since radical feminism is a relatively recent phenomenon which also benefited from modern modes of text production and preservation, almost all of the sources are still with us. This, in turn, may allow us...... to use radical feminism to make certain aspects of ancient Gnosticism re-emerge from their long submersion, provided that enough similarities can be independently drawn between the two phenomena to merit such a comparison. This paper therefore presents a comparison between concepts and positions...

  19. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...

  20. Radical prostatectomy - discharge (United States)

    ... to 6 months. You will learn exercises (called Kegel exercises) that strengthen the muscles in your pelvis. ... Radical prostatectomy Retrograde ejaculation Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Suprapubic catheter care Urinary catheters - ...

  1. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja


    and foiled plots inspired by militant Islamism have grabbed European and American headlines. This article identifies and discusses empirical studies of radicalization and points to the strengths as well as the weaknesses characterizing these studies. The aim is to take stock of the current state of research...... within this field and to answer the question: From an empirical point of view, what is known and what is not known about radicalization connected to militant Islamism in Europe?...

  2. Free Radical Reactions in Food. (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.


    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…

  3. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy. (United States)

    Rendón, Gabriel J; Ramirez, Pedro T; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Pareja, Rene


    The standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer has been radical hysterectomy. However, for women interested in future fertility, radical trachelectomy is now considered a safe and feasible option. The use of minimally invasive surgical techniques to perform this procedure has recently been reported. We report the first case of a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in a developing country. The patient is a nulligravid, 30-y-old female with stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix who desired future fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. The operative time was 340 min, and the estimated blood loss was 100mL. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology showed no evidence of residual disease, and all pelvic lymph nodes were negative. At 20 mo of follow-up, the patient is having regular menses but has not yet attempted to become pregnant. There is no evidence of recurrence. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in a young woman who desires future fertility may also be an alternative technique in the treatment of early cervical cancer in developing countries.

  4. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten


    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomies can result in urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, these issues have been studied separately, and the sexual problem that has received the most focus has been erectile dysfunction. AIM: To summarize the literature on sexually related side...... effects and their consequences after radical prostatectomy and focus on the occurrence and management of problems beyond erectile dysfunction. METHODS: The literature on sexuality after radical prostatectomy was reviewed through a Medline search. Original research using quantitative and qualitative...... methodologies was considered. Priority was given to studies exploring aspects of sexuality other than erectile function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence, predictive factors, and management of post-prostatectomy sexual problems beyond erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Most patients will develop urinary...

  5. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipke Michael


    Full Text Available Millions of men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer worldwide. With the advent of PSA screening, there has been a shift in the detection of early prostate cancer, and there are increased numbers of men with asymptomatic, organ confined disease. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is the latest, well accepted treatment that patients can select. We review the surgical technique, and oncologic and functional outcomes of the most current, large series of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy published in English. Positive margin rates range from 2.1-6.9% for pT2a, 9.9-20.6% for pT2b, 24.5-42.3% for pT3a, and 22.6-54.5% for pT3b. Potency rates after bilateral nerve sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy range from 47.1 to 67%. Continence rates at 12 months range from 83.6 to 92%.

  6. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker


    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  7. Radical dematerialization and degrowth (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos


    The emission targets agreed in Paris require a radical reduction of material extraction, use and disposal. The core claim of this article is that a radical dematerialization can only be part and parcel of degrowth. Given that capitalist economies are designed to grow, this raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, the inevitable `degrowth' can become socially sustainable. Three economic policies are discussed in this direction: work-sharing, green taxes and public money. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  8. Radical School Reform. (United States)

    Gross, Beatrice, Ed.; Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of the nature of the school crisis and the ways in which radical thinkers and educators are dealing with it. Excerpts from the writings of Jonathan Kozol, John Holt, Kenneth Clark, and others are concerned with the realities of education in ghettos and suburbs. Paul Goodman, Marshall McLuhan, Sylvia…

  9. The perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical. (United States)

    Guasch, Judith; Fontrodona, Xavier; Ratera, Imma; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume


    In spite of the considerable understanding and development of perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical derivatives, the preparation of crystals of the pure unsubstituted PTM radical, C19Cl15, suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction has remained a challenge since its discovery, and only two studies dealing with the crystal structure of the unsubstituted PTM radical have been published. In one study, the radical forms clathrates with aromatic solvents [Veciana, Carilla, Miravitlles & Molins (1987). J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. pp. 812-814], and in the other the structure was determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data [Rius, Miravitlles, Molins, Crespo & Veciana (1990). Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 187, 155-163]. We report here the preparation of PTM crystals for single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their resolution. The structure, which shows monoclinic symmetry (C2/c), revealed a nonsymmetric molecular propeller conformation (D3 symmetry) caused by the steric strain between the ortho-Cl atoms, which protect the central C atom (sp(2)-hybridization and major spin density) and give high chemical and thermal persistence to the PTM. The supramolecular structure of PTM shows short Cl...Cl intermolecular interactions and can be described in terms of layers formed by rows of molecules positioned in a head-to-tail manner along the c axis.

  10. Beyond Radical Educational Cynicism. (United States)

    Wood, George H.


    An alternative is presented to counter current radical arguments that the schools cannot bring about social change because they are instruments of capitalism. The works of Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and Louis Althusser are discussed. Henry Giroux's "Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling" provides an alternative to cynicism.…

  11. Radical Financial Innovation


    Robert J. Shiller


    Radical financial innovation is the development of new institutions and methods that permit risk management to be extended far beyond its former realm, covering important new classes of risks. This paper compares past such innovation with potential future innovation, looking at the process that produced past success and the possibilities for future financial innovation.

  12. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community will be proposed...

  13. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali


    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Toward living radical polymerization. (United States)

    Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Thang, San H


    Radical polymerization is one of the most widely used processes for the commercial production of high-molecular-weight polymers. The main factors responsible for the preeminent position of radical polymerization are the ability to polymerize a wide array of monomers, tolerance of unprotected functionality in monomer and solvent, and compatibility with a variety of reaction conditions. Radical polymerization is simple to implement and inexpensive in relation to competitive technologies. However, conventional radical polymerization severely limits the degree of control that researchers can assert over molecular-weight distribution, copolymer composition, and macromolecular architecture. This Account focuses on nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) and polymerization with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), two of the more successful approaches for controlling radical polymerization. These processes illustrate two distinct mechanisms for conferring living characteristics on radical polymerization: reversible deactivation (in NMP) and reversible or degenerate chain transfer (in RAFT). We devised NMP in the early 1980s and have exploited this method extensively for the synthesis of styrenic and acrylic polymers. The technique has undergone significant evolution since that time. New nitroxides have led to faster polymerization rates at lower temperatures. However, NMP is only applicable to a restricted range of monomers. RAFT was also developed at CSIRO and has proven both more robust and more versatile. It is applicable to the majority of monomers subject to radical polymerization, but the success of the polymerization depends upon the selection of the RAFT agent for the monomers and reaction conditions. We and other groups have proposed guidelines for selection, and the polymerization of most monomers can be well-controlled to provide minimal retardation and a high fraction of living chains by using one of just two RAFT agents. For example, a

  15. Toward Radicalizing Community Service Learning (United States)

    Sheffield, Eric C.


    This article advocates a radicalized theoretical construction of community service learning. To accomplish this radicalization, I initially take up a discussion of traditional understandings of CSL rooted in pragmatic/progressive thought. I then suggest that this traditional structural foundation can be radicalized by incorporating Deborah…


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator


    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  17. Radical distinction: Support for radical left and radical right parties in Europe. (United States)

    Rooduijn, Matthijs; Burgoon, Brian; van Elsas, Erika J; van de Werfhorst, Herman G


    Support for radical parties on both the left and right is on the rise, fueling intuition that both radicalisms have similar underpinnings. Indeed, existing studies show that radical left and right voters have overlapping positions and preferences. In this article, however, we focus on the differences in the voting bases of such parties. We show that radical left and right voters have sharply diverging ideological profiles. When it comes to the historical traditions of the 'left' and 'right', these voters differ radically from each other. Both groups express the traditions associated with their mainstream counterparts-particularly with respect to (non-)egalitarian, (non-)altruistic, and (anti-)cosmopolitan values. Such differences also explain why radical left voters tend to be more, not less, educated than mainstream or radical right voters.

  18. Radical distinction: Support for radical left and radical right parties in Europe (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian; van Elsas, Erika J; van de Werfhorst, Herman G


    Support for radical parties on both the left and right is on the rise, fueling intuition that both radicalisms have similar underpinnings. Indeed, existing studies show that radical left and right voters have overlapping positions and preferences. In this article, however, we focus on the differences in the voting bases of such parties. We show that radical left and right voters have sharply diverging ideological profiles. When it comes to the historical traditions of the ‘left’ and ‘right’, these voters differ radically from each other. Both groups express the traditions associated with their mainstream counterparts—particularly with respect to (non-)egalitarian, (non-)altruistic, and (anti-)cosmopolitan values. Such differences also explain why radical left voters tend to be more, not less, educated than mainstream or radical right voters. PMID:29187802

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospheric Radical-Radical Reactions (United States)

    Okumura, Mitchio


    The reactions of trace free radicals largely determine the chemical composition of gas phase species in the atmosphere. Reactions between pairs of radicals are very important, but exhibit a high degree of complexity; fundamental studies have revealed the importance of multiple wells, adduct formation, chaperone effects, and nonadiabatic coupling among potential energy surfaces. We have investigated the spectra, kinetics, and dynamics of a number of radical-radical reactions using infrared cavity ringdown, FM diode laser, and action spectroscopic methods. New results will be presented on peroxynitrous acid, HOONO, a minor but significant channel in the OH + NO2 + M reaction, a major sink for HOx and NOx radicals in polluted tropospheric air. These experiments lead to a detailed understanding of HOONO formation and kinetics under thermal conditions. Additional work on peroxyl radical spectroscopy and chemistry, including the role of hydrogen-bonded adducts, will also be discussed.

  20. Catalysis of Radical Reactions: A Radical Chemistry Perspective. (United States)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P


    The area of catalysis of radical reactions has recently flourished. Various reaction conditions have been discovered and explained in terms of catalytic cycles. These cycles rarely stand alone as unique paths from substrates to products. Instead, most radical reactions have innate chains which form products without any catalyst. How do we know if a species added in "catalytic amounts" is a catalyst, an initiator, or something else? Herein we critically address both catalyst-free and catalytic radical reactions through the lens of radical chemistry. Basic principles of kinetics and thermodynamics are used to address problems of initiation, propagation, and inhibition of radical chains. The catalysis of radical reactions differs from other areas of catalysis. Whereas efficient innate chain reactions are difficult to catalyze because individual steps are fast, both inefficient chain processes and non-chain processes afford diverse opportunities for catalysis, as illustrated with selected examples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Radiosynthesis of (S)-5-methoxymethyl-3- 6-(4,4,4-trifluoro-butoxy)benzo dis-oxazol-3-yl ox azolidin-2- C-11 one (C-11 SL25.1188), a novel radioligand for imaging monoamine oxidase-B with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramoulle, Y.; Saba, W.; Valette, H.; Bottlaender, M.; Dolle, F. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, Inst dImagerie BioMed, F-91401 Orsay (France); Puech, F.; George, P. [Sanofi Aventis, F-92200 Bagneux (France)


    Within a novel series of 2-oxazolidinones developed in the past by Sanofi-Synthelabo, SL25.1188 ((S)-5-methoxymethyl-3-[6-(4,4,4-trifluoro-butoxy)benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl]o xazolidin-2-one), a compound that inhibits selectively and competitively MAO-B in human and rat brain (Ki values of 2.9 and 8.5 nM for MAO-B, respectively, and ED{sub 50} (rat): 0.6 mg/kg p.o.), was considered an appropriate candidate for imaging this enzyme with positron emission tomography.SL25.1188 was labelled with carbon-11 (T{sub 1/2}: 20.38 min) in one chemical step using the following process: (i) reaction of [{sup 11}C]phosgene with the corresponding ring-opened precursor (1.2-2.5 mg) at 100 degrees C for 2 min in dichloromethane (0.5 ml) followed by (ii) concentration to dryness of the reaction mixture and finally (iii) semi-preparative HPLC purification on a Waters Symmetry (R) C18. A total of 300-500 MBq of [{sup 11}C]SL25.1188 ({>=}95% chemically and radiochemically pure) could be obtained within 30-32 min (Sep-pak-based formulation included) with specific radioactivities ranging from 50 to 70 GBq/{mu}mol (3.5-7% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, based on starting [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 4}). (authors)

  2. Manipulating radicals : Using cobalt to steer radical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirilă, A.


    This thesis describes research aimed at understanding and exploiting metallo-radical reactivity and explores reactions mediated by square planar, low-spin cobalt(II) complexes. A primary goal was to uncover novel reactivity of discrete cobalt(III)-bound carbene radicals generated upon reaction of

  3. Free radicals and polarized targets (United States)

    Bunyatova, E. I.


    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.

  4. Free radicals and polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyatova, E.I. E-mail:


    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.


    The paper investigates the distribution on a complex plane of characteristic radicals of stochastic matrices of the n-th order. The results obtained...can be interpreted as theorems on the relative distribution of characteristic radicals of an arbitrary matrix with non-negative elements. (Author)

  6. Free radicals and male reproduction. (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R


    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    8-METHOXYNEORAUTENOL AND RADICAL SCAVENGING FLAVONOIDS FROM. ERYTHRINA ABYSSINICA. Abiy Yenesew1*, Hannington Twinomuhwezi1 ... shown that the plant elaborates alkaloids [1], flavanones, pterocarpans, chalcones and isoflavonoids [1, 3]; some of which have been shown to have antimicrobial ...

  10. Redox Properties of Free Radicals. (United States)

    Neta, P.


    Describes pulse radiolysis as a useful means in studing one-electron redox potentials. This method allows the production of radicals and the determination of their concentration and rates of reaction. (CS)

  11. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández


    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2* = HO2+ΣRO2, R = organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PeRCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  12. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter


    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  13. Phenylbutazone radicals inactivate creatine kinase. (United States)

    Miura, T; Muraoka, S; Fujimoto, Y


    Creatine kinase (CK) was used as a marker molecule to examine the side effect of damage to tissues by phenylbutazone (PB), an effective drug to treat rheumatic and arthritic diseases, with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H(2)O2). PB inactivated CK during its interaction with HRP-H(2) O(2), and inactivated CK in rat heart homogenate. PB carbon-centered radicals were formed during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2. The CK efficiently reduced electron spin resonance signals of the PB carbon-centered radicals. The spin trap agent 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane strongly prevented CK inactivation. These results show that CK was inactivated through interaction with PB carbon-centered radicals. Sulfhydryl groups and tryptophan residues in CK were lost during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2, suggesting that cysteine and tryptophan residues are oxidized by PB carbon-centered radicals. Other enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, but not lactate dehydrogenase, were also inactivated. Sulfhydryl enzymes seem to be sensitive to attack by PB carbon-centered radicals. Inhibition of SH enzymes may explain some of the deleterious effects induced by PB.

  14. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  15. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bove


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We offer an overview of the intra-, peri- and postoperative outcomes of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with the endpoint to evaluate potential advantages of this approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive Medline literature search (search terms “laparoscopic radical prostatectomy” and “radical prostatectomy” from 1990 until 2007. Only full-length English language articles identified during this search were considered for this analysis. A preference was given to the articles with large series with more than 100 patients. All pertinent articles concerning localized prostate cancer were reviewed. CONCLUSION:Pure LRP has shown to be feasible and reproducible but it is difficult to learn. Potential advantages over open surgery have to be confirmed by longer-term follow-up and adequately designed clinical studies.

  16. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad


    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  17. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, Henrik; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Andersen, Henrik J


    The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  18. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta


    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  19. [Reprodcutive results of radical trachelectomy]. (United States)

    Martínez-Chapa, Arnulfo; Alonso-Reyes, Nelly; Luna-Macías, Miguel


    Historically, cervical cancer in early stages has been treated with radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy with no option in keeping the uterine-ovarian function. Since two decades ago, evidence shows these cases are candidates for radical trachelectomy, a procedure capable of preserving the fertility without affecting the oncological outcome. To analyze reproductive results among patients treated with radical trachelectomy, in a reference center from the northeast of Mexico. Between March 1999 and December 2013, 27 cases with cervical cancer in early stages were treated with vaginal or abdominal radical trachelectomy in the ISSSTE Regional Hospital in Monterrey, NL (Mexico). We obtained the gynecological, medical and surgical clinical history. Plan of analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Age range was 27-39 years. Main complications were cervical stenosis (n=1) and erosion of cerclaje (n=2). Eighteen patients tried to get pregnant, 8 of them got a spontaneous pregnancy; 1 more patient required assisted reproduction technics and did not succeed. All pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section and were preterm births; 3 underwent premature rupture of membranes. Two pregnancies ended in abortion, one at 10 weeks with severe hemorrhage that needed hysterectomy; the second one, at 1 7 weeks, received a fine uterine curettage. Only 6 cases (33%) got a live birth. Only one third of the attempted pregnancies got a live birth. Assisted reproduction technics play an important role and should be offer to all cases. Cerclaje is an important factor to carry a pregnancy up to the third trimester.

  20. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt...

  1. Radical cyclization approach to spirocyclohexadienones. (United States)

    de Turiso, Felix González-López; Curran, Dennis P


    Cyclization of an aryl radical at the ipso position of a p-O-aryl-substituted acetamide or benzamide generates oxindoles or quinolones bearing spirocyclohexadienone rings. This versatile reaction is applied to formal syntheses of the vasopressin inhibitor SR121463A and aza-galanthamine.

  2. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.


    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of "narrow mental states"; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without…

  3. O conceito de mal radical The concept of radical evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia


    Full Text Available A noção de mal radical aparece em Kant no contexto da discussão da religião nos limites da simples razão e busca dar conta da complexa relação entre o respeito pela lei moral e o amor-próprio na definição do móbil para a ação. Na busca por identificar o fundamento da propensão para o mal no homem, Kant se vê diante da dificuldade de ter de articular natureza e liberdade, e ainda que a noção de mal radical possa conservar algumas ambigüidades, permite conceber uma noção de responsabilidade compatível com uma inata propensão para o mal. Neste texto busco explicitar alguns passos fundamentais na construção do conceito por Kant.The concept of radical evil appears in Kant's theory when he discusses the religion in the limits of the mere reason and aims explain the complex relationship between respect for the moral law and the self-love, for establish the motive of the action. By aiming identify the basis of human inclination to evil, Kant is faced with the trouble of have to put nature and freedom in connection. Despite of the concept of radical evil retain some ambiguity, it allows conceive a notion of responsibility suitable to an inherent inclination to evil. In this paper is my purpose to explain some basic moments of Kantian formulation of that notion.

  4. ["Learning curve" robotic radical hysterectomy compared to standardized laparoscopy assisted radical vaginal and open radical hysterectomy]. (United States)

    Pilka, R; Marek, R; Dzvinčuk, P; Kudela, M; Neubert, D


    To compare intraoperative, pathologic and postoperative outcomes of "learning curve" robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) with laparoscopy assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH) in patients with early stage cervical carcinoma. Comparative study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. The first twenty patients with cervical cancer stages IA2-IIA underwent RRH and were compared with previous twenty LARVH and ARH cases. The procedures were performed at University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic between 2004 and 2011. There were no differences between groups for age, body mass index, tumor histology, number of nodes removed or preoperative hemoglobin levels. The median theatre time in the learning period for the robot procedure was reduced from 400 min to less than 223 min and compared well to the 215 min for an open procedure. We found differences between the pre- and postoperative hemoglobin levels (RRH, 14.9 ±7 .6; LARVH, 23.0 ± 8.5; ARH, 28.0 ± 12.4). This difference was statistically significant in favor of RRH group ( p= 0.0012). Mean length of stay was significantly shorter for the RRH group (7.2 versus 8.8 days,p = 0.0005). Mean pelvic lymph node count was similar in the three groups. None of the robotic or laparoscopic procedures required conversion to laparotomy. The differences in major operative complications between the two groups were not significant. Based on our experience, robotic radical hysterectomy showed better results than traditional laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy in early stage cervical carcinoma cases. Introduction of this new technique requires a learning curve of less than 20 cases that will reduce the operating time to a level comparable to open surger.

  5. The Radical Axis: A Motion Study (United States)

    McGivney, Ray; McKim, Jim


    Interesting problems sometimes have surprising sources. In this paper we take an innocent looking problem from a calculus book and rediscover the radical axis of classical geometry. For intersecting circles the radical axis is the line through the two points of intersection. For nonintersecting, nonconcentric circles, the radical axis still…

  6. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system


    Takahide Fukuyama; Md. Taifur Rahman; Naoya Kamata; Ilhyong Ryu


    Summary Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  7. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama


    Full Text Available Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  8. Oxygen free radicals in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Biemond (Pieter)


    textabstractCurrent knowledge strongly suggests that oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Additional information about the mechanism of free radical attack is necessary in order to find out if interaction with the mechanism of free radical damage can be used in the treatment

  9. Sphingomyelinase inhibitory and free radical scavenging potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extractsf sphingomyelinase inhibitory potencies were assessed colorimetrically and their free radical scavenging capabilities were assayed by the ability to quench 2,2]diphenyl]1]picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion (O2.]) radical. Considering their IC50 (ƒÊg/ml) values, the extracts inhibited the ...

  10. Erectile preservation following radical prostatectomy


    Segal, Robert; Burnett, Arthur L.


    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, representing approximately 25% of all new cancer diagnoses in the USA. For clinically localized prostate cancer, the gold standard for therapy remains radical prostatectomy. One of the main adverse effects of this procedure is erectile dysfunction, which can have a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. There are several mechanisms of erectile dysfunction postprostatectomy, including arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic type...

  11. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy


    Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea


    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence ...

  12. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill...... the objectives. We propose a scalable design to enable integration and extension of future state of the art technologies into the system....

  13. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.


    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  14. Oxidative stress, free radicals and protein peroxides. (United States)

    Gebicki, Janusz M


    Primary free radicals generated under oxidative stress in cells and tissues produce a cascade of reactive secondary radicals, which attack biomolecules with efficiency determined by the reaction rate constants and target concentration. Proteins are prominent targets because they constitute the bulk of the organic content of cells and tissues and react readily with many of the secondary radicals. The reactions commonly lead to the formation of carbon-centered radicals, which generally convert in vivo to peroxyl radicals and finally to semistable hydroperoxides. All of these intermediates can initiate biological damage. This article outlines the advantages of the application of ionizing radiations to studies of radicals, with particular reference to the generation of desired radicals, studies of the kinetics of their reactions and correlating the results with events in biological systems. In one such application, formation of protein hydroperoxides in irradiated cells was inhibited by the intracellular ascorbate and glutathione. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya


    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  16. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad


    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  17. effect of some free radicals on superoxide dismutase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Free radicals are species with unpaired electron in their outermost shell. Most free radicals come from oxygen or nitrogen atoms. Radical species such as superoxide radical, hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electron are called the primary radicals of water radiolysis and can be produced by irradiating water.

  18. Effect of some free radicals on superoxide dismutase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals are species with unpaired electron in their outermost shell. Most free radicals come from oxygen or nitrogen atoms. Radical species such as superoxide radical, hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electron are called the primary radicals of water radiolysis and can be produced by irradiating water molecule.

  19. Online radicalization: the net or the netizen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Richard Omotoyinbo


    Full Text Available Purpose - Radicalization has gained some unusual prominence in the academic circles; maintaining a generic existence not only in the political sector. And with the advent of the Information Communication Technology (ICT, radicalization has begun to have some virtual dimension even in the remotest of human communities. This study seeks to mobilize a universal awareness on the collective urgency to oppose Online Radicalization (a radicalization that happens through the internet due to its propensity to engendering conflicts. It also aims at identifying the principal cause of online radicalization and steer a clear course for a practical reversal in the systems of online radicalization.Design/methodology/approach - The study is divided into three primary parts. The general notion of radicalization is the focus of the first part; which is further analysed into the levels of online radicalization with its accompanying developments and segments. The second part utilizes analytic and historical method to pinpoint the principal cause of online radicalization amidst the suspected causal factors (the Net and the Netizen. The final part analytically focuses on the Netizen (a user/citizen of the internet as the primary cause of online radicalization, and how the global community can bring about a corresponding change in the Net by the application of some measures on the Netizen.Findings - By virtue of the analytic plus historical methods employed by this study; it was initially identified that radicalization is basically having two versions which are online and offline. Further emphasis on the online version reveals that its existence is only made possible by the availability of the internet (the Net. Since the Net is a global phenomenon online radicalization is considered to be worldwide: a menace of globalization. However, the study later indicated that the Net is a facilitator and a cause of online radicalization. A view was deduced that the Netizen is

  20. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David


    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes...... compared with placebo. The effects of prostaglandin and vacuum erection devices are questionable and high-quality studies are lacking. Better documentation for current penile rehabilitation and/or better rehabilitation protocols are needed. One must be careful not to repeat the statement that penile...... rehabilitation improves erectile function after RP so many times that it becomes a truth even without the proper scientific backing....

  1. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  2. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  3. Determinismo, Indeterminismo e Behaviorismo Radical


    Carolina Laurenti


    Um dos principais objetivos deste trabalho é argumentar que o tema do determinismo e indeterminismo é ainda central para a ciência psicológica, em especial, para a Análise do Comportamento, e sua filosofia, o Behaviorismo Radical. À primeira vista, o problema parece não se justificar, já que Skinner declara-se determinista. Todavia, um exame mais atento sugere que o texto skinneriano também abre o flanco para uma interpretação indeterminista de seus compromissos científico-filosóficos. Com is...

  4. Is Radical Innovation Management Misunderstood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jimmi Normann; Gertsen, Frank


    This paper poses a critical view on radical innovation (RI) management research and practice. The study investigates how expected RI performance influences firms’ under- standing of their RI capability. RI performance is often based on output measures such as market shares or fiscal return...... managerial orientations. Coupling a discussion of the literature with case findings from four large international firms, this paper identifies a discrepancy between RI capability-building and RI perfor- mance within literature and practice. This is regarded to be a major contributing factor to RI program...

  5. Radical constructivism: Between realism and solipsism (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alberto


    This paper criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. These contradictions manifest themselves in a frequent oscillation between solipsism and realism, despite constructivist claims to be an anti-realist theory. The paper also points out the contradiction between the relativism of the radical constructivist principles and the constructivist exclusion of other epistemological or educational paradigms. It also disputes the originality and importance of the radical constructivist paradigm, suggesting the idea of an isomorphism between radical constructivist theory and contemplative realism. In addition, some pedagogical and scientific methodological aspects of the radical constructivist model are examined. Although radical constructivism claims to be a rational theory and advocates deductive thinking, it is argued that there is no logical deductive connection between the radical principles of constructivism and the radical constructivist ideas about scientific research and learning. The paper suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism and, finally, briefly advances an alternative realist model to epistemological and educational radical constructivism.

  6. Names for inorganic radicals (IUPAC Recommendations 2000)


    W. H. Koppenol


    Introduction: Knowledge of the properties and reactivities of stable inorganic radicals was obtained decades ago through gas-phase studies of various oxides of halogens, sulfur, and nitrogen. More recently, pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis techniques developed in the 1960s made it possible to study short-lived radicals, such as hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms, and hydroxyl radicals. Because of the high time-resolution of these techniques, absorption spectra and redox properties of the...

  7. The Games Radicals Play: Special Issue on Free Radicals and Radical Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton


    Full Text Available Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and arrangements appearing on the scene are even more interesting. Some of these are ephemeral and enjoy only a brief appearance, others are retro-types reappearing in new guises, still others are genuinely new and “go viral” in the scientific world. This Special Issue of Molecules contains the observations and reflections of a select group of chemists and physicists fascinated by this spectacle. It contains an eclectic mix reflecting on new modes and advances as well as on permutations and combinations that revive mature themes. [...

  8. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt......, as well as in user-generated comments in an online discussion. The television film represented an inclusive memory culture that made room for the difficult memories of all parties involved, including the radicalised, young hijackers. Based on a multidimensional model of mass media reception, the analysis...... of the web debate examines how viewers reacted to this interpretation. The web debate functioned as a participatory forum, where collective and national memories and postcolonial history were intensely discussed, and the debate made room for some degree of reconciliation between viewers of Dutch...

  9. Radical conservatism and Danish imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Egander


    The article explores the concept of empire or rige in the context of a small nation-state with no immediate claim to imperial greatness and with a rooted self-understanding as anything but an empire. It does this by exploring the concept of empire in the far right movement The Young Denmark...... on the basis of a close reading of their imperialist program in the pamphlet Danmark Udslettes! from 1918. Rige had been a vague term for the larger Danish polity that originated in a pre-national conceptualization of the polity as a realm. The article suggests that rige-as-realm was translated by the radical...... right into a concept of empire. In the process it dramatically changed its emphasis, reorienting itself towards a "horizon of expectation." It became a politically loaded battle concept which then entailed a critique against the dominant liberal conceptualization of the polity and nation. Rige came...

  10. Photoionisation of the tropyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin H. Fischer


    Full Text Available We present a study on the photoionisation of the cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl radical, C7H7, using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Tropyl is generated by flash pyrolysis from bitropyl. Ions and electrons are detected in coincidence, permitting us to record mass-selected photoelectron spectra. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of tropyl, corresponding to the X+ 1A1’ ← X 2E2” transition, reveals an ionisation energy of 6.23 ± 0.02 eV, in good agreement with Rydberg extrapolations, but slightly lower than the value derived from earlier photoelectron spectra. Several vibrations can be resolved and are reassigned to the C–C stretch mode ν16+ and to a combination of ν16+ with the ring breathing mode ν2+. Above 10.55 eV dissociative photoionisation of tropyl is observed, leading to the formation of C5H5+ and C2H2.

  11. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.


    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  12. Erectile function after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Frey, Anders; Jakobsen, Henrik


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess postprostatectomy erectile function compared to preoperative status by subjective patient perception and the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used data from a prospectively...... collected database and a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study in patients following radical prostatectomy. Erectile function was assessed with the IIEF-5 and the question "Is your erectile function as good as before the surgery (yes/no)". Patients were included if they were sexually active before...... surgery and had at least 1 year of follow-up. The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients returning to self-perceived baseline erectile function. Secondary outcome measures included the proportion of patients returning to baseline erectile function according to the IIEF-5 and predictors...

  13. Free radical scavenging activity of Lafoensia pacari. (United States)

    Solon, S; Lopes, L; Teixeira de Sousa, P; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G


    The methanolic extract of the stem bark of Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae) showed free radical scavenging activity in the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) decoloration assay and inhibited the enzyme xanthine oxidase 'in vitro'. Bioassay-guided isolation led to ellagic acid (EA) as the main active compound of Brazilian and Paraguayan collections of the plant.

  14. Victimology: A Consideration of the Radical Critique. (United States)

    Friedrichs, David O.


    Discusses the emergence of a new radical model in criminology and a new subdisciplinary area of concern, victimology, with roots in Marx and Engels' original formulations. Argues that the radical understanding of victimization provides an important corrective to mainstream approaches and broadens the focus of the concept of victimization. (JAC)

  15. Self-Terminating, Oxidative Radical Cyclizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Wille


    Full Text Available The recently discovered novel concept of self-terminating, oxidative radical cyclizations, through which alkynes can be converted into carbonyl compounds under very mild reaction conditions using O-centered inorganic and organic radicals as oxidants, is described

  16. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov...

  17. Controlling the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations. (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki


    This review describes the results of our recent studies on the control of the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations. N-vinylic alpha-chloroacetamides generally cyclized in a 5-endo-trig manner to give five-membered lactams, whereas 4-exo-trig cyclization occurred when the cyclized radical intermediates were highly stabilized by an adjacent phenyl or phenylthio group to afford beta-lactams. The 5-exo or 6-exo cyclization of aryl radicals onto the alkenic bond of enamides could be shifted to the corresponding 6-endo or 7-endo mode of cyclization by a positional change of the carbonyl group of enamides. The 6-endo- and 7-endo-selective aryl radical cyclizations were applied to radical cascades for the synthesis of alkaloids such as phenanthroindolizidine, cephalotaxine skeleton, and lennoxamine. The 5-exo-trig cyclization of an alkyl radical onto the alkenyl bond of enamides could also be shifted to the 6-endo mode by a positional change of the carbonyl group of enamides. The 6-endo- selective cyclization was applied to the radical cascade to afford a cylindricine skeleton. Other examples of controlling the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations and their applications to the synthesis of natural products are also discussed. (c) 2006 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Free Radical Mechanisms in Autoxidation Processes. (United States)

    Simic, Michael G.


    Discusses the use of steady-state radiation chemistry and pulse radiolysis for the generation of initial free radicals and formation of peroxy radicals in the autoxidation process. Provides information regarding the autoxidation process. Defines autoxidation reactions and antioxidant action. (CS)

  19. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.


    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  20. Allylthioketone Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong


    Full Text Available By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable TPPT radicals at the end of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA are detected in the polymerization of MMA using TPPT and AIBN as the control agent and initiator. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra are used to identify terminal groups of the resultant poly(glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA, and major component of the obtained polymer has the structure, (CH32(CNC-PGMA-C7H9O3. Chain extension reaction tests ascertain formation of the dead polymers during the polymer storage and purification process of the polymers. Owing to very slow fragmentation reaction of the TPPT-terminated polymethacrylate radical and addition reaction of this radical with a primary radical, the growing chain radicals are difficult to be regenerated, leading to an unobvious change of the molecular weight with monomer conversion. The molecular weights of polymers can be controlled by the ratios of monomer/initiator and TPPT/initiator. However, the first order kinetics of the polymerization and the polymers with narrow polydispersity are obtained, and these phenomena are discussed. This study provides useful information on how to design a better controlling agent.

  1. Ideals Adrift: An Educational Approach to Radicalization (United States)

    van San, Marion; Sieckelinck, Stijn; de Winter, Micha


    These days, the radicalization of young people is above all viewed as a security risk. Almost all research into this phenomenon has been carried out from a legal, criminological or socio-psychological perspective with a focus on detecting and containing the risks posed by radicalization. In the light of the political developments since September…

  2. Radical scavenging compounds from Ethiopian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the secondary metabolites isolated from these active fractions were found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity, as judged by scavenging stable DPPH free radicals. However, the flavonol glycoside rutin figured as the most active radical scavenger with an IC50 value of 9.5 mM. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal Vol.

  3. Lipid peroxidation induced by phenylbutazone radicals. (United States)

    Miura, Toshiaki; Muraoka, Sanae; Fujimoto, Yukio


    Lipid peroxidation was investigated to evaluate the deleterious effect on tissues by phenylbutazone (PB). PB induced lipid peroxidation of microsomes in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H2O2). The lipid peroxidation was completely inhibited by catalase but not by superoxide dismutase. Mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide had no effect. These results indicated no paticipation of superoxide and hydroxyl radical in the lipid peroxidation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) efficiently inhibited the lipid peroxidation. PB radicals emitted electron spin resonance (ESR) signals during the reaction of PB with HRP-H2O2. Microsomes and arachidonic acid strongly diminished the ESR signals, indicating that PB radicals directly react with unsaturated lipids of microsomes to cause thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. GSH sharply diminished the ESR signals of PB radicals, suggesting that GSH scavenges PB radicals to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Also, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropan strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation. R-Phycoerythrin, a peroxyl radical detector substance, was decomposed by PB with HRP-H2O2. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation of microsomes is induced by PB radicals or peroxyl radicals, or both.

  4. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    of the preferred loci of radical formation. The formation of these thiyl and tryptophan-derived radicals does not lead to significant aggregation or fragmentation of the protein, though it does result in a dramatic enhancement in the susceptibility of the oxidised protein to proteolytic degradation by a range...

  5. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of the Conference is “Religion, Politics,. Community and Radical Orthodoxy in South Africa”. And I would also ... doctoral thesis attempted a conversation with Jacques. Derrida from a Radical Orthodox perspective. For the ..... mechanical kind of way, at all! And equally, the question of “Does truth need a truth maker?

  7. Alpha- and beta-thujone radical rearrangements and isomerizations. A new radical clock. (United States)

    He, Xiang; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R


    Radical clocks have been extensively used in chemical and biochemical mechanistic studies. The C4 radicals of alpha- and beta-thujone can undergo two distinct rearrangement reactions that could, in principle, serve as simultaneous but independent radical clocks. We have therefore generated these C4 radicals by photolysis of the corresponding N-hydroxypyridine-2-thione ester precursors and have investigated their fates and lifetimes. Photolysis of either alpha- or beta-thujone generates the same 6:100 mixture of alpha- and beta-thujone when the radicals are quenched by thiophenol. Hydrogen atom transfer from thiophenol to the radical thus occurs preferentially from the less sterically hindered alpha-face to give beta-thujone. The third product formed in the photolysis via opening of the cyclopropyl ring is 2-methyl-5-isopropylcyclopent-2-enone. The ratio of ring opened to unopened products gives very similar values of kralpha = 4.4 x 10(7) s(-1) and krbeta = 1.0 x 10(8) s(-1) for ring opening of the radicals generated from alpha- and beta-thujone, respectively. If the C4 cation rather than radical is generated, it is converted to carvacrol, a phenol that is not obtained in the radical reactions. Thujone therefore differentiates between radical and cation pathways and provides a measure of the radical lifetime. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar


    Full Text Available Objective: to study orgasmic function (OF in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RPE.Subjects and methods. Seventy-nine patients who had undergone RPE for locally advanced prostate cancer without hormone and radiation therapies were examined. The patients’ mean age was 59.3 years. The mean EF-IIEF domain score was 24.4. OF was estimated by IIEF question 10 and the authors’ questionnaire. The Spearman rank correction coefficient and Mann-Whitney U-Wilcoxon tests were used.Results. After RPE, there was a reduction in the mean IIEF question 10 score from 3.9 (confidence interval 3.7–4.1 to 3.3 (3–3.5 (p = 0.000. The following changes were found in orgasm intensity: no changes in 43 %, mild worsening in 42 %, severe worsening in 8 %, and enhancement in 4 %; orgasm could not be achieved in 4 % of the patients. Pain usually of low intensity was reported by 8.8 %. The poor factors for preserving OF were its low baseline level, elderly age, or severe post-RPE erectile dysfunction.Conclusion. There were significant OF changes after RPE, which should be kept in mind while treating this category of patients.

  9. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea


    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. PMID:28459142

  10. Involvement of free radicals in breast cancer. (United States)

    Ríos-Arrabal, Sandra; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; León, Josefa; Román-Marinetto, Elisa; Del Mar Salinas-Asensio, María; Calvente, Irene; Núñez, Maria Isabel


    Researchers have recently shown an increased interest in free radicals and their role in the tumor microenvironment. Free radicals are molecules with high instability and reactivity due to the presence of an odd number of electrons in the outermost orbit of their atoms. Free radicals include reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are key players in the initiation and progression of tumor cells and enhance their metastatic potential. In fact, they are now considered a hallmark of cancer. However, both reactive species may contribute to improve the outcomes of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Besides, high levels of reactive oxygen species may be indicators of genotoxic damage in non-irradiated normal tissues. The purpose of this article is to review recent research on free radicals and carcinogenesis in order to understand the pathways that contribute to tumor malignancy. This review outlines the involvement of free radicals in relevant cellular events, including their effects on genetic instability through (growth factors and tumor suppressor genes, their enhancement of mitogenic signals, and their participation in cell remodeling, proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy processes; the possible relationship between free radicals and inflammation is also explored. This knowledge is crucial for evaluating the relevance of free radicals as therapeutic targets in cancer.

  11. 'Living'-chain radical polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, Gennadii V; Marchenko, A P [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    The review is devoted to various types of compounds used as agents for 'living' radical polymerisation, such as alkoxyamines formed upon addition of the chain carrier radicals, R{sup .}, to stable nitroxyl radicals, as well as products of the addition of the radicals to transition metal complexes with different ligands, etc. In all cases, the mechanism of the action of these agents consists in their reversible dissociation ArightleftarrowsR{sup .} + X{sup .}, where X{sup .} is a stable free radical or a metal-containing complex which can accept radicals R{sup .} (R{sup .} + X{sup .}{yields}A) and thus compete with the quadratic chain termination. Particular attention is paid to the studies which allowed a quantitative formulation of the mechanism of 'living' radical polymerisation in the form of a mathematical model suitable for predicting both the parameters of the polymerisation and the properties of the resulting polymer (molecular mass and polydispersity). The bibliography includes 359 references.

