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Sample records for butorphanol

  1. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not understand the directions.Butorphanol injection may be habit-forming. Do not use a larger dose, use ... tiredness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep unusual dreams headache constipation stomach pain feeling hot flushing pain, ...

  2. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your treatment.Butorphanol nasal spray may be habit-forming. Use butorphanol nasal spray exactly as directed. ... tiredness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep unusual dreams constipation stomach pain feeling hot flushing pain, burning, ...

  3. 77 FR 60301 - New Animal Drugs; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... Milling 558.625 Hy-Ty Premix Corp., Vigorena (tylosin Feeds, Springfield, phosphate). MN 56087....

  4. Combination of Midazolam and Butorphanol for Sedation for Tympanoplasty under Monitored Anaesthesia Care

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tympanoplasty is routinely done under local anaesthesia with sedation due to various advantages. Systemic analgesics and sedatives are generally given to improve the patient comfort. Aim & Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of combination of midazolam and butorphanol for sedation and to assess the sedation technique using midazolam and butorphanol for tympanoplasty under monitored anaesthesia care. Material and Methods: One hundred patients sched...

  5. Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Martin, Laura; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009. Eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. Body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart (sample 1 mean collection time after darting, 9.4 +/- 2.7 min; sample 2 mean collection time, 18.6 +/- 2.8 min). A significant number of field-captured rhinoceros remained standing at the first sample period when butorphanol was administered in the dart. Higher median values for arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in combination with lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in standing versus recumbent rhinoceros suggested improved ventilation in this posture (P < 0.05). When the effect of time, body position, and age was controlled, median values for respiratory rate, lactate, and pH were better in rhinoceros that received butorphanol in the dart (P < 0.05). There was also a trend toward higher median values for SO2 and bicarbonate in rhinoceros receiving butorphanol in the dart. Intravenous administration of butorphanol resulted in significantly decreased median PaCO2 and heart rate in recumbent rhinoceros (P < 0.05) without changes in PaO2 between sample periods 1 and 2. However, rhinoceros remained hypoxemic during the short anesthetic procedure despite butorphanol administration. Preliminary results suggest that administration of butorphanol (either in the dart or intravenously) improves some metabolic parameters in free-ranging recumbent white rhinoceros without significantly affecting ventilation. It is hypothesized that this may be due to a lighter state of immobilization. Addition of butorphanol to the dart provides handling and physiologic

  6. Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia after premedication with butorphanol in the green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, Sonia M; Schumacher, Juergen; Stahl, Scott; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen J

    2005-06-01

    The anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol followed by sevoflurane or isoflurane were compared in 23 male green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Heart and respiratory rates were recorded before administration of butorphanol (2 mg/kg i.m.) and at 30 min after premedication. Anesthesia was induced in 12 iguanas (group 1) with isoflurane (5%) and in 11 iguanas (group 2) with sevoflurane (7%). Heart rate, relative arterial oxygen hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and end-tidal CO2 concentrations (EtCO2) were measured every minute for the first 5 min and every 5 min thereafter. Arterial blood gas parameters were determined at 10 and 40 min after induction. Thirty minutes after butorphanol administration, no significant changes in heart and respiratory rate were seen as compared with baseline values. Quality and time to induction were superior with butorphanol-sevoflurane (6 +/- 3 min) than with butorphanol-isoflurane (9 +/- 4 min). Vaporizer settings during maintenance ranged between 1-3% and 2-4%, respectively. No significant differences in heart rate were noted between groups. In the sevoflurane group, SpO2 values were > 90% throughout. Although SpO2, values were isoflurane group, no significant differences in SpO2 values were seen over time and between groups. A significant decrease in EtCO2 with time was present in both groups, with no significant differences between the groups. At 10 and 40 min, arterial blood oxygen saturation values were > 90% in both groups and no significant differences were noted with time and between groups. Recovery time was significantly longer in the butorphanol-isoflurane group (35 +/- 27 min) than in the butorphanol-sevoflurane group (7 +/- 4 min). The cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol-isoflurane and butorphanol-sevoflurane assessed in this study are similar, and both inhalants appear to be safe and effective for induction and maintenance in the green iguana.

  7. 77 FR 60442 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice.../ANADA No. Trade name (drug) Applicant 100-556 Vigorena Feeds Hy-Ty Springfield Milling Premix...

  8. Physico-chemical stability of butorphanol-tramadol and butorphanol-fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia infusion solutions over 168 hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuchao; Fang, Baoxia; Li, Peng; Zhu, Xuesong; Zhou, Benhong

    2014-08-01

    This study was to investigate the physical and chemical compatibility of butorphanol with tramadol or fentanyl in 0.9% sodium chloride injections for patient controlled analgesia administration. The solutions were prepared in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) infusion bags and stored without protected from light exposure at room temperature (25 degrees C) or refrigerated (4 degrees C). Over a period of 168 hours, stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay of drug concentrations. At both temperatures, admixtures of butorphanol-tramadol and butorphanol-fentanyl were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed during the study period. The maximum losses obtained were lower than 5% for the three drugs after 168 hours of storage. The results indicate that, at ambient or refrigerated storage conditions, the drug mixtures of butorphanol-tramadol and butorphanol-fentanyl in 0.9% sodium chloride injections were physically and chemically stable for at least 168 hours when stored in PVC syringes.

  9. Control of Intraoperative Shivering Under Spinal Anaesthesia- A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study of Butorphanol with Tramadol

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    Astha Palan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shivering is very uncomfortable and distressing for the patient, anaesthesiologist and the surgeon, especially when the patient is under regional anaesthesia. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of butorphanol and tramadol in the control of shivering under spinal anaesthesia and to compare their side effects. To compare the efficacy, potency, response time, hemodynamic alterations, and adverse effects of intravenously administered tramadol and butorphanol for relief of shivering occurring during spinal anaesthesia. Material and Methods: This randomized prospective study was conducted in 100 patients who developed shivering under spinal anaesthesia during various abdominal, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological procedures. Patients with fever, acute infections, drug allergy and compromised cardiorespiratory functions were not included in the study. On shivering, patients were randomly allocated in two groups of 50 patients each who received intravenously 1mg of butorphanol or 50 mg of tramadol in a double blinded manner. Control of shivering, time taken for cessation, recurrence, hemodynamic changes, axillary temperatures and side effects were noted and compared for both the groups. Collected data were analysed using Chi square test and Student's unpaired t test. Results: All patients were relieved of shivering after butorphanol, 58% within 1 min, 82% within 3min and 100% within 5 min. Tramadol relieved shivering in 98% of patients, 32% within 1 min, 60% within 3 min, 98% within 5 mins (p<0.05. There was higher incidence of side effects like nausea and vomiting with tramadol (16% and 12% respectively as compared to butorphanol. Conclusion: Both the drugs, tramadol and butorphanol are effective to control shivering after spinal anaesthesia. Butorphanol is better as compared to tramadol in treating shivering under spinal anaesthesia because of its quicker onset of action, higher success rate