  12. Magnetic fields, radicals and cellular activity. (United States)

    Montoya, Ryan D


    Some effects of low-intensity magnetic fields on the concentration of radicals and their influence on cellular functions are reviewed. These fields have been implicated as a potential modulator of radical recombination rates. Experimental evidence has revealed a tight coupling between cellular function and radical pair chemistry from signaling pathways to damaging oxidative processes. The effects of externally applied magnetic fields on biological systems have been extensively studied, and the observed effects lack sufficient mechanistic understanding. Radical pair chemistry offers a reasonable explanation for some of the molecular effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, and changes in radical concentrations have been observed to modulate specific cellular functions. Applied external magnetic fields have been shown to induce observable cellular changes such as both inhibiting and accelerating cell growth. These and other mechanisms, such as cell membrane potential modulation, are of great interest in cancer research due to the variations between healthy and deleterious cells. Radical concentrations demonstrate similar variations and are indicative of a possible causal relationship. Radicals, therefore, present a possible mechanism for the modulation of cellular functions such as growth or regression by means of applied external magnetic fields.

  13. Localization versus delocalization in diamine radical cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Wiering, P.G.; Zwier, J.M.


    The optical absorption spectrum of the radical cation of 1,4-diphenylpiperazine 2a shows a strong transition in the near-IR, and only a weak band at 445 nm, in the region where aniline radical cations normally absorb strongly. This indicates that the charge and spin are delocalized over the two...... of coexistence of localized and delocalized radical cations of diphenylpiperazine and its derivatives cannot be ruled out at present. If that were the case, the effect of the methoxy substituents is to shift the equilibrium towards the localized species....

  14. Editorial: From Radicalism to Minority Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah Journal of Islamic Studies


    Full Text Available This edition presents contemporary themes around Islam and Muslims in Indonesia from the issues of radicalism, online media, a Dutch scholar during colonial era, women’s resistance to shariatization, local practice of Islamic sufism, minority group, to broader theme of the relation of religion and science. To begin with, James Adam Fenton sheds light on the way in which Indonesian society has responded to radical ideology. He argues that dialogue in open society with democratic spirit helps the society to disengage from radicalism.

  15. Day case laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abboudi


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the feasibility of performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP as a day case procedure while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. Herein we report our experience, selection criteria, and discharge criteria for day case LRP. Methods: We performed a prospective study with 32 patients undergoing extraperitoneal LRP. These patients were counselled before the procedure that they would go home the same evening of the procedure. Pain scores and quality of life data were recorded day 1 postoperatively via a telephone consultation. The patients underwent routine blood tests on day 2 and an outpatient review on day 7 and regularly thereafter via an assigned key worker. Socio-demographic data, comorbidities, and outcomes were collected for analysis. Results: All patients were successfully discharged the same day of surgery. Mean patient age was 62 years with a mean body mass index of 25. Mean operative time was 147 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 101 ml. Three patients were treated for post operative urinary tract infections; two patients developed infected lymphoceles which required percutaneous drainage and one patient required re-catheterisation due to a burst catheter balloon. Of these six complications four patients required re-admission. Post-operative pain, nausea and vomiting were low whilst patient satisfaction scores were unanimously high in all patients surveyed. Conclusions: The early experience with extraperitoneal LRP as a same day surgery is promising although patients who are at high risk of lymphocele should be excluded. Preoperative patient counselling and selection is paramount. Patient satisfaction is not adversely affected by the shortened stay. Surgeon experience, a well-motivated patient, meticulous attention to detail through an integrated pathway, a multidisciplinary team and adequate postoperative assessment are essential.

  16. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy. (United States)

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea


    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  17. Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O


    Whipple\\'s procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple\\'s procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple\\'s procedure during a 15-year period (1987-2002) were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%). One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30-75). The major presenting features included jaundice (five), pain (two), gastric outlet obstruction (one), and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one). Investigations included ultrasound (eight), computerised tomography (eight), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology), and endoscopic ultrasound (two). The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two), chronic pancreatitis (two), choledochal cyst (one), inflammatory pseudotumour (one), cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one), duodenal angiodysplasia (one), and granular cell neoplasm (one). There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one), anastomotic leak (one), liver abscess (one), and myocardial infarction (one). All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple\\'s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) may reduce the need for Whipple\\'s operation

  18. Radical Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Benign Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kavanagh


    Full Text Available Whipple's procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple's procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple's procedure during a 15-year period (1987–2002 were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%. One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30–75. The major presenting features included jaundice (five, pain (two, gastric outlet obstruction (one, and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one. Investigations included ultrasound (eight, computerised tomography (eight, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology, and endoscopic ultrasound (two. The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two, chronic pancreatitis (two, choledochal cyst (one, inflammatory pseudotumour (one, cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one, duodenal angiodysplasia (one, and granular cell neoplasm (one. There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one, anastomotic leak (one, liver abscess (one, and myocardial infarction (one. All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple'’s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound–guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA may reduce the need for Whipple's operation in

  19. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...... radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov......, and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem...

  20. Adult Women's Education: A Radical Critique (United States)

    Merideth, Elizabeth; Merideth, Robert


    The authors propose alternative measures to meet the needs of women in universities. Individual efforts by individual women must be facilitated by social innovation brought about by radical experiments with alternative living arrangements and open universities. (BY)

  1. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher


    One important market related capability for firms which seek to develop radical innovations is the competence to involve the 'right' users at the 'right' time in the 'right' form. While former studies have identified a rather passive role of users in the radical innovation process, this paper...... focuses on the involvement of such users that are in the position to play an active role as inventors and (co)-developers. A multiple case study analysis was conducted in the field of medical technology. Five radical innovation projects within four firms were selected including medical robots and computer......-assisted navigation systems. The case study analysis reveals that firms who closely interact with specific users benefit significantly for their radical innovation work. These users have a high motivation toward new solutions, are open to new technologies, possess diverse competencies, and are embedded into a very...

  2. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement. (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino


    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  3. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumark, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    The authors have developed a novel technique for studying the photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals. In these experiments, radicals are generated by laser photodetachment of a fast (6-8 keV) mass-selected negative ion beam. The resulting radicals are photodissociated with a second laser, and the photofragments are collected and detected with high efficiency using a microchannel plate detector. The overall process is: ABC{sup -} {yields} ABC + e{sup -} {yields} A + BC, AB + C. Two types of fragment detection schemes are used. To map out the photodissociation cross-section of the radical, the photodissociation laser is scanned and the total photofragment yield is measured as a function of wavelength. In other experiments, the photodissociation frequency is fixed and the photofragment masses, kinetic energy release, and scattering angle is determined for each photodissociation event.

  4. From Living Carbocationic to Living Radical Polymerization. (United States)


    one another because of electrostatic repulsions. On the other hand, free radicals, which are the growing species in radical polymerization, very easily...1) degrees of polymerization will be observed. In ionic reactions, active species with various reactivities coexist ( free ions, ion pairs...between the active and dormant speches Is fast. In real systems, chain-breaking reactions do occur and cannot be entirely b avoided; bimolecular

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira


    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  6. Kinetic evaluation of polyamines as radical scavengers. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori


    To clarify whether polyamines scavenge alkyl (carbon-centered) and peroxy (oxygen-centered) radicals, we analyzed their effects on the kinetics of polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) induced by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a R* radical) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a PhCOO* radical) under nearly anaerobic conditions. Stoichiometric factors (n; number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) were determined by the induction period method. The n value for polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) was 0.1-0.7, whereas that for conventional synthetic antioxidants, BHA and BHT, was about 2. These n values were not different between the AIBN and BPO systems. The n value for polyamines declined in the order spermine > spermidine > putrescine. The K(inh)/K(p) value for polyamines (20-115) was greater than that (4-7) for BHT or BHA. Radical-scavenging activity largely depends on the stoichiometric factor of antioxidants rather than their effects on initial rate of polymerization, a rate of propagation. Polyamines may scavenge alkyl or peroxy radicals derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids in biological systems.

  7. Deceleration of molecular beams of NO radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenner, Alexander; Kirste, Moritz; Schewe, Christian; Scharfenberg, Ludwig; Meijer, Gerard; Meerakker, Sebastian Y.T. van de [Fritz-Haber-Institut, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)


    The motion of neutral molecules in a beam can be manipulated with inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields. Time-varying fields can be used to decelerate or accelerate beams of molecules to any desired velocity. Molecular beams with a tunable velocity find applications in experiments such as the production and investigation of cold molecules or crossed beam collision studies. Molecules with an open shell structure like the OH(X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2) radical are of special interest and have often been used. The NO (X2{pi}1/2,J=1/2) radical would be the ideal molecule in these experiments, as beams of NO can be produced with superior number densities and can be detected more sensitively than OH. But Stark deceleration of NO radicals appears only feasible in the X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2 state, that is not populated under normal conditions. We present the production of intense beams of NO radicals in the X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2 state by stimulated emission pumping of ground-state NO(X2{pi}1/2,J=1/2) radicals via the A 2{sigma}{sup -} state. This state also has a large magnetic dipole moment, and we discuss the prospects for the Zeeman deceleration of NO(X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2) radicals.

  8. Radical and Not So Radical Transgressions: Invading Backstage Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Čale Feldman


    Full Text Available Featuring as one of the privileged metaphors in humanities and social sciences, theatre provides primarily an image of a circumscribed space whose spatial syntax and modes of human engagement take place within and with respect to the larger space of the city, the world, and, as in Calderon’s Gran teatro del mundo, the universe. It is precisely as a special organization of spatiality that theatre reached the status of Foucault’s radical hetero-topos, flexible as it proved to be as a model for not only counter-representing all the human dealings in the external space, but also of conceptualizing, as in Freud’s psychoanalysis, man’s inner world, his psychic topography. But theatre is above all a concrete place, a built form with its own spatial history, its changing social and ideological functions, and its ways of bestowing to the bodies that enter into it actual or phantasm identities, thoughts, sensations, feelings and memories.My intervention will deal with one of the ruling borders/dichotomies/barriers of theatrical space, the one dividing “front stage” from “backstage” regions. In his detailed analysis of the latter in an individual and concrete theatre building, Andrew Filmer relies among others on Edward Soja’s “trialectics of being”, and thus also on Lefebvre’s categories of perceptual, conceptual and lived aspects of spatiality which Soja evokes, which will here be of particular interest. In contrast to the repercussions of such an analytical triad for the ethnographic study of concrete theatrical sites, I will ask how it pertains to potential manipulations of the aforementioned division of front-stage and backstage within contemporary performance practice. The temporal aspect of this manipulation should also be emphasized, having in mind the historical provenance of a whole backstage mythology – evidenced in numerous novels, plays and films situated in the backstage world - in the elaborated architectural

  9. Kinetic radical-scavenging activity of melatonin. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Mariko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Yokoe, Ichiro


    Carbon-centred free radicals can be involved in damage to biological systems under hypoxiclanoxic conditions as well as in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The antioxidant activities of melatonin against carbon-centred radicals are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of melatonin against carbon-centred radicals in a biomimetic model system consisting of growing methyl methacrylate (MMA) radicals (poly-MMA radicals, PMMA*). The kinetics of the polymerization of MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN; R* radical) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO; PhCOO* radical) in the presence of melatonin were investigated by the induction period method under nearly anaerobic conditions. As melatonin concentrations increased, the length of the induction period (IP) increased, but for the BPO system the IP reached a plateau at a molar ratio of BPO to melatonin of 5:1, indicating that the oxidation of melatonin by PhCOO* was limited. At low concentrations of melatonin, the stoichiometric factor (n, the number of free radicals trapped by the antioxidant moiety) for melatonin was approximately 2, but as the melatonin concentration increased the n value decreased markedly to 0.1. These observations suggest that melatonin may possess catalytic activity contributing to radical avoidance. The initial rate of polymerization (Rp) in the BPO system was markedly suppressed by high concentrations of melatonin, suggesting a strong interaction between oxidative end-products formed from melatonin and PMMA*. Under conditions where n was about 2, the kinh values for melatonin in the BPO system and the AIBN system were 6.58 x 10(4) M(-1)S(-1) and 2.49 x 10(3) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. In the BPO system, the kinh of melatonin was of a similar magnitude to that of a-tocopherol, whereas in the AIBN system the kinh of melatonin was 100-fold greater than that of tocopherol. The present findings suggest that melatonin may be

  10. Cooperative Effects on Radical Recombination in CYP3A4-Catalyzed Oxidation of the Radical Clock β-Thujone** (United States)

    Jiang, Yongying


    The oxidation of hydrocarbons by cytochrome P450 enzymes is commonly thought to involve hydrogen atom abstraction by a ferryl species comparable to that of peroxidase Compound I, followed by radical recombination of the resulting carbon radical with the equivalent of an iron-bound hydroxyl radical.1,2 This radical rebound mechanism, first proposed in 1978, is supported by a variety of experimental results, including (a) rearrangement and inversion reactions prior to the radical recombination step, (b) the large magnitude (up to kH/kD ~ 13) of the intrinsic isotope effect for hydrogen abstraction, and (c) computational modeling of the reaction pathway. However, radical clock substrates, in which the radical undergoes a rearrangement at a known rate prior to radical recombination, have provided conflicting evidence on the radical lifetime. Although several radical clocks support a radical recombination mechanism, so-called ultrafast radical clocks yield radical lifetime estimates more consistent with a transition state than an actual intermediate.3 This discrepancy has led to postulates that hydroxylation may involve concerted insertion into the C-H bond or the involvement of multiple oxidizing species. An alternative explanation is provided by computational studies that invoke a reaction manifold with a radical intermediate that exists in two different spin states.4 A further possible explanation is provided by the observation that ultrafast radical clocks generally involve primary radical rearrangements, whereas slower radical clocks generally involve secondary radical rearrangements. The recombination rates of primary and secondary radicals may be differentially susceptible to modulation by interactions with the active site and the iron-oxo species. However, there is little direct evidence that the radical complex exists in two different spin states, or that the radical recombination rates can be influenced by the active site environment. PMID:19189363

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Ethylenedithio-MPTTF-PTM Radical Dyad as a Potential Neutral Radical Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Manuel; Bendixen, Dan; Jensen, Morten


    During the last years there has been a high interest in the development of new purely-organic single-component conductors. Very recently, we have reported a new neutral radical conductor based on the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical moiety linked to a monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF...

  12. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs)-2. Are free hydroxyl radicals generated in aqueous solutions? (United States)

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry


    A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: (1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control samples, (2) a strong correlation between the concentration of DMPO-OH adducts and EPFRs per gram of particles, and (3) a slow, constant growth of DMPO-OH concentration over a period of days in solution containing 50 μg/mL EPFRs particles + DMPO (150 mM) + reagent balanced by 200 μL phosphate buffered (pH = 7.4) saline. However, failure to form secondary radicals using standard scavengers, such as ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, sodium formate, and sodium azide, suggests free hydroxyl radicals may not have been generated in solution. This suggests surface-bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals were generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both the EPFRs and Cu(II)O. Toxicological studies clearly indicate these bound free radicals promote various types of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease normally attributed to unbound free radicals; however, the exact chemical mechanism deserves further study in light of the implication of formation of bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals.

  13. Free radical scavenging by brain homogenate: implication to free radical damage and antioxidant defense in brain. (United States)

    Mori, A; Liu, J; Wang, X; Kawai, M


    To study the mechanisms of free radical-induced brain damage and the antioxidant defense in the brain, we quantified the superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of brain homogenate using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Brain homogenate was found to scavenge both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in concentration-dependent fashion. Heat denaturation significantly decreased these scavenging effects. The ability of brain homogenate to scavenge free radicals implies that brain damage can be induced by free radicals since they are known to react virtually with any type of molecule such as nucleic acids, membrane lipids, and proteins in the brain. On the other hand, some molecules which can be regenerated or repaired after free radical scavenging are considered to be antioxidants which include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Measurement of the decrease in antioxidant activity following heat denaturation suggests that the contribution of enzymatic antioxidants is about 20-40% in scavenging superoxide radicals and about 10-20% in scavenging hydroxyl radicals.

  14. Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) - 2. Are Free Hydroxyl Radicals Generated in Aqueous Solutions? (United States)

    Khachatryan, Lavrent


    A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (.OH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: 1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control samples, 2) a strong correlation between the concentration of DMPO-OH adducts and EPFRs per gram of particles, and 3) a slow, constant growth of DMPO-OH concentration over a period of days in solution containing 50 μg/ml EPFRs particles + DMPO (150 mM) + reagent balanced by 200 μl phosphate buffered (pH = 7.4) saline. However, failure to form secondary radicals using standard scavengers, such as ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, sodium formate, and sodium azide, suggests free hydroxyl radicals may not have been generated in solution. This suggests surface-bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals were generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both the EPFRs and Cu(II)O. Toxicological studies clearly indicate these bound free radicals promote various types of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease normally attributed to unbound free radicals; however, the exact chemical mechanism deserves further study in light of the implication of formation of bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals. PMID:21942783

  15. How to counter radical narratives: Dutch deradicalization policy in the case of Moluccan and Islamic radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demant, F.; de Graaf, B.


    This article deals with the role of government in encouraging the decline of radical movements. The question posed is: "Which story can the government tell to encourage the decline of radical groups and the disengagement of their members?" The article makes use of the survey of factors promoting

  16. DFT and ENDOR Study of Bixin Radical Cations and Neutral Radicals on Silica-Alumina. (United States)

    Tay-Agbozo, Sefadzi S; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Bowman, Michael K; Street, Shane; Kispert, Lowell D


    Bixin, a carotenoid found in annatto (Bixa orellana), is unique among natural carotenoids by being water-soluble. We stabilized free radicals from bixin on the surface of silica-alumina (Si-Al) and characterized them by pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). DFT calculations of unpaired electron spin distribution for various bixin radicals predict the EPR hyperfine couplings. Least-square fitting of experimental ENDOR spectra by spectra calculated from DFT hyperfine couplings characterized the radicals trapped on Si-Al. DFT predicts that the trans bixin radical cation is more stable than the cis bixin radical cation by 1.26 kcal/mol. This small energy difference is consistent with the 26% trans and 23% cis radical cations in the ENDOR spectrum. The remainder of the ENDOR spectrum is due to several neutral radicals formed by loss of a H(+) ion from the 9, 9', 13, or 13' methyl group, a common occurrence in all water-insoluble carotenoids previously studied. Although carboxyl groups of bixin strongly affect its solubility relative to other natural carotenoids, they do not alter properties of its free radicals based on DFT calculations and EPR measurements which remain similar to typical water-insoluble carotenoids.

  17. Scavenging Effects of Dexrazoxane on Free Radicals (United States)

    Junjing, Zhang; Yan, Zhao; Baolu, Zhao


    Dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) has been clinically used to reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity for more than 20 years. It has been proposed that dexrazoxane may act through its rings-opened hydrolysis product ADR-925, which can either remove iron from the iron-doxorubicin complex or bind to free iron, thus preventing iron-based oxygen radical formation. However, it is not known whether the antioxidant actions of dexrazoxane are totally dependent on its metabolization to its rings-opened hydrolysis product and whether dexrazoxane has any effect on the iron-independent oxygen free radical production. In this study, we examined the scavenging effect of dexrazoxane on hydroxyl, superoxide, lipid, DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals in vitro solution systems. The results demonstrated that dexrazoxane was an antioxidant that could effectively scavenge these free radicals and the scavenging effects of dexrazoxane did not require the enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, dexrazoxane was capable to inhibit the generation superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in iron free reaction system, indicating that the antioxidant properties of dexrazoxane were not solely dependent on iron chelation. Thus the application of dexrazoxane should not be limited to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Instead, as an effective antioxidant that has been clinically proven safe, dexrazoxane may be used in a broader spectrum of diseases that are known to be benefited by antioxidant treatments. PMID:21103033

  18. Evolution of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Orvieto, M A; Patel, V R


    Open radical prostatectomy (RRP) is the gold standard and most widespread treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. However, in recent years robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RARP) is rapidly gaining acceptance among urologists worldwide. We sought to outline our surgical technique of robotic radical prostatectomy and provide practical recommendations based on available reports and personal experience. We also critically review the current experience on RARP worldwide and compare the available data with the gold standard open RRP series. A systematic review of the literature was performed for all published manuscripts between 1997 and 2008 using the keywords - 'robotic radical prostatectomy, 'robot-assisted radical prostatectomy', 'laparoscopic radical prostatectomy' and 'robotic' using the Medline database. A total of 226 original manuscripts on RARP were identified. Manuscripts were selected according to their relevance to the current topic (i.e. original articles, number of patients in the series, prospective data collection) and incorporated into this review. Eight years after the first RARP, multiple series are mature enough to demonstrate safety, efficiency and reproducibility of the procedure, as well as oncologic and functional outcomes comparable to its open counterpart. Further prospective, randomized studies comparing both surgical techniques are necessary in order to draw more definitive conclusions.

  19. Hydroxyl radical formation in human gastric juice. (United States)

    Nalini, S; Ramakrishna, B S; Mohanty, A; Balasubramanian, K A


    The hydroxyl radical is the most potent free radical derived from oxygen, and has been implicated in damage caused to the gastroduodenal mucosa. The ability of human gastric juice to generate hydroxyl radicals has been investigated in 54 adults with endoscopically normal gastroduodenal mucosa and in 39 patients with chronic duodenal ulcer. Hydroxyl radical production was measured by the formation of formaldehyde from dimethylsulfoxide. Unlike other body fluids, this reaction could proceed without the extraneous addition of catalysts such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbate and iron. Measurement of H2O2, iron and ascorbate showed that these catalysts are already present in the gastric juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of these components in gastric juice between normal subjects and patients with duodenal ulcer, except that H2O2 levels were slightly higher in duodenal ulcer patients. Although generation of free radicals has been investigated in other body fluids, this is the first reported case regarding the production of these active species in normal human gastric juice. Since hydroxyl production is not significantly enhanced in duodenal ulcer, we suggest that attention may be turned to mucosal antioxidant defences in this disease.

  20. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Galam

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration.

  1. Radical kinetics and characterization of the free radicals in gamma irradiated red pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, M. E-mail:; Polat, M


    Kinetic behaviors and characterization of the natural and {gamma}-induced radicals in irradiated red pepper have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to explore the possibility of using this technique in detecting irradiated red pepper and to evaluate the eventual dosimetric features of this widely used food. Unirradiated samples exhibited a single resonance line centered at g=2.0050{+-}0.0005. Photo-exposure of the samples was found to increase the signal intensity. An increase in temperature created a drastic decrease in the concentration of natural radicals responsible for the single resonance line. Irradiation was observed to induce increases in the intensity of single resonance line (signal I) and a radiation specific doublet and/or triplet (signal II) also centered at g=2.0050 but detectable only at high spectrometer gains. The intensities of both signals increased with increasing radiation dose. The signals I and II were found to decay with different rates depending on the temperature. The results of a fitting procedure applied to the experimental signal decay curves and those obtained from room temperature spectra simulation calculations were used together to determine radical species and their spectral characteristics giving rise to the observed experimental spectra. Four radical species, three carbohydrate and one semiquinone radical assigned as radicals A, B, C and D, respectively, were found to best explain the experimental results. All the radicals show large g and hyperfine splitting anisotropies varying between g=2.0028-2.0062 and 1.07-2.58 mT, respectively. The half lives of the radicals were found to depend strongly on temperature. The activation energy calculated using temperature dependent half-life data were the highest for radical A (33.68 kcal/mol) and smallest for radical C (11.83 kcal/mol)

  2. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R.M. [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:


    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  3. Scavenging of superoxide anion radical by chaparral. (United States)

    Zang, L Y; Cosma, G; Gardner, H; Starks, K; Shi, X; Vallyathan, V


    Chaparral is considered to act as an antioxidant. However, the inhibitory effects of chaparral on specific radical species are not well understood. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with spin trapping techniques, we have found that chaparral scavenges superoxide anion radical (O2*-) in a dose-dependent manner. 5,5-dimethyl-lpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) was used as a spin trapping agent and the reaction of xanthine and xanthine oxidase as a source of O2*-. The kinetic parameters, IC50 and Vmax, for chaparral scavenging of O2*- were found to be 0.899 microg/mL and 8.4 ng/mL/sec, respectively. The rate constant for chaparral scavenging O2*- was found to be 1.22 x 10(6) g(-1) s(-1). Our studies suggest that the antioxidant properties of chaparral may involve a direct scavenging effect of the primary oxygen radical, O2*-.

  4. Formation and stabilization of persistent free radicals (United States)

    Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Maskos, Zofia; Hall, Randall W.; Adounkpe, Julien; McFerrin, Cheri; Truong, Hieu


    We demonstrate that stable and relatively unreactive “environmentally persistent free radicals (PFRs)” can be readily formed in the post-flame and cool-zone regions of combustion systems and other thermal processes. These resonance-stabilized radicals, including semiquinones, phenoxyls, and cyclopentadienyls, can be formed by the thermal decomposition of molecular precursors including catechols, hydroquinones and phenols. Association with the surfaces of fine particles imparts additional stabilization to these radicals such that they can persist almost indefinitely in the environment. A mechanism of chemisorption and electron transfer from the molecular adsorbate to a redox-active transition metal or other receptor is shown through experiment, and supported by molecular orbital calculations, to result in PFR formation. Both oxygen-centered and carbon-centered PFRs are possible that can significantly affect their environmental and biological reactivity. PMID:25598747

  5. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh


      Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer...... involvement, roles and related challenges and conditions in radical service innovations.Findings- One main finding is that customers can engage in radical service innovations in engineering consultancy services and may play a decisive role. In doing this they most likely take on all the three user involvement...... roles defined in the literature of New Service and New Product Development. Also a number of conditions are found to be necessary in order for this collaboration to succeed. The conclusion is that another understanding and handling of the customer/supplier relation is needed along with a need...

  6. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack (United States)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola


    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  7. Exploring how lead users develop radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Gemuenden, Hans Georg; Hienerth, C.


    In this study, we explore how lead users develop radical innovations outside of manufacturing firms. We analyze the transition from a very early stage of activities to the ultimate commercialization of these innovations. The focus in this context is on the initiatives undertaken by lead users...... in order to transform their radically new solutions into functional prototypes and then to convince established manufacturers of the technological and market potential of their innovations. Using a comparative case study design in the high-tech field of medical equipment technology, we find that individual...... lead users as surgeons launch entrepreneurial activities and bridge periods in which established medical equipment manufacturers would not risk investing in radical innovations. By doing so, lead users create the conditions usually provided in manufacturer-initiated lead user projects, including...

  8. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis. (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus F; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas


    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the "redox non-innocent" nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic nitrene-transfer reactions and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2 N3 , (RO)2 P(=O)N3 , ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of reagents useful in synthetically relevant reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Progress in Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals (United States)

    Hudgens, Jeffrey W.

    The following sections are included: * IntroductioN * An Overview of Rehpi Spectroscopy * A Brief History * The Rempi Mechanism * Multiphoton Selection Rules * Characteristics of Rydberg States * Experimental Elements * Apparatus * Identification of Spectral Carriers * The Unique Role of Mass Spectrometry * REMPI Mass Spectra of Free Radicals Show Little Fragmentation * Determination of the Photon Order of the Resonant State * Summary of Transient Radicals Studied By Rempi Spectroscopy * Diatomic Radicals * CF Radical * CH Radical * REMPI Spectra of ClO and BrO Radicals * ClO * BrO * CCl Radical * NH (a1 Δ) Radical * PH (b 1Σ+) Radical * PO Radical * SiF Radical * Triatomic Radicals * CCO Radical * NH2 Radical * HCO Radical * SiF2 Radical * Methyl Radical * One Photon Resonance Enhanced Ionization * Three Photon REMPI of Methyl radicals * Two Photon Spectroscopy * The np ^{2}A^{primeprime}_{2}l←l← tildeX ^{2}A^{primeprime}_{2} Bands * The nf ^{2}E^{prime} l← l← tildeX ^{2}A^{primeprime}_{2} Bands * Substituted Methyl Radicals * CH2F Radical * CHCl2 Radical * CH2OH Radical * CF3 Radical * Other Polyatomic Radicals * Allyl and 2-Methvlallyl Radicals * Substituted Allyl Radicals * Benzyl Radical * Cyclohexanyl radicals * Ethyl Radical * Methoxy Radical * Acknowledgments * References

  10. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  11. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak


    It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...

  12. Update on Robotic Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett S. Matsunaga


    Full Text Available The da Vinci surgical robot has been shown to help shorten the learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP for both laparoscopically skilled and na surgeons[1,2]. This approach has shown equal or superior outcomes to conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy with regard to ease of learning, initial complication rates, conversion to open, blood loss, complications, continence, potency, and margin rates. Although the data are immature to compare oncologic and functional outcomes to open prostatectomy, preliminary data are promising.Herein, we review the technique and outcomes of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP.

  13. Mechanisms of radical removal by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul


    It is well established from experiments in premixed, laminar flames, jet-stirred reactors, flow reactors, and batch reactors that SO2 acts to catalyze hydrogen atom removal at stoichiometric and reducing conditions. However, the commonly accepted mechanism for radical removal, SO2 + H(+M) reversi......It is well established from experiments in premixed, laminar flames, jet-stirred reactors, flow reactors, and batch reactors that SO2 acts to catalyze hydrogen atom removal at stoichiometric and reducing conditions. However, the commonly accepted mechanism for radical removal, SO2 + H...

  14. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Meglič


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second most common cancer in women up to 65 years of age is cervical cancer. Same cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological deseases worldwide.The standard procedure for cervical cancer treatment with FIGO stage including  IB2 is radical hysterectomy sec. Wertheim-Meigs-Novak with or without adnexa with radical pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. In the last two decades has with the development of laparoscopy also developed  laparoscopic radical hysterectomy .Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes dissection was performed for the first time by Nezhat with coworkers in 1989.Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphnode dissection in treatement of cervical cancer including FIGO stage IB1 is performed at Dep Ob/Gyn UKC Ljubljana since 2013. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the morbidity and safety of the procedure. MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with cervical cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical histerectomy with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphadenectomy from April 2013 to May 2016. Results34 patient were included, 32 patients with CC FIGO stage IB1, 1 patient with CC FIGO stage IB2, 1 patient with CC FIGO stage IIB.There were four (11,8% bladder lesions, all of them were corrected during the surgery, but no ureteral lesion! There was one (2,9% surgical revision right after the surgery due to assumption of bleeding (though there was no active bleeding found.Three patients (8,8% had permanent urinary dysfunction – retention. One patient (2,9% had dehiscence of vaginal vault after 4 months (after sexual intercourseThere was no ureterovaginal/vesicovaginl fistula after surgery! The mean operating time was 2 hours 55 min, mean admission time after surgery was 8,7 days, mean blood loss during operation was 291 ml. ConclusionsLaparoscopic radical hysterectomy is the method of choice in

  15. Competing with the radical right. Distances between the European radical right and other parties on typical radical right issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Lubbers, M.; Coffe, H.R.


    The popularity of European Radical Right Populist parties (RRPs) has led to investigations into the distances between RRPs’ and other parties’ stances regarding immigration. This article adds to this literature by investigating the distance between RRPs and the other parties on a wider variety of

  16. Competing with the radical right: Distances between the European radical right and other parties on typical radical right issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Lubbers, M.; Coffé, H.


    The popularity of European Radical Right Populist parties (RRPs) has led to investigations into the distances between RRPs' and other parties' stances regarding immigration. This article adds to this literature by investigating the distance between RRPs and the other parties on a wider variety of

  17. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  18. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-driven free radical modifications: copper- and carbonate radical anion-initiated protein radical chemistry. (United States)

    Ramirez, Dario C; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Corbett, Jean T; Deterding, Leesa J; Tomer, Kenneth B; Mason, Ronald P


    The understanding of the mechanism, oxidant(s) involved and how and what protein radicals are produced during the reaction of wild-type SOD1 (Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase) with H2O2 and their fate is incomplete, but a better understanding of the role of this reaction is needed. We have used immuno-spin trapping and MS analysis to study the protein oxidations driven by human (h) and bovine (b) SOD1 when reacting with H2O2 using HSA (human serum albumin) and mBH (mouse brain homogenate) as target models. In order to gain mechanistic information about this reaction, we considered both copper- and CO3(*-) (carbonate radical anion)-initiated protein oxidation. We chose experimental conditions that clearly separated SOD1-driven oxidation via CO(*-) from that initiated by copper released from the SOD1 active site. In the absence of (bi)carbonate, site-specific radical-mediated fragmentation is produced by SOD1 active-site copper. In the presence of (bi)carbonate and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) (to suppress copper chemistry), CO(*-) produced distinct radical sites in both SOD1 and HSA, which caused protein aggregation without causing protein fragmentation. The CO(*-) produced by the reaction of hSOD1 with H2O2 also produced distinctive DMPO (5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide) nitrone adduct-positive protein bands in the mBH. Finally, we propose a biochemical mechanism to explain CO(*-) production from CO2, enhanced protein radical formation and protection by (bi)carbonate against H2O2-induced fragmentation of the SOD1 active site. Our present study is important for establishing experimental conditions for studying the molecular mechanism and targets of oxidation during the reverse reaction of SOD1 with H2O2; these results are the first step in analysing the critical targets of SOD1-driven oxidation during pathological processes such as neuroinflammation.

  19. Three-dimensional porous metal-radical frameworks based on triphenylmethyl radicals. (United States)

    Datcu, Angela; Roques, Nans; Jubera, Véronique; Maspoch, Daniel; Fontrodona, Xavier; Wurst, Klaus; Imaz, Inhar; Mouchaham, Georges; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume


    Lanthanide coordination polymers {[Ln(PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O]·x H(2)O, y EtOH} [Ln=Tb (1), Gd (2), and Eu (3)] and {[Ln(αH-PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O]·x H(2)O, y EtOH} [Ln=Tb (1'), Gd (2'), and Eu (3')] have been prepared by reacting Ln(III) ions with tricarboxylate-perchlorotriphenylmethyl/methane ligands that have a radical (PTMTC(3-)) or closed-shell (αH-PTMTC(3-)) character, respectively. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal 3D architectures that combine helical 1D channels and a fairly rare (6,3) connectivity described with the (4(2).8)·(4(4).6(2).8(5).10(4)) Schäfli symbol. Such 3D architectures make these polymers porous solids upon departure of the non-coordinated guest-solvent molecules as confirmed by the XRD structure of the guest-free [Tb(PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O] and [Tb(αH-PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O] materials. Accessible voids represent 40% of the cell volume. Metal-centered luminescence was observed in Tb(III) and Eu(III) coordination polymers 1' and 3', although the Ln(III)-ion luminescence was quenched when radical ligands were involved. The magnetic properties of all these compounds were investigated, and the nature of the {Ln-radical} (in 1 and 2) and the {radical-radical} exchange interactions (in 3) were assessed by comparing the behaviors for the radical-based coordination polymers 1-3 with those of the compounds with the diamagnetic ligand set. Whilst antiferromagnetic {radical-radical} interactions were found in 3, ferromagnetic {Ln-radical} interactions propagated in the 3D architectures of 1 and 2. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan


    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  1. Quantification of Radicals Generated in a Sonicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Badmus


    Full Text Available The hydroxyl radical (OH• is a powerful oxidant produced as a consequence of cavitation in water. It can react nonspecifically in breaking down persistent organic pollutants in water into their mineral form. It can also recombine to form hydrogen peroxide which is very useful in water treatment. In this study, terephthalic acid (TA and potassium iodide dosimetry were used to quantify and investigate the behaviour of the generated OH radical in a laboratory scale sonicator. The 2-hydroxyl terephthalic acid (HTA formed during terephthalic acid dosimetry was determined by optical fibre spectrometer. The production rate of HTA served as a means of evaluating and characterizing the OH• generated over given time in a sonicator. The influence of sonicator power intensity, solution pH and irradiation time upon OH• generation were investigated. Approximately 2.2 ´ 10-9 M s-1 of OH radical was generated during the sonication process. The rate of generation of the OH radicals was established to be independent of the concentration of the initial reactant. Thus, the rate of generation of OH• can be predicted by zero order kinetics in a sonicator.

  2. Radical Feminism and the Subject of Writing. (United States)

    Rhodes, Jacqueline

    The radical feminists of the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as their online counterparts today, offer provocative examples of networked textuality, a discourse dependent on the constant and visible contextualization of self and writing within the discourses of hegemony. Given its potential use for liberatory writing pedagogies, it seems…

  3. Radical recombinations in acetylene-air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, P.J.Th.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    In this paper an analysis is given of the behaviour of excess radical concentrations, H, OH and O as a function of height above the reaction zone in premixed acetylene-air flames at 2–200° to 2400°K and 1 atmosphere pressure. The intensity was measured of the Li resonance line which is related to

  4. Neo-liberal Governing of 'Radicals'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse


    and intervention, and anti-discrimination. It aims to prevent radicalization by transforming, shaping, and disciplining illiberal and violence-prone “radicals” into active, liberal citizens. Prolonged fieldwork and in-depth interviews with seventeen Muslims from a targeted milieu reveal skepticism about...

  5. Short Communication Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Cassia arereh is traditionally used as a fish poison and to manage different disease conditions including gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders, infertility, diabetes, insect bite, and infections. Free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of chronic diseases; and many medicinal plants are ...

  6. Improving postoperative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipman, D.; Pieters, B. R.; de Reijke, Theo M.


    Prostate cancer has one of the highest incidences in the world, with good curative treatment options like radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, about 30% of the patients initially treated with curative intent will develop a recurrence and need adjuvant treatment. Five randomized

  7. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, phenolics, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Qualitatively screening for free radical scavenging compounds using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) was carried ...

  8. Albert Einstein: Radical Pacifist and Democrat (United States)

    Jayaraman, T.

    We draw attention here to the radical political grounding of Einstein's pacifism. We also drescribe some less commonly known aspects of his commitment to civil liberties, particularly in the context of the anti-l hysteria and anti-racism current in the United States of the late 1940s and 1950s. We also examine briefly his views on socialism.

  9. Radical Scavenging, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are self-supporting symbiotic association of mycobiont and photobiont. The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial, insecticidal and radical scavenging potential of methanol extract of two macrolichens viz. Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale and Dirinaria applanata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi.

  10. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis. (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe


    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  11. Pregnancy after radical trachelectomy: a real option?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boss, E.A.; Golde, R.J.T. van; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.


    INTRODUCTION: Radical trachelectomy is a surgical procedure for early-stage cervical carcinoma with preservation of the childbearing capacity. The current article presents a review of studies describing the results and complications of pregnancies after this procedure. METHODS: Sixteen studies were


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DFT) were applied to calculate the adiabatic ionization potential (IP), bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and other radical scavenging properties of antioxidant systems [5-11]. The ... scavenging processes of chain-breaking antioxidant (ArOH) [14, 15]. Both the mechanisms are significant for the scavenging activity of reactive ...

  13. Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the possible presence of anthraquinones, carbohydrates, deoxy-sugars, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. It can be concluded that pods of C. arereh may contain medicinally relevant constituents such as terpenoids and displayed strong radical scavenging activity, ...

  14. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)


    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the

  15. short communication synthesis, characterization and radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. All the synthesized ... conditions of the large bowel leading to impairment of intestinal functions [1-3]. The unknown ..... chloroaniline, p-anisidine and naphthylamine) were conjugated as inert carriers to the active.

  16. Radical production inside an acoustically driven microbubble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stricker, L.; Lohse, Detlef


    The chemical production of radicals inside acoustically driven bubbles is determined by the local temperature inside the bubbles and by their composition at collapse. By means of a previously validated ordinary differential equations (ODE) model [L. Stricker, A. Prosperetti, D. Lohse, Validation of

  17. Radical Negativity: Music Education for Social Justice (United States)

    McLaren, Peter


    According to Hedges (2010), the real enemies of the liberal class are radical thinkers such as Noam Chomsky and Ralph Nader, iconoclastic intellectuals who possess the moral autonomy to defy the power elite. While this author agrees with Hedges, he would take this argument even further. In this article, the author argues that the real enemy of…

  18. Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many diversions are available after radical cystectomy; the most attractive for the patients is orthotopic diversion due to better quality of life associated with this ... in two patients (4.5%), uretero enteric anastomotic stricture in two patients (4.5%), recurrent UTI was recorded in 10 cases (23%), uremia and dialysis in 9.2% of ...

  19. Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry for High Flux Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting Applications Using a Simple Optical Detection Method (United States)

    Xie, Boer; Sharp, Joshua S.


    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) by Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) is a powerful benchtop tool used to probe protein structure, interactions, and conformational changes in solution. However, the reproducibility of all HRPF techniques is limited by the ability to deliver a defined concentration of hydroxyl radicals to the protein. This ability is impacted by both the amount of radical generated and the presence of radical scavengers in solution. In order to compare HRPF data from sample to sample, a hydroxyl radical dosimeter is needed that can measure the effective concentration of radical that is delivered to the protein, after accounting for both differences in hydroxyl radical generation and non-analyte radical consumption. Here, we test three radical dosimeters (Alexa Fluor 488, terepthalic acid, and adenine) for their ability to quantitatively measure the effective radical dose under the high radical concentration conditions of FPOP. Adenine has a quantitative relationship between UV spectrophotometric response, effective hydroxyl radical dose delivered, and peptide and protein oxidation levels over the range of radical concentrations typically encountered in FPOP. The simplicity of an adenine-based dosimeter allows for convenient and flexible incorporation into FPOP applications, and the ability to accurately measure the delivered radical dose will enable reproducible and reliable FPOP across a variety of platforms and applications. PMID:26455423

  20. Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Sidney C.


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

  1. Radical cations of quadricyclane and norbornadiene in polar ZSM-5 matrices: Radical cation photochemical transformations without photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabas, M.V.; Trifunac, A.D.


    Radical cations of quadricyclane (Q) and norbornadiene (NBD) are produced by {gamma}-radiolysis in zeolites. In polar ZSM-5, only one radical cation is initially observed below 100K. Increasing the temperature above 200K gives rise to the cyclopentadiene radical cation. Higher temperatures (>360K) give rise to the cyclopenten-4-yl radical. The observation of cyclopentadiene radical cation implies the occurrence of the reverse Diels-Alder reaction. This is a thermally forbidden, photochemically allowed, process, which is made possible by the interaction of the polar zeolite matrix sites with parent NBD and Q radical cations.

  2. Evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of a series of synthetic hydroxychalcones towards the DPPH radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sixteen hydroxychalcones were synthesized in sufficient purity by the Claisen–Schmidt condensation between appropriate acetophenones and aromatic aldehydes. All the compounds were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. Important structure–activity relationships were observed that strongly contribute to the knowledge for the design of DPPH radical scavenging chalcones. Relevant theoretical parameters were computed in an attempt to understand and explain the obtained experimental results.

  3. Nitroxyl radicals remarkably enhanced the superoxide anion radical-induced chemiluminescence of Cypridina luciferin analogues. (United States)

    Takeshita, Keizo; Okazaki, Shoko; Itoda, Akiko


    Measuring the superoxide anion radical (superoxide) with high sensitivity is necessary to clarify the mechanisms of diseases for the development of methods for their prophylaxes, diagnoses, and therapies. The chemiluminescence technique using Cypridina luciferin analogues such as MCLA and CLA is currently the most sensitive method available. Using large concentrations of these reagents, however, leads to increases in background levels due to spontaneous luminescence of the reagent, which is a limitation of this method. This study demonstrated that the superoxide-induced chemiluminescence of MCLA or CLA was markedly enhanced by adding a cyclic nitroxyl radical to the reaction medium. When MCLA was measured spectrophotometrically, the nitroxyl radical was shown to increase the reaction rate of superoxide and MCLA without altering their stoichiometry, whereas consumption of the nitroxyl radical was negligible, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. These observations indicate that the nitroxyl radical catalytically enhanced the reaction between superoxide and MCLA, resulting in an enhancement in superoxide-dependent MCLA chemiluminescence. This method is applicable to biological systems such as superoxide-generation by neutrophils. The inclusion of the cyclic nitroxyl radical in a sample solution contributed to reductions in the concentration of the chemiluminescence reagent, thereby decreasing background levels. The catalytic mechanism was also discussed.

  4. Bithiophene radical cation: Resonance Raman spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grage, M.M.-L.; Keszthelyi, T.; Offersgaard, J.F.


    The resonance Raman spectrum of the photogenerated radical cation of bithiophene is reported. The bithiophene radical cation was produced via a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between excited bithiophene and the electron acceptor fumaronitrile in a room temperature acetonitrile solution a...

  5. Market Feedback and Team Commitment in Radical Product Innovation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Berchicci (Luca); C.L. Tucci (Christopher)


    textabstractPrevious research has considered how exploratory market learning processes moderate market and technological uncertainty in radical product development. Scholars argue that new product development (NPD) teams may increase the chances of success of radically new projects by acquiring,

  6. Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Annona squamosa (United States)

    Vikas, Biba; Akhil B, S; P, Remani; Sujathan, K


    Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts. The results showed that the four extracts of Annona squamosa showed significant reducing power in four extracts. The total phenolic contents in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and positive control were 0.64±0.17, 0.54±0.27, 0.49±0.24, 0.57±0.22 and 0.66±0.33. The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay of ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME and positive control, trolox showed 77.75±0.5,73.25±1.7,78.5± 1.2 , 80 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 94.2 ± 0.9 respectively. The (50 % scavenging activity) SA50 of ASPE and ASCH, ASEA and ASME was found to be 34.4 μg/ml, 43.8 μg/ml 34.7 μg/m and 28.8 μg/ml respectively by DPPH assay. The percentage of hydroxyl radical scavenging increased with the increasing concentration of the extracts. ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME showed superoxide radical scavenging activity, as indicated by their values 66 ± 0.5, 68 ± 1 ,63 ± 1 and 70 ± 0.5 μg/ml respectively compared to gallic acid which was 97 ± 0.5 μg/ml. The values for scavenging of nitric oxide for ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME were 91.0 ± 1.0, 66.75 ± 0.5, 71.75 ± 1.1 and 75.75 ± 1.15 μg/ml while value for standard ascorbic acid was 91.0 ± 1.0 μg/ml. The results revealed strong antioxidants in four extracts may lead to the development of potent

  7. Electron Transfer from Azide Radical to Histidine Generates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The formation of histidinyl radical (HR), which is a product of electron transfer reaction between histidine and some free radicals, was studied by pulse radiolysis. The reaction between histidine and azide radicals was found to produce HR, which has a distinct absorption spectrum with peaks at 300, 480 and 520 nm.

  8. Formation and behaviour of coal free radicals in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant changes in radical concentration and in the chemical nature of the coals are observed as pyrolysis temperature is increased. The implications of free radicals in coal liquefaction are examined. A gradual reduction in the number of free radicals over the temperature range (370 – 4200C) was observed in the liquid ...

  9. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R


    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several catego...

  10. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw


    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  11. Coming to Grips with Radical Social Constructivisms (United States)

    Phillips, D. C.

    This essay distinguishes two broad groups - psychological constructivists and social constructivists - but focusses upon the second of these, although it is stressed that there is great within group variation. More than half of the paper is devoted to general clearing of the ground, during which the reasons for the growing acrimony in the debates between social constructivists and their opponents are assessed, an important consequence of these debates for education is discussed, and an examination is carried out of the radical social constructivist tendency to make strong and exciting but untenable claims which are then backed away from (a tendency which is documented by a close reading of the early pages in Bloors classic book). The last portion of the essay focuses upon social constructivist accounts of the causes of belief in science - the more radical of which denegrate the role of warranting reasons, and which give an exalted place to quasi-anthropological or sociological studies of scientific communities.

  12. CCSDT study of the fluoroperoxyl radical, FOO (United States)

    Denis, Pablo A.; Ventura, Oscar N.


    The FOO radical was studied at the coupled-cluster (CC) theoretical level, employing both the perturbative calculation of the contribution of triple excitations, CCSD(T), and the exact evaluation, CCSDT. Two solutions were found, one of them with a large spin contamination. It is shown that spin contamination is a problem at the CCSD(T) level, while it is largely inmaterial at the complete CCSDT level. The full CCSDT level affords an FO distance of 1.632 ± 0.005 Å in reasonable agreement to experiment. The enthalpy of formation at the uncontaminated CCSDT level, Δ fH0298(FOO)=6.5±1 kcal/mol, is also in very good agreement with the experimental value of 6.24 ± 0.5 kcal/mol. Contrary to previous studies, CCSDT performs better than CCSD(T) in the calculation of the properties of this radical.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies


    Full Text Available Radical Islamism has become the “sexiest” issue in the international scholarship of religion since the September 11 tragedy in 2001. It has been associated with a number of terrorist attacks not only in the West but also in Muslim countries. Every single of radical Islamism has caught the interest of not only scholars and policy makers but also general public. Interestingly, the general assumption that religion is the source of peace has been seriously challenged, not by non-religious communities, but by the violent practices of particular religious groups, however small they are. Indeed, there are certain groups striving for Islam but by using acts which could give awful image on Islam itself and against humanity.

  14. Radical pancreatectomy: postoperative evaluation by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, J.P.; Balfe, D.M.; Picus, D.; Scharp, D.W.


    Twenty-four patients who had undergone radical pancreatic resection were evaluated by CT one week to 11 years after surgery. Eighteen patients had had the Whipple procedure; six had had total pancreatectomy. The region between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery, previously occupied by the uncinate process of the pancreas, is an important area to evaluate for tumor recurrence because periampullary tumors tend to metastasize to the lymph nodes in this region. Tumor recurrence here is readily detectable by CT since radical pancreatectomy leaves this area area free of soft tissue attenuation material. CT demonstrated postoperative complications or tumor recurrence in 16 of the 24 patients and was 100% accurate in patients who had follow-up.

  15. Electronic spectrum of 9-methylanthracenium radical cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connor, Gerard D.; Schmidt, Timothy W., E-mail: [School of Chemistry, UNSW Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Sanelli, Julian A.; Dryza, Vik; Bieske, Evan J. [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)


    The predissociation spectrum of the cold, argon-tagged, 9-methylanthracenium radical cation is reported from 8000 cm{sup −1} to 44 500 cm{sup −1}. The reported spectrum contains bands corresponding to at least eight electronic transitions ranging from the near infrared to the ultraviolet. These electronic transitions are assigned through comparison with ab initio energies and intensities. The infrared D{sub 1}←D{sub 0} transitions exhibit significant vibronic activity, which is assigned through comparison with TD-B3LYP excited state frequencies and intensities, as well as modelled vibronic interactions. Dissociation of 9-methylanthracenium is also observed at high visible-photon energies, resulting in the loss of either CH{sub 2} or CH{sub 3}. The relevance of these spectra, and the spectra of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon radical cations, to the largely unassigned diffuse interstellar bands, is discussed.

  16. Peace journalism and radical media ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Natalia Lukacovic


    Full Text Available The radical characteristics of peace journalism position it as a model that expands the current understandings of normative media theory. Peace journalism echoes the most innovative calls of media ethicists, such as the proposition of radical media ethics. This idea asserts the necessity to expand media ethics to better fit the globalized and democratized media landscape, which is enabled by contemporary new media technologies. Essentially a global shift, among professionals as well as regular citizen-communicators, should advance towards conflict sensitivity in order to transcend the culturally violent elements of covering conflicts. Similar efforts will bring numerous challenges, however, these efforts are tremendously worthwhile with their potential to assist the creation of more peace-prone global societies.

  17. Hydroxyl free radical production during torsional phacoemulsification. (United States)

    Aust, Steven D; Hebdon, Thomas; Humbert, Jordan; Dimalanta, Ramon


    To quantitate free radical generation during phacoemulsification using an ultrasonic phacoemulsification device that includes a torsional mode and evaluate tip designs specific to the torsional mode. Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Experiments were performed using the Infiniti Vision System and OZil handpiece. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the aspirated irrigation solution during torsional phacoemulsification were quantitated as nanomolar malondialdehyde (nM MDA) and determined spectrophotometrically using the deoxyribose assay. The mean free radical production during phacoemulsification with torsional modality at 100% amplitude was 30.1 nM MDA ± 5.1 (SD) using a 0.9 mm 45-degree Kelman tapered ABS tip. With other tip designs intended for use with the torsional modality, free radical production was further reduced when fitted with the 0.9 mm 45-degree Kelman mini-flared ABS tip (13.2 ± 5.6 nM MDA) or the 0.9 mm 45-degree OZil-12 mini-flared ABS tip (14.3 ± 6.7 nM MDA). Although the measurements resulting from the use of the latter 2 tips were not statistically significantly different (P ≈ .25), they were different from those of the tapered tip (P<.0001). The MDA concentration in the aspirated irrigation solution using the torsional modality was approximately one half that reported for the handpiece's longitudinal modality in a previous study using the same bent-tip design (Kelman tapered, P<.0001). The level of MDA was further reduced approximately one half with torsional-specific tips. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastric carcinoma: is radical gastrectomy worth while?


    Longmire, William P.


    Total gastrectomy as the treatment of choice for gastric carcinoma was evaluated by a number of centres during the decade 1945-55. The operative mortality was found to be higher, the 5-year survival rate was lower, and the undesirable digestive side effects were greater than those following subtotal resection. The very radical subtotal resections with miniature gastric remnants were also found to result in postgastrectomy symptoms quite similar to those of total gastrectomy. Technical refinem...

  19. Prison Radicalization: The New Extremist Training Grounds? (United States)


    Hezbollah, and other well known terrorist groups make efforts to weed out psychopaths and sociopaths in the recruiting process since they will often be...are differences that should be pointed out to illustrate how some sects can be more radical than others and subsequently offer a stronger appeal to...fundamentalist religion. Understanding the differences in fundamentalist forms of Islam is an inherent weakness in Western law enforcement and corrections

  20. Can the United States Defeat Radical Islam (United States)


    the establishment of, “a spiritual and practical change from the world of Jahiliyya.”23 He believed this could only be achieved by, “acknowledging...or expatriate communities, identify with Al Qaeda’s radical message and find a new source of spiritual commitment in it. Albert Bandura in his...ranging from the fairly centralized (the East Africa embassy bombings) to the more decentralized (the millennial plots)60 and with various degrees of

  1. Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy


    Abreu Sidney C.; Gill Inderbir S.


    PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss d...

  2. How Hume's Philosophy Informed Radical Behaviorism. (United States)

    Nuzzolilli, Andrew E; Diller, James W


    The present paper analyzes consistencies between the philosophical systems of David Hume and B. F. Skinner, focusing on their conceptualization of causality and attitudes about scientific behavior. The ideas that Hume initially advanced were further developed in Skinner's writings and shaped the behavior-analytic approach to scientific behavior. Tracing Skinner's logical antecedents allows for additional historical and philosophical clarity when examining the development of radical behaviorism.

  3. Preventing Radicalization and Discrimination in Aarhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toke Agershou


    Full Text Available Work in this area began as a pilot project in 2007. The aim of the project was to prevent the radicalization - political as well as religious - of young people thereby promoting safety and well-being. On the 1st of January 2011, the project, its operations and leadership were passed over to SSP Aarhus. (SSP is an alliance between Social Services, Schools and The Police

  4. Internet Radicalization: Actual Threat or Phantom Menace? (United States)


    Terrorism in the United States Database ; and Dudley Knox Library BOSUN search, and ProQuest, EBSCO, and JSTOR journal indices. The time parameter used was...selected by word-searching variations of the terms “Internet & radicalization & Islam” through research databases , news services, library indices and...were searched using, Google, Google Scholar Internet search engines; LexisNexis Academic news service; RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism

  5. Unstable Universalities: Poststructuralism and Radical Politics


    Newman, Saul


    Unstable universalities examines the theme of universality and its place in radical political theory. Saul Newman argues that both Marxist politics of class struggle and the postmodern politics of difference have reached their historical and political limits, and that what is needed is a new approach to universality, a new way of thinking about collective politics. \\ud \\ud By exploring various themes and ideas within poststructuralist and post-Marxist theory, the book develops a new and origi...

  6. Marxian-Radical Economics. A Heterodox Approach


    Ciote Cristina Steliana


    Marxism emerged from the confrontation between the German philosophy, classic English economics and the French socialism. It was a philosophy, a scientific method, a new vision of economics, an economic policy and an economic system alike. The Marxian economic strain of thought was assimilated not only by its advocates, but also by the critics of this radical current: in defence of capitalism, Keynes and Schumpeter both start from Marx’s work. Starting from the work of classic economists, Mar...

  7. Stable Organic Radicals in Lignin: A Review. (United States)

    Patil, Shradha V; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S


    Lignin and the quest for the origin of stable organic radicals in it have seen numerous developments. Although there have been various speculations over the years on the formation of these stable radicals, researchers have not been able to arrive at a solid, unequivocal hypothesis that applies to all treatments and types of lignin. The extreme complexity of lignin and its highly aromatic, cross-linked, branched, and rigid structure has made such efforts rather cumbersome. Since the early 1950s, researchers in this field have dedicated their efforts to the establishment of methods for the detection and determination of spin content, theoretical simulations, and reactions on model compounds and spin-trapping studies. Although a significant amount of published research is available on lignin or its model compounds and the reactive intermediates involved during various chemical treatments (pulping, bleaching, extractions, chemical modifications, etc.), the literature provides a limited view on the origin, nature, and stability of such radicals. Consequently, this review is focused on examining the origin of such species in lignin, factors affecting their presence, reactions involved in their formation, and methods for their detection. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Complications of Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan


    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy and orthotopic reconstruction significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in minimal invasive and robotic technology. In this review, we will discuss early and late complications, as well as describe efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality, with a focus on ileal orthotopic bladder substitute (OBS. We summarise efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality including enhanced recovery as well as early and late complications seen after radical cystectomy and OBS. Centralisation of complex cancer services in the UK has led to a fall in mortality and high volume institutions have a significantly lower rate of 30-day mortality compared to low volume institutions. Enhanced recovery pathways have resulted in shorter length of hospital stay and potentially a reduction in morbidity. Early complications of radical cystectomy occur as a direct result of the surgery itself while late complications, which can occur even after 10 years after surgery, are due to urinary diversion. OBS represents the ideal urinary diversion for patients without contraindications. However, all patients with OBS should have regular long term follow-up for oncological surveillance and to identify complications should they arise.

  9. Accurate Theoretical Thermochemistry for Fluoroethyl Radicals. (United States)

    Ganyecz, Ádám; Kállay, Mihály; Csontos, József


    An accurate coupled-cluster (CC) based model chemistry was applied to calculate reliable thermochemical quantities for hydrofluorocarbon derivatives including radicals 1-fluoroethyl (CH3-CHF), 1,1-difluoroethyl (CH3-CF2), 2-fluoroethyl (CH2F-CH2), 1,2-difluoroethyl (CH2F-CHF), 2,2-difluoroethyl (CHF2-CH2), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (CF3-CH2), 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl (CF3-CHF), and pentafluoroethyl (CF3-CF2). The model chemistry used contains iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations in CC theory, as well as scalar relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. To obtain heat of formation values with better than chemical accuracy perturbative quadruple excitations and scalar relativistic corrections were inevitable. Their contributions to the heats of formation steadily increase with the number of fluorine atoms in the radical reaching 10 kJ/mol for CF3-CF2. When discrepancies were found between the experimental and our values it was always possible to resolve the issue by recalculating the experimental result with currently recommended auxiliary data. For each radical studied here this study delivers the best heat of formation as well as entropy data.

  10. [Free radicals and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion]. (United States)

    Szijártó, Attila


    The critical importance of the ischemic-reperfusive injury is well documented with regards to numerous organs and clinical conditions. Oxygen free radicals play a central role in the mediation of the injury, which dominantly influences the prevalence of postoperative complications, (long term) organ damage, and the potential manifestation of systemic reactions. The both anatomically and pathophysiologically unique ischemic-reperfusive injury of the liver, which is expressively vulnerable to free radicals, is of utmost importance in liver surgery. Several techniques (adaptive maneuvers, chemical agents) are known to ameliorate the reperfusive injury. Based on the prior research of the workgroup of the author, the aim of the current article is to overview the set of measures capable of attenuating ischemic-reperfusive injury (ischemic preconditioning, -perconditioning, administration of adenosine, -inosine, -levosimendan, and -poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitor), with special attention to the ischemic-reperfusive injury of the liver, as well as the special pathophysiological role of free radicals in mediating hepatic damage.

  11. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia. (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang


    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Screening DPPH radical scavengers from Monascus sp]. (United States)

    Wu, G; Wu, X


    A strain belongs to Monascus sp. was separated from hongqu(Chinese beni-coji) which was used to brew red wine in Changxin county, Zhejiang province, and its DPPH radical scavenging metabolites were studied. Results showed that the yield and radical scavenging activity of neutral extract with EtOAc were higher than that of acid and basic extract. After shaken at 30 degrees C, 100 r/min for 5 days, this strain produced largest amount of neutral extract. Further partitioning the neutral fraction with silica gel column chromatograph, LH-20 column chromatograph, MPLC and HPLC, we screened 15 free radical scavengers whose yield was more than 2 mg and purity was higher than 85% in HPLC (260 nm absorption). Several of them were analyzed with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrum from which we concluded that B1-3 and C3-1-7 were two kinds of substitute of benzene, and C3-1-7 may be 3-OH-4-OCH3-benzoic acid. The scavenging activity of 40 mumol/L B1-3 was about 65%, and that of C3-1-7 was lower than 56%, while as the control the scavenging activity of 40 mumol/L Vc and Ve was 80.4% and 78.4% respectively.

  13. Radical production inside an acoustically driven microbubble. (United States)

    Stricker, Laura; Lohse, Detlef


    The chemical production of radicals inside acoustically driven bubbles is determined by the local temperature inside the bubbles and by their composition at collapse. By means of a previously validated ordinary differential equations (ODE) model [L. Stricker, A. Prosperetti, D. Lohse, Validation of an approximate model for the thermal behavior in acoustically driven bubbles, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130 (5) (2011) 3243-3251], based on boundary layer assumption for mass and heat transport, we study the influence of different parameters on the radical production. We perform different simulations by changing the driving frequency and pressure, the temperature of the surrounding liquid and the composition of the gas inside the bubbles. In agreement with the experimental conditions of new generation sonochemical reactors, where the bubbles undergo transient cavitation oscillations [D. F. Rivas, L. Stricker, A. Zijlstra, H. Gardeniers, D. Lohse, A. Prosperetti, Ultrasound artificially nucleated bubbles and their sonochemical radical production, Ultrason. Sonochem. 20 (1) (2013) 510-524], we mainly concentrate on the initial chemical transient and we suggest optimal working ranges for technological applications. The importance of the chemical composition at collapse is reflected in the model, including the role of entrapped water vapor. We in particular study the exothermal reactions taking place in H2 and O2 mixtures. At the exact stoichiometric mixture 2:1 the highest internal bubble temperatures are achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Orthographic Skills Important to Chinese Literacy Development: The Role of Radical Representation and Orthographic Memory of Radicals (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa


    A 3-year longitudinal study among 239 Chinese students in Grades 2-4 was conducted to investigate the relationships between orthographic skills (including positional and functional knowledge of semantic radicals and phonetic radicals, and orthographic memory of radicals) and Chinese literacy skills (word reading, word spelling, reading…

  15. What is Radical Behaviorism? A Review of Jay Moore's Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism (United States)

    Baum, William M


    B. F. Skinner founded both radical behaviorism and behavior analysis. His founding innovations included: a versatile preparation for studying behavior; explicating the generic nature of stimulus and response; a pragmatic criterion for defining behavioral units; response rate as a datum; the concept of stimulus control; the concept of verbal behavior; and explicating the explanatory power of contingencies. Besides these achievements, however, Skinner also made some mistakes. Subsequent developments in radical behaviorist thought have attempted to remedy these mistakes. Moore's book presents a “party line” version of radical behaviorism. It focuses narrowly on a few of Skinner's concepts (mostly mentalism and verbal behavior) and contains no criticism of his mistakes. In fact, Moore adds a few mistakes of his own manufacture; for example, he insists that the mental realm does not exist—an unprovable and distracting assertion. The book's portrayal of behavior analysis would have been current around 1960; it mentions almost none of the developments since then. It also includes almost no developments in radical behaviorism since Skinner. Moore's book would give an unwary reader a highly distorted picture of contemporary behavior analysis and radical behaviorism.

  16. Radical multimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar; Elsayed, Zeinab; Mohamed, Hadeer; Eltobgy, Mostafa


    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an almost always fatal tumour, for which palliative platinum-based chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. Multimodal therapeutic strategies incorporating surgery, radiation therapy or photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy have been recommended for selected patients but there is no consensus about their effectiveness. To assess the benefits and harms of radical multimodal treatment options (including radical surgery ± radical radiotherapy ± photodynamic therapy ± systemic therapy) compared to each other or to palliative treatments, for people with malignant pleural mesothelioma. We reviewed data from the Cochrane Lung Cancer group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and Embase. We also checked reference lists of primary original studies, review articles and relevant conference proceedings manually for further related articles up to 21 March 2017. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials of multimodal therapy for people with malignant pleural mesothelioma (stages I, II or III) that measured at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, health-related health-related quality of life, adverse events or progression-free survival. We considered studies regardless of language or publication status. Two review authors independently extracted relevant information on participant characteristics, interventions, study outcomes, and data on the outcomes for this review, as well as information on the design and methodology of the studies. Two review authors assessed the risk of bias in the included trials using pre-defined 'Risk of bias' domains. We assessed the methodological quality using GRADE. We conducted this review in accordance with the published Cochrane protocol. Two randomised clinical trials with 104 participants fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Both trials were at high risk of bias (for outcomes other than overall survival), and we rated

  17. Covalently Bound Nitroxyl Radicals in an Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Barbara K.; Braunecker, Wade A.; Bobela, David C.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Johnson, Justin C.


    A series of covalent organic framework (COF) structures is synthesized that possesses a tunable density of covalently bound nitroxyl radicals within the COF pores. The highest density of organic radicals produces an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that suggests the majority of radicals strongly interact with other radicals, whereas for smaller loadings the EPR signals indicate the radicals are primarily isolated but with restricted motion. The dielectric loss as determined from microwave absorption of the framework structures compared with an amorphous control suggests that free motion of the radicals is inhibited when more than 25% of available sites are occupied. The ability to tune the mode of radical interactions and the subsequent effect on redox, electrical, and optical characteristics in a porous framework may lead to a class of structures with properties ideal for photoelectrochemistry or energy storage.

  18. Free-radical carbonylation. Efficient trapping of carbon monoxide by carbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ilhyong; Kusano, Kazuya; Ogawa, Akiya; Kambe, Nobuaki; Sonoda, Noboru (Osaka Univ. (Japan))


    The authors examined the AIBN-induced radical reaction of n-octyl bromide (1) (Scheme 1) with Bu{sub 3}SnH under CO pressure in hope of trapping of carbon monoxide by octyl radical followed by hydrogen abstraction from tin hydride. When the reaction on a 0.5-mmol scale was conducted under CO pressure, using an autoclave with an inserted glass tube (5 mol % of AIBN, benzene (10 mL), 80{degree}C, 3 h), the desired aldehyde 2 was obtained together with n-octane (3), formed via simple reduction of 1. Surprisingly, this radical/CO trapping sequence proceeds even at 15 atm of CO pressure to give 2 in 38% yield (run 2). Generally, higher pressures of CO resulted in the increase of 2. These results demonstrate that the control of the relative concentrations of CO to tin hydride is an important factor to effect the CO trapping leading to aldehyde 2.

  19. Even free radicals should follow some rules: a guide to free radical research terminology and methodology. (United States)

    Forman, Henry Jay; Augusto, Ohara; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina; Dennery, Phyllis A; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Roberts, L Jackson; Vina, Jose; Davies, Kelvin J A


    Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative radiochemotherapy and radical surgery in comparison with radical surgery alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, C.; Schettler, D. (Klinik fuer Gesichts- und Kieferchirurgie der Universitaetsklinik Essen, Essen (Germany)); Bohndorf, W. (Strahlenklinik der Universitaetsklinik Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)) (and others)


    A multicentric, randomized study of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx has been undertaken by DOeSAK. The results after radical surgery alone have been compared with the results of combined preoperative radiochemotherapy followed by radical surgery. Patients with primary (biopsy proven) SCC of the oral cavity or the oropharynx with tumor nodes metastasis (TNM) stages T2-4, N0-3, M0 were included in the study. A total of 141 patients were treated by radical surgery alone, whereas 127 patients were treated by radical surgery preceded by preoperative radiochemotherapy. The pre-operative treatment consisted of conventionally fractioned irradiation on the primary and the regional lymph nodes with a total dose of 36 Gy (5 x 2 Gy per week) and low-dose cisplatin chemotherapy with 5 x 12.5 mg cisplatin per m[sup 2] of body surface during the first week of treatment. Radical surgery according to be DOeSAK definitions (DOeSAK, 1982) was performed after a delay of 10-14 days. During the follow-up period, 28.2% of all patients suffered from locoregional recurrence, and 27.2% of the patients died. The percentages were higher after radical surgery alone for locoregional recurrence (31% and 15.6%) and for death (28% and 18.6%). The life-table analysis showed improved survival rates of 4.5% after 1 year and 8.3% after 2 years in the group of patients treated with combined therapy. The demonstrated improvement appeared to be significant with the Gehan-Wilcoxon test as well as with the log rank test below a P value of 5%. (au) (29 refs.).

  1. O Behaviorismo Radical como filosofia da mente Radical Behaviorism as philosophy of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Lopes


    Full Text Available O Behaviorismo Radical de B. F. Skinner é constantemente acusado de eliminar a mente de sua explicação do comportamento humano. Uma análise do livro The Concept of Mind, de Gilbert Ryle, sugere a possibilidade de defender a existência de uma mente relacional, diferente da categoria de existência da mente defendida em interpretações cartesianas (mente substancial. A análise de alguns textos de Skinner sugere que o conceito de uma mente relacional também pode ser defendido no Behaviorismo Radical. Esse fato, culminaria na possibilidade de que, além de filosofia da Ciência do Comportamento, o Behaviorismo Radical, também pode ser uma filosofia da mente, o que traria conseqüências ao estudo e à aplicação da Análise do Comportamento.B. F. Skinner's Radical Behaviorism has been repeatedly accused of eliminating the mind from its explanation of human behavior. An analysis of Gilbert Ryle's book, The Concept of Mind, suggests the possibility of defending the existence of a relational mind, different from the category of existence of mind defended in Cartesian interpretations (substantial mind. The analysis of some texts of Skinner suggests that the concept of a relational mind can also be defended in Radical Behaviorism. This fact would lead to the possibility that, beyond a philosophy of Behavior Science, Radical Behaviorism may also be a philosophy of mind, which would bring consequences to the study and application of Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Diel peroxy radicals in a semi-industrial coastal area: nighttime formation of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández


    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured by a PeRCA (Peroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier instrument in the boundary layer during the DOMINO (Diel Oxidant Mechanisms In relation to Nitrogen Oxides campaign at a coastal, forested site influenced by urban-industrial emissions in southern Spain in late autumn. Total peroxy radicals (RO2* = HO2 + ΣRO2 generally showed a daylight maximum between 10 and 50 pptv at 13:00 UTC, with an average of 18 pptv over the 15 days of measurements. Emissions from the industrial area of Huelva often impacted the measurement site at night during the campaign. The processing of significant levels of anthropogenic organics leads to an intense nocturnal radical chemistry accompanied by formation of organic peroxy radicals at comparable levels to those of summer photochemical conditions with peak events up to 60–80 pptv. The RO2 production initiated by reactions of NO3 with organic trace gases was estimated to be significant, but not sufficient to account for the concentrations of RO2* observed in air masses carrying high pollutant loading. The nocturnal production of peroxy radicals in those periods seems therefore to be dominated by ozonolysis of volatile organic compounds, in particular alkenes of industrial petrochemical origin. RO2* diurnal variations were consistent with HO2 measurements available at the site. HO2/RO2* ratios generally varied between 0.3 and 0.6, though on some occasions this ratio was likely to have been affected by instrumental artifacts (overestimated HO2 associated with high RO2 loads.

  3. Structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion: does radical migration occur? (United States)

    Osburn, Sandra; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; O'Hair, Richard A J; Ryzhov, Victor


    The structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion were studied using ion-molecule reactions, infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The radical cation was generated by first nitrosylating the thiol of N-acetyl-cysteine followed by the homolytic cleavage of the S-NO bond in the gas phase. IRMPD spectroscopy coupled with DFT calculations revealed that for the radical cation the radical migrates from its initial position on the sulfur atom to the α-carbon position, which is 2.5 kJ mol(-1) lower in energy. The radical migration was confirmed by time-resolved ion-molecule reactions. These results are in contrast with our previous study on cysteine methyl ester radical cation (Osburn et al., Chem. Eur. J. 2011, 17, 873-879) and the study by Sinha et al. for cysteine radical cation (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2010, 12, 9794-9800) where the radical was found to stay on the sulfur atom as formed. A similar approach allowed us to form a hydrogen-deficient radical anion of N-acetyl-cysteine, (M - 2H)( •- ). IRMPD studies and ion-molecule reactions performed on the radical anion showed that the radical remains on the sulfur, which is the initial and more stable (by 63.6 kJ mol(-1)) position, and does not rearrange. © American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 2011


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Dramac Jiries


    Full Text Available In the vicinity of open space, some authors have called the “dark web” the perfect “breeding grounds” for generating conditions for seeds of extremism to thrive and grow. The perceived anonymity and vast information databases found here present a perfect incubator for terrorist activity. Academics and policymakers alike are as well convinced that such an open space filled with recruiter masterminds is perfectly adept at embracing the unadoptable, unconventional, or socially unfit into terrorist or jihadi organizations. Nevertheless, regardless of organizations, modernization and adoption of new technological methods in which one can obtain ideas and information, many individuals are still and to a great extent, influenced by face-to-face interactions. Intimate environments of a religious institution, somewhat of a home-like feeling in community gathering center, can equally impact a person, as can the internet and its vast informational influence. For the reason of contributing to understand the radicalization in the Global Village, this article will examine differences in online and in-person radicalization and illustrate it with some examples and attempt to make a comparison between two different exposures to information and its effects on young individuals.

  5. Isoprene, sulphoxy radical-anions and acidity (United States)

    Rudziński, K. J.; Gmachowski, L.; Kuznietsova, I.


    Transformation of isoprene coupled with autoxidation of SIV in aqueous solutions was studied experimentally and by chemical-kinetic modelling over broad range of solution acidities (pH=3-9) to complement the research on aqueous-phase and heterogeneous transformation of isoprene reported recently by many laboratories. Isoprene significantly slowed down the autoxidation in acidic and basic solutions, and accelerated it slightly in neutral solutions. Simultaneously, production of sulphate ions and formation of solution acidity were significantly reduced. Formation of sulphite and sulphate derivatives of isoprene - sulphurous acid mono-(2-methyl-4-oxo-but-2-enyl) ester (m/z=162.9), sulphurous acid mono-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl) ester (m/z=164.9), sulphuric acid mono-(2-methyl-4-oxo-but-2-enyl) ester (m/z=178.9), sulphuric acid mono-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl) ester (m/z=180.9) - was indicated by mass spectroscopic analysis of post-reaction mixtures. The results of experiments were explained by changes in a subtle quantitative balance of three superimposed processes whose rates depended in different manner on the acidity of reacting solutions - the scavenging of sulphoxy radicals by isoprene, the formation of sulphoxy radicals during further reactions of isoprene radicals, and the autoxidation of SIV itself. A chemical mechanism based on this idea was explored numerically to show good agreement with experimental data. Interaction of isoprene with sulphur(IV) species and oxygen can possibly result in formation of new organosulphate components of atmospheric aerosols and waters, and influence distribution of reactive sulphur and oxygen species in isoprene-emitting organisms exposed to SIV pollutants.

  6. Autoethnographic Mother-Writing: Advocating Radical Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Sotirin


    Full Text Available In considering the similarities between "momoirs"--popular memoirs written by mothers about motherhood experiences--and evocative autoethnographic mother-writing, I argue that differentiating these two forms of intimate observation and personal narrative requires a rethinking of autoethnographic practice. Specifically, I draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze to advocate for a radical specificity in autoethnographic writing. Thinking the autoethnographic narrative in terms of specificities and differences encourages us to think creatively about personal experiences and cultural relations beyond what is shared and communicable.

  7. Autoconhecimento e liberdade no behaviorismo radical


    Brandenburg,Olivia Justen; Weber,Lidia Natalia Dobrianskyj


    O presente artigo corresponde a um estudo teórico sobre o conceito do autoconhecimento e da liberdade no behaviorismo radical, com o objetivo de discutir a relação entre esses conceitos. Após a discussão sobre a definição do autoconhecimento e sobre sua origem social, a visão de Skinner sobre liberdade é abordada. A existência da liberdade depende do autoconhecimento, e esta é a ligação entre os dois termos. Conclui-se que ninguém pode se libertar do controle, mas com o autoconhecimento é pos...

  8. Superzoom. Italia y el compromiso radical


    Parga Prado, Marcos


    Italy: the new domestic landscape, la ambiciosa exposición que en 1972 tuvo lugar en el MoMA, supone la consagración y a la vez escenifica la muerte de lo que algunos críticos acababan de catalogar como Arquitectura Radical, término con el que intentaban unificar el trabajo de un heterogéneo y atomizado grupo de arquitectos, principalmente italianos, comprometidos con el replanteamiento total de la definición y objetivos de la disciplina. Se ponía fin así a un corto pero intenso periodo d...

  9. Free radical kinetics on irradiated fennel (United States)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi


    Herein, an electron spin resonance study on the behavior of organic radicals in fennel before and after irradiation is reported. The spectrum of irradiated fennel composed of the spectrum component derived from the un-irradiated sample (near g=2.005) and the spectra components derived from carbohydrates. The time decay of intensity spectral components was well explained by first-order kinetics with a variety of rate constants. Especially, the signal at near g=2.02 ascribed to stable cellulose-derivative components is expected to be a good indicator in the identification of irradiated plant samples.

  10. Dissociative Photoionization of the Elusive Vinoxy Radical. (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan D; Scrape, Preston G; Lee, Shih-Huang; Butler, Laurie J


    These experiments report the dissociative photoionization of vinoxy radicals to m/z = 15 and 29. In a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, we induce C-Cl bond fission in 2-chloroacetaldehyde by photoexcitation at 157 nm. Our velocity measurements, combined with conservation of angular momentum, show that 21% of the C-Cl photofission events form vinoxy radicals that are stable to subsequent dissociation to CH3 + CO or H + ketene. Photoionization of these stable vinoxy radicals, identified by their velocities, which are momentum-matched with the higher-kinetic-energy Cl atom photofragments, shows that the vinoxy radicals dissociatively photoionize to give signal at m/z = 15 and 29. We calibrated the partial photoionization cross section of vinoxy to CH3+ relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross section of the Cl atom at 13.68 eV to put the partial photoionization cross sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged partial cross sections are 0.63 and 1.3 Mb at 10.5 and 11.44 eV, respectively. These values are consistent with the upper limit to the cross section estimated from a study by Savee et al. on the O(3P) + propene bimolecular reaction. We note that the uncertainty in these values is primarily dependent on the signal attributed to C-Cl primary photofission in the m/z = 35 (Cl+) time-of-flight data. While the value is a rough estimate, the bandwidth-averaged partial photoionization cross section of vinoxy to HCO+ calculated from the signal at m/z = 29 at 11.53 eV is approximately half that of vinoxy to CH3+. We also present critical points on the potential energy surface of the vinoxy cation calculated at the G4//B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory to support the observation of dissociative ionization of vinoxy to both CH3+ and HCO+.

  11. The radical right and fundamental wrongs. (United States)

    Kohn, S


    Many seats in the US Congress, once held by Democrats, were lost to Republicans in the 1994 elections. In exchange for helping many of these Republicans garner their positions, extremely conservative organizations such as the Christian Coalition and Focus on the Family are now calling upon members of Congress to advance their agenda against family planning, contraception, sex education, and abortion. For the first time in forty years, extreme conservatives have the vote in the House of Representatives, and maybe the Senate, to pursue the goals of the Radical Right. Policies adopted during the 103rd Congress and at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development reaffirmed the importance of reproductive health and choice in improving human well-being and reducing population pressures. Moreover, almost 60% of all pregnancies and 80% of teen pregnancies in the US are unintended. Important congressional committees which oversee reproductive health initiatives are, however, now led by staunch anti-choice and anti-family planning lawmakers. Contrary to what should be done to best meet the reproductive health needs of men, women, and children in both the US and worldwide, these lawmakers are trying to drastically reduce the level and quality of reproductive health services. In accord with the goals and rhetoric of the Radical Right's Contract with the American Family, the House of Representatives approved a provision barring US population assistance to any organization which provides abortion services, reinstated abortion prohibitions enacted during the Reagan and Bush administrations, and passed a provision which prohibits US hospitals overseas from providing abortion services to women in the military, even if they pay for the procedure themselves. Congressional allies of the Radical Right have also developed legislation banning the late-term dilation and extraction abortion procedure used when the mother's life is in danger or a fetus is severely damaged

  12. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations (United States)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.