  10. Combination of Midazolam and Butorphanol for Sedation for Tympanoplasty under Monitored Anaesthesia Care

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    Vinay Dhakate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tympanoplasty is routinely done under local anaesthesia with sedation due to various advantages. Systemic analgesics and sedatives are generally given to improve the patient comfort. Aim & Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of combination of midazolam and butorphanol for sedation and to assess the sedation technique using midazolam and butorphanol for tympanoplasty under monitored anaesthesia care. Material and Methods: One hundred patients scheduled for tympanoplasty under local anaesthesia were given bolus doses of intravenous midazolam 0.03 mg/kg and butorphanol 0.03 mg/kg followed by midazolam infusion at 0.01 mg/kg/hr. If required, additional bolus doses of 0.01 mg/kg of both midazolam and butorphanol were given to achieve desired sedation and analgesia. The total dosage of midazolam and butorphanol, vital parameters, sedation score using Ramsay sedation score, pain score and surgeon satisfaction score using Numeric rating scale were recorded. Results: Ninety nine patients underwent tympanoplasty satisfactorily with sedation technique. Only one patient needed conversion to general anaesthesia. The mean duration of surgery was 92.7±8.16 minutes. The total midazolam and butorphanol dosages were 2.45±0.233 mg and 1.65±0.179 mg respectively. The desired Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS of 3 and pain score Numerical Rating Scale (NRS = 2.82±0.72 were achieved within 4-8 minutes. No side effects of excessive sedation were observed. Conclusion: Combined use of midazolam and butorphanol in low doses produces adequate sedation for tympanoplasty under local anaesthesia without serious adverse effects.

  11. IMMOBILIZATION OF CAPTIVE NUBIAN IBEX (CAPRA NUBIANA) WITH BUTORPHANOL-MIDAZOLAM-MEDETOMIDINE OR BUTORPHANOL-AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE AND ATIPAMEZOLE REVERSAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Roi; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Seventeen captive Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were immobilized for transportation and/or hoof trimming, deworming, and vaccinations. Of these, 11 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), midazolam (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.13±0.03 mg/kg) (BMM), and 6 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.11±0.03 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22±0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.11±0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) by intramuscular injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured. The quality of induction, immobilization, and recovery were scored (scale 1-5; 1=poor, 5=excellent). Mean induction time was significantly shorter in the BMM group versus the BAM group (8.8±2.7 and 20.1±7.8 min, respectively). Median induction score and median immobilization score were significantly higher (i.e., better) in the BMM group than the BAM group (5 versus 2.5 and 4 versus 3, respectively). The mean and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the BMM group at the 25-min time point. Atipamezole was administered at the end of procedures, and all ibex recovered smoothly. Mean recovery time was significantly longer in the BMM group versus the BAM group (9.5±4.3 and 3.3±2.2, respectively). In conclusion, at the doses used, the combination of BMM was superior to BAM for short-term immobilization in captive Nubian ibex.

  12. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ORAL MIDAZOLAM, BUTORPHANOL AND CLONIDINE AS PREMEDICANTS IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING ELECTIVE SURGERY

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    Mukta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We compared the effects of oral midazolam, butorphanol and clonidine on preoperative sedation and anxiolysis and postoperative recovery profile of the children undergoing elective surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS : 105 children of either sex, aged between 2 - 6 years, of ASA grade I scheduled for elective surgery were randomized into three groups. Group I: 35 children received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg body weight orally, Group II: 35 children received butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg orally, Group III: 35 children received cloni dine 4 μ/kg orally. Premedication was given 30 minutes before induction of anaesthesia. Children were assessed for attitude to venepuncture and face mask acceptance during induction of anaesthesia. RESULTS: The groups were statistically comparable (p>0.05 , regarding the patients’ demographic profile, hemodynamic variables, duration of surgery and awakening. Less time was required for the onset and time of maximum sedation in midazolam group. Sedation scores were highest in the clonidine group at the time o f induction (p0.05 and minimal with butorphanol. Reaction to i.v cannulation was minimal with clonidine whi le it was comparable in midazolam and butorphanol group. CONCLUSION: clonidine causes the best sedation among the three drugs and it causes minimum response to i.v cannulation and comparable mask acceptance with midazolam followed by butorphanol.

  13. Comparative evaluation of midazolam and butorphanol as oral premedication in pediatric patients

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    Chandni Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg with oral butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg as a premedication in 60 pediatric patients with regards to sedation, anxiolysis, rescue analgesic requirement, and recovery profile. Materials and Methods: In a double blinded study design, 60 pediatric patients belonging to ASA class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomized to receive either oral midazolam (group I or oral butorphanol (group II 30 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of facemask application for induction of anesthesia. Rescue analgesic requirement, postoperative recovery, and complications were also recorded. Results: Butorphanol had better sedation potential than oral midazolam with comparable anxiolysis at the time of separation of children from their parents. Midazolam proved to be a better anxiolytic during venepuncture and facemask application. Butorphanol reduced need for supplemental analgesics perioperatively without an increase in side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or unpleasant postoperative recovery. Conclusion: Oral butorphanol is a better premedication than midazolam in children in view of its excellent sedative and analgesic properties. It does not increase side effects significantly.

  14. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

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    Morgan Karin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET, during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg. Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-aO2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  15. Efficacy and safety of transnasal butorphanol for pain relief after anal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Ming Mai; Liang-Tsai Wan; Yu-Ching Chou; Hsiang-Yu Yang; Chang-Chieh Wu; Shu-Wen Jao; Cheng-Wen Hsiao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare the analgesic properties and efficacy of transnasal butorphanol with intramuscular meperidine after anal surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients who underwent fistulectomy were enrolled in the study from January 2006 to December 2007. They were randomly divided into transnasal butorphanol ( n = 30) or intramuscular meperidine ( n = 30) treatment groups. Assessment of postoperative pain was made using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The VAS score was recorded 6 h after the completion of surgery, before receiving the first dose of analgesic, 60 min after analgesia and the next morning. Any adverse clinical effects such as somnolence, dizziness, nausea or vomiting were recorded. Satisfaction with narcotic efficacy, desire to use the particular analgesic in the future and any complaints were recorded by patients using questionnaires before being discharged. RESULTS: Forty-two men and eighteen women were included in the study. There were no significant differences in VAS scores between the groups within 24 h. Length of hospital stay and the incidence of adverse effects between the groups were similar. In addition, most patients were satisfied with butorphanol nasal spray and wished to receive this analgesic in the future, if needed. CONCLUSION: Butorphanol nasal spray is effective for the relief of pain after fistulectomy. However, it offered patients more convenient usage and would be suitable for outpatients.

  16. Efficacy of tramadol and butorphanol pretreatment in reducing pain on propofol injection: A placebo-controlled randomized study

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    Arvinderpal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Pretreatment with both butorphanol and tramadol significantly reduced pain on propofol injection; however, they exhibited comparable efficacy among each other. Thus, either of these two drugs can be considered for pretreatment to reduce propofol injection pain.