    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  13. NOx removal characteristics of corona radical shower with ammonia and methylamine radical injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urashima, K.; Ara, M.; Chang, J.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Uchida, Y. [Aichi Inst. of Technology, (Japan). Dept. of Engineering


    Air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) are the major cause of acid rain. There are different types of NOx and SOx conversion techniques such as wet scrubber, selective catalytic reactor, sorbent injection, and low NOx burner. Non-thermal plasma techniques have also been utilized in commercial plants, but the energy efficiency of the non-thermal plasma reactors have not yet been optimized. The direct plasma treatments of flue gases including, the electron beam, barrier discharge and pulsed corona reactors, may lose input energy to activate unwanted components of flue gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}). The corona discharge ammonia radical shower system has demonstrated significant NOx removal with higher energy efficiency for large bench scale and pilot plant tests for combustion exhausts. An experiment has also demonstrated that methane can replace ammonia as an injection gas with less NOx removal efficiency. This paper presented an experimental investigation that compared methylamine radical injection with traditional ammonia and methane radical injections. The paper discussed the bench scale test facilities and corona radical shower plasma reactor. It was concluded that the processes to form ammonium nitrate could be observed from trace white solid particles deposited on the reactor wall as observed by scanning electron microscopy pictures. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  14. Radical constructivism and radical constructedness: Luhmann's sociology of semantics, organizations, and self-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.


    Context: Using radical constructivism, society can be considered from the perspective of asking the question, "Who conceives of society?" In Luhmann’s social systems theory, this question itself is considered as a construct of the communication among reflexive agents. Problem: Structuration of

  15. European radicals and the 'Third World’: imagined solidarities and radical networks, 1958-1973

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildea, R.; Mark, J.; Pas, N.


    This article addresses the importance of Third Worldism/tiersmondisme as a source of inspiration for European radicals on both sides of the Iron Curtain 1958-73, focusing on the cases of France, the Netherlands and Hungary. Using both oral history and archival material, it considers the decline of

  16. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy of organic radicals spectroscopy of organic radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Gerson, Fabian


    ""This book should serve as a comprehensive one-volume source for finding what is known about the splitting constants and g factors of virtually all types of organic radicals."" Journal of the American Chemistry Society, 2004, Vol. 126 No. 20

  17. Transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: ascending technique. (United States)

    Rassweiler, J; Marrero, R; Hammady, A; Erdogru, T; Teber, D; Frede, T


    To demonstrate the operative steps of transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with the ascending approach (Heilbronn technique). The technique is based on our experience with more than 1000 cases of clinically localized prostate cancer from March 1999 to April 2004. The technical steps, instrumental requirements, patient data, complications, and reintervention rate were reviewed. The principles of the technique include the routine use of a voice-controlled robot (AESOP) for the camera, exposure of the prostatic apex with 120 degree retracting forceps, free-hand suturing for Santorini plexus control, application of 5-mm clips during the nerve-sparing technique, control of the prostatic pedicles by 12-mm Hem-o-Lock clips, the bladder neck-sparing technique in patients with stage T1c and T2a tumors, and use of interrupted sutures for the urethrovesical anastomosis. A considerable improvement was observed when comparing the first 300 with the most recent 300 cases (mean operating time 280 v 208 minutes; conversion rate 2.7% v 0.3%; reintervention rate 3.7% v 1.0%). Through our experience with more than 1000 cases, transperitoneal access for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has proven to be feasible and transferable with results comparable to those of the original open approach. Besides the well-known advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the video endoscopic approach may offer further benefits in permitting optimization of the technique by video assessment.

  18. Hydroxyl radical induced degradation of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illés, Erzsébet, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takács, Erzsébet [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Dombi, András [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gajda-Schrantz, Krisztina [Institute of Chemistry, Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Rácz, Gergely; Gonter, Katalin; Wojnárovits, László [Institute of Isotopes, Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)


    Pulse radiolysis experiments were used to characterize the intermediates formed from ibuprofen during electron beam irradiation in a solution of 0.1 mmol dm{sup −3}. For end product characterization {sup 60}Co γ-irradiation was used and the samples were evaluated either by taking their UV–vis spectra or by HPLC with UV or MS detection. The reactions of {sup ·}OH resulted in hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radical intermediates. The intermediates produced in further reactions hydroxylated the derivatives of ibuprofen as final products. The hydrated electron attacked the carboxyl group. Ibuprofen degradation is more efficient under oxidative conditions than under reductive conditions. The ecotoxicity of the solution was monitored by Daphnia magna standard microbiotest and Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria test. The toxic effect of the aerated ibuprofen solution first increased upon irradiation indicating a higher toxicity of the first degradation products, then decreased with increasing absorbed dose. Highlights: ► In hydroxyl radical attack on the ring mainly hydroxylated products form ► The hydrated electron attacks the carboxyl group. ► Oxidative conditions are more effective in ibuprofen decomposition than reductive. ► Ecotoxicity of ibuprofen solution first increases then decreases with irradiation.

  19. Nitrate radicals and biogenic volatile organic compounds ... (United States)

    Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of important uncertainties remain. These include an incomplete understanding of the rates, mechanisms, and organic aerosol yields for NO3-BVOC reactions, lack of constraints on the role of heterogeneous oxidative processes associated with the NO3 radical, the difficulty of characterizing the spatial distributions of BVOC and NO3 within the poorly mixed nocturnal atmosphere, and the challenge of constructing appropriate boundary layer schemes and non-photochemical mechanisms for use in state-of-the-art chemical transport and chemistry–climate models. This review is the result of a workshop of the same title held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2015. The first half of the review summarizes the current literature on NO3-BVOC chemistry, with a particular focus on recent advances in

  20. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin. (United States)

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A


    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EI igualitarismo radical de John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Zepeda, Jesús


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to offer an interpretation of the canonical statement of justice as fairness (A Theory of Justice as a deeply egalitarian, even radical, argument. In order to do so, the categories of justice as fairness strongly related to the egalitarian and distributive meaning of the rawlsian liberal model and, specifically, those aimed to solve the problem of social justice, are accurately revised, namely, the fair equality of opportunity and the difference principle. The paper evaluates the relative weight of each of these categories in the rawlsian argument for social and economic equality.

    El objetivo central de este texto es interpretar la enunciación canónica de la justicia como imparcialidad (la de Una Teoría de la Justicia como un argumento profundamente igualitarista, incluso radical. Para ello concede especial atención a las categorías de la justicia como imparcialidad que proporcionan las señas de identidad igualitaria a su modelo liberal y, en particular, a aquellas que pretenden ofrecer una solución a los problemas de la llamada justicia social como la justa igualdad de oportunidades y el principio de diferencia. El artículo evalúa el peso relativo de cada una de estas categorías en la construcción del argumento rawlsiano a favor de la igualdad social y económica.

  2. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr, Douglas Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The photodissociation of free radicals is studied in order to characterize the spectroscopy and dissociation dynamics of the dissociative electronic states in these species. To accomplish this, a novel method of radical production, based on the photodetachment of the corresponding negative ion, has been combined with a highly complementary form of photofragment translational spectroscopy. The optical spectroscopy of transitions to dissociative states is determined by monitoring the total photofragment yield as a function of dissociation photon energy. Branching ratios to various product channels, internal energy distributions of the fragments, bond dissociation energies, and the translational energy-dependent photofragment recoil angular distributions are then determined at selected excitation energies. A detailed picture of the dissociation dynamics can then be formulated, allowing insight concerning the interactions of potential energy surfaces involved in the dissociation. After an introduction to the concepts and techniques mentioned above, the experimental apparatus used in these experiments is described in detail. The basis and methods used in the treatment of data, especially in the dissociation dynamics experiments, are then put forward.

  3. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Gustavo A., E-mail: [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Gans, Bérenger [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, Bât 210, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tang, Xiaofeng [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ward, Michael; Batut, Sébastien [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nahon, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fittschen, Christa [PC2A, Université de Lille 1, UMR CNRS-USTL 8522, Cité Scientifique Bât. C11, F-59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Loison, Jean-Christophe [ISM, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)


    We present the threshold photoelectron spectroscopy of the imidogen radical (NH) recorded in the photon energy region up to 1 eV above its first ionization threshold. The radical was produced by reaction of NH{sub 3} and F in a microwave discharge flow-tube and photoionized using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. A double imaging coincidence spectrometer was used to record mass-selected spectra and avoid contributions from the byproducts present in the reactor and background gas. The energy region includes the ground X{sup +2}Π and first electronically excited a{sup +4}Σ{sup −} states of NH{sup +}. Strong adiabatic transitions and weak vibrational progressions up to v{sup +} = 2 are observed for both electronic states. The rotational profile seen in the origin band has been modeled using existing neutral and cationic spectroscopic constants leading to a precise determination of the adiabatic ionization energy at 13.480 ± 0.002 eV.

  4. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of radicals and clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, Taylor R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study free radicals and clusters. The low-lying 2Σ and 2π states of C2nH (n = 1--4) have been studied. The anion photoelectron spectra yielded electron affinities, term values, and vibrational frequencies for these combustion and astrophysically relevant species. Photoelectron angular distributions allowed the author to correctly assign the electronic symmetry of the ground and first excited states and to assess the degree of vibronic coupling in C2H and C4H. Other radicals studied include NCN and I3. The author was able to observe the low-lying singlet and triplet states of NCN for the first time. Measurement of the electron affinity of I3 revealed that it has a bound ground state and attachment of an argon atom to this moiety enabled him to resolve the symmetric stretching progression.

  5. Superoxide anion radical scavenging property of catecholamines. (United States)

    Kładna, Aleksandra; Berczyński, Paweł; Kruk, Irena; Michalska, Teresa; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y


    The direct effect of the four catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and isoproterenol) on superoxide anion radicals (O2•) was investigated. The reaction between 18-crown-6-ether and potassium superoxide in dimethylsulfoxide was used as a source of O2•. The reactivity of catecholamines with O2• was examined using chemiluminescence, reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping techniques. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide was included as the spin trap. The results showed that the four catecholamines were effective and efficient in inhibiting chemiluminescence accompanying the potassium superoxide/18-crown-6-ether system in a dose-dependent manner over the range 0.05-2 mM in the following order: adrenaline > noradrenaline > dopamine > isoproterenol, with, IC50 = 0.15 ± 0.02 mM 0.21 ± 0.03 mM, 0.27 ± 0.03 mM and 0.50 ± 0.04 mM, respectively. The catecholamines examined also exhibited a strong scavenging effect towards O2• when evaluated this property by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction (56-73% at 1 M concentration). A very similar capacity of O2• scavenging was monitored in the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping assay. The results suggest that catecholamines tested may involve a direct effect on scavenging O2- radicals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status. (United States)

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René


    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum.

  7. Hegel’s Gesture Towards Radical Cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Brincat


    Full Text Available This is a preliminary argument of a much larger research project inquiring into the relation betweenHegel’s philosophical system and the project of emancipation in Critical International Relations Theory. Specifically, the paper examines how Hegel’s theory of recognition gestures towards a form of radical cosmopolitanism in world politics to ensure the conditions of rational freedom for all humankind. Much of the paper is a ground-clearing exercise defining what is ‘living’ in Hegel’s thought for emancipatory approaches in world politics, to borrow from Croce’s now famous question. It focuses on Hegel’s unique concept of freedom which places recognition as central in the formation of self-consciousness and therefore as a key determinant in the conditions necessary forhuman freedom to emerge in political community. While further research is needed to ascertain the precise relationship between Hegel’s recognition theoretic, emancipation and cosmopolitanism, it is contended that the intersubjective basis of Hegel’s concept of freedom through recognition necessitates some form of radical cosmopolitanism that ensures successful processes of recognition between all peoples, the precise institutional form of which remains unspecified.

  8. Radical cystectomy: Analysis of postoperative course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Dimitrije


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Radical cystectomy is a method of choice in the therapy of infiltrative bladder cancer. The aim of this research was to analyze postoperative course after radical cystectomy (length of hospitalization, most frequent complications and utilization of antibiotics and transfusions. Methods. We analyzed the records of 82 patients operated on in the Department of Urology, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, in a three-year period. In order to aquire data World Health Organization (WHO has developed Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD methodology. Defined daily dose (DDD is the assumed average maintenance dose per day for a drug use for its main indication. Results. Continent urinary derivation was preformed in 23.15% cases. Postoperative complications occurred in 18.29% of patients. Average blood utilization was 2.19 units. Blood utilization for continent derivations (n = 48 was 4.6 units, and incontinent ones 3.36 units. Totally 159.33 DDD/100 bed days were used. Conclusion. When preforming continent derivation there is a significant increase in blood utilization. Frequency of postoperative complications correlates to those reported in the literature.

  9. Activation parameters for the recombination reaction of intramolecular radical pairs generated from the radical diffusion-inhibited HABI derivative. (United States)

    Hatano, Sayaka; Abe, Jiro


    Activation parameters were determined for the recombination of radical pairs arising from newly designed, photochromic, radical diffusion-restricted hexaarylbiimidazole (HABI) derivative. We have developed a new type of radical diffusion-inhibited HABI derivative, which contains two equivalent HABI units and yields a tetraradical with four equivalent 2,4,5-triphenylimidazolyl radical (TPIR) units by photoirradiation. This radical dimerization proceeds by a successive first-order reaction from the tetraradical to the parent molecule via a diradical. The rate constants of each reaction were determined from the decay profile of EPR signal intensities. The entropies of activation (DeltaS(double dagger)) for the first and the successive dimerization steps were estimated to be -178.5 and -205.5 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. Within the experimental temperature range, the radical dimerizations are entropy-controlled (-TDeltaS(double dagger) > DeltaH(double dagger)). The large negative DeltaS(double dagger) values imply a highly ordered transition state, indicating that the radical dimerizations occur when the TPIR units interact at a specific orientation. The present study demonstrates the availability of radical diffusion-inhibited HABI for the kinetic study of radical-radical reaction.

  10. Measurements of hydroxyl and hydroperoxy radicals during CalNex-LA: Model comparisons and radical budgets (United States)

    Griffith, S. M.; Hansen, R. F.; Dusanter, S.; Michoud, V.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; Veres, P. R.; Graus, M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J.; Young, C.; Washenfelder, R.; Brown, S. S.; Thalman, R.; Waxman, E.; Volkamer, R.; Tsai, C.; Stutz, J.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B.; Alvarez, S. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Mielke, L. H.; Osthoff, H. D.; Stevens, P. S.


    Measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2*) radical concentrations were made at the Pasadena ground site during the CalNex-LA 2010 campaign using the laser-induced fluorescence-fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique. The measured concentrations of OH and HO2* exhibited a distinct weekend effect, with higher radical concentrations observed on the weekends corresponding to lower levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The radical measurements were compared to results from a zero-dimensional model using the Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism-2 constrained by NOx and other measured trace gases. The chemical model overpredicted measured OH concentrations during the weekends by a factor of approximately 1.4 ± 0.3 (1σ), but the agreement was better during the weekdays (ratio of 1.0 ± 0.2). Model predicted HO2* concentrations underpredicted by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.2 on the weekends, while measured weekday concentrations were underpredicted by a factor of 3.0 ± 0.5. However, increasing the modeled OH reactivity to match the measured total OH reactivity improved the overall agreement for both OH and HO2* on all days. A radical budget analysis suggests that photolysis of carbonyls and formaldehyde together accounted for approximately 40% of radical initiation with photolysis of nitrous acid accounting for 30% at the measurement height and ozone photolysis contributing less than 20%. An analysis of the ozone production sensitivity reveals that during the week, ozone production was limited by volatile organic compounds throughout the day during the campaign but NOx limited during the afternoon on the weekends.

  11. [Radicalism and feminism: The case of Poulain de la Barre]. (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Frédérique


    Early modern radicalism and its criteria are described and defined by Jonathan Israel in various works. Poulain de la Barre, one of the first modern feminist thinkers, first is used by Israel as an example of the so-called radical Enlightenment and finally is rejected as such. This case study exhibed the necessity of questionning the coherence of the required criteria for defining a « radical » thinker, especially when examinating carefully the last paragraph of Spinoza's Political Treatise.

  12. Impact of competitive processes on controlled radical polymerization


    Ballard N.; Rusconi S.; Akhmatskaya E.; Sokolovski D.; de La Cal J.C.; Asua J.M.


    The kinetics of radical polymerization have been systematically studied for nearly a century and in general are well understood. However, in light of recent developments in controlled radical polymerization many kinetic anomalies have arisen. These unexpected results have been largely considered separate, and various, as yet inconclusive, debates as to the cause of these anomalies are ongoing. Herein we present a new theory on the cause of changes in kinetics under controlled radical polymeri...

  13. New reagents for detecting free radicals and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Barzegar Amiri Olia, Mina; Schiesser, Carl H; Taylor, Michelle K


    Free radicals and oxidative stress play important roles in the deterioration of materials, and free radicals are important intermediates in many biological processes. The ability to detect these reactive species is a key step on the road to their understanding and ultimate control. This short review highlights recent progress in the development of reagents for the detection of free radicals and reactive oxygen species with broad application to materials science as well as biology.

  14. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy: what the evidence really says

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David; Sønksen, Jens


    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy ( RP ) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue...

  15. [Failure to radical cure in Plasmodium vivax malaria]. (United States)

    García, Julián; Seijo, Agustín; Benchetrit, Andrés; Couto, Esteban; Echazarreta, Sofía; Lloveras, Susana; Orduna, Tomás


    Relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria is due to activation of dormant intrahepatic parasitic forms known as hypnozoits. Primaquine is the only available drug effective against hypnozoits and, alongside a schizonticidal drug, constitutes the radical treatment of malaria. Failure of radical treatment is frequently attributed to inadequate dosing, poor adherence, or reinfection. However, several cases of radical treatment failure without these factors have been reported, inferring that metabolic properties of the host or tolerance mechanisms of the parasite may be implied. A case of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax acquired in the Amazonic region, treated outside endemic area, with multiple relapses despite adequate radical treatment is described.

  16. Incontinence and Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Alivizatos


    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy remains the treatment of choice for localized prostate cancer in age-appropriate and health-appropriate men. Although cancer control is the most important aspect of a radical prostatectomy, minimization of postoperative morbidity, especially urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, is becoming a greater concern. We reviewed recent data available on Medline regarding the incidence, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of incontinence and sexual dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. Health-related quality of life issues have been specifically addressed. Although low incidences of incontinence and erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy have been reported in the hands of experienced surgeons, the literature review revealed a great variety, with incontinence rates ranging from 0.3–65.6% and potency rates ranging from 11–87%. Several factors contribute to this wide difference, the most important being the application of a meticulous surgical technique. General and cancer-specific health-related quality of life is not being affected after radical prostatectomy. The incidence of incontinence and erectile dysfunction is higher after radical prostatectomy when compared to the incidence observed when other therapies for localized prostate cancer are applied. However, the majority of the patients undergoing radical prostatectomy would vote for the operation again. Today, avoidance of major complications after radical prostatectomy depends mostly on a high-quality surgical technique. When incontinence or erectile dysfunction persists after radical prostatectomy, the majority of the treated patients can be managed effectively by various methods.

  17. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. II. Pyrolysis of the tropyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, Grant T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Porterfield, Jessica P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; Kostko, Oleg [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Troy, Tyler P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Ahmed, Musahid [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Robichaud, David J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Nimlos, Mark R. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Daily, John W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Combustion and Environmental Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427, USA; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA


    Cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical, C7H7, was cleanly produced in the gas-phase, entrained in He or Ne carrier gas, and subjected to a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from C7H7 were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the micro-reactor were roughly 200 Torr and residence times were approximately 100 us. Thermal cracking of tropyl radical begins at 1100 K and the products from pyrolysis of C7H7 are only acetylene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Tropyl radicals do not isomerize to benzyl radicals at reactor temperatures up to 1600 K. Heating samples of either cycloheptatriene or norbornadiene never produced tropyl (C7H7) radicals but rather only benzyl (C6H5CH2). The thermal decomposition of benzyl radicals has been reconsidered without participation of tropyl radicals. There are at least three distinct pathways for pyrolysis of benzyl radical: the Benson fragmentation, the methyl-phenyl radical, and the bridgehead norbornadienyl radical. These three pathways account for the majority of the products detected following pyrolysis of all of the isotopomers: C6H5CH2, C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2. Analysis of the temperature dependence for the pyrolysis of the isotopic species (C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2) suggests the Benson fragmentation and the norbornadienyl pathways open at reactor temperatures of 1300 K while the methyl-phenyl radical channel becomes active at slightly higher temperatures (1500 K).

  18. ESR study of free radicals in mango (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammad S.; Morishita, Norio; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei


    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes was performed. Mangoes in the fresh state were irradiated with γ-rays, lyophilized and then crushed into a powder. The ESR spectrum of the powder showed a strong main peak at g = 2.004 and a pair of peaks centered at the main peak. The main peak was detected from both flesh and skin specimens. This peak height gradually decreased during storage following irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose-response relationship even at 9 days post-irradiation. The side peaks therefore provide a useful means to define the irradiation of fresh mangoes.

  19. Spectroscopy, Kinetics, and Dynamics of Combustion Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, David J. [Research/Professor


    Spectroscopy, kinetics and dynamics of jet cooled hydrocarbon transients relevant to the DOE combustion mission have been explored, exploiting i) high resolution IR lasers, ii) slit discharge sources for formation of jet cooled radicals, and iii) high sensitivity detection with direct laser absorption methods and near the quantum shot noise limit. What makes this combination powerful is that such transients can be made under high concentrations and pressures characteristic of actual combustion conditions, and yet with the resulting species rapidly cooled (T ≈10-15K) in the slit supersonic expansion. Combined with the power of IR laser absorption methods, this provides novel access to spectral detection and study of many critical combustion species.

  20. Radical SBr: A challenge to spectroscopists? (United States)

    Ornellas, Fernando R.


    A theoretical description of the electronic states of the SBr radical at a high level of correlation effects treatment is presented for the first time. Most of its potential energy curves have a repulsive nature, but a set of bound Π2 states should provide a means for the experimental characterization of this species. The ground state can support over 40 vibrational states, but transitions from the 2Π2 state, with a very shallow well (four levels), should have intensities spread over a maximum around v″=10; lower vibrational levels can only be accessed for transitions from two high-lying Rydberg states. A whole set of spectroscopic constants, including vibrationally averaged spin-orbit coupling constants, and radiative transition probabilities and lifetimes quantify the theoretical description, thus supplying reliable results to guide the experimental investigation of this species.

  1. Semiconductor Photocatalysis for Chemoselective Radical Coupling Reactions. (United States)

    Kisch, Horst


    problem of quantitative comparisons of photocatalytic activities or apparent quantum yields and propose a basic three-step mechanistic model. Finally, we address the question whether or not the unique photoredox properties of simple inorganic semiconductor powders may lead to previously unknown visible light induced organic syntheses. For that, we summarize novel radical C-C- and C-N- couplings photocatalyzed by self-prepared cadmium sulfide powders. Electron acceptor and donor substrates like imines or 1,2-diazenes, and cyclic olefins or unsaturated ethers, respectively, undergo a linear addition reaction. The hitherto unknown products have all been isolated in good to moderate yields and may be of pharmaceutical interest. In the first reaction step photogenerated electron-hole pairs produce through proton-coupled electron transfer the corresponding radicals. Their subsequent chemoselective heterocoupling affords the products, correlating with an insertion of the imine or 1,2-diazene into an allylic C(sp 3 )-H bond of the donor substrate. In the absence of an imine or 1,2-diazene, cyclic allyl/enol ethers are dehydrodimerized under concomitant hydrogen evolution. Even a visible light photosulfoxidation of alkanes is catalyzed by titania. In these heterogeneous photoredox reactions the role of the semiconductor photocatalyst is multifunctional. It induces favorable substrate preorientations in the surface-solvent layer, it catalyzes proton-coupled interfacial electron transfer to and from substrates generating intermediate radicals, and it enables their subsequent chemoselective coupling in the surface-solvent interface. Different from molecular photosensitizers, which enable only one one-electron transfer with one single substrate, photoexcited semiconductors induce two concerted one-electron transfer reactions with two substrates. This is because the light generated electron-hole pairs are trapped at distinct surface sites and undergo proton-coupled interfacial electron


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena de Botton


    Full Text Available The understanding of the sexual-affective relationships has historically notbeen tackled by science, but placed in the context of instincts and irrationality. In thissense, the critical theory of the Radical Love provides a contribution to critical pedagogyallowing people to understand the mechanisms that direct their emotions and theprocess of election in the sexual-affective relationships. It is about understanding whodo we fall in love for, why and to which values is this desire linked being able to have agreat repercussion in our lives as it provides us with the tools to develop satisfactorysexual-affective relationships. It also offers us guidelines for a preventive educationregarding gender violence by enabling us to understand the attraction models in whichwe have been socialised and which are influencing our desire and elections.

  3. Azobenzene derivatives carrying a nitroxide radical. (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Shin'ichi; Fujino, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Satoko; Akutsu, Hiroki; Yamada, Jun-ichi; Gurman, Vladimir S; Kh Vorobiev, Andrey


    Several trans-azobenzene derivatives carrying a nitroxide (aminoxyl) radical (2a, 6a-12a) were prepared, and their photoisomerization reactions to the corresponding cis-isomers were investigated. Although no fruitful results could be obtained for the photoisomerizations of the derivatives with para-subsituents (9a-12a), the unsubstututed derivatives at the para-position (2a, 6a, 7a, 8a) were found to show photoisomerizations by irradiation to give the corresponding cis-isomers (2b, 6b, 7b, 8b), being isolated as relatively stable solid materials, and the change of the intermolecular magnetic interactions was apparently observed by the structural change for each photochromic couple.

  4. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel


    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm....... RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were included. OAI and UISS are experienced by 20-93% of RP patients at least a few times after surgery. Although these issues are associated to postoperative daytime incontinence, previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the only known predicting factor......, orgasm-associated pain (OAP), penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity. AIM: The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the above-mentioned side effects. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied in a thorough search of Medline, Web of science...

  5. [Early complications following open radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, M.A.; Gruschy, L.; Brasso, K.


    on developments over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review. RESULTS: Median age at surgery was 63 years with a significant increase from 61 to 64 during the 12-year-period. We found no change in clinical preoperative T-category, whereas the median pre-treatment PSA decreased significantly......INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomy has been offered as curative treatment for localized prostate cancer at Rigshospitalet since August 1995. We here report on postoperative complications in 719 patients operated during the 12-year-period from August 1995 to August 2007 with special emphasis....... This reflects increased surgical experience and an optimized postoperative course. Significant reductions in operating time, need for blood transfusions, and length of hospitalisation were recorded. One or more complications were registered in 164 patients (22.8%); severe complications occurred in eight...

  6. Development of the radical-stable Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) by blocking the radical attack. (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Kim, Han Sang; Kwon, Inchan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan


    Despite the potential use of peroxidases as industrial biocatalysts, their practical application is often impeded due to suicide inactivation by radicals generated in oxidative reactions. Using a peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus (CiP) as a model enzyme, we revealed a dominant factor for peroxidase inactivation during phenol oxidation, and we engineered radical-stable mutants by site-directed mutagenesis of an amino acid residue susceptible to modification by phenoxyl radical. Mass spectrometry analysis of inactivated CiP identified an adduct between F230 and a phenoxyl radical, and subsequently, the F230 residue was mutated to amino acids that resisted radical coupling. Of the F230 mutants, the F230A mutant showed the highest stability against radical inactivation, retaining 80% of its initial activity, while the wild-type protein was almost completely inactivated. The F230A mutant also exhibited a 16-fold higher turnover of the phenol substrate compared with the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the F230A mutant was stable during the oxidation of other phenolic compounds, including m-cresol and 3-methoxyphenol. No structural changes were observed by UV-vis and CD spectra of CiP after radical coupling, implying that the F230-phenol radical adduct inactivated CiP by blocking substrate access to the active site. Our novel strategy can be used to improve the stability of other peroxidases inactivated by radicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Radical treatment of invasive bladder cancer]. (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Darenkov, S P; Chernyshev, N V; Sokolov, A E; Gorilovskiĭ, M L; Akmatov, N A; Samsonov, Iu V


    We have conducted a retrospective analysis of radical cystectomy in 53 patients (45 males and 8 females, 85 and 15%, respectively) with invasive bladder cancer (BC) treated in the Research Institute of Urology in 1997-2002. Stages T2N0M0, pT3aN0M0, T3bN0M0, pT4aN0M0, pT4aN1-2M0 were in 4 (7.5%), 13 (25%), 21 (40%), 7 (12.5%), 8 (15%) cases, respectively. Well differentiated transitional cell BC (G1) was detected in 1 (2%) patient, moderately differentiated (G2) in 16 (30%) cases, poorly differentiated (G3) in 36 (68%) patients. The following methods of urine derivation were used: orthotopic plastic surgery (n = 3, 6%), ureterocutaneostomy (n = 4, 8%), Mainz pouch II operation (n = 16, 30%), Hassan operation (n = 5, 9%), Bricker procedure (n = 22, 44%), transureteroanastomosis (n = 3, 6%). In the postoperative period there was one lethal outcome, early complications in 5 (9%) patients, late complications in 9 (17%) patients. Distant metastases to the lungs, bones and iliac lymph nodes after treatment were detected in 3, 2 and 3 patients, respectively. One patient had a local pelvic recurrence. For 53 patients 2-year corrected survival was 68 +/- 12.0%. We have come to the conclusion that the only radical surgical treatment of invasive BC is cystectomy, limitations to which are connected only with complexity of subsequent urine derivation.

  8. Free Radical Timer of Aging: from Chemistry of Free Radicals to Systems Theory of Reliability. (United States)

    Koltover, Vitaly K


    There are two generally known concepts in biology of aging. Accordingly to the first one, there is a program of aging. The alternative concept advocates that aging proceeds stochastically. In this area of research, free radical-theory of aging, which was put forward by Denham Harman in fifties of XXth century, has determined the most heuristic line. The goal of this review is to demonstrate how the aging program and the aging stochastics are united on the basis of the systems theory of reliability. On this basis, universal features of aging, such as the exponential growth of mortality rate with time and correlation of longevity with the species-specific resting metabolism, are naturally explained. The stochastic malfunctions of the mitochondrial electron transport nanoreactors, which produce the oxygen anion-radicals (O2•-) as by-products of respiration, seem to be of first importance. As a reducing agent, O2•- affects the ratio of NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and, by changing the activity of sirtuins, slows down renewal of biomolecular constructs. As a consequence, the oxidative-stress products and other metabolic slag accumulate with the resulting impetus to autophagic or apoptotic cell death accompanied with age-associated clinical disorders. Based on this reliability-theory approach, one can estimate that the longevity of human brain could reach 250 years should the antioxidant defense against the free-radical failures be perfect. Thus, the free-radical redox timer serves as effective stochastic mechanism of realization of the programmed deficiency in reliability of biomolecular constructs.

  9. Novel anatomical identification of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: fascial-sparing radical prostatectomy


    Huri, Emre


    Radical prostatectomy (RP) became a first choice of treatment for prostate cancer after the advance in nerve-sparing techniques. However, the difficult technical details still involved in nerve-sparing RP (nsRP) can invite unwanted complications. Therefore, learning to recognize key anatomical features of the prostate and its surrounding structures is crucial to further improve RP efficacy. Although the anatomical relation between the pelvic nerves and pelvic fascias is still under investigat...

  10. Uma análise behaviorista radical dos sonhos A radical behaviorist analysis of the dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francynete Melo e Silva


    Full Text Available Embora não haja um consenso acerca de questões sobre o que são os sonhos, porque sonhamos, etc., a maioria dos estudos sobre a natureza dos sonhos concorda que ela está relacionada a condições internas do organismo. Contrariamente, o behaviorismo radical analisa os sonhos como comportamentos privados, sendo produtos das histórias filogenética, ontogenética e cultural. Neste sentido, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os sonhos a partir da perspectiva behaviorista radical, considerando-os como comportamentos perceptuais encobertos, argumentando-se que são aprendidos. Afirma-se que a interpretação dos sonhos é impossível se não se conhecem as contingências de reforço com as quais a pessoa está interagindo.In spite of the fact that there is no consensus concerning questions about the nature and origin of dreams, the majority of the studies on the nature of the dreams agrees that they are related to internal conditions of the organism. As opposed to that notion, the radical behaviorism analyses the dreams as private behaviors and, thus, as products of philogenetical, ontogenetical, and cultural histories. In this sense, this paper aims to analyze the dreams from a radical behaviorism perspective, considering them as private events, perceptual behaviors, and arguing that they are learned processes. It is asserted that the dreams interpretation is impossible if the contingencies that control such activity are unknown.

  11. Rate Constant of the Reaction between CH3O2Radicals and OH Radicals Revisited. (United States)

    Assaf, Emmanuel; Song, Bo; Tomas, Alexandre; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa


    The reaction between CH 3 O 2 and OH radicals has been studied in a laser photolysis cell using the reaction of F atoms with CH 4 and H 2 O for the simultaneous generation of both radicals, with F atoms generated through 248 nm photolysis of XeF 2 . An experimental setup combining cw-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) and high repetition rate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to a laser photolysis cell has been used. The absolute concentration of CH 3 O 2 was measured by cw-CRDS, while the relative concentration of OH(v = 0) radicals was determined by LIF. To remove dubiety from the quantification of CH 3 O 2 by cw-CRDS in the near-infrared, its absorption cross section has been determined at 7489.16 cm -1 using two different methods. A rate constant of k 1 = (1.60 ± 0.4) × 10 -10 cm 3 s -1 has been determined at 295 K, nearly a factor of 2 lower than an earlier determination from our group ((2.8 ± 1.4) × 10 -10 cm 3 s -1 ) using CH 3 I photolysis as a precursor. Quenching of electronically excited I atoms (from CH 3 I photolysis) in collision with OH(v = 0) is suspected to be responsible for a bias in the earlier, fast rate constant.

  12. Formation of Chlorotriophenoxy Radicals from Complete Series Reactions of Chlorotriophenols with H and OH Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu


    Full Text Available The chlorothiophenoxy radicals (CTPRs are key intermediate species in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes/thianthrenes (PCDT/TAs. In this work, the formation of CTPRs from the complete series reactions of 19 chlorothiophenol (CTP congeners with H and OH radicals were investigated theoretically by using the density functional theory (DFT method. The profiles of the potential energy surface were constructed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p level. The rate constants were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT contribution at 600–1200 K. The present study indicates that the structural parameters, thermal data, and rate constants as well as the formation potential of CTPRs from CTPs are strongly dominated by the chlorine substitution at the ortho-position of CTPs. Comparison with the study of formation of chlorophenoxy radicals (CPRs from chlorophenols (CPs clearly shows that the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by H is more efficient than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by H, whereas the thiophenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CTPs by OH is less impactful than the phenoxyl-hydrogen abstraction from CPs by OH. Reactions of CTPs with H can occur more readily than that of CTPs with OH, which is opposite to the reactivity comparison of CPs with H and OH.

  13. Radical oxidation of 17-functionalized 14alpha-hydroxy steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.A.; Zhabinskii, V.N.; Kotyatkina, A.I.; Fando, G.P.; Zhiburtovich, Y.Y.; Lyakhov, A.S.; Govorova, A.A.; Groen, M.B.; Louw, van der J.; Groot, de A.


    The radical oxidation of 14a-hydroxy steroids with various functional groups at C-17 was studied. Lead tetraacetate and ceric ammonium nitrate were used as oxidizing agents. It was shown that reactions of this type afforded complex mixtures of compounds. However, the radical oxidation of

  14. Fertility after conservative and radical surgery for tubal pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, BWJ; Matthijsse, HC; Tinga, DJ; Huynh, T; Hajenius, PJ; Ankum, WM; Bossuyt, PMM; van der Veen, F

    A retrospective cohort study was set up to evaluate the effectiveness of conservative and radical surgery for tubal pregnancy towards subsequent fertility. Consecutive patients undergoing conservative or radical surgery for tubal pregnancy between January 1990 and August 1993 in two university

  15. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.


    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  16. The Hope of Radical Education: A Conversation with Henry Giroux. (United States)

    Journal of Education, 1988


    Radical education is questioning institutions and assumptions about education. An interview presents ideas of the spokesperson, Henry Giroux. They include the following: (1) traditional thinkers have the wrong perception of education; (2) education should engender empowerment; (3) radical education goes beyond a Marxist perspective; and (4)…

  17. Radical Theatre in Contemporary Nigeria: A Review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of radical theatre in the world generally has taken different dimensions in other to achieve different results by different scholars. In Nigeria and most countries of the world, radical theatre is gradually been metamorphosed into community theatre or theatre for development. This paper is a review of the ...

  18. Enhancing production through optimisation of DPPH and radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with acetone showing the highest value of 105 mg g-1 dry matter for polyphenol content and 110 mg g-1 of dry matter for DPPH radical scavenging activity. Methanol had the lowest value (78 mg g-1 dry matter) for polyphenol extracts and 80 mg g-1 for the DPPH radical scavenging activity. The main extract compounds were ...

  19. Photodissociation and photoionization studies of the OH free radical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radenovi´c, Dragana C.


    In this PhD thesis photodissociation, photoionization and fluorescence emission of the hydroxyl (OH) free radical is studied. The hydroxyl radical, as in intermediate species in many chemical reactions, play a key role in astrophysics,atmospheric chemistry, combustion and many other chemical

  20. Radical Math: Creating Balance in an Unjust World, Conference Report (United States)

    Davidson, Jill


    Founded in 2006 by Jonathan Osler, Math and Community Organizing teacher at El Puente Academy for Peace and Justice, a public CES high school in Brooklyn, New York, Radical Math is an organization for educators working to integrate issues of political, economic, and social justice into math education. In April 2007, Radical Math cosponsored…

  1. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, Kent M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)


    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.

  2. Generation and propagation of radical reactions on proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    be propagated and transferred within protein structures. The emphasis of this article is primarily on the deleterious actions of radicals generated on proteins, and their mechanisms of action, rather than on enzymatic systems where radicals are deliberately formed as transient intermediates. The final section...

  3. Quenching of nucleotide-derived radicals by bisbenzimidazole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The pulse radiolysis technique has been employed to investigate the reaction of DNA-minor-groove ligand bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33258 with pyrimidine and purine nucleotide-derived radicals. Formation of an N-centred. Hoechst-33258 radical is observed. Bimolecular rate constants and the yields of.

  4. Photochemical generation, isomerization, and oxygenation of stilbene cation radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, F.D.; Bedell, A.M.; Dykstra, R.E.; Elbert, J.E. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)); Gould, I.R.; Farid, S. (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (USA))


    The cation radicals of cis- and trans-stilbene and several of their ring-substituted derivatives have been generated in solution directly by means of pulsed-laser-induced electron transfer to singlet cyanoanthracenes or indirectly via electron transfer from biphenyl to the singlet cyanoanthracene followed by secondary electron transfer from the stilbenes to the biphenyl cation radical. Transient absorption spectra of the cis- and trans-stilbene cation radicals generated by secondary electron transfer are similar to those previously obtained in 77 K matrices. Quantum yields for radical ion-pair cage escape have been measured for direct electron transfer from the stilbenes to three neutral and one charged singlet acceptor. These values increase as the ion-pair energy increases due to decreased rate constants for radical ion-pair return electron transfer, in accord with the predictions of Marcus theory for highly exergonic electron transfer. Cage-escape efficiencies are larger for trans- vs cis-stilbene cation radicals, possibly due to the greater extent of charge delocalization in the planar trans vs nonpolar cis cation radicals. Cage-escape stilbene cation radicals can initiate a concentration-dependent one way cis- {yields} trans-stilbene isomerization reaction.