  17. Comparative study of epidural bupivacaine with butorphanol and bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative pain relief in abdominal surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, N.; Ashwini, N.; Shukla, Mukesh I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To compare the efficacy of combination of epidural local anesthetic with tramadol and butorphanol in major abdominal surgeries. Aims: To evaluate duration of analgesia, analgesic efficacy, and safety profile of two groups of drugs-epidural butorphanol with bupivacaine and epidural tramadol with bupivacaine. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled, double-blinded study was undertaken in 50 patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries. Group B received epidural butorphanol 2 mg + bupivacaine 0.125% first dose and subsequent doses, butorphanol 1 mg + bupivacaine 0.125% (total volume 10 ml). Group T received epidural tramadol 2 mg/kg + bupivacaine 0.125% first dose and subsequent doses, tramadol 1 mg/kg + bupivacaine 0.125% (total volume 10 ml). Observed parameters were the quality of analgesia, sedation, and hemodynamic parameters in the intra and post-operative period. Time for request of rescue analgesia was noted in all the patients. Continuous data are analyzed by Student's t-test using IBM SPSS software version 20. P ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. P ≤ 0.001 was considered to be statistically highly significant. Results: Visual analog scale better with butorphanol group than tramadol (0.12 ± 0.332 and 0.84 ± 0.746 for Group B and Group T) at 30 min after first dose. Onset of action (8.44 ± 1.158 min in Group B and 12.80 ± 1.354 min in Group T) faster with butorphanol but duration of analgesia longer with tramadol (5.92 ± 0.76 h in Group B vs. 7.68 ± 0.76 h in Group T). Sedation was seen in patients with butorphanol group. Nausea and vomiting more frequent with tramadol group. Conclusions: Epidural tramadol with antiemetic is better than butorphanol for its longer duration in ambulatory surgery, elderly patients, obese patients, and suitable high-risk patients. PMID:27746533

  18. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

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    V. Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  19. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of a rat model of formalin-induced inflammatory pain following intrathecal injection of butorphanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yichun Wang; Yuan Zhang; Qulian Guo; Xiaohong Liu; Mingde Wang; Hui Luo

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and animal experiments have proved that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect. However, whether the analgesic effect is associated with activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor remains unclear. This study presumed that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect on formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats, and its analgesic effect is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptors. Concurrently, ketamine was injected into the intrathecal space, which is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, to determine the analgesic mechanism of butorphanol. The total reflection time in phase 1 and phase 2 of rat hind paws carding action was reduced when the butorphanol dose was increased to 25 μg,or a low dose of butorphanol was combined with ketamine. Intrathecal injection of a high dose of butorphanol alone or a Iow dose of butorphanol combined with ketamine can remarkably reduce NMDA receptor expression in the L5 spinal dorsal horn of formalin-induced pain rats. The results suggest that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has analgesic effects on formalin-induced inflammatory pain, and remarkably reduces NMDA receptor expression in the rat spinal dorsal horn.Ketamine strengthens this analgesic effect. The analgesic mechanism of intrathecal injection of butorphanol is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptor activation.

  20. COMPARISON OF EFFICACY OF BUTORPHANOL AND FENTANYL AS INTRATHECAL ADJUVANT TO BUPIVACAINE

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    Gopal Reddy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of butorphanol and Fentanyl as an adjuvant to local anaesthetics in relation to onset, degree and recovery time of sensory and motor blockade in orthopaedi c procedures done under spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: In a Randomized double blind study, 90 cases of ASA grade 1 & 2 between the ages of 18 - 60yrs of either sex undergoing elective lower limb orthopaedic procedures were allocated into three groups of 30 each. Group A received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 3ml with 0.2 ml of normal saline (n=30. Group B received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 3ml with Butorphanol 200microgram. (n=30 Group C received intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivaca ine 3ml with fentanyl 20microgram. (n=30.Vital parameters, onset, level, duration and regression of sensory & motor block, duration of effective analgesia were recorded and compared. Analysis was done by of variance (ANOVA test. RESULTS: Intrathecal admi nistration of Bupivacaine + Butorphanol (141.6±7.2 min Bupivacaine + Fentanyl (124.5±7.1min prolongs 2 segment regression times compared to Bupivacaine with Normal saline (118.3±12.5min without altering the duration of motor blockade. Duration of effect ive analgesia was 191.8±19,272.8±17.2 min and 270.0±27.4 min in Group A, Group B and Group C respectively. Post - operative side effects were comparable in all the three groups. CONCLUSION: Both fentanyl and butorphanol given intrathecally along with hyperba ric Bupivacaine prolong the d uration of effective analgesia.

  1. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

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    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads.

  2. Standing sedation with medetomidine and butorphanol in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

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    Lüders, I; Tindall, B; Young, D; van der Horst, G; Botha, S; Luther, I; Maree, L; Bertschinger, H J

    2016-03-01

    Doses for standing sedation allowing for various procedures in otherwise inaccessible, untrained captive African elephant bulls are presented. Thirty-three standing sedations were performed in 12 males aged 8-30 years (one to four sedations per animal). Each bull received a combination of 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.03 ± 0.007 mg/kg butorphanol. Full sedation was reached on average 25.5 min after injection. The addition of hyaluronidase (1000-2000 IU) significantly reduced time to full sedation to 16.5 min (paired t test, P = 0.024). Reversal was induced with intramuscular atipamezole 0.008 (±0.002) and naltrexone 0.035 (±0.015) mg/kg. Recovery took on average 7 min (3-18 min). The medetomidine/butorphanol combination provided safe standing sedation for smaller procedures.

  3. Comparison of epidural butorphanol and fentanyl as adjuvants in the lower abdominal surgery: A randomized clinical study

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    Jasleen Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural opioids acting through the spinal cord receptors improve the quality and duration of analgesia along with dose-sparing effect with the local anesthetics. The present study compared the efficacy and safety profile of epidurally administered butorphanol and fentanyl combined with bupivacaine (B. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 adult patients of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II, aged 20-60 years, undergoing lower abdominal under epidural anesthesia were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups of 25 each: B, bupivacaine and butorphanol (BB and bupivacaine + fentanyl (BF. B (0.5% 20 ml was administered epidurally in all the three groups with the addition of 1 mg butorphanol in BB group and 100 μg fentanyl in the BF group. The hemodynamic parameters as well as various block characteristics including onset, completion, level and duration of sensory analgesia as well as onset, completion and regression of motor block were observed and compared. Adverse events and post-operative visual analgesia scale scores were also noted and compared. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with post-hoc significance, Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test. Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. Results: The demographic profile of patients was comparable in all the three groups. Onset and completion of sensory analgesia was earliest in BF group, followed by BB and B group. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in BB group followed by BF as compared with group B. Addition of butorphanol and fentanyl to B had no effect on the time of onset, completion and regression of motor block. No serious cardio-respiratory side effects were observed in any group. Conclusions: Butorphanol and fentanyl as epidural adjuvants are equally safe and provide comparable stable hemodynamics, early onset and establishment of sensory

  4. A comparative evaluation of intrathecal bupivacaine alone, sufentanil or butorphanol in combination with bupivacaine for endoscopic urological surgery