  5. Analysis of Potential Radical Chemistry on Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Yanez, Maya Danielle; Hodyss, Robert; Cable, Morgan; Johnson, Paul


    Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) are of high interest following the New Horizons encounter with the Pluto system and the extended mission to 2014MU69. We aimed to clarify questions raised concerning the possible presence of organic radicals formed from photolysis on the surface of KBOs and other Trans-Neptunian Objects, and obtain laboratory spectra of these radicals for comparison to remote sensing data. We explored the photochemical generation of methyl radical from matrix-isolated CH3I in an attempt to create sufficient amounts of the methyl radical to obtain spectra in the near infrared. Both Ar and N2 matrices were studied, as well as varying guest:matrix ratios. Hydrogen lamp irradiation was found to be more effective than mercury lamp irradiation. The irradiation time was a significant factor when we switched matrices: methyl radical depleted rapidly in the N2 matrix with prolonged irradiation (~10 hours) whereas it survived for over 48 hours in some experiments with the Ar matrix. Reaction of the methyl radical with the N2 matrix to form HCN was observed. Future experiments will focus on alternate methods of radical generation in order to increase the yield of trapped radical.

  6. Biochemical Properties, In-Vitro Antimicrobial, and Free Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical Properties, In-Vitro Antimicrobial, and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of the Leaves of Annona muricata. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home ... N-hexane extract of the plant exhibited antioxidant property by scavenging DPPH radicals with IC50 of 342.44 μg/mL.

  7. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin


    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  8. Religion as Catalyst or Restraint of Radical Right Voting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Jaspers, E.; Lubbers, M.


    It is often found that religious people are underrepresented among the radical right electorate, despite radical right parties' claim of being defenders of the Judeo-Christian society. This study investigates this paradoxical finding and examines to what extent two dimensions of religion-practice

  9. Religion as catalyst or restraint of radical right voting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Jaspers, E.; Lubbers, M.


    It is often found that religious people are underrepresented among the radical right electorate, despite radical right parties' claim of being defenders of the Judeo-Christian society. This study investigates this paradoxical finding and examines to what extent two dimensions of religion - practice

  10. Influence of Free Radicals on the Intrinsic MRI Relaxation Properties. (United States)

    Tain, Rong-Wen; Scotti, Alessandro M; Li, Weiguo; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe; Cai, Kejia


    Free radicals are critical contributors in various conditions including normal aging, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and diabetes. Currently there is no non-invasive approach to image tissue free radicals based on endogenous contrast due to their extremely short lifetimes and low in vivo concentrations. In this study we aim at characterizing the influence of free radicals on the MRI relaxation properties. Phantoms containing free radicals were created by treating egg white with various H 2 O 2 concentrations and scanned on a 9.4 T MRI scanner at room temperature. T1 and T2 relaxation maps were generated from data acquired with an inversion recovery sequence with varied inversion times and a multi-echo spin echo sequence with varied echo times (TEs), respectively. Results demonstrated that free radicals express a strong shortening effect on T1, which was proportional to the H 2 O 2 concentration, and a relatively small reduction in T2 (free radicals was estimated to be in the pM range that is within the physiological range of in vivo free radical expression. In conclusion, the free radicals show a strong paramagnetic effect that may be utilized as an endogenous MRI contrast for its non-invasive in vivo imaging.

  11. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is a safe procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Hvarness, Helle


    We present our departmental experience with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and describe complications and early results for the first 239 consecutive patients.......We present our departmental experience with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and describe complications and early results for the first 239 consecutive patients....

  12. Teaching Methods in Nutrition: Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease. (United States)

    Janowiak, John J.

    This article presents a teaching methodology for free radical theory and discusses the role of antioxidants in human health. Free radicals are a normal byproduct of respiration, which allows the body to use oxygen, liberate energy, and dispose of harmful substances. The body's antioxidants and nutritional antioxidants quench most of the free…

  13. Metal-coordinated phenoxyl radicals: Models for the enzyme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In recent years, studies on metal coordinated phenoxyl radicals have gained importance due to their biochemical significance. Such radicals are involved in the action of various enzymes like galactose oxidase, ribonucleotide reductase etc. The present report deals with the synthesis and characterization of new ligand ...

  14. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl, nitric oxide radicals, play an important role in oxidative stress related to the pathogenesis of various important diseases. Active (or reactive) oxygen species and free radical-mediated reactions are involved in degenerative or ...

  15. Abdominal cerclage in twin pregnancy after radical surgical conization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyvernitakis, I.; Lotgering, F.K.; Arabin, B.


    Radical and repeated cone biopsies are associated with a high risk of spontaneous preterm birth. A 30-year-old gravida 1 presented with a spontaneous dichorionic twin pregnancy. She had a history of two radical surgical conizations. By speculum examination, no cervical tissue was detected. A

  16. Structural Approaches to Organising for Radical Innovation in Established Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm


    . Therefore, the usual recommendation to established firms with the goal of producing radical innovations is to develop them outside the firm itself. This paper questions this 'standard solution' and discusses alternative organizational approaches to producing radical innovation that avoid extreme forms...

  17. Roasting effects on phenolic content and free-radical scavenging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their mechanisms of action include scavenging reactive oxygen and decreasing localised oxygen concentration thereby reducing molecular oxygen's oxidation potential, metabolising lipid peroxides to non-radical products and chelating metal ions to prevent generation of free radicals in humans. The study aimed at ...

  18. Role of free radicals in pathogenesis of diabetes nephropathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the pathogenesis of diabetes nephropathy remains illusive, notwithstanding, free radicals seem to be the most favorable linkage between all the associated factors suggested. Consequently, free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidants have become commonly used terms in modern discussions of renal disease ...

  19. Theology and philosophy within Radical Orthodoxy (Milbank) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to show that, despite agreeing on some basic issues such as rejecting the dogma of the autonomy of reason and accepting that there is no territory independent of God, Radical Orthodoxy and Reformational Philosophy nonetheless differ. While both philosophy and theology, according to Radical Orthodoxy, ...

  20. Hydrogen polyoxides as components of peroxy radical condensates (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Isaikina, O. Ya; Lunin, V. V.


    The results of original studies dealing with methods of synthesis of low-temperature peroxy radical condensates, mainly composed of hydrogen tri- and tetroxides, hydrogen peroxide and water, are integrated and described systematically. The physicochemical properties of hydrogen tri- and tetroxides and the mechanisms of their formation as components of the peroxy radical condensates are considered. The bibliography includes 169 references.

  1. Radical versus Social Constructivism: Dilemma, Dialogue, and Defense (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar


    This paper aims to discuss epistemological and philosophical foundation of meaningful learning and teaching mathematics and science from the perspective of radical and social constructivism. I have reflected on my experiences of radical and social constructivism through dilemma, dialogue, and defense of my personal epistemology of learning. I went…

  2. DFT studies of ESR parameters for N-O centered radicals, N-alkoxyaminyl and aminoxyl radicals. (United States)

    Tanaka, Akio; Nakashima, Kouichi


    Theoretical calculations of ESR parameters for aminoxyl radicals have been widely studied using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. However, the isomer N-alkoxyaminyl radicals have been limitedly studied. With the use of experimental data for 46 N-alkoxyaminyl and 38 aminoxyl radicals, the isotropic (14)N hyperfine coupling constants (aN ) and g-factors have been theoretically estimated by several DFT calculations. The best calculation scheme of aN for N-alkoxyaminyl radicals was PCM/B3LYP/6-31 + + G(d,p) (R(2) = 0.9519, MAE = 0.034 mT), and that for aminoxyl radicals was PCM/BHandHLYP/6-31 + + G(3df,3pd) (R(2) = 0.9336, MAE = 0.057 mT). For aminoxyl radicals, the solvation models in calculations enhanced the accuracy of reproducibility. In contrast, for N-alkoxyaminyl radicals the calculations with solvation models provided no improvement. The differences in the best functionals between two types of radicals were thought to come from the contribution ratios of neutral and dipolar canonical structures in resonance forms. The aN for N-alkoxyaminyl radicals that were stabilized by small contribution of dipolar canonical structures could be precisely reproduced by B3LYP with only 20% HF exact exchange. In contrast, the aN for aminoxyl radicals stabilized by large contribution of dipolar canonical structures was well reproduced by BHandHLYP with 50% HF exchange. The best calculation scheme of g-factors was IEFPCM/B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) (R(2) = 0.9767, MAE = 0.0001) for not only aminoxyl but also N-alkoxyaminyl radicals. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Jet-Cooled Chlorofluorobenzyl Radicals: Spectroscopy and Mechanism (United States)

    Yoon, Young; Lee, Sang


    Whereas the benzyl radical, a prototypic aromatic free radical, has been the subject of numerous spectroscopic studies, halo-substituted benzyl radicals have received less attention, due to the difficulties associated with production of radicals from precursors. In particular, chloro-substituted benzyl radicals have been much less studied because of the weak visible emission intensity and weak C-Cl bond dissociation energy. The jet-cooled chlorofluorobenzyl radicals were generated in a technique of corona excited supersonic jet expansion using a pinhole-type glass nozzle for the vibronic assignments and measurements of electronic energies of the D_1 → D_0 transition. The 2,4-,2.5-, and 2.6- chlorofluorobenzyl radicals were generated by corona discharge of corresponding precursors, chlorofluorotoluenes seeded in a large amount of helium carrier gas. The vibronic emission spectra were recorded with a long-path monochromator in the visible region. The emission spectra show the vibronic bands originating from two types of benzyl-type radicals, chlorofluorobenzyl and fluorobenzyl benzyl radicals, in which fluorobenzyl radicals were obtained by displacement of Cl by H produced by dissociation of methyl C-H bond. From the analysis of the spectra observed, we could determine the electronic energies in D_1 → D_0 transition and vibrational mode frequencies at the D_0 state of chlorofluorobenzyl radicals, which show the origin band of the electronic transition to be shifted to red region, comparing with the parental benzyl radical. From the quantitative analysis of the red-shift, it has been found that the additivity rule can be applied to dihalo-substituted benzyl radicals. In this presentation, the dissociation process of precursors in corona discharge is discussed in terms of bond dissociation energy as well as the spectroscopic analysis of the radicals. C. S. Huh, Y. W. Yoon, and S. K. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 174306 (2012). Y. W. Huh, S. Y. Chae, and S. K. Lee, Chem

  4. Radical Islam in Xinjiang – Evolution and Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Suchanek


    Full Text Available The article analyses the evolution and the current state of radical Islam in China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Chinese government considers Islamic radicalism as a serious threat, in particular in the Xinjiang region, which borders on some states in Central Asia as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate roots and historical development of significant groups, in particular the East Turkestan Islamic Movement – ETIM. In its next part, the article deals with the contemporary situation as well as the cooperation between Uyghur radicals and other radical Islamic movements, in particular al-Qaeda and Taliban, and their activities. The article concludes that contemporary Uyghur Islamic radicalism cannot be considered as a major security threat, since the activities of these groups have largely shifted to Pakistan and rather have the nature of a propaganda war.

  5. Footprinting protein-DNA complexes using the hydroxyl radical. (United States)

    Jain, Swapan S; Tullius, Thomas D


    Hydroxyl radical footprinting has been widely used for studying the structure of DNA and DNA-protein complexes. The high reactivity and lack of base specificity of the hydroxyl radical makes it an excellent probe for high-resolution footprinting of DNA-protein complexes; this technique can provide structural detail that is not achievable using DNase I footprinting. Hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments can be carried out using readily available and inexpensive reagents and lab equipment. This method involves using the hydroxyl radical to cleave a nucleic acid molecule that is bound to a protein, followed by separating the cleavage products on a denaturing electrophoresis gel to identify the protein-binding sites on the nucleic acid molecule. We describe a protocol for hydroxyl radical footprinting of DNA-protein complexes, along with a troubleshooting guide, that allows researchers to obtain efficient cleavage of DNA in the presence and absence of proteins. This protocol can be completed in 2 d.

  6. Isotropic radical CO{sub 2}{sup -} in biological apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudko, V.V. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45, pr. Nauky, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)], E-mail:; Ishchenko, S.S.; Vorona, I.P.; Baran, N.P. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45, pr. Nauky, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)


    The isotropic CO{sub 2}{sup -} EPR spectrum at g{approx}2.0006 for {gamma}-irradiated powders of dental enamel annealed at different temperatures up to 320{sup 0}C is studied. The signal intensity is found to increase with the growth of annealing temperature up to 240{sup 0}C. This finding contradicts to the existing model of isotropic CO{sub 2}{sup -} radical in apatites. The possible models of the radical in biological apatite are analyzed and discussed. On the basis of the results obtained it is suggested that in tooth enamel apatite the isotropic CO{sub 2}{sup -} radical is the bulk radical localized in structural voids of hydroxyapatite lattice, which occur in the vicinity of a carbon radical in position B.

  7. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Dose


    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health.

  8. Homegrown religious radicalization and the quest for belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    this seemingly religious radicalization, from the point of view of the youngsters, by drawing on a study of young Muslims in religious communities in Copenhagen and combining it with existing blogs, twitter profiles etc. of youngsters sympathizing with Islamic radicalized movements. What are the youngsters...... seeking when they orientate themselves towards religious communities- and especially the radicalized forms of communities? What do they gain? And how are we to understand the power of community in this process? The social psychological process of radicalization will be discussed and a theoretical...... framework based on a focus on belonging, self-construction and the sense of community will be proposed. The framework will be utilized in an analysis of narratives from youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging...

  9. Origins and Development of Initiation of Free Radical Polymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Braun


    Full Text Available At present worldwide about 45% of the manufactured plastic materials and 40% of synthetic rubber are obtained by free radical polymerization processes. The first free radically synthesized polymers were produced between 1910 and 1930 by initiation with peroxy compounds. In the 1940s the polymerization by redox processes was found independently and simultaneously at IG Farben in Germany and ICI in Great Britain. In the 1950s the systematic investigation of azo compounds as free radical initiators followed. Compounds with labile C–C-bonds were investigated as initiators only in the period from the end of the 1960s until the early 1980s. At about the same time, iniferters with cleavable S–S-bonds were studied in detail. Both these initiator classes can be designated as predecessors for “living” or controlled free radical polymerizations with nitroxyl-mediated polymerizations, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer processes (RAFT, and atom transfer radical polymerizations (ATRP.

  10. [Free radical scavenging agents in myocardial protection during cardiac surgery]. (United States)

    Menasche, P; Grousset, C; Gauduel, Y; Mouas, C; Piwnica, A


    Oxygen free radicals are very unstable metabolites which are produced in abundant quantity during the reoxygenation of an ischemic organ. Oxidation, by these radicals, of the structural lipids of the membranes, is at the origin of cellular lesions all the more extensive as the ischemia, by itself, decreases the ischemic tissue content in "trapping" molecules which usually inactivate those free radicals. Thus, was introduced the concept of an exogenous supply of trappers intended to bring under control the production of radicals and consequently preserve the membrane integrity in the revascularized tissue. This review summarizes, in light of our experience, the results obtained with free radicals trappers in the scope of myocardial preservation, especially in cardiac surgery, and analyzes some of the problems that remain to be resolved before considering the clinical use of these trappers.

  11. Kinetics of phycocyanine bilin groups destruction by peroxyl radicals. (United States)

    Lissi, E A; Pizarro, M; Aspee, A; Romay, C


    Bilin groups in c-phycocyanine are readily bleached by peroxyl radicals produced in the thermolysis of 2, 2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane). From an evaluation of the bilin groups destroyed per radical that interacts with the protein, it is concluded that the bilin moiety is the main target of the radicals. Kinetic expressions are derived that allows an estimation of the substrate reactivity from the analysis of the rate of bilin group modification as a function of the protein concentration. From this analysis it is concluded that micromolar concentrations of c-phycocyanine are able to reduce the steady state concentration of the peroxyl radicals by one half, indicating a high antioxidant activity for this compound. This conclusion is confirmed by measuring the capacity of the protein to protect 1-naphthol from modification by peroxyl radicals. The results obtained show that the bilin groups have, on a molar basis, an antioxidant activity similar to that of potent antioxidants such as catechin.

  12. Alkyl Radicals as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors: Computational Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Steen


    Spectroscopic, energetic and structural information obtained by DFT and G3-type computational studies demonstrates that charged proton donors can form moderately strong hydrogen bonds to simple alkyl radicals. The presence of these bonds stabilizes the adducts and modifies their structure......, and gives rise to pronounced shifts of IR stretching frequencies and to increased absorption intensities. The hydrogen bond acceptor properties of alkyl radicals equal those of many conventional acceptors, e.g., the bond length changes and IR red-shifts suggest that tert-butyl radicals are slightly better...... acceptors than formaldehyde molecules, while propyl radicals are as good as H2O. The hydrogen bond strength appears to depend on the proton affinity of the proton donor and on the ionization energy of the acceptor alkyl radical, not on the donor-acceptor proton affinity difference, reflecting...

  13. Exchange of organic radicals with organo-cobalt complexes formed in the living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; de Bruin, B.; Peng, C.-H.; Fryd, M.; Wayland, B.B.


    Exchange of organic radicals between solution and organo-cobalt complexes is experimentally observed and the reaction pathway is probed through DFT calculations. Cyanoisopropyl radicals from AIBN (2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile) enter solutions of cobalt(II) tetramesityl porphyrin ((TMP)Co-II center

  14. Structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion: does radical migration occur?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; O'Hair, R.A.J.; Ryzhov, V.


    The structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion were studied using ion-molecule reactions, infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The radical cation was generated by first nitrosylating the thiol of

  15. Structure and Reactivity of the N-Acetyl-Cysteine Radical Cation and Anion: Does Radical Migration Occur?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; O' Hair, R. A. J.; Ryzhov, V.


    The structure and reactivity of the N-acetyl-cysteine radical cation and anion were studied using ion-molecule reactions, infrared multi-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The radical cation was generated by first nitrosylating the thiol of

  16. Radically Different Kinetics at Low Temperatures (United States)

    Sims, Ian


    The use of the CRESU (Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme, or Reaction Kinetics in Uniform Supersonic Flow) technique coupled with pulsed laser photochemical kinetics methods has shown that reactions involving radicals can be very rapid at temperatures down to 10 K or below. The results have had a major impact in astrochemistry and planetology, as well as proving an exacting test for theory. The technique has also been applied to the formation of transient complexes of interest both in atmospheric chemistry and combustion. Until now, all of the chemical reactions studied in this way have taken place on attractive potential energy surfaces with no overall barrier to reaction. The F + H2 {→} HF + H reaction does possess a substantial energetic barrier ({\\cong} 800 K), and might therefore be expected to slow to a negligible rate at very low temperatures. In fact, this H-atom abstraction reaction does take place efficiently at low temperatures due entirely to tunneling. I will report direct experimental measurements of the rate of this reaction down to a temperature of 11 K, in remarkable agreement with state-of-the-art quantum reactive scattering calculations by François Lique (Université du Havre) and Millard Alexander (University of Maryland). It is thought that long chain cyanopolyyne molecules H(C2)nCN may play an important role in the formation of the orange haze layer in Titan's atmosphere. The longest carbon chain molecule observed in interstellar space, HC11N, is also a member of this series. I will present new results, obtained in collaboration with Jean-Claude Guillemin (Ecole de Chimie de Rennes) and Stephen Klippenstein (Argonne National Labs), on reactions of C2H, CN and C3N radicals (using a new LIF scheme by Hoshina and Endo which contribute to the low temperature formation of (cyano)polyynes. H. Sabbah, L. Biennier, I. R. Sims, Y. Georgievskii, S. J. Klippenstein, I. W. M. Smith, Science 317, 102 (2007). S. D. Le Picard, M


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pavlov


    Full Text Available According to the data obtained by Russian and foreign investigators, the major complication after radical prostatectomy (RPE is urinaryincontinence that is recorded in 20-30% of cases.Objective. To improve the results of surgical treatment in patients with prostate cancer, by developing and introducing a well-rounded post-operative rehabilitation program.Subjects and methods. Seventy-four patients who were treated at the urology clinic, Bashkir State Medical University, and underwent RPEin 2005 to 2007 have been examined; 27 of them were diagnosed as having urinary incontinence (UI. After discharge from the clinic, acontrol group received rehabilitative treatment at the sanatorium “Krasnousolsk” of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Results and discussion. Therapeutic exercises and pelvic floor electrostimulation halve the number of day urinations and paddings used inpatients with UI, by increasing the bladder capacity from 138.2±12.7 to 196±11.2 ml and improving the trophism of the bladder neck andurethra in the sphincteral area. 

  18. Process Improvement in a Radically Changing Organization (United States)

    Varga, Denise M.; Wilson, Barbara M.


    This presentation describes how the NASA Glenn Research Center planned and implemented a process improvement effort in response to a radically changing environment. As a result of a presidential decision to redefine the Agency's mission, many ongoing projects were canceled and future workload would be awarded based on relevance to the Exploration Initiative. NASA imposed a new Procedural Requirements standard on all future software development, and the Center needed to redesign its processes from CMM Level 2 objectives to meet the new standard and position itself for CMMI. The intended audience for this presentation is systems/software developers and managers in a large, research-oriented organization that may need to respond to imposed standards while also pursuing CMMI Maturity Level goals. A set of internally developed tools will be presented, including an overall Process Improvement Action Item database, a formal inspection/peer review tool, metrics collection spreadsheet, and other related technologies. The Center also found a need to charter Technical Working Groups (TWGs) to address particular Process Areas. In addition, a Marketing TWG was needed to communicate the process changes to the development community, including an innovative web site portal.

  19. Hydroxyl radical formation during peroxynitrous acid decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, J.W.; Hurst, J.K.; Lymar, S.V.


    Yields of O{sub 2} formed during decomposition of peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) under widely varying medium conditions are compared to predictions based upon the assumption that the reaction involves formation of discrete {sm{underscore}bullet}OH and {sm{underscore}bullet}NO{sub 2} radicals as oxidizing intermediates. The kinetic model used includes all reactions of {sm{underscore}bullet}OH, {sm{underscore}bullet}O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and reactive nitrogen species known to be important under the prevailing conditions; because the rate constants for all of these reactions have been independently measured, the calculations contain no adjustable fitting parameters. The model quantitatively accounts for (1) the complex pH dependence of the O{sub 2} yields and (2) the unusual effects of NO{sub 2} {sup {minus}}, which inhibits O{sub 2} formation in neutral, but not alkaline, solutions and also reverses inhibition by organic {sm{underscore}bullet}OH scavengers in alkaline media. Other observations, including quenching of O{sub 2} yields by ferrocyanide and bicarbonate, the pressure dependence of the decomposition rate, and the reported dynamic behavior for O{sub 2} generation in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, also appear to be in accord with the suggested mechanism. Overall, the close correspondence between observed and calculated O{sub 2} yields provides strong support for decomposition via homolysis of the ONOOH peroxo bond.

  20. Radical prostatectomies in Austria, 1997–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatzl Georg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of PSA testing in Austria led to a steep increase of the incidence of prostate cancer. We want to present the course of the number of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer in Austria since 1997, and set these numbers in relation to the total of radical prostatectomies (with resection of lymph nodes in the same time period. All numbers were retrieved from health statistics of Statistics Austria. The report period of cancer cases and of RPE comprises the years 1997–2004. All calculations were performed for totals as well as for 5-year age groups (40–89 years of age. Findings The number of prostate cancer cases rose from 1997 to 2004 by 35%, while the number of RPE rose by 94% in the same time period. The proportion of RPE in relation to new cases rose from 41% in 1997 to 59% in 2004. Conclusion A slight decrease of prostate cancer mortality can already be observed in Austria, but the question of over-treatment still awaits analysis.

  1. The Jacobson radical of group algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Karpilovsky, G


    Let G be a finite group and let F be a field. It is well known that linear representations of G over F can be interpreted as modules over the group algebra FG. Thus the investigation of ring-theoretic structure of the Jacobson radical J(FG) of FG is of fundamental importance. During the last two decades the subject has been pursued by a number of researchers and many interesting results have been obtained. This volume examines these results.The main body of the theory is presented, giving the central ideas, the basic results and the fundamental methods. It is assumed that the reader has had the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course, thus familiarity with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts and an understanding of elementary properties of modules, tensor products and fields. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, providing a survey of topics needed later in the book. There is a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or of...

  2. Radical Cations and Acid Protection during Radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zarzana, Christopher A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mezyk, Stephen P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Ligand molecules for used nuclear fuel separation schemes are exposed to high radiation fields and high concentrations of acid. Thus, an understanding of the complex interactions between extraction ligands, diluent, and acid is critical to understanding the performance of a separation process. The diglycolamides are ligands with important structural similarities to CMPO; however, previous work has shown that their radiolytic degradation has important mechanistic differences from CMPO. The DGAs do not enjoy radioprotection by HNO3 and the kinetics of DGA radiolytic degradation are different. CMPO degrades with pseudo-zero-order kinetics in linear fashion with absorbed dose while the DGAs degrade in pseudo-first-order, exponential fashion. This suggests that the DGAs degrade by simple reaction with some product of direct diluent radiolysis, while CMPO degradation is probably multi-step, with a slow step that is not dependent on the CMPO concentration, and mitigated by HNO3. It is thus believed that radio-protection and the zero-order radiolytic degradation kinetics are related, and that these phenomena are a function of either the formation of strong acid complexes with CMPO and/or to the presence of the CMPO phenyl ring. Experiments to test both these hypotheses have been designed and partially conducted. This report summarizes findings related to these phenomena for FY16, in satisfaction of milestone M3FT-16IN030104053. It also reports continued kinetic measurements for the reactions of the dodecane radical cation with solvent extraction ligands.

  3. The Electronic Dissertation: A less radical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Costopoulos


    Full Text Available Cornelius Holtorf's article in Internet Archaeology, Issue 6 (1999 is a strident call for a radical application of hypermedia techniques to archaeological publishing. Like Holtorf, I recently produced and submitted a Ph.D. dissertation on electronic medium entitled Simulation and Modelling for Anthropological Archaeology (Costopoulos, 1999. My experience of the process, however, was quite different from Holtorf's. While his work concentrates on the hypertextuality of electronic media, mine tends to show the advantages of mass storage and easy access which are inherent to the media. My dissertation is a quite traditionally linear text which is intended to be read sequentially. My effort points, however, to the possibility of including non-textual documents and massive amounts of raw data in an academic publication. I was able to include in my dissertation a working version of my simulation as well as 150 000 pages of simulated data on which the analysis was based. These would clearly have had to be left out of a strictly paper document. In response to Holtorf, I am offering up a short account of the production and submission of my CD dissertation, concentrating on the differences and similarities between the processes we experienced as well as the approaches we used. I plan to present electronic publishing as a natural development of the communication of scientific results rather than as a hypertext revolution.

  4. Learning curve for radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. A. Saito


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The learning curve is a period in which the surgical procedure is performed with difficulty and slowness, leading to a higher risk of complications and reduced effectiveness due the surgeon's inexperience. We sought to analyze the residents' learning curve for open radical prostatectomy (RP in a training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study from June 2006 to January 2008 in the academic environment of the University of São Paulo. Five residents operated on 184 patients during a four-month rotation in the urologic oncology division, mentored by the same physician assistants. We performed sequential analyses according to the number of surgeries, as follows: = 10, 11 to 19, 20 to 28, and = 29. RESULTS: The residents performed an average of 37 RP each. The average psa was 9.3 ng/mL and clinical stage T1c in 71% of the patients. The pathological stage was pT2 (73%, pT3 (23%, pT4 (4%, and 46% of the patients had a Gleason score 7 or higher. In all surgeries, the average operative time and estimated blood loss was 140 minutes and 488 mL. Overall, 7.2% of patients required blood transfusion, and 23% had positive surgical margins. CONCLUSION: During the initial RP learning curve, we found a significant reduction in the operative time; blood transfusion during the procedures and positive surgical margin rate were stable in our series.

  5. [Research progress on free radicals in human body]. (United States)

    Wang, Q B; Xu, F P; Wei, C X; Peng, J; Dong, X D


    Free radicals are the intermediates of metabolism, widely exist in the human bodies. Under normal circumstances, the free radicals play an important role in the metabolic process on human body, cell signal pathway, gene regulation, induction of cell proliferation and apoptosis, so as to maintain the normal growth and development of human body and to inhibit the growth of bacteria, virus and cancer. However, when organic lesion occurs affected by external factors or when equilibrium of the free radicals is tipped in the human body, the free radicals will respond integratedly with lipids, protein or nucleic acid which may jeopardize the health of human bodies. This paper summarizes the research progress of the free radicals conducted in recent years, in relations to the perspective of the types, origins, test methods of the free radicals and their relationship with human's health. In addition, the possible mechanisms of environmental pollutants (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) mediating oxidative stress and free radicals scavenging in the body were also summarized.

  6. Are free radicals involved in thiol-based redox signaling? (United States)

    Winterbourn, Christine C


    Cells respond to many stimuli by transmitting signals through redox-regulated pathways. It is generally accepted that in many instances signal transduction is via reversible oxidation of thiol proteins, although there is uncertainty about the specific redox transformations involved. The prevailing view is that thiol oxidation occurs by a two electron mechanism, most commonly involving hydrogen peroxide. Free radicals, on the other hand, are considered as damaging species and not generally regarded as important in cell signaling. This paper examines whether it is justified to dismiss radicals or whether they could have a signaling role. Although there is no direct evidence that radicals are involved in transmitting thiol-based redox signals, evidence is presented that they are generated in cells when these signaling pathways are activated. Radicals produce the same thiol oxidation products as two electron oxidants, although by a different mechanism, and at this point radical-mediated pathways should not be dismissed. There are unresolved issues about how radical mechanisms could achieve sufficient selectivity, but this could be possible through colocalization of radical-generating and signal-transducing proteins. Colocalization is also likely to be important for nonradical signaling mechanisms and identification of such associations should be a priority for advancing the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Emission spectra of hydroxyl radical generated in air corona discharge]. (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Li, Jie; Wang, Ning-Hui; Wu, Jiang; Shang, Ke-Feng


    In this paper, the relative emission intensity of the 309 nm transition band of hydroxyl radical (OH) was measured by a CCD imaging spectrometer in a pin-plane corona discharge scheme of one atmosphere pressure air injected with unsaturated water vapor from the central hole of the used pins. The influences of several factors on the OH radical production were investigated by relative emission intensity measurement. The production of OH radical increased with a limited increment of water vapor concentration in the mixed gas. Compared with positive DC corona discharges, more OH radicals were generated in positive pulsed corona discharges and less in negative DC corona discharges. The spatial distribution of OH radical production was also observed. Most OH radicals were produced within the range of 5 mm off the discharge pin electrode. In conclusion, this means of optical emission spectroscopy, compared with more sophisticated laser fluorescence measurements used for plasma OH production diagnostics investigation, is simpler and more effective for characterizing the OH radical potential for pollutant oxidation.

  8. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces. (United States)

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique


    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Properties of phenoxyl radical of dehydrozingerone, a probable antioxidant (United States)

    Priyadarsini, K. Indira; Devasagayam, T. P. A.; Rao, M. N. A.; Guha, S. N.


    Free radical reactions of dehydrozingerone (DZ), a methoxy phenol, were studied at dfferent pHs with a variety of oxidants using nanosecond pulse radiolysis technique. Hydroxyl radical (OH) reaction with the phenolic form at pH 6 led mainly to the formation of an OH-adduct absorbing at 460 nm in addition to a minor oxidation product. On the other hand, at pH 10 with the deprotonated phenoxide ion, the only reaction observable was oxidation generating a phenoxyl radical absorbing at 360 nm. HPLC analysis indicated formation of two different products at pH 6 from addition and oxidation reactions, whereas at pH 10, only the oxidation product was detectable. Reactions of more specific secondary oxidizing radicals, N3 rad , Br rad , Br -2rad and Tl(II) with DZ gave rise to the phenoxyl radical over the entire pH range. DZ in the phenoxide ion form reacted with nitrogen dioxide and trichloromethyl peroxyl radicals with rate constants 6×10 8 and 8.8×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 respectively leading to the phenoxyl radicals. The DZ phenoxyl radical reacted with trolox C (an analogue of α-tocopherol) with a rate constant of 8.3×10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. One electron reduction potential of the DZ phenoxyl radical at pH 6 was determined to be +1.1 V vs NHE using N3 rad /N -3 as the standard couple.

  10. Chemical and radiation-chemical radical reactions in lignocellulose materials (United States)

    Kuzina, Svetlana I.; Shilova, Irina A.; Mikhailov, Al'fa I.


    Chemical and radiation-chemical radical reactions in lignocellulose materials were explored by 3-cm and 2-mm ESR spectroscopy. Background (intrinsic) singlet signals at g=2.003 from wood pulp and lignin and those arising during reaction of lignocellulose materials with acids and chlorine were attributed to radicals with conjugated CC bonds. The 2-mm ESR signal with 3D anisotropy of g-factor from o-semiquinone radical ions formed in reaction of lignin with NaOH was recorded for the first time. The singlet signals derived from cellulose γ-irradiated at 77 K and marked out during post-thermal reactions were assigned to radicals with conjugated bonds. In wetted cellulose, a triplet signal with αβH≅2.7 mT and imposed quadruplet structure (0.5-0.7 mT) from three γ-protons was detected at 300 K and attributed to С 4-radicals. The triplet signals derived from С 2- and С 3-radicals in pyranose cycles of cellulose exhibited higher values of αβH (3.0-3.2 mT) and lower thermal stability (up to 250 K). In radiolyzed cotton pulp, detected were ESR signals derived from formyl radicals formed upon rupture of the С 5С 6 bond in pyranose cycles. Heating up irradiated samples under О 2 was accompanied by formation of peroxide radicals. Photoinduced recombination of trapped electrons with С 1-radicals was found to proceed as a chain reaction with a kinetic length of about 25 units. Photolysis ( λ≥360 nm) of radiolyzed cellulose enhanced the disclosure of pyranose cycles and, as a result, the evolution of CO 2 by a factor of 2-2.5.

  11. Kinetics of hydroperoxy radical reactions with acetone/HO2 adduct and with acetonylperoxy radical (United States)

    Grieman, F. J.; VanDerGeest, K.; Newenhouse, E.; Watkins, K.; Noell, A. C.; Hui, A.; Sander, S. P.; Okumura, M.


    Reactions of hydroperoxy radical, HO2, with acetone and with acetonylperoxy radical, CH3C(O)CH2OO, may play an important role in the oxidation chemistry of the troposphere. Using a temperature-controlled slow-flow tube cell and laser flash photolysis of Cl2 to produce HO2 and CH3C(O)CH2OO from methanol and acetone, respectively, we studied the chemical kinetics involved over the temperature range of 215 to 298 K at 100 Torr. Rates of chemical reactions were determined by monitoring the HO2 concentration as a function of time by near-IR diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy. (See Fig.1.) The primary reactions are rapid (reactions to form the adducts HO2-CH3OH and HO2-CH3C(O)CH3 followed by HO2 reactions with itself, the adducts (chaperone mechanisms), and acetonylperoxy radical. The equilibrium constants for adduct formation were determined in previous work.1,2 In this work, rate coefficients were determined for the acetone chaperone mechanism over the entire temperature range. (E.g., see Fig. 2.) The rate coefficients and energies obtained are very similar to those found for the methanol case.1 Rate coefficients for the CH3C(O)CH2OO/HO2 reaction were also determined over a smaller temperature range, extending the measured value beyond room temperature, and yielding an activation energy. 1. Christensen et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 6948-6959. 2. Grieman et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 10527-10538. Fig.1. HO2 decay for HO2/Acetone chemistry at T = 298 K. Fig.2. Determining rate coefficient (k") for HO2/acetone chaperone effect at T = 222.5 K.

  12. Radical and Non-Radical Mechanisms for Alkane Oxidations by Hydrogen Peroxide-Trifluoroacetic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bays, J. Timothy; Shaw, Wendy J.; Linehan, John C.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.


    The oxidation of cyclohexane by the H2O2-trifluoroacetic acid system is revisited. Consistent with a previous report (Deno, N.; Messer, L. A. Chem. Comm. 1976, 1051), cyclohexanol forms initially but then esterifies to cyclohexyl trifluoroacetate. Small amounts of trans-1,2-cyclohexadiyl bis(trifluoroacetate) also form. Although these products form irrespective of the presence or absence of O2, dual mechanisms are shown to operate. In the absence of O2, the dominant mechanism is a radical chain reaction that is propagated by CF3• abstracting H from C6H12 and SH2 displacement of C6H11• on CF3CO2OH. The intermediacy of C6H11• and CF3• is inferred from production of CHF3 and CO2 along with cyclohexyl trifluoroacetate, or CDF3 when cyclohexane-d12 is used. In the presence of O2, fluoroform and CO2 are suppressed, the reaction rate slows, and the rate law approaches second order (first order in peracid and in C6H12). Trapping of cyclohexyl radicals by quinoxaline is inefficient except at elevated (75 °C) temperatures. Fluoroform and CO2, telltale evidence for the chain pathway, were not produced when quinoxaline was present in room temperature reactions. These observations suggest that a parallel, nonfree radical, oxenoid insertion mechanism dominates when O2 is present. A pathway is discussed in which a biradicaloid-zwiterionic transition state is attained by hydrogen transfer from alkane to peroxide oxygen with synchronous O-O bond scission.

  13. Salvage robot-assisted radical prostatectomy after brachytherapy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov


    Full Text Available In case of recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy patient may be offered salvage radical prostatectomy (both open and laparoscopic/robotic, hormone therapy, and a number of alternative techniques such as salvage cryoablation, HIFU-therapy and brachytherapy. Results of monitoring of patients for 10 years after salvage treatment of prostate cancer are known only after salvage prostatectomy. Technically radical prostatectomy after radiation therapy is associated with a large number of complications if compared with primary radical prostatectomy. The most frequent complications after salvage prostatectomy include incontinence, stricture formation of urethrovesical anastomosis, rectal injury, acute urinary retention and infectious complications.

  14. Salvage robot-assisted radical prostatectomy after brachytherapy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov


    Full Text Available In case of recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy patient may be offered salvage radical prostatectomy (both open and laparoscopic/robotic, hormone therapy, and a number of alternative techniques such as salvage cryoablation, HIFU-therapy and brachytherapy. Results of monitoring of patients for 10 years after salvage treatment of prostate cancer are known only after salvage prostatectomy. Technically radical prostatectomy after radiation therapy is associated with a large number of complications if compared with primary radical prostatectomy. The most frequent complications after salvage prostatectomy include incontinence, stricture formation of urethrovesical anastomosis, rectal injury, acute urinary retention and infectious complications.

  15. Robotic radical hysterectomy in the management of gynecologic malignancies. (United States)

    Pareja, Rene; Ramirez, Pedro T


    Robotic surgery is being used with increasing frequency in gynecologic oncology. To date, 44 cases were reported in the literature of radical hysterectomy performed with robotic surgery. When comparing robotic surgery with laparoscopy or laparotomy in performing a radical hysterectomy, the literature shows that robotic surgery offers an advantage over the other 2 surgical approaches with regard to operative time, blood loss, and length of hospitalization. Future studies are needed to further elucidate the equivalence or superiority of robotic surgery to laparoscopy or laparotomy in performing a radical hysterectomy.

  16. Le radicalisme de Michael Moore Michael Moore’s Radicalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Ruiz


    Full Text Available Michael Moore is famous and popular in many European countries, where he is seen as a critic of American culture. However, his main thesis, which is repeatedly expressed in his films and books, does not primarily criticize American popular culture or political tradition. Rather, this article argues that Moore’s thought may best be analysed through the American tradition of radicalism, whose origin dates back to Thomas Paine. Obviously, Moore is a contemporary radical who uses the modern media to reach as many people as possible. Yet some aspects of his rationale are surprisingly close to 18th century American radicalism.

  17. Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanida Jarruwale


    Full Text Available A new technique of extensive surgical intervention, namely nerve sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH, was introduced as one of the treatment options for early stage cervical cancer patients because cervical cancer patients suffer from postoperative complications following radical hysterectomy procedure. The step of nerve preservation can reduce postoperative complications, such as bladder or sexual dysfunction problems that occur after a traditional radical hysterectomy procedure. The surgical outcomes seem to be favorable and no serious morbidity was noted. However, further study of the nerve sparing technique is necessary to improve this surgical advantage in the future.

  18. Photo-induced free radicals on a simulated Martian surface (United States)

    Tseng, S.-S.; Chang, S.