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    Manpreet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to compare the onset, degree and recovery time of sensory and motor block and hemodynamic effects of intrathecal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with sufentanil or butorphanol in endoscopic urological surgeries. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind study, 90 patients of either sex and age, belonging to ASA Grades I and II, scheduled for elective endoscopic urological surgeries under spinal anesthesia, were allocated into three groups of 30 each. Patients received either 2.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric buypivacaine 12.5 mg (Group A, 1.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg with 10 μg sufentanil (Group B or 1.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg with 25 μg butorphanol (Group C. Vital parameters, level, duration and regression of sensory block and motor block and side-effects were recorded and compared. Statistical Analysis Analysis of variance (ANOVA, post hoc test and Chi-square test were used. Results: Intrathecal addition of sufentanil/butorphanol prolonged the duration of sensory block (DOSB compared with bupivacaine alone (DOSB being 156.83±23.83 min, 170.87 ± 22.21 min and 171.17 ± 23.99 min in groups A, B and C, respectively without altering the duration of motor blockade. Bromage score 3 was achieved in 100%, 90% and 54.4% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. The time to first request for analgesia was 112 ± 46.3 min, 323 ± 65.0 min and 299 ± 73.9 min in groups A, B and C, respectively. Complications were reduced by the addition of butorphanol, which also has a lower tendency than sufentanil to produce pruritus (60%. Conclusions: The analgesia was significantly prolonged in groups B and C; group C had a less-intense motor block. Complications were reduced by the addition of butorphanol, which also has a lower tendency than sufentanil to produce pruritus. Thus, this combination of butorphanol with low-dose bupivacaine is especially beneficial in the geriatric group

  5. A comparative evaluation of intrathecal bupivacaine alone, sufentanil or butorphanol in combination with bupivacaine for endoscopic urological surgery

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    Kaur, Manpreet; Katyal, Sunil; Kathuria, Suneet; Singh, Prabhjot

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present study was to compare the onset, degree and recovery time of sensory and motor block and hemodynamic effects of intrathecal bupivacaine alone and bupivacaine with sufentanil or butorphanol in endoscopic urological surgeries. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind study, 90 patients of either sex and age, belonging to ASA Grades I and II, scheduled for elective endoscopic urological surgeries under spinal anesthesia, were allocated into three groups of 30 each. Patients received either 2.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric buypivacaine 12.5 mg (Group A), 1.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg with 10 μg sufentanil (Group B) or 1.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg with 25 μg butorphanol (Group C). Vital parameters, level, duration and regression of sensory block and motor block and side-effects were recorded and compared. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc test and Chi-square test were used. Results: Intrathecal addition of sufentanil/butorphanol prolonged the duration of sensory block (DOSB) compared with bupivacaine alone (DOSB being 156.83±23.83 min, 170.87 ± 22.21 min and 171.17 ± 23.99 min in groups A, B and C, respectively) without altering the duration of motor blockade. Bromage score 3 was achieved in 100%, 90% and 54.4% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. The time to first request for analgesia was 112 ± 46.3 min, 323 ± 65.0 min and 299 ± 73.9 min in groups A, B and C, respectively. Complications were reduced by the addition of butorphanol, which also has a lower tendency than sufentanil to produce pruritus (60%). Conclusions: The analgesia was significantly prolonged in groups B and C; group C had a less-intense motor block. Complications were reduced by the addition of butorphanol, which also has a lower tendency than sufentanil to produce pruritus. Thus, this combination of butorphanol with low-dose bupivacaine is especially beneficial in the geriatric group of patients

  6. Comparison of sevoflurane with isoflurane for rapid mask induction in midazolam and butorphanol-sedated dogs.

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    Mutoh, T; Kojima, K; Takao, K; Nishimura, R; Sasaki, N

    2001-05-01

    Rapid mask induction can be a useful induction technique for veterinary patients, although it is often accompanied by exaggerated excitement responses in unpremedicated animals (Mutoh et al.: Jpn. J. Vet. Anesth. Surg. 26, 109-116; J. Vet. Med. Sci. 57, 1007-1013; J. Vet. Med. Sci. 57, 1121-1124; 1995). The aim of this study was to compare sevoflurane with isoflurane for rapid mask induction in six dogs sedated by a combination of midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg). Induction with sevoflurane (5%, 2.4 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) in O2 resulted in shorter time to loss of the palpebral reflex, negative tail clamp response, and successful intubation than with isoflurane (3%, 2.4 MAC) in O2. There were no changes in heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure during induction with sevoflurane, whereas an increase in heart rate was observed in dogs induced with isoflurane. A decrease in respiratory rate compared with the pre-induction rate was observed during induction, and associated mild respiratory acidosis, characterized by an increase in arterial PCO2, was measured at the end of the induction period in both induction groups. None of the animals had episodes of induction-related complications. These results suggest that both sevoflurane and isoflurane produce a smooth onset of induction in midazolam and butorphanol-sedated dogs. Sevoflurane is a more suitable for rapid mask induction than isoflurane since it provides faster induction associated with a lower blood/gas partition coefficient.

  7. Dose sparing of induction dose of propofol by fentanyl and butorphanol: A comparison based on entropy analysis

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    Jasleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The induction dose of propofol is reduced with concomitant use of opioids as a result of a possible synergistic action. Aim and Objectives: The present study compared the effect of fentanyl and two doses of butorphanol pre-treatment on the induction dose of propofol, with specific emphasis on entropy. Methods: Three groups of 40 patients each, of the American Society of Anaesthesiologistsphysical status I and II, were randomized to receive fentanyl 2 μg/kg (Group F, butorphanol 20 μg/kg (Group B 20 or 40 μg/kg (Group B 40 as pre-treatment. Five minutes later, the degree of sedation was assessed by the observer′s assessment of alertness scale (OAA/S. Induction of anesthesia was done with propofol (30 mg/10 s till the loss of response to verbal commands. Thereafter, rocuronium 1 mg/kg was administered and endotracheal intubation was performed 2 min later. OAA/S, propofol induction dose, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and entropy (response and state were compared in the three groups. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA test with posthoc significance, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and Fischer exact test. A P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The induction dose of propofol (mg/kg was observed to be 1.1±0.50 in Group F, 1.05±0.35 in Group B 20 and 1.18±0.41 in Group B40. Induction with propofol occurred at higher entropy values on pre-treatment with both fentanyl as well as butorphanol. Hemodynamic variables were comparable in all the three groups. Conclusion: Butorphanol 20 μg/kg and 40 μg/kg reduce the induction requirement of propofol, comparable to that of fentanyl 2 μg/kg, and confer hemodynamic stability at induction and intubation.

  8. Preemptive analgesia with butorphanol in psychotic patients following modified electroconvulsive therapy A randomized controlled trial

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    Lingxi Wu; Handong Zou; Qingshan Zhou; Zhongchun Liu; Bangchang Cheng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preemptive analgesia involves introducing an analgesic prior to the onset of pain stimulation to prevent sensitizing the nervous system to subsequent stimuli that could amplify pain. OBJECTIVE: To treat psychiatric patients with intravenous (i.v.) injection of butorphanol prior to modified electroconvulsive therapy, and to observe its effect on alleviating myalgia after treatment and adverse reactions. DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation. SETTING: Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 psychiatric patients, who accepted modified electroconvulsive therapy, were selected from the Mental Health Center of Wuhan University from June to September in 2006. All patients corresponded to the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders, and those with diseases of heart, liver, lung and kidney, glaucoma, intracranial hypertension, hyperthyreosis, and hyperkalemia were excluded. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (n = 60) and treatment group (n = 60). In the control group, there were 42 males and 18 females, aged 17–50 years, with a mean age of (34 ± 11) years. The patients weighed 50–70 kg, with a mean body mass of (63 ± 18) kg. In the treatment group, there were 40 males and 20 females, aged 20–54 years, with a mean age of (36 ± 13) years. The patients weighed 48–72 kg, with a mean body mass of (64 ± 16) kg. Approval was obtained from the Hospital's Ethics Committee. Informed consents were obtained from the patients' relatives. A SPECTRUM5000Q multifunctional mobile electroconvulsive therapy apparatus (CORPERATION, USA) was used.METHODS: ① Treatments: In the control group, the patients were anesthetized by I.v. Injection of propofol (AstraZeneca, Italy, No.CN309) containing 0.075% efedrina, and then modified electroconvulsive therapy was performed. Circulation, respiration, and firing of brain electrical activity were continuously monitored. In the treatment group, the

  9. Standing sedation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations.

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    Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha; Stetter, Mark; Fontenot, Deidre K; Robbins, P K; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2005-06-01

    Standing sedation was provided for 14 clinical procedures in three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) managed by combined protected and modified-protected contact and trained through operant conditioning. An initial hand-injection of detomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis was administered intramuscularly, with a dosage range of 50-70 mg (12.9-19.7 microg/kg) for each drug. The initial injection resulted in adequate sedation for initiation and completion of eight procedures, whereas supplemental doses were required for the remaining procedures. The dosage range for the supplemental injections of each drug was 4.0-7.3 microg/kg. Initial effect was noted within 3.0-25 min (mean = 11.6 min, SD +/- 5.9 min), with maximal effect occurring at 25-30 min for those procedures not requiring supplementation. In all but one procedure, this effect was maintained until the end of the procedure, which ranged from 47 to 98 min (mean = 74.7 min, SD +/- 18.8 min). No cardiac or respiratory depression was appreciated. Recovery after administration of reversal agents was rapid and complete, ranging from 2 to 20 min (mean = 9.0 min, SD +/- 7.0 min). On the basis of the authors' experience, recommended dosage ranges for reversal agents would be intravenous yohimbine (73.4-98.5 microg/kg), intravenous naltrexone (48.9-98.5 microg/kg), and intramuscular naltrexone (73.4-98.5 microg/kg). Approximately one-third to one-half of the total naltrexone dose should be administered intravenously. Mild adverse side effects limited to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in association with five procedures including abdominal distention with or without transient anorexia. Administration of reversal agents, encouraging exercise and water consumption, and administration of flunixin meglumine were helpful in the resolution of signs. In addition to gastrointestinal signs, slight ataxia was observed before initiation of surgical stimulation

  10. The effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or combined, on the dose and quality of anaesthetic induction with alfaxalone in goats

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    T. Brighton Dzikiti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Goats are rarely anaesthetised; consequently, scant information is available on the efficacy of anaesthetic drugs in this species. Alfaxalone is a relatively new anaesthetic agent, of which the efficacy in goats has not yet been studied. In this study, the sedative and alfaxalonesparing effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or concomitantly, in goats were assessed. Eight clinically healthy goats, four does and four wethers, were enlisted in a randomised crossover manner to receive intramuscular sedative treatments consisting of saline 0.05 mL/kg, or midazolam 0.30 mg/kg, or butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg, or a combination ofmidazolam 0.30 mg/kg with butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg before intravenous induction of general anaesthesia with alfaxalone. Following induction, the goats were immediately intubated and the quality of anaesthesia and basic physiological cardiorespiratory and blood-gas parameters were assessed until the goats had recovered from anaesthesia. The degree of sedation, quality of induction and recovery were scored. When compared with saline (3.00 mg/kg, midazolam,administered alone or with butorphanol, caused a statistically significant increased level of sedation and a reduction in the amount of alfaxalone required for induction (2.00 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg, respectively. Butorphanol alone (2.30 mg/kg did not cause significant changes in level of sedation or alfaxalone-induction dose. During induction and recovery, the goats were calm following all treatments, including the control group. Cardiorespiratory and blood gasparameters were maintained within clinically acceptable limits. The present study showed that midazolam, administered alone or combined with butorphanol, produces a degree of sedation that significantly reduces the dose of alfaxalone required for induction of general anaesthesia in goats, without causing any major adverse cardiorespiratory effects.

  11. Comparison of butorphanol and fentanyl for balanced anaesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries under general anaesthesia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study

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    M. Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Laparoscopic surgeries have advantages like shorter stay and rapid return to normal activities because of small incision and less pain. Pain is an unpleasant sensation in the post-operative period. Methods: Fifty patients of American society Anesthesiologists (ASA grade I and II, scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery, were randomized into butorphanol group (Group B (n=25 and fentanyl group (Group F (n=25. Four minutes before induction of anesthesia, Group B received inj. butorphanol 40 µg/Kg intravenously while Group F received Inj. fentanyl 2 µg/kg intravenously. All patients received general anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2, and oxygen saturation were monitored at different intervals. Results: The demographic data was comparable in both groups (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the two groups in pulse rate after 12 minutes after intubation that persisted till the 2nd hour of post-operative period. There was no significant difference in DBP till 9 min after intubation, and then onwards significant changes were noted till 4th hour of post-operative period. Butorphanol provided prolonged analgesia when compared to fentanyl. Conclusions: We conclude that butorphanol is a better alternative to fentanyl for use as analgesic in laparoscopic surgeries because of its ability to produce prolonged analgesia, and less post-operative complications.

  12. Effect of the analgesic butorphanol on activity behaviour in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

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    Buchwalder, T; Huber-Eicher, B

    2005-12-01

    During fattening, the bodyweight of modern broad-breasted turkeys increases considerably within a very short space of time. In particular, the breast muscles increase disproportionately. This leads to a disadvantageous distribution in weight, and as a consequence, to a disturbed leg position and skeletal deformations like antitrochanteric degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, bending, twisting and rotation of the tibia, osteochondrosis, osteomyelitis, rickets, and epiphyseolysis of the femoral head increases. This cases of degenerative joint disease cause severe pain in humans and there are indications that this is also true for turkeys. The purpose of this study was to determine if behaviour indicative of such pain in turkeys of the B.U.T. Big 6 breeding line could be attenuated by administering a quick-acting analgesic, butorphanol. Twelve pairs of turkeys were tested at the ages of 7 and 12 weeks. One bird in each pair received an analgesic opioid injection, while the other one received a control injection of physiologically balanced saline solution. The time the birds spent putting weight on their legs, i.e., 'walking' and 'standing' and the distance covered by the birds were recorded during the 30 min periods before and after the application of the drug. At week seven the treated birds spent significantly more time putting weight on their legs than control birds. At week 12, the same tendency was observed. No significant differences were found in the distances covered by the animals. It is concluded that fattening turkeys reduce the time they are putting weight on their legs because these behaviours may be associated with pain.

  13. More effective induction of anesthesia using midazolam-butorphanol-ketamine-sevoflurane compared with ketamine-sevoflurane in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

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    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi

    2016-02-01

    The common marmoset has been increasingly used for research in the biomedical field; however, there is little information available regarding effective methods of anesthesia in this species. This study retrospectively analyzed 2 regimens of anesthesia induction: intramuscular injection of ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane, and intramuscular injection of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of 5% sevoflurane. Anesthetic depth did not reach the surgical anesthesia stage in 7 out of 99 animals receiving the former regimen, whereas there were only 2 such animals out of 273 receiving the latter regimen. The latter regimen, when followed by maintenance anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane inhalation, was successfully used in various nociceptive procedures. These results indicate that the injection of a combination of midazolam, butorphanol and ketamine followed by inhalation of a high concentration of sevoflurane is effective for anesthesia induction in marmosets.