    Results of an electron spin resonance study of free radicals in the ultraviolet irradiation of a simulated Martian surface suggest that the ultraviolet photolysis of CO or CO2, or a mixture of both, adsorbed on silica gel at minus 170 C involves the formation of OH radicals and possibly of H atoms as the primary process, followed by the formation of CO2H radicals. It is concluded that the photochemical synthesis of organic compounds could occur on Mars if the siliceous surface dust contains enough silanol groups and/or adsorbed H2O in the form of bound water.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photodissociation of polyatomic molecules and radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y. [Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States)


    In the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the photodissociation (PD) dynamics of triatomic molecules. However, the PD study of radicals, especially polyatomic radicals, has remained essentially an unexplored research area. Detailed state-to-state PD cross sections for radicals in the UV and VUV provide challenges not only for dynamical calculations, but also for ab initio quantum chemical studies. The authors have developed a laser based pump-probe apparatus for the measurement of absolute PD cross sections for CH{sub 3}S and HS is summarized.

  20. Transverse flow reactor studies of the dynamics of radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, R.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    Radical reactions are in important in combustion chemistry; however, little state-specific information is available for these reactions. A new apparatus has been constructed to measure the dynamics of radical reactions. The unique feature of this apparatus is a transverse flow reactor in which an atom or radical of known concentration will be produced by pulsed laser photolysis of an appropriate precursor molecule. The time dependence of individual quantum states or products and/or reactants will be followed by rapid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The reaction H + O{sub 2} {yields} OH + O will be studied.

  1. Nitroxide radicals formed in situ as polymer chain growth regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolyakina, Elena V; Grishin, Dmitry F [Research Insitute of Chemistry, N.I. Lobachevskii Nizhnii Novgorod State University, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)


    Published data on controlled synthesis of macromolecules using nitroxide radicals, formed in situ during polymerization, as polymer chain growth regulators are systematized and generalized. The attention is focused on the mechanism of polymer chain growth control during reversibly inhibited radical homopolymerization and the effect of structure of precursors and regulating additives on the polymerization kinetics of monomers of different nature and the molecular-mass characteristics of the polymers thus formed. The key methods for generation of nitroxide radicals directly during polymerization are considered. The prospects for development and practical use of these approaches for the synthesis of new polymeric materials are evaluated.

  2. [Urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. Urinary artificial sphinter]. (United States)

    Rodríguez Escobar, Fernando; Arañó Bertran, Pedro


    Urinary artificial sphincter (UAS) is currently the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. 5-25% of the patients under-going radical prostatectomy develop urinary incontinence. This complication generates important deterioration in the quality of life of these patients. Conservative and minimally invasive treatments, such as Kegel exercises, use of pads, drugs, and electrostimulation, or minor surgery have been used without success. This review summarizes the advantages and complications of the urinary artificial sphincter and its efficacy in the management of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.

  3. Prediction of postoperative pain after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöström Björn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a belief that the amount of pain perceived is merely directly proportional to the extent of injury. The intensity of postoperative pain is however influenced by multiple factors aside from the extent of trauma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative factors that have been shown to predict postoperative pain and the self-reports of pain intensity in a population of 155 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP, and also to investigate if previous pain score could predict the subsequent pain score. Methods The correlation between potential pain predictors and the postoperative pain experiences during three postoperative days was tested (Pitmans' test. By use of a logistic regression analysis the probability that a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score at one occasion would exceed 30 mm or 70 mm was studied, depending on previous VAS score, age, depression and pain treatment method. Results Age was found to be a predictor of VAS > 30 mm, with younger patients at higher risk for pain, and preoperative depression predicted VAS > 70 mm. The probability that VAS would exceed 30 mm and 70 mm was predicted only by previous VAS value. Day two however, patients with epidural analgesia were at higher risk for experiencing pain than patients with intrathecal or systemic opioid analgesia. Conclusion The results show that it would be meaningful to identify RP patients at high risk for severe postoperative pain; i.e. younger and/or depressive patients who might benefit from a more aggressive therapy instituted in the very early postoperative period.

  4. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: omitting a pelvic drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canes


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess outcomes of a selective drain placement strategy during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with a running urethrovesical anastomosis (RUVA using cystographic imaging in all patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing LRP between January 2003 and December 2004. The anastomosis was performed using a modified van Velthoven technique. A drain was placed at the discretion of the senior surgeon when a urinary leak was demonstrated with bladder irrigation, clinical suspicion for a urinary leak was high, or a complex bladder neck reconstruction was performed. Routine postoperative cystograms were obtained. RESULTS: 208 patients underwent LRP with a RUVA. Data including cystogram was available for 206 patients. The overall rate of cystographic urine leak was 5.8%. A drain was placed in 51 patients. Of these, 8 (15.6% had a postoperative leak on cystogram. Of the 157 undrained patients, urine leak was radiographically visible in 4 (2.5%. The higher leak rate in the drained vs. undrained cohort was statistically significant (p = 0.002. Twenty-four patients underwent pelvic lymph node dissection (8 drained, 16 undrained. Three undrained patients developed lymphoceles, which presented clinically on average 3 weeks postoperatively. There were no urinomas or hematomas in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Routine placement of a pelvic drain after LRP with a RUVA is not necessary, unless the anastomotic integrity is suboptimal intraoperatively. Experienced clinical judgment is essential and accurate in identifying patients at risk for postoperative leakage. When suspicion is low, omitting a drain does not increase morbidity.

  5. Effects of Molecular Iodine and 4-tert-Butylcatechol Radical Inhibitor on the Radical Polymerization of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Bozorg


    Full Text Available The presence of molecular iodine was studied in relation the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of polystyrene, produced by radical poly merization. Radical polymerization of styrene initiated by 2,2׳-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN was performed at 70°C in the presence of molecular iodine. The synthesized polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and proton- nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR techniques. The results of these reactions including conversion data, number-average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution were compared with those obtained for styrene radical polymerization initiated by AIBN at the same temperature in the absence of molecular iodine. It was found that the presence of iodine had a profound effect on the molecular weight and its distribution in the produced polystyrene. This was attributed to the ability of iodine to control the polymerization of styrene initiated by AIBN via reverse iodine transfer polymerization (RITP mechanism. The polymer produced by this method had a molecular weight of 10600 g/mol with a molecular weight polydispersity index of 1.3. Due to the importance of induction period in reverse iodine transfer radical polymerization, increasing the temperature to 120°C during the induction period resulted in shorter induction periods and the produced species led to better control of the molecular weight. Also, due to the role of iodine molecules as a radical inhibitor, the presence of a secondary radical inhibitor, i.e. 4-tert-butylcatechol, along with the iodine was investigated in radical polymerization of polystyrene initiated by AIBN. It was observed that the secondary radical inhibitor prevented the consumption of the iodine molecules by the radicals produced from decomposition of the AIBN initiator; therefore, alkyl halides were not produced during the induction period.

  6. Treasures from the Free Radical Renaissance Period--miscellaneous hexenyl radical kinetic data. (United States)

    Beckwith, Athelstan L J; Schiesser, Carl H


    Rate constant data and Arrhenius parameters have been determined for a series of substituted hexenyl radicals of differing electronic and steric demand. Electron-withdrawing groups (CF(3), CO(2)Et) directly attached to the radical centre slightly accelerate 5-exo ring-closure (k(cis) + k(trans) ∼ 2.1 × 10(5) s(-1) at 25°) relative to donating groups (OMe; 1.6 × 10(5) s(-1) at 25°). Sterically demanding groups (tert-Bu), as expected, slow the cyclization process (1 × 10(5) s(-1)). These observations are consistent with subtle changes in activation energy for 5-exo ring-closure. Interestingly, the nature of the solvent would appear to have a significant influence on this chemistry with the cis/trans stereoselectivity sometimes improved as the solvent polarity is increased. Except for the system containing the CF(3) (electron-withdrawing) group which displays an increase in the cyclization/capture rate constant (k(c)/k(H)), a general decrease in the k(c)/k(H) ratio as solvent polarity is increased is noted; these changes have been speculated to arise mainly from changes in k(H) in the various solvents employed.

  7. Autoconhecimento e liberdade no behaviorismo radical Self-knowledge and liberty in radical behaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Justen Brandenburg


    Full Text Available O presente artigo corresponde a um estudo teórico sobre o conceito do autoconhecimento e da liberdade no behaviorismo radical, com o objetivo de discutir a relação entre esses conceitos. Após a discussão sobre a definição do autoconhecimento e sobre sua origem social, a visão de Skinner sobre liberdade é abordada. A existência da liberdade depende do autoconhecimento, e esta é a ligação entre os dois termos. Conclui-se que ninguém pode se libertar do controle, mas com o autoconhecimento é possível modificar o ambiente e trocar controles coercitivos por reforçamento positivo, atingindo melhor qualidade de vida.The present article corresponds to a theoretical study on the concept of self-knowledge and freedom in radical behaviorism, with the objective to argue the relation between these concepts. After discussing the definition of self-knowledge and its social origin, Skinner's vision of freedom is approached. The existence of freedom depends on the self-knowledge, and this is the linking between the two terms. The conclusion is that nobody can free of this control, but with self-knowledge, it's possible to modify the environment and change coercive controls for positive reinforcement and thus, achieve a better quality of life.

  8. J/{psi} production in {radical}(s)=7 TeV pp collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Frederick


    In the first part of this work the inclusive cross section for J/{psi} production in inelastic {radical}(s) = 7 TeV pp collisions has been determined within vertical stroke y vertical stroke < 0.9 and in the decay channel J/{psi} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}. The result for the integrated value is: {sigma}{sub J/{psi}}(vertical stroke y vertical stroke < 0.9) = 10.7 {+-} 0.8 (stat.) {+-} 1.4 (syst.) {+-} 0.4 (lumi.) {mu}b. Together with the ALICE measurement in the {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay channel at forward rapidities and data from other experiments this result fills the gap at mid-rapidity for a comprehensive measurement of the J/{psi} rapidity distribution. Furthermore, results of the differential analysis as a function of the J/{psi} transverse momentum were presented. Finally the data are shown together with various theoretical predictions representing the current status of the three most common theoretical approaches for the description of quarkonia production: the Color-Singlet Model, the Color-Evaporation Model and NRQCD.

  9. Hydroxyl radical production in plasma electrolysis with KOH electrolyte solution (United States)

    Saksono, Nelson; Febiyanti, Irine Ayu; Utami, Nissa; Ibrahim


    Plasma electrolysis is an effective technology for producing hydroxyl radical (•OH). This method can be used for waste degradation process. This study was conducted to obtain the influence of applied voltage, electrolyte concentration, and anode depth in the plasma electrolysis system for producing hydroxyl radical. The materials of anode and cathode, respectively, were made from tungsten and stainless steel. KOH solution was used as the solution. Determination of hydroxyl radical production was done by measuring H2O2 amount formed in plasma system using an iodometric titration method, while the electrical energy consumed was obtained by measuring the electrical current throughout the process. The highest hydroxyl radical production was 3.51 mmol reached with 237 kJ energy consumption in the power supply voltage 600 V, 0.02 M KOH, and 0.5 cm depth of anode.

  10. Hydroxyl radical production in plasma electrolysis with KOH electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksono, Nelson; Febiyanti, Irine Ayu, E-mail:; Utami, Nissa; Ibrahim [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia Phone: +62217863516, Fax: +62217863515 (Indonesia)


    Plasma electrolysis is an effective technology for producing hydroxyl radical (•OH). This method can be used for waste degradation process. This study was conducted to obtain the influence of applied voltage, electrolyte concentration, and anode depth in the plasma electrolysis system for producing hydroxyl radical. The materials of anode and cathode, respectively, were made from tungsten and stainless steel. KOH solution was used as the solution. Determination of hydroxyl radical production was done by measuring H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount formed in plasma system using an iodometric titration method, while the electrical energy consumed was obtained by measuring the electrical current throughout the process. The highest hydroxyl radical production was 3.51 mmol reached with 237 kJ energy consumption in the power supply voltage 600 V, 0.02 M KOH, and 0.5 cm depth of anode.

  11. Von Glaserfeld`s Radical Constructivism: A Critical Review (United States)

    Hardy, Michael D.

    We explore Ernst von Glaserfelds radical constructivism, its criticisms, and our own thoughts on what it promises for the reform of science and mathematics teaching. Our investigation reveals that many criticisms of radical constructivism are unwarranted; nevertheless, in its current cognitivist form radical constructivism may be insufficient to empower teachers to overcome objectivist cultural traditions. Teachers need to be empowered with rich understandings of philosophies of science and mathematics that endorse relativist epistemologies; for without such they are unlikely to be prepared to reconstruct their pedagogical practices. More importantly, however, is a need for a powerful social epistemology to serve as a referent for regenerating the culture of science education. We recommend blending radical constructivism with Habermas theory of communicative action to provide science teachers with a moral imperative for adopting a constructivist epistemology.

  12. Effect of curcumin against oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals. (United States)

    Borra, Sai Krishna; Mahendra, Jaideep; Gurumurthy, Prema; Jayamathi; Iqbal, Shabeer S; Mahendra, Little


    Among various reactive oxygen species, hydroxyl radicals have the strongest chemical activity, which can damage a wide range of essential biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The objective of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of curcumin on prevention of oxidative damage of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals generated in in vitro by a Fenton like reaction. We have incubated the serum, plasma and whole blood with H2O2/Cu2+/ Ascorbic acid system for 4 hours at 37 0C and observed the oxidation of biomolecules like albumin, lipids, proteins and DNA. Curcumin at the concentrations of 50,100 and 200 μmoles, prevented the formation of ischemia modified albumin, MDA, protein carbonyls, oxidized DNA and increased the total antioxidant levels and GSH significantly. These observations suggest the hydroxyl radical scavenging potentials of curcumin and protective actions to prevent the oxidation of biomolecules by hydroxyl radicals.

  13. The Role of Free Radicals and Antioxidant in Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Suryawan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Free radicals and antioxidant exist in balance under normal condition. In prooxidant condition, excessive free radicals can initiate a state of oxidative stress (OS followed by capillary endothelial cell damage, a process involved in the pathophysiology of abortion. CONTENT: Abortion is a common complication of pregnancy and occurs in 25% of women. Many factors can cause abortion including fetal factor, implantation process and hormonal status. Combination those factors with OS influence the entire reproductive life of a woman. Antioxidant can neutralize free radicals and used to reduce OS especially in recurrent abortion. SUMMARY: Antioxidant therapy is a very interesting field in abortion especially used as prevention approach mainly caused by the high cost of infertility treatment methods. KEYWORDS: free radical, antioxidant, abortion.

  14. CRC handbook of methods for oxygen radical research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Robert A


    .... This volume is divided into five sections. Section I deals with preparative methodology for isolation and purification of the components of the oxy radical experimental systems used most frequently, including all the three forms of SOD...

  15. Support for 33rd International Symposium on Free Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continetti, Robert [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    Support for the participation of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and young faculty in the 33rd International Symposium on Free Radicals was provided to ensure broad participation of young scientists.

  16. Employment of radically new skills in innovative and transformative SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    This paper briefly reviews different but complementary streams of literature on innovation and qualitative employment effects at the firm level. Subsequently, empirical studies indicating an introduction of radically new skills in innovative and transformative Danish SMEs are reported....

  17. Progression of radical reactions on microscopic scale in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret

    (MCT) oil and unsaturated linseed oil (LSO) was studied and it was observed that mixing had a substantial effect on the oxidative stability – mixed oil emulsions and mixed emulsions showed decreased rates of lipid oxidation. Saturated MCT oil in the presence of unsaturated LSO, either as in isolated...... the degree of unsaturation, the higher the response of BODIPY665/676. Assembling these results, it was suggested the concentration of radicals had the highest effect on the probe. In unsaturated oil, the concentration of radicals was very high, which enhanced the radical-radical interactions, but also...... the food quality and increase the shelflife of the food products. In the present work, lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions was studied via conventional analytical and via novel state-of-the-art techniques. For the first time, the effect of mixing emulsions made of saturated medium-chain triglyceride...

  18. Highly reactive free radicals in electronic cigarette aerosols. (United States)

    Goel, Reema; Durand, Erwann; Trushin, Neil; Prokopczyk, Bogdan; Foulds, Jonathan; Elias, Ryan J; Richie, John P


    Electronic cigarette (EC) usage has increased exponentially, but limited data are available on its potential harmful effects. We tested for the presence of reactive, short-lived free radicals in EC aerosols by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) using the spin-trap phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). Radicals were detected in aerosols from all ECs and eliquids tested (2.5 × 10(13) to 10.3 × 10(13) radicals per puff at 3.3 V) and from eliquid solvents propylene glycol and glycerol and from "dry puffing". These results demonstrate, for the first time, the production of highly oxidizing free radicals from ECs which may present a potential toxicological risk to EC users.

  19. Deixando o preconceito de lado e entendendo o Behaviorismo Radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinto Guimarães

    Full Text Available O Behaviorismo Radical de Skinner é muitas vezes criticado de forma indevida e até preconceituosa. Muitas destas críticas, na verdade, são críticas da psicologia de Watson e não do Behaviorismo Radical. O entendimento das diferenças entre os modos idealista e materialista de pensar ajuda a esclarecer a maneira de estudar e compreender o comportamento para o Behaviorismo Radical, bem como a sua posição anti-mentalista. O estudo da história da evolução do Behaviorismo é necessário para possibilitar o entendimento das diferenças entre o Behaviorismo Metodológico de Watson e o Behaviorismo Radical de Skinner, bem como das suas respectivas contribuições para a psicologia.

  20. Radical Scavenging Efficacy of Thiol Capped Silver Nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    picryl hydrazil (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals as spectrophotometric assay. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scaveng- ing efficacy has been determined by titration method. Ascorbic acid has been used as standard for all ...

  1. Photoresist removal process by hydrogen radicals generated by W catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, M. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 (Japan)], E-mail:; Ogushi, K.; Yuba, Y.; Akasaka, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 (Japan); Tomioka, K.; Soda, E.; Kobayashi, N. [Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies Inc., 16-1 Onogawa Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8569 (Japan)


    Hydrogen radical process for photoresist removal by use of hot W catalyst has been investigated for a possible application to advanced Cu/low-k dielectric interconnects in LSI. It is found that etching rates of resists depend critically on sample temperature (T{sub s}) and are higher than 1 {mu}m/min at the optimized condition. H radical irradiation effects on porous methylsilsesquioxane (p-MSQ) have been studied from measurements of k value and capacitance of the advanced interconnect test sample. No radical process is observed to induce the increase in k value of p-MSQ films. These results suggest that the hydrogen radical process for resist removal with W catalyst is promising for production of advanced interconnects.

  2. Engineering radical polymer electrodes for electrochemical energy storage (United States)

    Nevers, Douglas R.; Brushett, Fikile R.; Wheeler, Dean R.


    In principle a wide range of organic materials can store energy in the form of reversible redox conversions of stable radicals. Such chemistry holds great promise for energy storage applications due to high theoretical capacities, high rate capabilities, intrinsic structural tunability, and the possibility of low-cost "green" syntheses from renewable sources. There have been steady improvements in the design of organic radical polymers, in which radicals are incorporated into the backbone and/or as pendant groups. This review highlights opportunities for improved redox molecule and polymer design along with the key challenges (e.g., transport phenomena, solubility, and reaction mechanisms) to transitioning known organic radicals into high-performance electrodes. Ultimately, organic-based batteries are still a nascent field with many open questions. Further advances in molecular design, electrode engineering, and device architecture will be required for these systems to reach their full potential and meet the diverse and increasing demands for energy storage.

  3. Crossed-beam studies of the dynamics of radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    The objective of this program is to characterize the detailed dynamics of elementary radical reactions and to provide a better understanding of radical reactivity in general. The radical beam is typically generated by a laser photolysis method. After colliding with the reacting molecule in a crossed-beam apparatus, the reaction product state distribution is interrogated by laser spectroscopic techniques. Several radicals of combustion significance, such as O, CH, OH, CN and NCO have been successfully generated and their collisional behavior at the state-to-state integral cross section level of detail has been studied in this manner. During the past year, the detection system has been converted from LIF to REMPI schemes, and the emphasis of this program shifted to investigate the product angular distributions. Both inelastic and reactive processes have been studied.

  4. Cost benefits of intraoperative cell salvage in radical cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee


    Conclusion : Our initial study shows that cell savage is feasible and safe in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. It does not adversely affect the medium term outcome of patients undergoing RC and is also cost effective.

  5. Robot-assisted Radical Prostatectomy: How I Do It


    Cemil Uygur; Fethullah Gevher


    In this article, we describe surgical technique for robot assisted radical prostatectomy using the four-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system (SI, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). We have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes.

  6. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms ...

  7. The Reactive-Diffusive Length of OH Radical in Squalane (United States)

    Lee, L.; Wilson, K. R.


    With the technique of core-shell particle configuration, we have measured the radical penetration length in a reactive matrix by observing the transmission efficiency of OH radical through squalane shell of various thickness ranging from 0 nm (without coating) to 16 nm. The result indicates a penetration depth of 2.2 nm. Our data suggest that the OH concentration profile in squalane as a function of the distance from the squalane/air interface can be satisfactorily described by the analytical solution to diffusion equation with an added chemical loss term experienced by the OH radical. This allowed an almost unambiguous determination of either OH diffusivity or OH reactivity given that one of the value is known in systems where radical chain propagation is not a significant factor and can shed new lights on the lifetime alteration of particulate matters in the atmosphere where possible coating processes are abundant.

  8. A public health approach to understanding and preventing violent radicalization. (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Hicks, Madelyn H; Lashley, Myrna; Jones, Edgar


    Very recent acts of terrorism in the UK were perpetrated by 'homegrown', well educated young people, rather than by foreign Islamist groups; consequently, a process of violent radicalization was proposed to explain how ordinary people were recruited and persuaded to sacrifice their lives. Counterterrorism approaches grounded in the criminal justice system have not prevented violent radicalization. Indeed there is some evidence that these approaches may have encouraged membership of radical groups by not recognizing Muslim communities as allies, citizens, victims of terrorism, and victims of discrimination, but only as suspect communities who were then further alienated. Informed by public health research and practice, a new approach is proposed to target populations vulnerable to recruitment, rather than rely only on research of well known terrorist groups and individual perpetrators of terrorist acts. This paper proposes public health research and practice to guard against violent radicalization.

  9. A public health approach to understanding and preventing violent radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhui Kamaldeep S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very recent acts of terrorism in the UK were perpetrated by 'homegrown', well educated young people, rather than by foreign Islamist groups; consequently, a process of violent radicalization was proposed to explain how ordinary people were recruited and persuaded to sacrifice their lives. Discussion Counterterrorism approaches grounded in the criminal justice system have not prevented violent radicalization. Indeed there is some evidence that these approaches may have encouraged membership of radical groups by not recognizing Muslim communities as allies, citizens, victims of terrorism, and victims of discrimination, but only as suspect communities who were then further alienated. Informed by public health research and practice, a new approach is proposed to target populations vulnerable to recruitment, rather than rely only on research of well known terrorist groups and individual perpetrators of terrorist acts. Conclusions This paper proposes public health research and practice to guard against violent radicalization.

  10. Cystectomy with orthotopic reconstruction following radical retropubic prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Miotto Jr


    Full Text Available The development of infiltrative bladder carcinoma in patients previously treated with radical prostatectomy due to prostate adenocarcinoma represents a challenging perspective. Radical cystectomy remains the best option for invasive bladder cancer, however, there are few reports about the best approach to such individuals. Nevertheless, despite possible technical difficulties found during surgery, the orthotopic urinary shunt is a reasonable option in selected cases.

  11. Hydroxyl radical footprinting of protein-DNA complexes. (United States)

    Jagannathan, Indu; Hayes, Jeffrey J


    This unit details the use of hydroxyl radicals to characterize protein-DNA interactions. This method may be used to assess the exact location of contacts between a protein and its cognate DNA and details of the complex structure. We describe several methods to prepare DNA templates for footprinting and ways to avoid many of the pitfalls associated with the use of hydroxyl radical footprinting. In addition, we describe in detail one example of the application of this technique.

  12. Reaction kinetics of resveratrol with tert-butoxyl radicals (United States)

    Džeba, Iva; Pedzinski, Tomasz; Mihaljević, Branka


    The rate constant for the reaction of t-butoxyl radicals with resveratrol was studied under pseudo-first order conditions. The rate constant was determined by measuring the phenoxyl radical formation rate at 390 nm as function of resveratrol concentration in acetonitrile. The rate constant was determined to be 6.5×108 M-1s-1. This high value indicates the high reactivity consistent with the strong antioxidant activity of resveratrol.

  13. Factors predicting Gleason score 6 upgrading after radical prostatectomy


    Milonas, Daimantas; Grybas, Aivaras; Auskalnis, Stasys; Gudinaviciene, Inga; Baltrimavicius, Ruslanas; Kincius, Marius; Jievaltas, Mindaugas


    Objectives Prostate cancer Gleason score 6 is the most common score detected on prostatic biopsy. We analyzed the clinical parameters that predict the likelihood of Gleason score upgrading after radical prostatectomy. Methods The study population consisted of 241 patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy between Feb 2002 and Dec 2007 for Gleason score 6 adenocarcinoma. The influence of preoperative parameters on the probability of a Gleason score upgrading after surgery was eval...

  14. Free radical scavenging activities of tea drinks on the market


    中川, 一夫; Nakagawa, Kazuo; 仲村, 明子; Nakamura, Akiko; 松永, 博絵; Matsunaga, Hiroe


    Tea drinks, prepared from the tea plant classified as Camellia sinensis, contain antioxidative phenolic compounds, like catechins and flavonols. We evaluated the free radical scavenging activities of tea drinks on the market by measuring luminol-amplified chemiluminescence stimulated by the free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane9 dihydrochloride, and the absorption of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radica cation at 734 nm. Black tea drinks and green tea ...

  15. El decadentismo en la derecha radical contemporánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Simón Gómez


    Full Text Available The main concern this articles deals with is, first, the elusive conceptual definition of the «radical right». In the last years a, so called, new consensus, has been developed in the literature of this field. The core of this new consensus about the radical right is the palingentic form of nationalism, form this pant of view the decadentism and the claim for a social renewal is a central point in the political thought of the radical right. In this article we deal with the decadent subjects of the radical right, pointing mainly to the apocalyptic tone of some major contributors of the radical right in the interwar France and Germany. In the second part we analyze the role of decadentism in the cotemporary work of some relevant authors of the European radical right, Alain de Benoist and Julius Evola. Finally we translate their idea of decadence of Europe to the political arena as shown the discourses of some right extremist European parties.

  16. New free radicals to measure antiradical capacity: a theoretical study. (United States)

    León-Carmona, Jorge Rafael; Martínez, Ana; Galano, Annia


    A new family of free radicals, that are soluble in water and stable at all pH values, were recently synthesized and used to assess the antiradical capacity of several polyphenols. In the present work, density functional calculations were used to investigate the single electron transfer reactions between these new free radicals and polyphenols in aqueous solution. The quantification of the antiradical capacity is a challenge, particularly for polyphenols, since they become unstable under experimental conditions. It was found that the electron transfer from polyphenols to the newly developed free radicals can be used to assess the efficiency of this kind of compound for preventing oxidative stress. Since one of the free radicals can be deprotonated under experimental conditions, this newly synthesized radical can help distinguish more clearly between different antiradical compounds with similar antioxidant capacity by modifying the pH in the experiments. The results reported here are in good agreement with the available experimental data and allowed making recommendations about possible experimental conditions in the design of antioxidant assays using the investigated radicals.

  17. Methods for determining the efficacy of radical-trapping antioxidants. (United States)

    Li, Bo; Pratt, Derek A


    Hydrocarbon autoxidation is the free radical chain reaction primarily responsible for the oxidative degradation of organic materials, including those that make up cells, tissues, and organs. The identification of compounds that slow this process (antioxidants) and the quantitation of their efficacies have long been goals of academic and industrial researchers. Antioxidants are generally divided into two types: preventive and radical-trapping (also commonly referred to as chain-breaking). Preventive antioxidants slow the rate of initiation of autoxidation, whereas radical-trapping antioxidants slow the rate of propagation by reacting with chain-propagating peroxyl radicals. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of different approaches to measure the kinetics of the reactions of radical-trapping antioxidants with peroxyl radicals, and their use to study the inhibition of hydrocarbon (lipid) autoxidation in homogeneous solution, as well as biphasic media (lipid bilayers) and cell culture. Direct and indirect approaches are presented and advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed in order to facilitate method selection for investigators seeking to address particular questions in this immensely popular field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Threshold Particle Diameters in Miniemulsion Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Tobita


    Full Text Available Various types of controlled/living radical polymerizations, or using the IUPAC recommended term, reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP, conducted inside nano-sized reaction loci are considered in a unified manner, based on the polymerization rate expression, Rp = kp[M]K[Interm]/[Trap]. Unique miniemulsion polymerization kinetics of RDRP are elucidated on the basis of the following two factors: (1 A high single molecule concentration in a nano-sized particle; and (2 a significant statistical concentration variation among particles. The characteristic particle diameters below which the polymerization rate start to deviate significantly (1 from the corresponding bulk polymerization, and (2 from the estimate using the average concentrations, can be estimated by using simple equations. For stable-radical-mediated polymerization (SRMP and atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, an acceleration window is predicted for the particle diameter range, . For reversible-addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization (RAFT, degenerative-transfer radical polymerization (DTRP and also for the conventional nonliving radical polymerization, a significant rate increase occurs for . On the other hand, for  the polymerization rate is suppressed because of a large statistical variation of monomer concentration among particles.

  19. Repair reactions of pyrimidine-derived radicals by aliphatic thiols. (United States)

    Wójcik, Aleksandra; Naumov, Sergej; Marciniak, Bronislaw; Brede, Ortwin


    Pyrimidinyl radicals of various structures (Pyr*) were generated in aqueous and alcohol-containing solutions by means of pulse radiolysis to determine the rate constants of their repair reactions by different thiols (RSH = cysteamine, 2-mercaptoethanol, cysteine, and penicillamine): Pyr* + RSH --> PyrH + RS*. C5-OH and C6-OH adduct radicals of the pyrimidines react with thiols with k9 = (1.2-10.0) x 10(6) dm3 mol(-1) s(-1). Similar repair rate constants were found for uracil- and thymine-derived N1-centered radicals, k31 = (1.5-6.1) x 10(6) dm3 mol(-1) s(-1). However, pyrimidine radical anions protonated at their C6 position and C6-uracilyl radicals, with carbonyl groups at their C5 position, react with thiols faster, with k24 = (0.5-7.6) x 10(7) dm3 mol(-1) s(-1) and k14 = (1.4-4.8) x 10(7) dm3 mol(-1) s(-1), respectively. Quantum chemical calculations, at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and self-consistent reaction field polarizable continuum model level point to the combined effects of the energy gap between interacting molecular orbitals, charge distribution within different pyrimidine-derived radicals, and the coefficients of the atomic orbitals as the possible reasons for the differences in the rate constants of repair.

  20. Robotic Surgical System for Radical Prostatectomy: A Health Technology Assessment (United States)

    Wang, Myra; Xie, Xuanqian; Wells, David; Higgins, Caroline


    Background Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in Canadian men. Radical prostatectomy is one of the treatment options available, and involves removing the prostate gland and surrounding tissues. In recent years, surgeons have begun to use robot-assisted radical prostatectomy more frequently. We aimed to determine the clinical benefits and harms of the robotic surgical system for radical prostatectomy (robot-assisted radical prostatectomy) compared with the open and laparoscopic surgical methods. We also assessed the cost-effectiveness of robot-assisted versus open radical prostatectomy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer in Ontario. Methods We performed a literature search and included prospective comparative studies that examined robot-assisted versus open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. The outcomes of interest were perioperative, functional, and oncological. The quality of the body of evidence was examined according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. We also conducted a cost–utility analysis with a 1-year time horizon. The potential long-term benefits of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for functional and oncological outcomes were also evaluated in a 10-year Markov model in scenario analyses. In addition, we conducted a budget impact analysis to estimate the additional costs to the provincial budget if the adoption of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy were to increase in the next 5 years. A needs assessment determined that the published literature on patient perspectives was relatively well developed, and that direct patient engagement would add relatively little new information. Results Compared with the open approach, we found robot-assisted radical prostatectomy reduced length of stay and blood loss (moderate quality evidence) but had no difference or inconclusive results for functional and oncological outcomes

  1. Learning Curve of Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ersagun Arslan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer (PrC is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and the second most common malignancy in men. Currently, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP has become a popular treatment for localised PrC treatment worldwide. We aimed to assess the learning curve of RARP in our institution. Methods: A total of 391 patients who underwent RARP in our clinic between February 2009 and April 2013 were included in the study. We retrospectively evaluated patient data that were recorded prospectively. The demographic, perioperative, postoperative functional, and oncological results of six surgeons’ patient groups (n=72, n=110, n=103, n=38, n=36, and n=32 and three consecutive series formed by dividing the patient groups of the three surgeons with the highest volume of cases were analysed. Results: There was no significant difference between patient groups with regard to age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score, number of previously performed operations, prostate-specific antigen levels, clinical stage, biopsy pathology, pathological stage, positive surgical margin (PSM rate, biochemical recurrence (BCR rate, potency, and continence rate at postoperative Month 12. When we assessed the three consecutive series of the three highest-volume surgeons we found that, over time, operation time (OT decreased significantly (p0.05, and median IIEF score at 12 months improved significantly (p0.05, and median IIEF score at 12 months improved significantly (p=0.01 in the series of Surgeon 2; OT decreased significantly (p0.05 for both in the series of Surgeon 3. The overall complication rate was 11.7% and 34% of these complications were major ones. The overall blood transfusion rate was 2%. The overall PSM rate was 20.4% (9.3% for pT2 tumours and 44% for pT3 tumours. The overall rate of BCR was 9.4%. Conclusion: In


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Barceló


    Full Text Available La economía se presenta a menudo como la ciencia social más madura y exacta, capaz de orientar acciones, realizar pronósticos, explicar el pasado. Todo ello de una manera, si no impecable, sí satisfactoria a grandes rasgos. Ya lo dijo Popper de manera poco cautelosa: "El éxito de la Economía Matemática muestra que por lo menos una ciencia social ha pasado por su revolución newtoniana" (Popper, 1957, 74. También goza la economía de buenas referencias en lo que atañe a su genealogía y tradición intelectual: algunas de sus máximas tienen un respetable pedigrí de más de dos siglos. Por otra parte, sus argumentaciones más preciadas suelen presentarse en la alta sociedad académica vestidas con formalismos matemáticos aparatosos, cuando no espectaculares. A primera vista parece, pues, hallarse en un estado muy saludable, bien orientada en cuanto a bases y perspectivas. Luego no es de extrañar que sea motivo de envidia y de imitación por parte de investigadores de campos vecinos que también aspiran a entender cómo funcionan los seres humanos en sociedad.El resultado final es un texto un tanto híbrido, a medio camino entre el ensayo de divulgación y las notas de clase. De todos modos, aunque sus objetivos sean modestos en lo que se refiere a rigor y originalidad, confío en que cumpla en alguna medida el cometido asignado, a saber, sugerir e incluso provocar. Deseo puntualizar, por último, que algunas de las ideas aquí expuestas se hallan argumentadas de forma más sistemática y cuidada en el artículo "Teoría económica y enfoque de la reproducción" (in Febrero, ed., Qué es la economía, Madrid, Pirámide, 1997, págs. 241-269, así como en mis libros Filosofía de la economía (Barcelona, Icaria, 1992 y Economía política radical (Madrid, Síntesis, 1998.

  3. Hemodynamic changes during robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanlal Darlong


    Full Text Available Background: Effect on hemodynamic changes and experience of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP in steep Trendelenburg position (45° with high-pressure CO 2 pneumoperitoneum is very limited. Therefore, we planned this prospective clinical trial to study the effect of steep Tredelenburg position with high-pressure CO 2 pneumoperitoneum on hemodynamic parameters in a patient undergoing RALRP using FloTrac/Vigileo™1.10. Methods: After ethical approval and informed consent, 15 patients scheduled for RALRP were included in the study. In the operation room, after attaching standard monitors, the radial artery was cannulated. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl (2 μg/kg and thiopentone (4-7 mg/kg, and tracheal intubation was facilitated by vecuronium bromide (0.1 mg/kg. The patient′s right internal jugular vein was cannulated and the Pre Sep™ central venous oximetry catheter was connected to it. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide and intermittent boluses of vecuronium. Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided to maintain normocapnea. After CO 2 pneumoperitoneum, position of the patient was gradually changed to 45° Trendelenburg over 5 min. The robot was then docked and the robot-assisted surgery started. Intraoperative monitoring included central venous pressure (CVP, stroke volume (SV, stroke volume variation (SVV, cardiac output (CO, cardiac index (CI and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO 2 . Results: After induction of anesthesia, heart rate (HR, SV, CO and CI were decreased significantly from the baseline value (P>0.05. SV, CO and CI further decreased significantly after creating pneumoperitoneum (P>0.05. At the 45° Trendelenburg position, HR, SV, CO and CI were significantly decreased compared with baseline. Thereafter, CO and CI were persistently low throughout the 45° Trendelenburg position (P=0.001. HR at 20 min and 1 h, SV and mean arterial blood pressure

  4. Penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy: predicting success. (United States)

    Müller, Alexander; Parker, Marilyn; Waters, Bedford W; Flanigan, Robert C; Mulhall, John P


    It has been suggested that the institution of a pharmacologically based penile rehabilitation program in the early stages after radical prostatectomy (RP) may benefit some patients. This analysis was conducted to define if predictors of successful outcome with pharmacological penile rehabilitation following RP could be identified. Retrospective statistical analysis was performed on a large database of patients who had participated in a post-RP rehabilitation program. Inclusion criteria included: presence of functional erections permitting sexual intercourse pre-RP and commencement of rehabilitation within 12 months of RP. Patients were instructed to obtain a penetration-rigidity erection on at least three occasions per week and to continue this regimen until at least 18 months after RP using either sildenafil or intracavernosal injection therapy (if oral therapy failed). International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and visual analog scale erectile rigidity assessment. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to generate predictors of erectile function (EF) outcomes with penile rehabilitation. Ninety-two patients constituted the study population. Mean patient age and duration post-RP at commencement of the rehabilitation program were 59 +/- 10 years and 7 +/- 3 months, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of operations were bilateral nerve sparing (BNS), 11% unilateral nerve sparing (NS), and 22% non-NS. Comorbidities included hypertension 22%, dyslipidemia 30%, coronary artery disease 7%, and diabetes 2%. Preoperative mean self-reported, partner-corroborated erectile rigidity during relations was 90 +/- 20%. At 18 months post-RP, 57% patients had partner-corroborated functional erections without phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors with a mean erectile rigidity during relations of 72 +/- 16% compared with 45 +/- 22% for those who denied functional erections postoperatively (P > 0.01). The IIEF-EF domain scores in these two cohorts were 21 +/- 7.5 and 13 +/- 9

  5. Stable Radical Content and Anti-Radical Activity of Roasted Arabica Coffee: From In-Tact Bean to Coffee Brew (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J.; Navarini, Luciano; Liverani, Furio Suggi; Drew, Simon C.


    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds. PMID:25856192

  6. Three-Dimensional Cadmium(II Cyanide Coordination Polymers with Ethoxy-, Butoxy- and Hexyloxy-ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kawasaki


    Full Text Available The three novel cadmium(II cyanide coordination polymers with alkoxyethanols, [Cd(CN2(C2H5OCH2CH2OH]n (I, [{Cd(CN2(C4H9OCH2CH2OH}3{Cd(CN2}]n (II and [{Cd(CN2(H2O2}{Cd(CN2}3·2(C6H13OCH2CH2OH]n (III, were synthesized and charcterized by structural determination. Three complexes have three-dimensional Cd(CN2 frameworks; I has distorted tridymite-like structure, and, II and III have zeolite-like structures. The cavities of Cd(CN2 frameworks of the complexes are occupied by the alkoxyethanol molecules. In I and II, hydroxyl oxygen atoms of alkoxyethanol molecules coordinate to the Cd(II ions, and the Cd(II ions exhibit slightly distort trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry. In II, there is also tetrahedral Cd(II ion which is coordinated by only the four cyanides. The hydroxyl oxygen atoms of alkoxyethanol connects etheric oxygen atoms of the neighboring alkoxyethanol by hydrogen bond in I and II. In III, hexyloxyethanol molecules do not coordinate to the Cd(II ions, and two water molecules coordnate to the octahedral Cd(II ions. The framework in III contains octahedral Cd(II and tetrahedral Cd(II in a 1:3 ratio. The Cd(CN2 framework structures depended on the difference of alkyl chain for alkoxyethanol molecules.