  14. COMPARISON OF BUTORPHANOL AND BUPRENORPHINE AS AN ADJUVANT TO LOCAL ANAESTHESIA IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK FOR POST-OPERATIVE ANALGESIA

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    Vinod

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Supraclavicular brachial plexus block provides anesthesia for surgeries around elbow, forearm and hand. With advent of opioid receptors, variety of opioid agents is used for postoperative analgesia via brachial plexus block. Butorphanol and Buprenorphine can be used along with local anesthetics to provide post op analgesia. AIMS: 1 To study the onset and extent of sensory and motor blockade. 2 To compare the duration of postoperative analgesia in two groups. METHODOLOGY: A study was carried out in 30 patients aged 18-60yr of ASA grade I & II of either sex in each group undergoing orthopedic upper limb surgeries via supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Injection Butorphanol 1mg (Group-I and Buprenorphine150µg (Group-II were added to local anesthetic mixture. Onset of sensory and motor blockade, extent of blockade and occurrence of any complications were studied in both the groups. All patients were observed for analgesia hourly until patient demanded analgesia post-operatively by VAS pain score. RESULTS: In Group II (Buprenorphine onset of sensory, motor blockade and complete blockade was delayed as compared to Group I (Butorphanol. In Group I patients, VAS score was 39.44  16.66 at the end of 5 hours while in Group II patients 50.35  25.65 VAS score at the end of 8 hours. So the duration of analgesia was upto 5-6 hours in Group I, where it was upto 8-9 hours in Group II. CONCLUSION: Both drugs are potent analgesic in brachial plexus block, but Buprenorphine is more potent and produces longer duration of postoperative analgesia than Butorphanol.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EPIDURAL BUTORPHANOL AND EPIDURAL FENTANYL FOR THE RELIEF OF POST-OPERATIVE PAIN IN LOWER ABDOMINAL AND LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

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    Ashwini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidural anaesthesia is used extensively for both intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. This prospective randomized study was conducted using opioids epidurally for post-operative analgesia. Fentanyl is a pure opioid agonist. Butorphanol tartarate which is an agonist antagonist opioid is considered safer than pure opioid agonist. Hence, we compared epidural 4mg butorphanol and epidural 100 µg fentanyl for the relief of post-operative pain. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the onset, duration, quality of analgesia, hemodynamic effects and side effects between the 2 study drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 patients of either sex posted for elective lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each. Group A received butorphanol 4mg epidurally. Group B received fentanyl 100 µg epidurally. All surgeries were done under lumbar epidural anaesthesia with catheter in situ. Post-operatively when patients complained of pain, intensity of pain was assessed using visual analogue scale [VAS]. When the VAS score was > 5, Group A received butorphanol 4mg diluted to 10 ml with NS or Group B received 100 µg fentanyl epidurally diluted to 10 ml with NS. Onset, duration, quality of analgesia, hemodynamic effects and incidence of side effects were compared between the two groups and treated accordingly. RESULTS: Demographic profile was comparable in both groups. Mean time of onset of analgesia was rapid (3.22 ±0.9 (S.D min in group B compared to group A (6.38± 1.26 (S.D min. Duration of analgesia was longer in group A (344.00 ±63.39 min compared to group B (227±38.12 min. Quality of analgesia was better with group A compared to group B. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters in both groups. Sedation was the main side effect in group A. Incidence of pruritis, vomiting, hypotension and respiratory depression was more in group B. CONCLUSION: Epidural Butorphanol though has a delayed

  16. A study of addition of Inj.Butorphanol to hyperbaric Inj.Bupivacaine given intrathecally to patients undergoing lower segment caesarean section: A randomized, controlled trial

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    Vangipuram Raghavachari Ranga Chari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric injection bupivacaine has become increasingly popular as it provides good sensory and motor block for longer duration without any significant neurological side effects. Spinal opiates have been of much interest in recent times as they potentiate the effect of local anesthetic agent and provide longer lasting post-operative analgesia. We compared injection butorphanol and normal saline as an adjuvant to local anesthetic agent in subarachnoid block in lateral position with respect to onset, duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. Aim: To evaluate the effect of addition of 25 mg of injection butorphanol to hyperbaric injection bupivacaine 0.5% on onset, quality, duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic changes, side effects, and post-operative analgesic effect when administrated intrathecally in patients undergoing elective lower segment cesarean section (LSCS. Methodology: Sixty ASA (American Society of Anaesthesiologist grade-I and II patients scheduled for elective LSCS aged 18-40 years were divided into two equal and comparable groups. The control group represented patients receiving injection bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg, 2 ml + 0.5 ml normal saline (total volume 2.5 ml intrathecally. The study group were the patients receiving injection bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg, 2 ml + injection butorphanol 25 mg in 0.5 ml of normal saline (1 mg/ml preservative-free injection butorphanol diluted up to 20 ml by normal saline and 0.5 ml of this solution was taken making total volume 2.5 ml by intrathecal route. The principle outcome measures were systolic and diastolic blood pressure changes and the anesthetic and analgesic effects. These were summarized and compared between the two groups. Parametric statistics were used to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the two groups. Results: In the early phase of surgery there was more decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the

  17. O butorfanol na anestesia pela romifidina-tiletamina-zolazepam em gatos Butorphanol in romifidine-tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in cats

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    André Luis Selmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando observar os efeitos do butorfanol (B na anestesia produzida pela associação de romifidina (R e tiletamina-zolazepam (TZ, foram utilizados seis gatos adultos, de forma que todos animais receberam a associação de romifidina-tiletamina-zolazepam (grupo RTZ ou a associação de romifidina-tiletamina-zolazepam-butorfanol (grupo RTZB. Os animais receberam em aplicação única, por via intramuscular, 7mg.kg-1 de tiletamina e 7mg.kg-1 de zolazepam e 40µg.kg-1 de romifidina (grupo RTZ ou a mesma associação acrescida de 0,2mg.kg-1 de B (grupo RTZB. A freqüência cardíaca, freqüência respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica e média por método não-invasivo oscilométrico, saturação de oxihemoglobina e temperatura retal foram avaliadas durante 120 minutos e comparadas aos valores basais. Os efeitos anestésicos foram caracterizados por meio de um sistema de escores. Outros dados como período de latência, período anestésico hábil e período de recuperação foram mensurados para efeito comparativo. Os períodos de latência e anestésico hábil foram significativamente mais prolongados no grupo RTZB. Ocorreu diminuição da freqüência respiratória no grupo RTZB, havendo decréscimo transitório no grupo RTZ. A freqüência cardíaca não variou no grupo RTZ até os 60 minutos e decresceu significativamente no grupo RTZB. Conclui-se que a associação RTZ produz anestesia com mínimos efeitos cardiovasculares e que a adição do butorfanol à associação prolonga o tempo anestésico hábil, além de proporcionar analgesia mais duradoura, mas provoca efeitos colaterais como decréscimo da freqüência cardíaca e da freqüência respiratória em gatos.The effect of butorphanol was investigated in six adult cats anesthetized with romifidine-tiletamine-zolazepam. Cats were given romifidine (40µg.kg-1 tiletamine (7mg.kg-1 and zolazepam (7mg.kg-1 (RTZ intramuscularly, or RTZ and butorphanol (0.2mg.kg-1 (RTZB. Heart