  7. (Z-2-Benzylidene-3-n-butoxy-2H-1,4-benzothiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Kheira Sebbar


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H19NOS, the thiazin-3-one ring of the 1,4-thiazin-3-one moiety adopts a screw-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 31.0 (5°. An intramolecular C—H...S hydrogen bond forms an S(6 ring motif. In the crystal, C—H...π(ring contacts form inversion dimers and weak π–π stacking interactions, with a centroid-to-centroid distance of 3.8766 (2 Å, also occur.

  8. De-radicalization and Counter-radicalization: Valuable Tools Combating Violent Extremism, or Harmful Methods of Subjugation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Pettinger


    Full Text Available This article debates the justifications behind the practice of counter-radicalization and de-radicalization. It emphasizes the concepts as shrouded in confusion, and highlights that the practices continue to develop and expand despite claims of counter-productiveness, wholly subjective evaluation, and significant doubt around their premises. The aim of this article is to encourage a greater awareness of the potential costs to society of promoting policy with no rigorous basis of evidence. Focussing on both (rehabilitative prison counter-radicalization schemes and (preventative non-prison based de-radicalization, the discussion explores the evaluative methods that remain chaotic despite a growing need for ‘evidence-based’ public policy-making, examines the tenuous link between terrorism and ideology which upholds the principles behind attempts to combat radicalization, and then analyses the possible outcomes for society of relying on these schemes to minimize extremist violence. It concludes that taking the link between terrorism and ideology as causal is deeply flawed, and that by persisting with no systematic method of evaluation combating radicalization in these ways will continue to fail. Indeed, in prisons, they have been found to be distrusted, ineffective and even detrimental. Outside of prisons, where preventative counter-radicalization programmes exist, these will continue to divide societies among the lines where suspect communities are drawn. It takes the view that whilst we continue to elevate de-radicalization as a ‘useful tool’ in combating terrorism, we will also continue to associate certain people groups with terrorism and only add to grievances that exist in our societies.

  9. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    investigated using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H2O2, in the presence and absence of added tyrosine. Incubation of HRP with H2O2 and bovine or human serum albumins, in the presence and absence of tyrosine, gave long-lived albumin-derived radicals as detected by EPR spectroscopy. Evidence has been obtained...... for these albumin radicals being located on buried tyrosine residues on the basis of blocking experiments. The effect of protein conformation on radical transfer has been investigated using partial proteolytic digestion prior to protein oxidation. With HRP/H2O2/BSA and Fe(III)Mb/H2O2/BSA increased radical...... concentrations were observed after limited digestion, although this effect was less marked with the HRP/H2O2/BSA system than with Fe(III)Mb/H2O2/BSA, consistent with different modes of radical transfer. More extensive digestion of BSA decreased the radical concentration to levels below those detected with native...

  10. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J Troup

    Full Text Available The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (< 3 kD fraction exhibited the highest AO capacity using DPPH as an oxidant. The AO activity was not mediated by the stable radicals or by metal complexes within the brew. While other non-AO functions of the roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  11. Novel anatomical identification of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: fascial-sparing radical prostatectomy (United States)

    Huri, Emre


    Radical prostatectomy (RP) became a first choice of treatment for prostate cancer after the advance in nerve-sparing techniques. However, the difficult technical details still involved in nerve-sparing RP (nsRP) can invite unwanted complications. Therefore, learning to recognize key anatomical features of the prostate and its surrounding structures is crucial to further improve RP efficacy. Although the anatomical relation between the pelvic nerves and pelvic fascias is still under investigation, this paper characterizes the periprostatic fascias in order to define a novel fascial-sparing approach to RP (fsRP), which will help spare neurovascular bundles. In uroanatomic perspective, it can be stated that nsRP is a functional identification of the surgical technique while fsRP is an anatomic identification as well. The functional and oncological outcomes related to this novel fsRP are also reviewed. PMID:24693527

  12. Novel anatomical identification of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy: fascial-sparing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Huri


    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP became a first choice of treatment for prostate cancer after the advance in nerve-sparing techniques. However, the difficult technical details still involved in nerve-sparing RP (nsRP can invite unwanted complications. Therefore, learning to recognize key anatomical features of the prostate and its surrounding structures is crucial to further improve RP efficacy. Although the anatomical relation between the pelvic nerves and pelvic fascias is still under investigation, this paper characterizes the periprostatic fascias in order to define a novel fascial-sparing approach to RP (fsRP, which will help spare neurovascular bundles. In uroanatomic perspective, it can be stated that nsRP is a functional identification of the surgical technique while fsRP is an anatomic identification as well. The functional and oncological outcomes related to this novel fsRP are also reviewed.

  13. Semantic Radicals Contribute More Than Phonetic Radicals to the Recognition of Chinese Phonograms: Behavioral and ERP Evidence in a Factorial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xieshun Wang


    Full Text Available The Chinese phonograms consist of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical. The two types of radicals have different functional contributions to their host phonogram. The semantic radical typically signifies the meaning of the phonogram, while the phonetic radical usually contains a phonological clue to the phonogram’s pronunciation. However, it is still unclear how they interplay with each other when we attempt to recognize a phonogram because previous studies rarely manipulated the functionality of the two types of radicals in a single design. Using a full factorial design, the present study aimed to probe this issue by directly manipulating the functional validity of the two types of radicals in a lexical decision task with both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP measurements. The results showed that recognition of phonograms which were related to their semantic radicals in meaning took a shorter reaction time, showed a lower error rate, and elicited a smaller P200 and a larger N400 than did recognition of those which had no semantic relation with their semantic radicals. However, the validity of phonetic radicals did not show any main effect or interaction with that of semantic radicals on either behavioral or ERP measurements. These results indicated that semantic radicals played a dominant role in the recognition of phonograms. Transparent semantic radicals, which provide valid semantic cues to phonograms, can facilitate the recognition of phonograms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena de Botton


    Full Text Available The understanding of the sexual-affective relationships has historically notbeen tackled by science, but placed in the context of instincts and irrationality. In thissense, the critical theory of the Radical Love provides a contribution to critical pedagogyallowing people to understand the mechanisms that direct their emotions and theprocess of election in the sexual-affective relationships. It is about understanding whodo we fall in love for, why and to which values is this desire linked being able to have agreat repercussion in our lives as it provides us with the tools to develop satisfactorysexual-affective relationships. It also offers us guidelines for a preventive educationregarding gender violence by enabling us to understand the attraction models in whichwe have been socialised and which are influencing our desire and elections.Históricamente la comprensión de las relaciones sexual-afectivas no ha sidoabordada desde la ciencia, sino que ha sido situada en el marco de los instintos y de lairracionalidad. En este sentido, la teoría crítica del Radical Love realiza una contribuciónpara la pedagogía crítica al permitir a las personas comprender los mecanismos querigen en las emociones y en el proceso de elección de las relaciones sexual-afectivas. Setrata de comprender de quiénes nos enamoramos, por qué y a qué valores se entrelazaeste deseo, puesto que todo ello puede tener una gran repercusión en nuestras vidas.Avanzar hacia esta comprensión nos da las herramientas para poder desarrollar unasrelaciones afectivo-sexuales satisfactorias. También nos ofrece orientaciones para unaeducación preventiva de la violencia de género al permitirnos comprender los modelosde atracción en los que nos hemos socializado y que influyen en nuestro deseo y elección.

  15. The Effect of Radical Innovation In/Congruence on New Product Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, W.; Sinkula, J.; Grinstein, A.; Rosenzweig, S.


    Radical innovation is critical for many firms and for society. This research focuses on the impact of radical innovation congruence - the degree to which management values regarding radical innovation match radical innovation norms in the business unit. We offer a model and empirically test it to

  16. Missing Peroxy Radical Sources Within a Rural Forest Canopy (United States)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Cantrell, C.; Kim, S.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Karl, T.; Harley, P.; Turnipseed, A.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F.; Apel, E. C.; hide


    Organic peroxy (RO2) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals are key intermediates in the photochemical processes that generate ozone, secondary organic aerosol and reactive nitrogen reservoirs throughout the troposphere. In regions with ample biogenic hydrocarbons, the richness and complexity of peroxy radical chemistry presents a significant challenge to current-generation models, especially given the scarcity of measurements in such environments. We present peroxy radical observations acquired within a Ponderosa pine forest during the summer 2010 Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study (BEACHON-ROCS). Total peroxy radical mixing ratios reach as high as 180 pptv and are among the highest yet recorded. Using the comprehensive measurement suite to constrain a near-explicit 0-D box model, we investigate the sources, sinks and distribution of peroxy radicals below the forest canopy. The base chemical mechanism underestimates total peroxy radicals by as much as a factor of 3. Since primary reaction partners for peroxy radicals are either measured (NO) or under-predicted (HO2 and RO2, i.e. self-reaction), missing sources are the most likely explanation for this result. A close comparison of model output with observations reveals at least two distinct source signatures. The first missing source, characterized by a sharp midday maximum and a strong dependence on solar radiation, is consistent with photolytic production of HO2. The diel profile of the second missing source peaks in the afternoon and suggests a process that generates RO2 independently of sun-driven photochemistry, such as ozonolysis of reactive hydrocarbons. The maximum magnitudes of these missing sources (approximately 120 and 50 pptv min-1, respectively) are consistent with previous observations alluding to unexpectedly intense oxidation within forests. We conclude that a similar mechanism may underlie many such observations.

  17. Mesolysis of radical anions of tetra-, penta-, and hexaphenylethanes. (United States)

    Tojo, Sachiko; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro


    A central carbon–carbon (C–C) σ bond dissociation of polyphenylethane radical anions (Ph(n)E•-, n = 3–6), mesolysis, was investigated by the transient absorption measurement during pulse radiolysis of Ph(n)E in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. The charge resonance (CR) band of 1,1,2,2-tetraphenylethane radical anion (1,1,2,2-Ph4E•-) was observed in the near-infrared region immediately after an electron pulse to be attributed to the intramolecular dimer radical anion. The CR band disappeared with simultaneous formation of two absorption bands at 330 and 460 nm corresponding to diphenylmethyl radical and diphenylmethyl anion, respectively, indicating the occurrence of the mesolysis in 1,1,2,2-Ph4E•-. During pulse radiolysis of 1,1,1,2,2,2-hexaphenylethane (Ph6E), an absorption band of triphenylmethyl radical was observed at 340 nm immediately after an electron pulse. It is suggested that one electron attachment to Ph6E is followed by the subsequent rapid C–C σ bond dissociation. Formation of intramolecular dimer radical anions in Ph(n)E•- such as 1,1,2-triphenylethane (Ph3E), 1,1,1,2-tetraphenylethane (1,1,1,2-Ph4E), and 1,1,1,2,2-pentaphenylethane (Ph5E) was also studied together with the subsequent mesolysis. The mesolysis of Ph(n)E•- is discussed in terms of charge delocalization in the intramolecular dimer radical anions and the central C–C σ bond as well as bond dissociation energy of the central C–C σ bond of Ph(n)E•-.

  18. Interaction of radicals from water radiolysis with melanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarna, T.; Pilas, B.; Land, E.J.; Truscott, T.G.


    Melanins are considered to be natural photoprotectors in the melanocytes and keratinocytes of the skin. These pigments have also been suggested to play an important role in protection of melanin-containing cells against ionising radiation. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the protective role of melanin which invoke the radical scavenging properties of the polymer. In the present work the reactions of melanins with radicals generated in aqueous media by pulse radiolysis have been studied. Time-resolved changes in absorbance of the melanin or the radical species were recorded at selected wavelengths. Experiments were carried out on synthetic dopa- and 5-S-cysteinyldopa-melanins and a natural melanin in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Under the conditions employed, melanin reacted predominantly with either oxidising (OH., N3.) or reducing (eaq-, CO2-) species. We were also able to monitor the interaction of melanin with superoxide radical, which was reducing in this case. Detailed analysis of transient changes in melanin absorbance, detected at different wavelengths, was demonstrated to be a convenient method for studying redox processes of this substance, as shown by model experiments using ferricyanide and dithionite as oxidising and reducing agents, respectively. Among the radicals studied, OH. exhibited the strongest reactivity with melanins. Apparent rate constants for the reactions of radicals with autoxidative dopa-melanin (1.5 X 10(9) M-1 X s-1, 2.6 X 10(8) M-1 X s-1, 1.8 X 10(8) M-1 X s-1, 5 X 10(5) M-1 X s-1, 10(6)-10(7) M-1 X s-1 for OH., eaq-, N.3. O2- and CO2-, respectively) are reported. The reactivity of melanins with radicals from water radiolysis and their effect on pigment properties are discussed in terms of the structure and possible biological role of the pigments.

  19. The Gas-Phase Spectra of the 1-INDANYL Radical (United States)

    Troy, Tyler P.; Nakajima, Masakazu; Chalyavi, Nahid; Clady, Raphaël G. C. R.; Nauta, Klaas; Kable, Scott H.; Schmidt, Timothy W.


    The gas-phase resonant two color two photon ionization (R2C2PI) spectrum of the 1-indanyl radical (m/z=117) has been identified in the region 20800 - 22600 cm^{-1} in a molecular beam. The radical was produced from the discharge of ˜1 % indene in Argon . Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra were recorded in the same region revealing those features observed in R2C2PI. Other precursor molecules were investigated and it was found that the indane precursor resulted in the strongest signal. The fluorescence of the 1-indanyl radical origin band (21158 cm^{-1}) was dispersed in order to determine the ground state vibrational energies. The dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectrum is consistent with the previously observed condensed-phase emission spectrum of the 1-indanyl radical. The DF values were compared with those ground state energies determined by DFT. Franck-Condon factors computed based on the ab initio results showed good agreement with the observed spectrum. Based on the theoretical results we assigned the observed bands. The LIF spectrum contained other bands inconsistent with the 1-indanyl radical. These have been determined to be carried by 1-phenylpropargyl radical and another currently unknown radical determined by R2C2PI to have m/z=133. [1] T. Izumida, K. Inoue, S. Noda, and H. Yoshida, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 54, 2517 (1981). [2] N. J. Reilly, D. L. Kokkin, M. Nakajima, K. Nauta, S. H. Kable, and T. W. Schmidt, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 3137 (2009).

  20. Comparison between Two Bromine Containing Free Radical Initiators in PRESAGE®

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyeonsuk; Ryu, Dongmin; Ye, Sung-Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    PRESAGE® is an optically clear 3-D polyurethane dosimeter which contains a halogenated carbon as a free radical initiator and leucomalachite dye. The change of the optical density is known to be linear with respect to the absorbed dose and the sensitivity is related to the carbon–halogen bond dissociation energy of the free radical initiator. Although there are some studies regarding free radical initiators and dye materials, there’s a lack of reports about the effect of other elements like LMG solvent which can be added when there’s a difficulty mixing materials. Also, there are some studies about comparison between free radicals with different kind of halogen atoms but there’s a lack of studies of comparison between initiators with the same halogen atom. In this experiments, two kinds of halocarbon free radical initiator with the same halogen atom (bromine) as well as the effect of the LMG solvent were studied to use the dosimeter as a therapeutic purpose. Effective atomic numbers were also calculated. The initiators with the same halogen atom, CBr{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Br{sub 4}, reacted totally differently. CBr{sub 4} was more sensitive to the radiation and emitted maximum 4 times more free radicals upon irradiation with no additional effective atomic number but the absorbance after irradiation was highly variable with time. For stable measurement, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Br{sub 4} would be more appropriate as a free radical initiator.

  1. Photoisomerization and photodissociation dynamics of reactive free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bise, Ryan T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The photofragmentation pathways of chemically reactive free radicals have been examined using the technique of fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. Measurements of the photodissociation cross-sections, product branching ratios, product state energy distributions, and angular distributions provide insight into the excited state potential energy surfaces and nonadiabatic processes involved in the dissociation mechanisms. Photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of the predissociative $\\tilde{A}$2A1 and $\\tilde{B}$2A2 states of CH3S have been investigated. At all photon energies, CH3 + S(3Pj), was the main reaction channel. The translational energy distributions reveal resolved structure corresponding to vibrational excitation of the CH3 umbrella mode and the S(3Pj) fine-structure distribution from which the nature of the coupled repulsive surfaces is inferred. Dissociation rates are deduced from the photofragment angular distributions, which depend intimately on the degree of vibrational excitation in the C-S stretch. Nitrogen combustion radicals, NCN, CNN and HNCN have also been studied. For all three radicals, the elimination of molecular nitrogen is the primary reaction channel. Excitation to linear excited triplet and singlet electronic states of the NCN radical generates resolved vibrational structure of the N2 photofragment. The relatively low fragment rotational excitation suggests dissociation via a symmetric C2V transition state. Resolved vibrational structure of the N2 photofragment is also observed in the photodissociation of the HNCN radical. The fragment vibrational and rotational distributions broaden with increased excitation energy. Simple dissociation models suggest that the HNCN radical isomerizes to a cyclic intermediate (c-HCNN) which then dissociates via a tight cyclic

  2. Kinetics and Thermochemistry of the Reactions of Propargyl-Type Radicals with Molecular Oxygen


    Pekkanen, Timo Theodor


    The oxygen reactions of hydrocarbon radicals are important both in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. In this thesis I have studied the oxygen reactions of propagyl-type radicals (propargyl, 1-methylpropargyl, 3-methylpropargyl and 3-ethylpropargyl). Propargyl radical (2-propyn-1-yl) is an alkyl radical with the structure H3C≡C–CH2●. Because these radicals are resonance stabilised, their oxygen reactions are relatively slow. This means that in a combustion environment they might reach ...

  3. Hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical formation by methylene blue in the presence of ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, G.R.; Doherty, T.P.; Bannister, T.D.


    Using ESR we have demonstrated the formation of the ascorbate free radical from sodium ascorbate, methylene blue and light. In oxygen uptake experiments we have observed the production of hydrogen peroxide while spin trapping experiments have revealed the iron catalyzed production of the hydroxyl free radical in this system. The presence of this highly reactive radical suggests that it could be the radical that initiates free radical damage in this photodynamic system. 39 refs.

  4. Persistent free radicals in woodsmoke: an ESR spin trapping study. (United States)

    Lachocki, T M; Church, D F; Pryor, W A


    Free radicals are detected in the gas-phase smoke resulting from the combustion of wood using the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping method. The materials were pyrolyzed by rapid heating in a quartz tube in a flowing air stream. The filtered smoke was bubbled into a dodecane solution of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, and the resulting nitroxide radicals were detected by ESR. The radicals spin trapped from woodsmoke are compared to those we have spin trapped from tobacco smoke; the smoke from both yellow pine and oak produce more intense ESR spectra than does tobacco smoke per unit mass burned under the conditions of these experiments. When woodsmoke is bubbled through pure dodecane and the resulting woodsmoke/dodecane solution is held for a delay time before the PBN is added, radicals are detected even after the woodsmoke/dodecane solution is aged for more than 20 min. Similar experiments with tobacco smoke show that radicals no longer are trapped even after much shorter delay times from tobacco smoke/dodecane solutions.

  5. Totally intracorporeal robot-assisted radical cystectomy: optimizing total outcomes. (United States)

    Collins, Justin W; Wiklund, N Peter


    We performed a systematic literature review to assess the current status of a totally intracorporeal robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) approach. The current 'gold standard' for radical cystectomy remains open radical cystectomy. RARC has lagged behind robot-assisted prostatectomy in terms of adoption and perceived patient benefit, but there are indications that this is now changing. There have been several recently published large series of RARC, both with extracorporeal and with intracorporeal urinary diversions. The present review focuses on the totally intracorporeal approach. Radical cystectomy is complex surgery with several important outcome measures, including oncological and functional outcomes, complication rates, patient recovery and cost implications. We aim to answer the question of whether there are advantages to a totally intracorporeal robotic approach or whether we are simply making an already complex procedure more challenging with an associated increase in complication rates. We review the current status of both oncological and functional outcomes of totally intracorporeal RARC compared with standard RARC with extraperitoneal urinary diversion and with open radical cystectomy, and assess the associated short- and long-term complication rates. We also review aspects in training and research that have affected the uptake of RARC. Additionally we evaluate how current technology is contributing to the future development of this surgical technique. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  6. New tricks for the glycyl radical enzyme family. (United States)

    Backman, Lindsey R F; Funk, Michael A; Dawson, Christopher D; Drennan, Catherine L


    Glycyl radical enzymes (GREs) are important biological catalysts in both strict and facultative anaerobes, playing key roles both in the human microbiota and in the environment. GREs contain a backbone glycyl radical that is post-translationally installed, enabling radical-based mechanisms. GREs function in several metabolic pathways including mixed acid fermentation, ribonucleotide reduction and the anaerobic breakdown of the nutrient choline and the pollutant toluene. By generating a substrate-based radical species within the active site, GREs enable C-C, C-O and C-N bond breaking and formation steps that are otherwise challenging for nonradical enzymes. Identification of previously unknown family members from genomic data and the determination of structures of well-characterized GREs have expanded the scope of GRE-catalyzed reactions as well as defined key features that enable radical catalysis. Here, we review the structures and mechanisms of characterized GREs, classifying members into five categories. We consider the open questions about each of the five GRE classes and evaluate the tools available to interrogate uncharacterized GREs.

  7. NADH Induces the Generation of Superoxide Radicals in Leaf Peroxisomes. (United States)

    Del Río, L A; Fernández, V M; Rupérez, F L; Sandalio, L M; Palma, J M


    In peroxisomes isolated from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) the production of superoxide free radicals (O(2) (-)) by xanthine and NADH was investigated. In peroxisomal membranes, 100 micromolar NADH induced the production of O(2) (-) radicals. In the soluble fractions of peroxisomes, no generation of O(2) (-) radicals was observed by incubation with either NADH or xanthine, although xanthine oxidase was found located predominantly in the matrix of peroxisomes. The failure of xanthine to induce superoxide generation was probably due to the inability to fully suppress the endogenous Mn-superoxide dismutase activity by inhibitors which were inactive against xanthine oxidase. The generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes together with the recently described production of these oxygen radicals in glyoxysomes (LM Sandalio, VM Fernández, FL Rupérez, LA del Río [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 1-4) suggests that O(2) (-) generation could be a common metabolic property of peroxisomes and further supports the existence of active oxygen-related rôles for peroxisomes in cellular metabolism.

  8. Polydopamine Generates Hydroxyl Free Radicals under Ultraviolet-Light Illumination. (United States)

    Wang, Zehuan; Tang, Feng; Fan, Hailong; Wang, Le; Jin, Zhaoxia


    Polydopamine (PDA) generally demonstrates as an efficient free-radical scavenger. However, its free-radical chemistry under illumination is unclear, which becomes important in view of growing studies of polydopamine applications in photoprotector and photothermal therapy. In this study, for the first time, we reported an experimental investigation of the generation of hydroxyl free radicals from ultraviolet (UV)-illuminated polydopamine in an aqueous environment. By using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe, we measured hydroxyl radicals generated from UV-illuminated polydopamine with different shapes and sizes. The morphology of PDA shows significant influence on its productions of hydroxyl free radicals. Through characterizations of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, mass spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis, we demonstrated the change of PDA nanomaterials brought by UV-light illumination in composition and thermal stability. We proposed a tentative mechanism for interpreting the relationship between morphology and photostability of PDA nanomaterials. These results reveal underlying complexity of polydopamine chemistry under light illumination that will deepen our understanding and benefit its further application.

  9. Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Këlliçi Klejd


    Full Text Available The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement, a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

  10. Positive Effect of Propolis on Free Radicals in Burn Wounds (United States)

    Olczyk, Pawel; Ramos, Pawel; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Stojko, Jerzy; Pilawa, Barbara


    Concentration and properties of free radicals in the burn wounds treated with propolis were examined by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magnetic spin-spin interactions and complex free radicals structures in wound beds were studied. The results were compared to those obtained for silver sulphadiazine used as a standard pharmaceutical agent. The changes of free radicals in the matrix of injury with time of exposition on these substances were tested. The aim of this study was to check the hypothesis about the best influence of propolis on the burn wounds healing. It was confirmed that a relatively lower concentration of free radicals exists in the burn wounds treated with propolis. The homogeneously broadened spectra and a complex free radical system characterize the tested tissue samples. The fastening of spin-lattice relaxation processes in the matrix of injury after treatment with propolis and silver sulphadiazine was observed. Practical usefulness of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in alternative medicine was proved. PMID:23762125

  11. The role of free radicals in traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    O'Connell, Karen M; Littleton-Kearney, Marguerite T


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in both the civilian and the military populations. The primary impact causes initial tissue damage, which initiates biochemical cascades, known as secondary injury, that expand the damage. Free radicals are implicated as major contributors to the secondary injury. Our review of recent rodent and human research reveals the prominent role of the free radicals superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite in secondary brain injury. Much of our current knowledge is based on rodent studies, and the authors identified a gap in the translation of findings from rodent to human TBI. Rodent models are an effective method for elucidating specific mechanisms of free radical-induced injury at the cellular level in a well-controlled environment. However, human TBI does not occur in a vacuum, and variables controlled in the laboratory may affect the injury progression. Additionally, multiple experimental TBI models are accepted in rodent research, and no one model fully reproduces the heterogeneous injury seen in humans. Free radical levels are measured indirectly in human studies based on assumptions from the findings from rodent studies that use direct free radical measurements. Further study in humans should be directed toward large samples to validate the findings in rodent studies. Data obtained from these studies may lead to more targeted treatment to interrupt the secondary injury cascades.

  12. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health (United States)

    Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; Phatak, A.; Chandra, N.


    In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases. PMID:22228951

  13. Inhomogeneous ensembles of radical pairs in chemical compasses (United States)

    Procopio, Maria; Ritz, Thorsten


    The biophysical basis for the ability of animals to detect the geomagnetic field and to use it for finding directions remains a mystery of sensory biology. One much debated hypothesis suggests that an ensemble of specialized light-induced radical pair reactions can provide the primary signal for a magnetic compass sensor. The question arises what features of such a radical pair ensemble could be optimized by evolution so as to improve the detection of the direction of weak magnetic fields. Here, we focus on the overlooked aspect of the noise arising from inhomogeneity of copies of biomolecules in a realistic biological environment. Such inhomogeneity leads to variations of the radical pair parameters, thereby deteriorating the signal arising from an ensemble and providing a source of noise. We investigate the effect of variations in hyperfine interactions between different copies of simple radical pairs on the directional response of a compass system. We find that the choice of radical pair parameters greatly influences how strongly the directional response of an ensemble is affected by inhomogeneity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniyatus Salamah Zainiyati


    Full Text Available This article is intended to argue several things. The first is that the educational institutions can play two roles within the context of transmitting Islamic understanding; either to preach the tolerance or in contrast the radicalism. The second is that the teachers affiliated to certain radical movements often fall in to corrupt practices by abusing the school curriculum, which actually is aimed at providing guideline for the teachers of Islamic Religion in order to promote characters of students in line with the values of Indonesia Islam. The third is that the condition and the environment of schools tend to allow the room for the deployment process of radical movements in Indonesia. This article will explore issues on the relationship between school curriculum and radicalism, the transmission of Islamic understanding as well as possible solutions for overcoming the spread of radicalism. In conclusion, this article will reinforce ideas that teachers are the most important instruments within the curriculum implementation. In this regards, it is important to note that curriculum in its various forms is just a text and hence the teachers are the ones really determine the ways in which it is being read and interpreted. It is suggested then that there is a duty that should be performed by the government to strengthen their ideology based on the country national guidelines embraced by Muslims in Indonesia.

  15. Scavenging and characterization of short-lived radicals using a novel stable nitroxide radical with a characteristic UV-vis absorption spectrum. (United States)

    Toba, Ryuta; Gotoh, Hiroaki; Sakakibara, Kazuhisa


    A stable tert-butyl(10-phenyl-9-anthryl)nitroxide (BPAN) radical was newly synthesized and used for the capture/characterization of reactive radicals. Adducts obtained from the reactions of BPAN with in situ generated reactive radicals showed excellent stability, assuring complete isolation and purification. The structures of the adducts were established by LC-MS and NMR analyses.

  16. Structure and Reactivity of the Glutathione Radical Cation: Radical Rearrangement from the Cysteine Sulfur to the Glutamic Acid alpha-Carbon Atom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Gulyuz, K.; Polfer, N.C.; O'Hair, R.A.J.; Ryzhov, V.


    A gas-phase radical rearrangement through intramolecular hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) was studied in the glutathione radical cation, [-ECG](+.), which was generated by a homolytic cleavage of the protonated S-nitrosoglutathione. Ion-molecule reactions suggested that the radical migrates from the

  17. Effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of SS phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, M.J.; Mans, D.R.A.; Lafleur, M.V.M.; Van Schaik, M A; de Vries, J; Vermeulen, N P; Retèl, J.; Lankelma, J


    We have studied the effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of ss phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide (VP 16-213), which was generated from the ortho-quinone of etoposide at pH greater than or equal to 7.4. A semi-quinone free radical of

  18. Direct determination of rate constants for coupling between aromatic radical anions and alkyl and benzyl radicals by laser-flash photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.; Christensen, P.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    Coupling rates between the radicals methyl, n-, sec-, tert-butyl and benzyl (R-.) and the aromatic radical anions of 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene, 9,10-dicyanoanthracene and fluorenone (A(-.)) have been obtained using a new laser-flash photolysis method. The radicals R-. and the radical anions A(-.) we...... of the radicals and the structure and standard potentials of the aromatic radical anions.......Coupling rates between the radicals methyl, n-, sec-, tert-butyl and benzyl (R-.) and the aromatic radical anions of 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene, 9,10-dicyanoanthracene and fluorenone (A(-.)) have been obtained using a new laser-flash photolysis method. The radicals R-. and the radical anions A(-.) were...... generated by a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between the aromatic compound A and the alkyl or benzyl triphenylborate anion RB(Ph)(3)(-). For the first time the rate constants of the coupling reaction between methyl and benzyl radicals with aromatic radical anions have been obtained. For all...

  19. Generation and reactivity of a lactone derived radical (United States)

    Lalevée, J.; Allonas, X.; Fouassier, J. P.


    The behavior of a lactone derived acrylate monomer (LacA) representative of Highly Reactive Acrylate Monomers (HRAM) and, for comparison, IsoDecyl Acrylate (IDA), is studied. Time resolved absorption spectroscopy allows the direct detection of the lactone derived radical Lac rad formed through a hydrogen abstraction reaction between LacA and the benzophenone triplet state or the t-butoxyl radical. Interestingly, Lac rad is almost not sensitive to oxygen (rate constant <5 × 10 6 M -1 s -1). Quantum mechanical calculations appear powerful to characterize the radical absorption spectrum (at 386 nm) and the spin density (0.8) of Lac rad , the reaction enthalpy (-52.1 kJ/mol) and the barrier (7.9 kJ/mol) for the Lac rad /O 2 reaction. This computational approach allows a discussion of the Lac rad reactivity.

  20. Electrocatalytic Properties of BDD Anodes: Its Loosely Adsorbed Hydroxyl Radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaos Vatistas


    Full Text Available The high oxidative action of boron doped diamond (BDD anodes on the biorefractory organic compounds has been attributed to the low adsorption of the generated hydroxyl radicals on the BDD surface in respect to other anodic materials. In a previous paper, the effect of low adsorption of BBD has been studied by proposing a continuum approach to represent the adsorption layer. The oxidative action of the hydroxyl radicals is attributed to the values of their diffusivity into the adsorption and adjacent reactive layer as well as to the value of kinetic constant in both layers. In this paper, more details on both layers are reported in order to justify the proposed continuum approach as well as the assumptions concerning diffusivity and kinetic constant in both adsorption and reactive layers, where the oxidative action of hydroxyl radicals occurs.

  1. A direita radical na Universidade de Coimbra (1945-1974

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    Riccardo Marchi


    Full Text Available Entre 1945 e 1974 sucedem-se na Universidade de Coimbra três gerações de militantes da direita radical que se norteiam por um nacionalismo revolucionário parcialmente influenciado pela subcultura política do neofascismo europeu. O cerne da luta destes estudantes radicais é a defesa intransigente do império português face à agonia do regime autoritário.Between 1945 and 1974, there were three generations of militants of the radical right at the University of Coimbra, guided by a revolutionary nationalism partly influenced by the political sub-culture of European neofascism. The core of these radical students' struggle lay in an uncompromising defence of the Portuguese empire in the dying days of the authoritarian regime.

  2. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Free Radicals Produced by Ionizing Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    Applications of time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by ionizing radiation are briefly reviewed. Potential advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed in the light of given examples. The reduction of p-nitrobenzylchloride and......Applications of time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by ionizing radiation are briefly reviewed. Potential advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed in the light of given examples. The reduction of p......-nitrobenzylchloride and subsequent formation of the p-nitrobenzyl radical and the reaction of p-nitrotoluene with O– are studied by resonance Raman and optical absorption spectroscopy....

  3. Spectroscopic study of combustion diagnostics on hydroxyl radicals (United States)

    Hung, R. J.


    Experimental observations of propane-air flames were performed. Measurements of hydroxyl (OH) radical concentration were made using resonance line absorption techniques. A microwave-pumped low pressure discharge in argon and water vapor is employed to produce strong OH radical band radiation in the 308 nm region. This radiation is transmitted through the plume and absorption data are taken at various radical positions using an optical multichannel analyzer. This absorption data is used to compute OH number density using a model for the absorption band characteristics as a function of temperature based on an atlas of line strengths. A numerical computation of flow fields, temperature profile and OH number density is carried out by using a technique of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results of CFD computation are good compared with experimental observation with a good agreement.

  4. Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Özerdem


    Full Text Available In the complex of motivating variables that define the push and pull factors behind recruitment and participation in civil conflict, "radicalization"—or "violent extremism"—is not conceived as a very strong motive, as is the case with studies on terrorism. As part of disarming youth combatants,the linkages between reintegration outcomes and possible rerecruitment into radical and extremist violence must be better understood to mitigate such risks. In our analysis, the policies guiding reintegration of child soldiers and youth should be better attuned to the relationship between recruitment motivations and reintegration outcomes, and must be approached from a political lens rather than a purely technical one. The risk of radicalization and involvement in violent extremism is ultimately a structural challenge, which needs to address root causes of recruitment rather than trying to find a solution through a band-aid approach of stopgap reintegration assistance.

  5. Photodissociation dynamics and spectroscopy of free radical combustion intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, David Lewis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals is studied by the technique of fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. Photodetachment of internally cold, mass-selected negative ions produces a clean source of radicals, which are subsequently dissociated and detected. The photofragment yield as a function of photon energy is obtained, mapping out the dissociative and predissociative electronic states of the radical. In addition, the photodissociation dynamics, product branching ratios, and bond energies are probed at fixed photon energies by measuring the translational energy, P(ET), and angular distribution of the recoiling fragments using a time- and position-sensitive detector. Ab initio calculations are combined with dynamical and statistical models to interpret the observed data. The photodissociation of three prototypical hydrocarbon combustion intermediates forms the core of this work.

  6. Characterization of Neutral Radicals from a Dissociative Electron Attachment Process (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.; Carmichael, Ian; Ptasinska, Sylwia


    Despite decades of gas-phase studies on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to various molecules, as yet there has been no direct detection and characterization of the neutral radical species produced by this process. In this study, we performed stepwise electron spectroscopy to directly measure and characterize the neutrals produced upon zero-electron-energy DEA to the model molecule, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). We observed the direct yield of the trichloromethyl radical (CCl3. ) formed by DEA to CCl4 and measured the appearance energies of all the other neutral species. By combining these experimental findings with high-level quantum chemical calculations, we performed a complete analysis of both the DEA to CCl4 and the subsequent electron-impact ionization of CCl3. . This work paves the way toward a complete experimental characterization of DEA processes, which will lead to a better understanding of the low-energy electron-induced formation of radical species.

  7. Research Note: Inside an Indonesian Online Library for Radical Materials

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    Muhammad Haniff Hassan


    Full Text Available This Research Note provides a review of an Indonesian online library for radical materials. The objective of this review is to compile data and information that will contribute to the understanding of the online radicalisation phenomenon as well as the extremists themselves. Based on data found on the online library, this Research Note reports findings on the influence of Al-Maqdisi’s website; the emphasis on translation work of Arabic materials to Indonesian language by radicals and the value of Arabic materials to them. It also covers influential thinkers and ideologues and the use of the Wikipedia modus operandi to hasten the development of the website and effect mobilisation and recruitment, among others things. Based on the data found, this Research Note concludes that ideas matter to radicals.

  8. Kinetic Study of Free Radicals Scavenging by Saffron Petal Extracts

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    T. Ardalan


    Full Text Available Saffron petal is the main by-product of saffron processing which is produced in large amounts, annually. The objectives of this study were to study the antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging effects of saffron petal extracts. The ability of saffron petal to act as an antioxidant using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free-radical method was investigated by applying the Uv–Vis spectrometry. The Uv–Vis spectra of reaction mixtures in acetonitrile revealed that saffron petal has a considerable effect on scavenging free radical. Kinetic studies were conducted by measuring the disappearance of DPPH in acetonitrile over the wavelength range of 515-522 nm under pseudo-first-order conditions at 37oC. Furthermore, the pseudo first order rate constants were determined

  9. A zero-dimensional approach to compute real radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke J. Spang


    Full Text Available The notion of real radicals is a fundamental tool in Real Algebraic Geometry. It takes the role of the radical ideal in Complex Algebraic Geometry. In this article I shall describe the zero-dimensional approach and efficiency improvement I have found during the work on my diploma thesis at the University of Kaiserslautern (cf. [6]. The main focus of this article is on maximal ideals and the properties they have to fulfil to be real. New theorems and properties about maximal ideals are introduced which yield an heuristic prepare_max which splits the maximal ideals into three classes, namely real, not real and the class where we can't be sure whether they are real or not. For the latter we have to apply a coordinate change into general position until we are sure about realness. Finally this constructs a randomized algorithm for real radicals. The underlying theorems and algorithms are described in detail.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth


    This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case...... study of the Danish pharmaceutical company, H. Lundbeck A/S, and explorative studies of seven European and American pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The study aims to show how companies can apply HR practices in ways that actively supports the development of radical front end innovation. The value...... added and the contribution of this article to the existing FEI and HR literature therefore lies in the exploration and mapping of how radical front end innovation is and can be facilitated through targeted HR practices; and in identifying the unique opportunities and challenges of innovation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Perlin


    Full Text Available Introduction. Endoscopic radical prostatectomy is a highly effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. Intrafascial prostate dissection ensures early recovery of urine continence function and erectile function. This article sums up our own experience of performing intrafascial endoscopic prostatectomy.Materials and methods. 25 patients have undergone this procedure. 12 months after surgery 88.2 % of the patients were fully continent, 11.7 % had symptoms of minimal stress urinary incontinence. We encountered no cases of positive surgical margins and one case of bio-chemical recurrence of the disease.Conclusion. Oncologically, intrafascial endoscopic radical prostatectomy is as effective as other modifications of radical prostatectomy and has the benefits of early recovery of urine continence function and erectile function. 

  12. Radical Contagion and Healthy Literature in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine. (United States)

    Roberts, Jessica

    During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the revolution in France served as a catalyst for heavily allegorical political rhetoric, and the idea that radical politics were contagious became commonplace in conservative writing and oratory. This political contagion is described by Blackwood's as raging through the ranks of the rural poor as late as 1830. Confronted by this threat, Blackwood's promoted itself alternatively as a stimulant or as a cure for the metaphorical poison or infection that radical publications were seen to be spreading amongst the poor. Blackwood's also strove to maintain the political health of its readership by identifying healthy literature for its readers and the lower order. This article analyzes Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine's application of the vocabulary of disease and contagion to radical politics and publications, and considers questions of taste, class, and Britishness in discussions of healthy reading habits.

  13. Stable radical content and anti-radical activity of roasted Arabica coffee: from in-tact bean to coffee brew. (United States)

    Troup, Gordon J; Navarini, Luciano; Suggi Liverani, Furio; Drew, Simon C


    The roasting of coffee beans generates stable radicals within melanoidins produced by non-enzymatic browning. Roasting coffee beans has further been suggested to increase the antioxidant (AO) capacity of coffee brews. Herein, we have characterized the radical content and AO capacity of brews prepared from Coffea arabica beans sourced directly from an industrial roasting plant. In-tact beans exhibited electron paramagnetic resonance signals arising from Fe3+, Mn2+ and at least three distinct stable radicals as a function of roasting time, whose intensity changed upon grinding and ageing. In coffee brews, the roasting-induced radicals were harboured within the high molecular weight (> 3 kD) melanoidin-containing fraction at a concentration of 15 nM and was associated with aromatic groups within the melanoidins. The low molecular weight (roasting-induced radical and metal complexes may be possible in vivo, we confirm that the in vitro antiradical activity of brewed coffee is dominated by low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

  14. Zwitterion radicals and anion radicals from electron transfer and solvent condensation with the fingerprint developing agent ninhydrin. (United States)

    Schertz, T D; Reiter, R C; Stevenson, C D


    Ninhydrin (the fingerprint developing agent) spontaneously dehydrates in liquid ammonia and in hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to form indantrione, which has a sufficiently large solution electron affinity to extract an electron from the solvent (HMPA) to produce the indantrione anion radical. In liquid NH(3), the presence of trace amounts of amide ion causes the spontaneous formation of an anion radical condensation product, wherein the no. 2 carbon (originally a carbonyl carbon) becomes substituted with -NH(2) and -OH groups. In HMPA, the indantrione anion radical spontaneously forms condensation products with the HMPA to produce a variety of zwitterionic radicals, wherein the no. 2 carbon becomes directly attached to a nitrogen of the HMPA. The mechanisms for the formation of the zwitterionic paramagnetic condensation products are analogous to that observed in the reaction of ninhydrin with amino acids to yield Ruhemann's Purple, the contrast product in fingerprint development. The formation of anion and zwitterionic radical condensation products from ninhydrin and nitrogen-containing solvents may represent an example of a host of analogous polyketone-solvent reactions.

  15. Radical recombination in interstellar ices, a not so simple mechanism. (United States)

    Butscher, Teddy; Duvernay, Fabrice; Rimola, Albert; Segado-Centellas, Mireia; Chiavassa, Thierry


    Many complex organic molecules (hereafter COMs) have been detected in different regions of the interstellar medium (ISM). In each region, different energetic processes - UV irradiation, atom bombardments, etc. - that could be linked to the formation of detected COMs may occur depending on the environment. Several formation mechanisms were proposed but increasing attention is paid to radical recombination reactions. Previous studies showed that glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) are formed by radical recombination between HC˙O and ˙CH2OH, and by ˙CH2OH dimerisation, respectively. Formyl (HC˙O), one of the most famous astrophysically-relevant radical species, has been detected as a gaseous component of the ISM. Its reactivity was already attributed to the formation of several COMs. This work aims to study the dimerisation of formyl radical HC˙O using a cryogenic matrix technique. The evolution of the chemical sample composition is monitored by infrared spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry during temperature programmed desorption (TPD) monitoring. Results indicate that the reaction of one HC˙O with another does not lead to the direct formation of glyoxal (HC(O)C(O)H) but yields H2CO and CO. Results are also compared with those for the reaction between two ˙CH2OH radicals and the recombination between HC˙O and ˙CH2OH. Also, glyceraldehyde was tentatively detected in our experiment using different spectroscopic techniques. A radical mechanism is proposed to explain its formation in our experiments. Complementary quantum chemical calculations provide an atomistic interpretation of the experimental findings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Mitchell


    Full Text Available This essay summarizes a larger study into radicalization in secondary schools (Grades 8-12 in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, from the perspective of school principals and vice-principals (PVPs. In addition to determining the extent of radicalization, the study further explored the extent to which PVPs felt they were prepared to cope with radicalization in a school environment, and obtained their assessment of the training and resources available to help them deal with this phenomenon. Quantitative and qualitative data was acquired using a survey as well as interviews with PVPs. Research participants reported an unexpectedly low level of engagement by students in radical, extremist, or violent extremist behaviour during the 2014-2015 school year. Only 3% of PVPs surveyed believed that extremist or violent extremist behaviours had increased in their own schools during the previous three-year period, while 6.6% believed it had actually declined somewhat—or even substantially—during this timeframe. There was wide variance in the levels of confidence exhibited by PVPs in their capacity to deal with incidents of extreme or violently extreme behaviours, but most stated that they would welcome additional training on dealing with potential incidents. Only half of the interview participants claimed that the procedures and protocols in place to deal with incidents involving extremist behaviours were adequate. A consistently low level of radicalization was apparent in school environments where some factors that otherwise might trigger student radicalization were identified, explored, and resolved in a supportive and open minded manner by school staff.

  17. Critical appraisal of management of rectal injury during radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Roberts, Wilmer B; Tseng, Kenneth; Walsh, Patrick C; Han, Misop


    To critically evaluate the perioperative management of rectal injury during radical prostatectomy. Rectal injuries were identified from the departmental morbidity and mortality records and radical prostatectomy databases. The electronic patient records were reviewed for management and outcomes. From January 1997 to August 2007, 11 452 men underwent radical prostatectomy. Of these men, 10 183 underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and 1269, laparoscopic retropubic prostatectomy (LRP) with or without robotic assistance. Rectal injury occurred in 18 men-12 in the RRP group (0.12%) and 6 in the LRP group (0.47%). Of these rectal injuries, 16 were recognized intraoperatively and primarily repaired in multiple layers without a diverting colostomy. A pedicle of omentum was used as an interposing layer in 4 of these cases. Despite primary repair, 2 patients without omental interposition developed a rectourethral fistula. In 1 man in the RRP group, the fistula closed with prolonged catheterization (9 weeks). In the other patient, in the LRP group, the fistula persisted; thus, a diverting colostomy was performed. Eventually, a transrectal advancement flap was required. Two rectal injuries (1 each in the RRP and LRP groups) were unrecognized during radical prostatectomy but were discovered within 4 days. Despite conservative management, the rectourethral fistulas persisted in both men, requiring subsequent repair with a transrectal advancement flap. Rectal injury is an infrequent complication of radical prostatectomy. When recognized intraoperatively and primarily repaired, rectourethral fistula was prevented in 87.5% of men. Primary repair performed with vascularized tissue interposition prevented rectourethral fistula development. In men with unrecognized rectal injury, the rectourethral fistula tended to persist and eventually required delayed surgical repair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiris Sindeaux de Alencar Pires de Oliveira


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Misconceptions or alternative conceptions are defined as conceptions that are somewhat different from the scientifically accepted ones and are known to be highly resistant to changes. Free radicals are a widely publicized subject in the media due to their putative importance in human aging and health. Free radicals are a subject susceptible to misconceptions widely spread by the media supporting prejudicial advertising inducing antioxidant consumption. OBJECTIVES: Identify and categorized different free radicals misconceptions published in printed media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Revista Veja (Digital Archive, the weekly magazine with the largest circulation in Brazil, was selected for this investigation. Period analyzed: from 01/01/2000 to 31/07/2014 with search terms Free radicals and antioxidants. Passages selected were classified as: Right Concept (RC, Wrong Concept (WC, Misconception (MC, Inadequate generalization (IG, Inductive [to misconceptions] Concept (IC, Inductive [to misconceptions] Information (II, and Not fit the inclusion criteria (NFIC. Each one of these categories were further subdivided. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: 79 magazine articles, advertisements and information materials were found which led to 293 text passages. 56.3% were MC, 21.4% II, 8.8% IC, 5.4% IG, 3.4% RC, 2.7% WR, 2.0% NFIC. The most frequently subcategory in each category was: MC: x [something] combats free radicals (22.6%; II: x [substance] is antioxidant (54.0%; IC: x [something] increases free radicals production (34.6%; IG: antioxidant x [substance] combats cancer (56.3%; RC: too much vitamins and minerals is harmful to health (30.0%; WR: free radicals are formed during oxygen conversion to energy process (25.0%. CONCLUSION: Magazine analysis reveal non-scientific concepts (MC, II, IC and IG to be highly frequent, notably misconceptions. Moreover, non-scientific concepts together reach 91.8% of all concepts while right concepts respond for only 2

  19. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng


    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  20. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.


    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into

  1. Serbian radicalism 1881-1903: Political thought and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Milan St.


    Full Text Available Subject to transformation and change as any other political ideology Serbian Radicalism nevertheless revolved round some more or less permanent concepts, the most important being constitutionalism, parliamentary democracy, civil liberties and local self-government. Yet another basic aspect of the Radical Party's ideology, its national programme, may be seen as an external ingredient inasmuch as the national emancipation, liberation and unification of the Serbs were viewed as originating from internal freedom. It was only in the 1890s that their national programme became fully developed. Major features of the Party's political practice, on the other hand, were flexibility, pragmatism and cohesion.

  2. The Andijan Events: Radical Islam and Conflict in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogdiana Azhiben


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the influence of radical Islam on the emerging conflicts in the Republic of Uzbekistan through the analysis of radical Islamist discourse and the Andijan events that occurred on May 13, 2005 in the context of socio-economic and political instability. The method employed is the analysis of narratives and discourses on the religious factor in the local and foreign media, the Uzbek government, the international community and the Uzbek populace, with reference to existing theories of political Islam. The first section (Introduction introduces three research questions and attempts to conceptualize the phenomenon of radical Islam by screening for appropriate definitions in an effort to understand the Uzbek cause. The next three sections discuss the realities of the Andijan incident and provide a detailed analysis of its preconditions, development and aftermath. The findings show a continuity in the oppression of Islam, even in the post-Soviet political situation of present-day Uzbekistan. The radical Islamic rhetoric that became an instrument in resolving conflicts is based more on preventing the emergence of opposition than on anti-Western political resistance against imported democratic values. What is relevant to understanding Uzbek society is that Islamic radical ideas have failed to attract support in the general populace because popular Uzbek Islam is more a matter of religiosity than of religion. The former, which relies on concepts of spirituality, is more influential in the local culture and way of life and does not support violence as a means of exerting influence. From a political perspective, however, the over-emphasis on religious radicalism indicates a failure of political institutions that encourages corruption and avoids needed social and economic reforms. It contributes to popular grievances that are formulated and expressed in terms of resentment (the Andijan incident against the state monopoly of

  3. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

  4. Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Vijayakumar, M; Rawat, A K S; Mehrotra, Shanta


    For assessing free radical scavenging potential of P. kurrooa, the antioxidant activity of P. kurrooa extract was studied by lipid peroxidation assay using rat liver homogenate. The extract (1 mg/ml) showed marked protection (up to 66.68%) against peroxidation of liver phospholipids. Besides, reduced glutathione showed very encouraging activity. The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavening activity of the extract.

  5. Living atom transfer radical polymerization of 4-acetoxystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Bo; Chen, Xianyi; Ivan, Bela


    Living atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 4-acetoxystyrene (1), a protected 4-vinylphenol, leading to poly(4-acetoxystyrene) with well-defined molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution was carried out in bulk with a,a'-dibromoxylene(2)/CuBr/2,2-bipyridine(bpy) as initi......Living atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 4-acetoxystyrene (1), a protected 4-vinylphenol, leading to poly(4-acetoxystyrene) with well-defined molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution was carried out in bulk with a,a'-dibromoxylene(2)/CuBr/2,2-bipyridine...

  6. Radiocarbon tracer measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations (United States)

    Campbell, M. J.; Farmer, J. C.; Fitzner, C. A.; Henry, M. N.; Sheppard, J. C.


    The usefulness of the C-14 tracer in measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentration is discussed. The apparatus and the experimental conditions of three variations of a radiochemical method of atmosphere analysis are described and analyzed: the Teflon bag static reactor, the flow reactor (used in the Wallops Island tests), and the aircraft OH titration reactor. The procedure for reduction of the aircraft reactor instrument data is outlined. The problems connected with the measurement of hydroxyl radicals are discussed. It is suggested that the gas-phase radioisotope methods have considerable potential in measuring tropospheric impurities present in very low concentrations.

  7. Behaviorismo radical e discurso pós-moderno


    Abib, José Antônio Damásio


    Argumenta-se neste ensaio que o behaviorismo radical não apoia nenhum destes pressupostos do discurso moderno: fundacionismo na epistemologia, representacionismo na linguagem e as metanarrativas do progresso do Ocidente. Argumenta-se ainda que o behaviorismo radical é solidário com estas tendências do discurso pós-moderno: pragmatismo epistemológico, anti-representacionismo na linguagem e dissolução das metanarrativas do progresso científico, social, político e cultural do Ocidente. Sugere-se...

  8. [Oxygen-derived free radicals. Their role in cardiology]. (United States)

    Iglesias, I; García Bolao, I; Aparici, M; Alzamora, P; Alegría, E


    Oxygen-derived free radicals are highly reactive molecules characterized by the presence of an unpaired electron in one of its outer orbitals. They have been found responsible for some pathologic phenomenons which in the field of cardiology, occurs during tissue reperfusion of a previously ischemic area. Ischemia predisposes an outburst in the production of these molecules upon the reintroduction of oxygen during reperfusion. Animal experimental models have been designed to reduce the damages induced by free radicals using various pharmacologic agents. It is probable that these agents may form a part of the conventional treatment of certain cardiac pathologies in the future.

  9. Novel Complex Polymers with Carbazole Functionality by Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nakabayashi


    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent advances in the design and synthesis of novel complex polymers with carbazole moieties using controlled radical polymerization techniques. We focus on the polymeric architectures of block copolymers, star polymers, including star block copolymers and miktoarm star copolymers, comb-shaped copolymers, and hybrids. Controlled radical polymerization of N-vinylcarbazole (NVC and styrene and (methacrylate derivatives having carbazole moieties is well advanced, leading to the well-controlled synthesis of complex macromolecules. Characteristic optoelectronic properties, assembled structures, and three-dimensional architectures are briefly introduced.

  10. Radical scavenging, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Caatinga plants. (United States)

    David, Juceni P; Meira, Marilena; David, Jorge M; Brandão, Hugo N; Branco, Alexsandro; de Fátima Agra, M; Barbosa, M Regina V; de Queiroz, Luciano P; Giulietti, Ana M


    Extracts of 32 plants from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region called Caatinga were evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assay, beta-carotene bleaching, and brine shrimp lethality tests (BST). Among the extracts studied Byrsonima cf. gardneriana, Mascagnia coriacea, Cordia globosa, Diodia apiculata and Hypenia salzmannii showed the highest activities in DPPH radical scavenging test. In the beta-carotene bleaching test the highest activities were observed for Passiflora cincinnata, Chamaecrista repens, B. cf. gardneriana, Rollinia leptopetala, Serjania glabrata, Diospyros gaultheriifolia, C. globosa, Mimosa ophtalmocentra, M. coriacea and Lippia cf. microphylla. In contrast, R. leptopetala, Zornia cf. brasiliensis and Leonotis nepetifolia were the most active species in the BST.

  11. Selected specific rates of reactions of transients from water in aqueous solution. III. Hydroxyl radical and perhydroxyl radical and their radical ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, F; Ross, A B


    Rates of reactions of OH and HO/sub 2/ with organic and inorganic molecules, ions and transients in aqueous solution have been tabulated, as well as the rates for the corresponding radical ions in aqueous solution (O/sup -/ and O/sub 2//sup -/). Most of the rates have been obtained by radiation chemistry methods, both pulsed and steady-state; data from photochemistry and thermal methods are also included. Rates for over one thousand reactions are listed.

  12. Current Status of Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy: What is the Real Benefit? (United States)

    Takenaka, Atsushi


    In recent years, robot-assisted radical cystectomy has received attention worldwide as a useful procedure that helps to overcome the limitations of open radical cystectomy. We compared the surgical technique, perioperative and oncological outcomes, and learning curve of robot-assisted radical cystectomy with those of open radical cystectomy. The indications for robot-assisted radical cystectomy are identical to those of open radical cystectomy. Relative contraindications are due to patient positioning in the Trendelenburg position for long periods. Urinary diversion is performed either extracorporeally with a small skin incision or intracorporeally with a totally robotic-assisted maneuver. Accordingly, robot-assisted radical cystectomy can be performed safely with an acceptable operative time, little blood loss, and low transfusion rates. The lymph node yield and positive surgical margin rate were not significantly different between robot-assisted radical cystectomy and open radical cystectomy. The survival rates after robot-assisted radical cystectomy are estimated to be similar to that after open radical cystectomy. However, the recurrence pattern is different between robot-assisted radical cystectomy and open radical cystectomy, i.e., extrapelvic lymph node recurrence and peritoneal carcinomatosis were more frequently found in patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy than in those who underwent open radical cystectomy. Further validation is necessary to prove the feasibility of oncological control. A steep learning curve is one of the benefits of the new technique. The experience of only 50 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies is a minimum requirement for performing feasible robot-assisted radical cystectomy, and surgeons who have performed only 30 surgeries can reach an acceptable level of quality for robot-assisted radical cystectomy.

  13. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the gas-phase reaction of hydroxyl radical with nitrogen dioxide radical (United States)

    Doclo, Karel; Röthlisberger, Ursula


    The reaction between the hydroxyl radical and the nitrogen dioxide radical in the gas phase has been studied with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory. Nitric acid HONO 2 and cis- cis peroxynitrous acid ONOOH are formed spontaneously, whereas for the formation of the corresponding trans- perp conformer of peroxynitrous acid, a barrier is observed. The relative energetics of the different conformers of ONOOH are in good agreement with MP2 results. The same holds for the structural properties, except for the N-O single bond which turns out to be highly sensitive to the exchange-correlation functional and is generally overestimated.

  14. Cooperative effects on radical recombination in CYP3A4-catalyzed oxidation of the radical clock beta-thujone. (United States)

    Jiang, Yongying; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R


    The timing of the beta-thujone radical clock (see scheme) can be specifically altered by an allosteric effector. Progesterone, a well-documented CYP3A4 allosteric effector, was found to increase the yield of the unrearranged, C4-derived product of beta-thujone oxidation at the expense of the combined yields of all the rearranged C4-oxidized metabolites. The results demonstrate that the apparent radical recombination rate in the CYP3A4 hydroxylation of beta-thujone is accelerated by the progesterone heterotropic cooperativity.

  15. Lung biodurability and free radical production of cellulose nanomaterials (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Seehra, Mohindar S.; Fix, Natalie R.; Leonard, Stephen S.


    The potential applications of cellulose nanomaterials in advanced composites and biomedicine makes it imperative to understand their pulmonary exposure to human health. Here, we report the results on the biodurability of three cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), two cellulose nanofibril (CNF) and a benchmark cellulose microcrystal (CMC) when exposed to artificial lung airway lining fluid (SUF, pH 7.3) for up to 7 days and alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (PSF, pH 4.5) for up to 9 months. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to monitor biodurability and thermogravimetry, surface area, hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential and free radical generation capacity of the samples were determined (in vitro cell-free and RAW 264.7 cell line models). The CMC showed no measurable changes in crystallinity (xCR) or crystallite size D in either SUF or PSF. For one CNC, a slight decrease in xCR and D in SUF was observed. In acidic PSF, a slight increase in xCR with exposure time was observed, possibly due to dissolution of the amorphous component. In a cell-free reaction with H2O2, radicals were observed; the CNCs and a CNF generated significantly more ●OH radicals than the CMC (pcellulose materials. The production of ●OH radicals indicates the need for additional studies to characterize the potential inhalation hazards of cellulose. PMID:25265049

  16. Free radical-scavenging and antimutagenic potential of acetone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant potency of acetone, chloroform and methanol extracts of Argemone mexicana was investigated by employing in vitro systems like nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay whereas antimutagenic activity was determined by Maron and Ames assay ...

  17. Hydroxyl radical reactivity at the air-ice interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kahan


    Full Text Available Hydroxyl radicals are important oxidants in the atmosphere and in natural waters. They are also expected to be important in snow and ice, but their reactivity has not been widely studied in frozen aqueous solution. We have developed a spectroscopic probe to monitor the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radicals in situ. Hydroxyl radicals are produced in aqueous solution via the photolysis of nitrite, nitrate, and hydrogen peroxide, and react rapidly with benzene to form phenol. Similar phenol formation rates were observed in aqueous solution and bulk ice. However, no reaction was observed at air-ice interfaces, or when bulk ice samples were crushed prior to photolysis to increase their surface area. We also monitored the heterogeneous reaction between benzene present at air-water and air-ice interfaces with gas-phase OH produced from HONO photolysis. Rapid phenol formation was observed on water surfaces, but no reaction was observed at the surface of ice. Under the same conditions, we observed rapid loss of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH anthracene at air-water interfaces, but no loss was observed at air-ice interfaces. Our results suggest that the reactivity of hydroxyl radicals toward aromatic organics is similar in bulk ice samples and in aqueous solution, but is significantly suppressed in the quasi-liquid layer (QLL that exists at air-ice interfaces.

  18. Radical coupling of maleic anhydride onto graphite to fabricate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 1. Radical coupling of maleic anhydride onto graphite to fabricate oxidized graphene nanolayers ... After modification with MAH, lamella flake structure of graphite was retained whereas the edges of sheets became distinguishable as depicted by scanning ...

  19. The "Religion of the Child": Korczak's Road to Radical Humanism (United States)

    Silverman, Marc


    This paper explores the biographical and cultural sources that inspired the decision of Janusz Korczak (Warsaw, 1878; Treblinka, 1942) to make his life's vocation the education of young children from dysfunctional families. This decision emerged out of the radical version of humanism he embraced. His identification of children as the population…

  20. Vibrationally excited state stectroscopy of radicals in a supersonic plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bazalgette Courreges-Lacoste, J. Bulthuis, S. Stolte, T. Motylewski; Linnartz, H.V.J.


    A plasma source based on a multilayer discharge geometry in combination with a time-of-flight REMPI experiment is used to study rotationally cold spectra of highly excited vibrational states of mass selected radicals. The rovibrational state distributions upon discharge excitation are characterised

  1. Protonation Reaction of Benzonitrile Radical Anion and Absorption of Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holcman, Jerzy; Sehested, Knud


    The rate constant for the protonation of benzonitrile radical anions formed in pulse radiolysis of aqueous benzonitrile solutions is (3.5 ± 0.5)× 1010 dm3 mol–1 s–1. A new 270 nm absorption band is attributed to the protonated benzonitrile anion. The pK of the protonation reaction is determined...

  2. Stable Organic Radicals as Hole Injection Dopants for Efficient Optoelectronics. (United States)

    Bin, Zhengyang; Guo, Haoqing; Liu, Ziyang; Li, Feng; Duan, Lian


    Precursors of reactive organic radicals have been widely used as n-dopants in electron-transporting materials to improve electron conductivity and enhance electron injection. However, the utilization of organic radicals in hole counterparts has been ignored. In this work, stable organic radicals have been proved for the first time to be efficient dopants to enhance hole injection. From the absorbance spectra and the ultraviolet photoelectron spectra, we could observe an efficient electron transfer between the organic radical, (4-N-carbazolyl-2,6-dichlorophenyl)bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)methyl (TTM-1Cz), and the widely used hole injection material, 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN). When the unpaired electron of TTM-1Cz is transferred to HAT-CN, it would be oxidized to a TTM-1Cz cation with a newly formed lowest unoccupied molecular orbital which is quite close to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the hole-transporting material (HTM). In this way, the TTM-1Cz cation would promote the electron extraction from the HOMO of the HTM and improve hole injection. Using TTM-1Cz-doped HAT-CN as the hole injection layer, efficient organic light-emitting diodes with extremely low voltages can be attained.

  3. Electron attachment and positive ion chemistry of monohydrogenated fluorocarbon radicals (United States)

    Wiens, Justin P.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A.


    Rate coefficients and product branching fractions for electron attachment and for reaction with Ar+ are measured over the temperature range 300-585 K for three monohydrogenated fluorocarbon (HFC) radicals (CF3CHF, CHF2CF2, and CF3CHFCF2), as well as their five closed-shell precursors (1-HC2F4I, 2-HC2F4I, 2-HC2F4Br, 1-HC3F6I, 2-HC3F6Br). Attachment to the HFC radicals is always fairly inefficient (between 0.1% and 10% of the Vogt-Wannier capture rate), but generally faster than attachment to analogous perfluorinated carbon radicals. The primary products in all cases are HF-loss to yield CnFm-1- anions, with only a minor branching to F- product. In all cases the temperature dependences are weak. Attachment to the precursor halocarbons is near the capture rate with a slight negative temperature dependence in all cases except for 2-HC2F4Br, which is ˜10% efficient at 300 K and becomes more efficient, approaching the capture rate at higher temperatures. All attachment kinetics are successfully reproduced using a kinetic modeling approach. Reaction of the HFC radicals with Ar+ proceeds at or near the calculated collisional rate coefficient in all cases, yielding a wide variety of product ions.

  4. Early penile rehabilitation following radical prostatectomy: Cleveland clinic experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raina, R; Pahlajani, G; Agarwal, A; Zippe, C D


    ... during the period of neuropraxia. Initial studies using intracavernosal injection appears to be beneficial. In this article, we reviewed the pathophysiology of cavernosal hypoxia following radical prostatectomy with currently available evidence for the interventions to promote the nerve recovery and regeneration. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901573; published onlin...

  5. Comparison of radical prostatectomy techniques: open, laparoscopic and robotic assisted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Frota


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To review the current status of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP and robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP in relation to radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP in the management of localized prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 2007 published literature was reviewed using the National Library of Medicine database and the following key words: retropubic, laparoscopic, robotic, robot-assisted, and radical prostatectomy. Special emphasis was given to the technical and cost considerations as well as operative, functional and oncologic outcomes. In particular, reports with pioneering work that have contributed to the evolution of the technique, presenting comparative outcomes and with large series encompassing intermediate/long term follow-up, were taken into account. RESULTS: After intermediate term follow-up, LRP and RALP achieved similar oncologic and functional results compared to RRP. However, LRP and RALP were associated with decreased blood loss, faster convalescence and better cosmetics when compared to RRP. The RALP technique is undoubtedly more expensive. CONCLUSIONS: The oncologic and functional outcomes for LRP and RALP are similar to RRP after intermediate term follow-up. Long term follow-up and adequately designed studies will determine the inherent advantages and disadvantages of the individual techniques in the management of localized prostate cancer.

  6. Radical Orthodoxy - Its ecumenical vision | Ward | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first book in the Series Radical Orthodoxy (RO) was not meant to be programmatic or set out to change the direction of modern theology. There are certain shared sensibilities among its authors and, principally, an ecumenical vision. This article sketches the nature of that ecumenical vision that begins with the way in ...

  7. Anti-oxidative, metal chelating and radical scavenging effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate protein hydrolysates and membrane ultrafiltration fractions of blue-spotted stingray for metal chelating and radical scavenging activities, as well as protection against oxidative protein damage. Methods: Stingray protein isolates were hydrolysed with alcalase, papain and trypsin for 3 h. Alcalase ...

  8. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  9. Free radical scavenging activity of Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 17, 2008 ... and the mechanism of antioxidant action of hydroxyflavones. Free. Radical Biol. Med. 31: 868-881. Lorenzi H (1998). Árvores brasileiras; manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas do Brasil. Plantarum, Nova Odessa, p. 162. Markham KR, Ternai B, Stanley R, Geiger H, Mabry TJ (1978). Carbon-.

  10. Toward a Theory of Self for Radical Criminology. (United States)

    Scimecca, Joseph A.


    Radical criminology has not incorporated a fully developed psychological conception of the individual into their schemes of analyses, concentrating, instead, upon structural determinants and contradictions. As an alternative, an integrated framework, providing a multivariable theory of behavior which considers both subjective and objective…

  11. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 17, 2008 ... Departamento de Alimentos y Biotecnología, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito. Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, México, D.F., 04510, México. Accepted 25 April ..... In general, extracts with the highest radical scavenging and antioxidant activity showed the highest ...

  12. Macromolecular Architectures Designed by Living Radical Polymerization with Organic Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Tanishima


    Full Text Available Well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers, star polymers, and concentrated polymer brushes on solid surfaces were prepared using living radical polymerization with organic catalysts. Polymerizations of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and selected functional methacrylates were performed with a monofunctional initiator, a difunctional initiator, a trifunctional initiator, and a surface-immobilized initiator.

  13. Gendering the vote for populist radical-right parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.; Zaslove, A.S.


    Why do more men than women vote for populist radical-right (PRR) parties? And do more men than women still vote for the PRR? Can attitudes regarding gender and gender equality explain these differences (if they exist)? These are the questions that Spierings and Zaslove explore in this article. They

  14. Effects of treatment on free radicals in patients with pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a free radical, in Tuberculosis patients does occur when Tubercule bacilli induces reactive oxygen species as a result of phagocytic respiratory burst. Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of treatment on plasma level of Malondialdehyde among patients infected with ...

  15. Radical scavenging activity of some natural tropolones by density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We shed light on the electro-optical and molecular properties, e.g. energy gaps, highest occupied molecular orbitals, lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, absorption wavelengths, electronegativity (χ), hardness (η), electrophilicity (ω), softness (S), electrophilicity index (ωi) and the radical scavenging activity (RSA).

  16. Radical reconciliation: The TRC should have allowed Zacchaeus to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 30, 2016 ... Lephakga 2015). Therefore, this article will argue that if Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit were invited into the processes of this commission, then Zacchaeus too should have been allowed to testify – so to say. Radical reconciliation: The TRC should have allowed Zacchaeus to testify? Read online: Scan this ...

  17. Radical irradiation for carcinoma of the prostate | Abratt | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal ... Ninety-three patients treated by radical irradiation for stage A2, Band C1 carcinoma of the prostate between 1979 and 1988 at a joint radiotherapy service ... The crude late complication rate was 10% but this was significantly related to the use of less than 5 fractions of radiation per week.

  18. Radical radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix - the Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radical radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix - the Zimbabwean experience. N Ndlovu. Abstract. No Abstract. Central African Journal of Medicine Vol. 45 (5) 1999: pp. 124-126. · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  19. Lower limb compartment syndrome as a complication of radical hysterectomy


    Oman, Sarah A.; Schwarz, Daniel; Muntz, Howard G.


    Highlights ? Compartment syndrome is a rare complication of prolonged lithotomy position. ? We report a case of compartment syndrome complicating radical hysterectomy. ? Prompt diagnosis is crucial to reduce morbidity from compartment syndrome. ? Awareness of this complication allows surgeons to address modifiable risk factors.

  20. The Violent Islamic Radicalization Process: A Framework for Understanding (United States)


    on the false premise that terrorists are psychopaths or sociopaths has been reviewed and repeatedly refuted (Shaw, 1986). Other experts view...behavior” (Moghaddam, 2006). Overwhelming research concludes that terrorists do not typically appear to be psychopaths or sociopaths . unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The violent Islamic radicalization process is understood differently across

  1. Homecoming: the relevance of radical feminism for gay men. (United States)

    Jensen, Robert


    Sexual politics in the gay male world would be enhanced by a serious engagement with radical feminist politics, particularly critiques of pornography and the sex industry. As the domination/subordination dynamic at the heart of patriarchy damages homosexual men, such engagement is crucial to the future of a gay movement.

  2. Radical Dewey: Deweyan Pedagogy in Mexico, 1915-1923 (United States)

    Rodriguez, Victor J.


    From 1915 to 1923, the pedagogy of John Dewey became an important pillar of anarchist and socialist projects of education in Mexico. These radical experiments were based on the belief in an open-ended world amenable to the intervention of a new subject of modernity whose unconstrained operations created rather than disrupted social order.…

  3. Reducing the gel effect in free radical polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Hoffmann, A.C.; Cioffi, M.

    The gel effect is a phenomenon that often takes place during a free radical polymerization at intermediate or high degrees of conversion. It consists of the autoacceleration of the rate of the polymerization and it is due to diffusion limitations that slow down the termination reaction leaving the

  4. Temperature Activated Diffusion of Radicals through Ion Implanted Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakelin, Edgar A.; Davies, Michael J.; Bilek, Marcela M. M.


    and controlling the diffusion of radicals through this layer will enable efficient optimization of this technique. We develop a model based on site to site diffusion according to Fick's second law with temperature activation according to the Arrhenius relation. Using our model, the Arrhenius exponential prefactor...

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the phytochemical constituents in the leaves and fruits of Allanblackia floribunda and determine their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The fruit and leaves of AF collected from the uncultivated farmlands of Okeigbo, Ondo State, Nigeria, were dried, milled and extracted with methanol.

  6. Co-management of Natural Resources across Radical Differences ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Previous IDRC-funded research, as well as the relevant literature, indicates that effective participation of Aboriginal communities in co-management of natural resources is in part hindered by radical (ontological) differences in perception of the what, why and how of co-management. These differences occur not only ...

  7. Anti-Oxidative, Metal Chelating and Radical Scavenging Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    only due to their high abundance as well as their active participation in most cellular processes. Oxidative protein damage is associated with aging and human pathologies [15]. The < 3 kDa fraction was as potent as reduced glutathione in quenching hydroxyl radicals and in protecting against oxidative protein damage. The.

  8. Effects of treatment on free radicals in patients with pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Formation of Malondialdehyde (MDA), a free radical, in Tuberculosis patients does occur when Tubercule ... Methodology: Descriptive cross sectional study among 110 patients, grouped into four categories (three TB patient cate- gories and .... fever, Diabetes Mellitus, patients with intestinal infec-.

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Abilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at determining the antioxidants and free radical scavenging abilities of some packaged fruit juices (PFJ) widely used as source of fluids in Nigeria. Materials and methods: Packaged fruit juice samples produced by The Coca cola Company and Chi company namely: Apple(AP), blackcurrant, ...

  10. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two species of medicinal plants collected in the Mexican state of Morelos were selected to evaluate their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. The extracts from the aerial parts of the plants were obtained using hexane, acetone and methanol (66 extracts). The initial qualitative screening of antioxidants ...

  11. Methodological Behaviorism from the Standpoint of a Radical Behaviorist. (United States)

    Moore, J


    Methodological behaviorism is the name for a prescriptive orientation to psychological science. Its first and original feature is that the terms and concepts deployed in psychological theories and explanations should be based on observable stimuli and behavior. I argue that the interpretation of the phrase "based on" has changed over the years because of the influence of operationism. Its second feature, which developed after the first and is prominent in contemporary psychology, is that research should emphasize formal testing of a theory that involves mediating theoretical entities from an nonbehavioral dimension according to the hypothetico-deductive method. I argue that for contemporary methodological behaviorism, explanations of the behavior of both participants and scientists appeal to the mediating entities as mental causes, if only indirectly. In contrast to methodological behaviorism is the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner. Unlike methodological behaviorism, radical behaviorism conceives of verbal behavior in terms of an operant process that involves antecedent circumstances and reinforcing consequences, rather than in terms of a nonbehavioral process that involves reference and symbolism. In addition, radical behaviorism recognizes private behavioral events and subscribes to research and explanatory practices that do not include testing hypotheses about supposed mediating entities from another dimension. I conclude that methodological behaviorism is actually closer to mentalism than to Skinner's radical behaviorism.

  12. Anti-bacterial, free radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 3, 2017 ... Quantitative analysis of the scavenging ability showed that acetone extracts exhibited good free radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. The berries extract had the highest LC50 (lowest toxicity) of 551.68 68 µg/mL. Conclusion: Acetone extract of leaves and roots of Grewia flava contain ...

  13. Regulation of exercise blood flow: Role of free radicals. (United States)

    Trinity, Joel D; Broxterman, Ryan M; Richardson, Russell S


    During exercise, oxygen and nutrient rich blood must be delivered to the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain through the complex and highly regulated integration of central and peripheral hemodynamic factors. Indeed, even minor alterations in blood flow to these organs have profound consequences on exercise capacity by modifying the development of fatigue. Therefore, the fine-tuning of blood flow is critical for optimal physical performance. At the level of the peripheral circulation, blood flow is regulated by a balance between the mechanisms responsible for vasodilation and vasoconstriction. Once thought of as toxic by-products of in vivo chemistry, free radicals are now recognized as important signaling molecules that exert potent vasoactive responses that are dependent upon the underlying balance between oxidation-reduction reactions or redox balance. Under normal healthy conditions with low levels of oxidative stress, free radicals promote vasodilation, which is attenuated with exogenous antioxidant administration. Conversely, with advancing age and disease where background oxidative stress is elevated, an exercise-induced increase in free radicals can further shift the redox balance to a pro-oxidant state, impairing vasodilation and attenuating blood flow. Under these conditions, exogenous antioxidants improve vasodilatory capacity and augment blood flow by restoring an "optimal" redox balance. Interestingly, while the active skeletal muscle, heart, skin, and brain all have unique functions during exercise, the mechanisms by which free radicals contribute to the regulation of blood flow is remarkably preserved across each of these varied target organs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Free-radicals aided combustion with scramjet applications (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Kumar, Ramohalli


    Theoretical and experimental investigations aimed at altering 'nature-prescribed' combustion rates in hydrogen/hydrocarbon reactions with (enriched) air are presented. The intent is to anchor flame zones in supersonic streams, and to ensure proper and controllable complete combustion in scramjets. The diagnostics are nonintrusive through IR thermograms and acoustic emissions in the control and free-radicals altered flame zones.

  15. Free-Radical Polymer Science Structural Cancer Model: A Review (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C.


    Polymer free-radical lipid alkene chain-growth biological models particularly for hypoxic cellular mitochondrial metabolic waste can be used to better understand abnormal cancer cell morphology and invasive metastasis. Without oxygen as the final electron acceptor for mitochondrial energy synthesis, protons cannot combine to form water and instead mitochondria produce free radicals and acid during hypoxia. Nonuniform bond-length shrinkage of membranes related to erratic free-radical covalent crosslinking can explain cancer-cell pleomorphism with epithelial-mesenchymal transition for irregular membrane borders that “ruffle” and warp over stiff underlying actin fibers. Further, mitochondrial hypoxic conditions produce acid that can cause molecular degradation. Subsequent low pH-activated enzymes then provide paths for invasive cell movement through tissue and eventually blood-born metastasis. Although free-radical crosslinking creates irregularly shaped membranes with structural actin-polymerized fiber extensions as filopodia and lamellipodia, due to rapid cell division the overall cell modulus (approximately stiffness) is lower than normal cells. When combined with low pH-activated enzymes and lower modulus cells, smaller cancer stem cells subsequently have a large advantage to follow molecular destructive pathways and leave the central tumor. In addition, forward structural spike-like lamellipodia protrusions can leverage to force lower-modulus cancer cells through narrow openings. By squeezing and deforming even smaller to allow for easier movement through difficult passageways, cancer cells can travel into adjacent tissues or possibly metastasize through the blood to new tissue. PMID:24278767


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ljujic, V.; Engel, Valery; Castriota, Anna; Carter, Alex

    The book analyses major manifestations of hatred in the European space in 2015, as well as factors that influenced the demand for radicalism in society. Special attention was paid to how European governments respond to modern challenges. Analysis is given on the basis of 8 EU countries (France,

  17. On radicalizing behaviorism: A call for cultural analysis (United States)

    Malagodi, E. F.


    Our culture at large continues many practices that work against the well-being of its members and its chances for survival. Our discipline has failed to realize its potential for contributing to the understanding of these practices and to the generation of solutions. This failure of realization is in part a consequence of the general failure of behavior analysts to view social and cultural analysis as a fundamental component of radical behaviorism. This omission is related to three prevailing practices of our discipline. First, radical behaviorism is characteristically defined as a “philosophy of science,” and its concerns are ordinarily restricted to certain epistemological issues. Second, theoretical extensions to social and cultural phenomena too often depend solely upon principles derived from the analysis of behavior. Third, little attention has been directed at examining the relationships that do, or that should, exist between our discipline and related sciences. These practices themselves are attributed to certain features of the history of our field. Two general remedies for this situation are suggested: first, that radical behaviorism be treated as a comprehensive world view in which epistemological, psychological, and cultural analyses constitute interdependent components; second, that principles derived from compatible social-science disciplines be incorporated into radical behaviorism. PMID:22478643

  18. Observational evidence for interhemispheric hydroxyl-radical parity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patra, P.K.; Krol, M.C.; Montzka, S.A.; Arnold, T.; Atlas, E.L.; Lintner, B.R.; Stephens, B.B.; Xiang, B.


    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is a key oxidant involved in the removal of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from the atmosphere1, 2, 3. The ratio of Northern Hemispheric to Southern Hemispheric (NH/SH) OH concentration is important for our understanding of emission estimates of atmospheric species

  19. Review article: Transforming the state away from the State? Radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review article situates the work Black Flame within a capita selecta of earlier publications on anarchism-syndicalism and radical thought. Schmidt and Van der Walt's contribution (2009) is a recent addition to political thought, theory and socio-economic practice within the broad stream of anarcho-syndicalism.

  20. Mechanism of protection of adenosine from sulphate radical anion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photooxidation of adenosine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) has been studied by spectrophotometrically measuring the absorbance of adenosine at 260 nm. The rates of oxidation of adenosine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in ...