  18. Racemic ketamine in comparison to S-ketamine in combination with azaperone and butorphanol for castration of pigs.

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    Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R; Stauffer, S; Hässig, M; Flaherty, D; Ringer, S K

    2013-12-01

    In this prospective blinded randomised study, 28 male 9 week old pigs of bodyweight 25 kg, were anaesthetised for castration using 5 mg/kg azaperone, 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol and 0.4 mg/kg meloxicam, in conjunction with either 15 mg/kg racemic ketamine (Keta-Race) or 9 mg/kg S-ketamine (S-Keta), all drugs being injected intramuscularly. Anaesthesia induction, maintenance and recovery were timed and scored. Insufficient anaesthesia was supplemented with ¼ the initial dose of ketamine or S-ketamine, respectively, administered intravenously. A t-test was utilised for analysis of timings, and, for repeated recovery time data, ANOVA was used. In relation to quantification and timing of supplemental drug doses, a chi square test was used and the scoring was analysed by two sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Ketamine re-dosing was required in 23 animals on a total of 46 occasions distributed evenly throughout both groups. The only group differences occurred during recovery, with the S-Keta group showing earlier movements, sternal recumbency and ability to stand. Three pigs in each group showed muscle fasciculations during the recovery period, while an additional two animals of the Keta-Race group exhibited marked and unacceptable paddling in recovery. In conclusion, S-ketamine at a dose rate of 60 % of that of racemic ketamine induced comparable anaesthesia for castration in pigs, but with superior recovery characteristics.

  19. Evaluation of intramuscular butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine and nasal oxygen insufflation for the chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus.

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    Mich, Patrice M; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Sirochman, Michael A; Davis, Tracy R; Lance, William R; Miller, Michael W

    2008-09-01

    Chemical immobilization of wildlife often includes opioids or cyclohexamines. These substances are problematic as a result of their required storage, handling, and record-keeping protocols. A potentially useful alternative sedation protocol includes a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM: 0.43 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.36 mg/kg azaperone, 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine). One risk of wildlife immobilization with any drug combination is hypoxemia. This may be of particular importance when using an alpha 2 agonist such as medetomidine because of its powerful vasoconstrictive effect. In this prospective study, the BAM combination was evaluated for chemical immobilization of white-tailed deer. Additionally, selected physiologic parameters associated with BAM immobilization, including oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas measurement, with and without nasal insufflation of oxygen at a relatively low flow of 3 L/min, were evaluated. The BAM combination resulted in a predictable onset of sedation, with a mean induction time to lateral recumbency of 9.8 +/- 3.6 min. All deer recovered smoothly within a range of 5-20 min after reversal with intramuscular administration of naltrexone, atipamazole, and tolazoline (NAT). Clinically relevant decreases in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were observed in animals not receiving supplemental oxygen, while both parameters significantly improved for oxygen-supplemented deer. Pulse oximetry with this protocol was an unreliable indicator of oxygen saturation. In this study, altitude, recumbency, hypoventilation, butorphanol- and medetomidine-specific effects, as well as the potential for alpha 2 agonist-induced pulmonary changes all may have contributed to the development of hypoxemia. Overall, capture of white-tailed deer with the BAM/NAT protocol resulted in excellent chemical immobilization and reversal. Because the BAM combination caused significant hypoxemia

  20. EFEITO ANALGÉSICO DO BUTORFANOL NA DOR SOMÁTICA EM GATOS ANESTESIADOS COM PROPOFOL ANALGESIC EFFECT OF BUTORPHANOL ON SOMATIC PAIN IN CATS ANESTHETIZED WITH PROPOFOL

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    Isabela Ciniello Araujo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O propofol é um agente anestésico intravenoso usado para indução e manutenção da anestesia, mas produz analgesia limitada, havendo a necessidade do uso concomitante de analgésicos. Avaliou-se o efeito analgésico do butorfanol na dor somática em gatos anestesiados com doses fracionadas de propofol. Foram utilizados 16 animais, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo controle foram pré-tratados com 0,2mg/kg de acepromazina por via IM e, após 15 minutos, receberam 6mg/kg de propofol por via IV. Os animais do grupo tratamento foram pré-medicados com uma combinação de acepromazina (0,2mg/kg e butorfanol (0,8mg/kg, administrados na mesma seringa por via IM, e, após 15 minutos, receberam 6mg/kg de propofol por via IV. Em ambos os grupos, a manutenção da anestesia foi feita com administrações de propofol, na dose de 3mg/kg, por via IV, sempre que necessário, durante 60 minutos. A necessidade de readministração de propofol foi verificada pela resposta apresentada ao pinçamento cutâneo, através de uma pinça de Kocher. Avaliaram-se também as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial média, saturação de oxiemoglobina e temperatura retal. A administração de butorfanol causou apenas redução nas freqüências cardíaca e respiratória e na saturação de oxiemoglobina, em comparação com o grupo controle,sem exercer influência significativa sobre o período hábil, a dose total administrada e o período de recuperação do propofol. Concluiu-se que a adição de butorfanol não produziu analgesia somática em gatos anestesiados com doses fracionadas de propofol.Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia but produces limited analgesia, and concomitant use of analgesics is necessary. The analgesic effect of butorphanol in somatic pain in cats anesthetized with intermittent doses of propofol was evaluated. Sixteen animals were randomly

  1. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol for the field anesthesia of free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Lethbridge, Mark R; Hampton, Jordan O; Smith, Ian; Woolnough, Andrew P; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Miller, Graham W J; Caraguel, Charles G B

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We report the clinical course and physiologic and anesthetic data for a case series of 76 free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) chemically restrained, by remote injection from a helicopter, in the rangelands of Western Australia and South Australia, 2008-11, to attach satellite-tracking collars. Fifty-five camels were successfully anesthetized using medetomidine-ketamine (MK, n=27) and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol (MKB, n=28); the induction of anesthesia in 21 animals was considered unsuccessful. To produce reliable anesthesia for MK, medetomidine was administered at 0.22 mg/kg (± SD=0.05) and ketamine at 2.54 mg/kg (± 0.56), and for MKB, medetomidine was administered at 0.12 mg/kg (± 0.05), ketamine at 2.3 mg/kg (± 0.39), and butorphanol at 0.05 mg/kg (± 0.02). Median time-to-recumbency for MKB (8.5 min) was 2.5 min shorter than for MK (11 min) (P=0.13). For MK, the reversal atipamezole was administered at 0.24 mg/kg (± 0.10), and for MKB, atipamezole was administered at 0.23 mg/kg (± 0.13) and naltrexone at 0.17 mg/kg (± 0.16). Median time-to-recovery was 1 min shorter for MK (5 min) than MKB (6 min; P=0.02). Physiologic parameters during recumbency were not clinically different between the two regimes. Both regimes were suitable to safely anesthetize free-ranging camels; however, further investigation is required to find the safest, most consistent, and logistically practical combination.

  2. 布托啡诺、哌替啶与曲马多治疗围麻醉期病人寒战的效果%A comparison among butorphanol, pethidine and tramadol in treating perioperative chilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚; 鲁卫华; 柳兆芳; 鲁美静

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of butorphanol , pethidine and tramadol in treatment of patients with perioperative shivering. METHODS: Sixty ASA I - II patients with shivering response during anesthesia were randomly divided into three groups(n = 20) : butorphanol group (group B), intravenous injection of butorphanol 0.02 mg/kg; pethidine group (group P), intravenous injection of pethidine 0.5 mg/kg; and tramadol group (group T), intravenous tramadol 1 mg/kg. Observed the degree and time of occurrence of shivering, shivering response after treatment and adverse effect in sedation score. RESULTS: Butorphanol group and tramadol group were effective than pethidine group in treatment of shivering (P<0. 01). Butorphanol group was significantly higher than tramadol group and pethidine group in sedation (P < 0. 05). Tramadol group was significantly higher than pethidine group and butorphanol group in incidence of nausea and vomiting ( P < 0. 05 ). CONCLUSION: Butorphanol and tramadol can effectively treat perioperative shivering,but clinical patients should be reasonable select different drugs according to particular case.%目的:观察布托啡诺、哌替啶与曲马多三种药物治疗围麻醉期病人寒战的效果.方法:60例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级麻醉期间发生寒战反应的病人,随机分为三组,每组20例:布托啡诺组,静脉注射布托啡诺0.02 mg/kg;哌替啶组,静脉注射哌替啶0.5mg/kg;曲马多组,静脉注射曲马多1 mg/kg.观察寒战程度及治疗效果,用药后镇静评分及不良反应.结果:布托啡诺组和曲马多组寒战治疗有效率高于哌替啶组(P<0.01);哌替啶组和曲马多组的镇静评分显著高于布托啡诺组(P<0.05);曲马多组恶心呕吐发生率高于哌替啶组和布托啡诺组(P<0.05).结论:布托啡诺与曲马多可有效控制麻醉后的寒战反应,但布托啡诺镇静作用较强,而曲马多增加恶心呕吐发生率,临床上应根据患者的情况合理应用相应药物.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE (0.125% VERSUS EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE (0.125% AND BUTORPHANOL (2mg FOR POST-OPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF IN LOWER ABDOMINAL AND LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

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    Krishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain gives rise to various physiological and psychological phenomenons. Epidural analgesia with combination of local anesthetics and opioids provides better pain relief than local anesthetics alone in the postoperative period. Epidural opioids acting through the spinal cord receptors improve the quality and duration of analgesia along with dose-sparing effect with the local anesthetics. AIMS: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of addition of opioids to local anesthetics for postoperative pain relief. METHODS: Fifty patients of American society of anesthesiology grade and physical status undergoing lower abdominal surgeries & lower limb surgeries in narayana general hospital, Nellore, were divided into two groups B and BB. Group B was given 0.125% bupivacaine alone and Group BB was given 0.125% bupivacaine plus 2mg of butorphanol postoperatively when the patients first complained of pain. Onset of Analgesia, duration of analgesia, visual analog scores and side effects were compared. RESULTS: The onset of analgesia in group B patients (10ml of 0.125% Bupivacaine was varied from 4-8 minutes (mean 5.2 minutes and duration of analgesia lasted for 2-4 hours (mean 2.98(p<0.0001 where as in group BB patients (2mg butorphanol + 0.125% bupivacaine the onset was 2-4 minutes (mean 2.69 and duration of analgesia lasted for 6-8 hours (mean 6.98 (p<0.0001.The Visual Analog Scores of Group B were in the range of 7 to 9 and Group BB were in the range of 5 to 6 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that addition of butorphanol (2mg to bupivacaine (0.125% gives more effective and prolonged duration of postoperative pain relief when administered epidurally, without significant side effects.

  4. Butorphanol in Patients with Brachial Plexus Block Analgesia%布托啡诺在臂丛麻醉患者中的镇痛效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the analgesic effect of anesthesia in patients with Bhutto's coffee with the brachial plexus.Methods The ASA I or II in Department of orthopedics, upper extremity surgery patients 70 cases of group, 35 cases in the control group: intravenous injection of pethidine hydrochloride 50 mg Ding; 35 patients of the study group: injecting butorphanol 1 mg; compared two groups of patients with analgesic effect and adverse reactions.Results The anesthesia maintenance and the onset time of the study group were longer than the control group, the VAS score of the patients was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the side reaction was minimal, and the difference of the two groups was minimal. Conclusion Bhutto is suitable for brachial plexus block, the effect is fast, the maintenance time is long, the safety is high, it is good narcotic drugs.%目的 探讨布托咖诺对臂丛麻醉患者所具有的镇痛作用.方法 将我院行骨科上肢术病例70例进行分组,对照组35例:静注盐酸哌替丁50 mg;研究组35例:注布托啡诺1 mg;比较两组患者镇痛效果及不良反应.结果 研究组麻醉维持、起效时间均长于对照组,术后患者VAS评分显著下降(P < 0.05),且均无明显副反应.结论 布托啡诺适用于臂丛神经阻滞,起效快、维持时间长,安全性高,是不错的麻醉药物.

  5. 布托啡诺、曲马多及其复合应用在术后镇痛中的效果%Outcomes of butorphanol, tramadol, or their combination for postoperative analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金娣; 韩传宝; 周钦海; 钱燕宁; 桂波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcomes of butorphanol,tramadol,and their combination in postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA).Methods Ninety patients scheduled for abdominal surgeries and undergoing PCIA were equally randomized into three groups of B(butorphanol),T (tramadol) and BT (butorphanol combined with tramadol).VAS pain score,Ramsay sedative score,Bruggrmann comfort scale score,the numbers of receiving rescue medication and PCA button pressing and analgesia-related adverse reaction were compared at 4,24 and 48 h after surgery among three groups.Results Compared with group BT,VAS pain scores were lower and Ramsay scores were higher at 4 h and 24 h,and PCA numbers were less within 4 h in group B(P<0.05).Compared with group BT,VAS pain score was lower in group T at 24 h after surgery(P<0.05).Conclusion The efficacy of combined use of butorphonal and tramadol has no better analgesic effect and less adverse reactions than that of butorphonal or tramadol alone for PCIA.%目的 比较布托啡诺、曲马多及两药联合应用在术后自控静脉镇痛(PCIA)中的临床效果.方法 拟行择期腹部手术患者90例随机均分为布托啡诺组(B组)、曲马多组(T组)和布托啡诺复合曲马多组(BT组),记录术后4、24、48h的VAS、Ramsay镇静评分、舒适度评分、追加镇痛药例数、镇痛泵按压次数和不良反应发生情况.结果 与BT组相比,B组术后4、24 h的VAS降低,Ramsay评分升高,术后4h镇痛泵按压次数减少(P<0.05),T组术后24 h的VAS降低(P<0.05).结论 复合应用布托啡诺与曲马多PCIA的镇痛效果不及各自单一药物,且未减少不良反应的发生.

  6. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios do butorfanol em cães pré-tratados ou não pela levomepromazina Cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol in dogs treated with levomepromazine

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    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos do butorfanol precedido ou não pela levomepromazina sobre a freqüência cardíaca (FC, as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM, respectivamente, a freqüência respiratória (f, a concentração de dióxido de carbono ao final da expiração (ETCO2, a saturação da oxihemoglobina (SpO2, o volume corrente (VC e o volume minuto (VM, em cães. Para tal, foram empregados vinte animais adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos (GC e GL. Ao GC administrou-se solução salina a 0,9% (Controle, no volume de 0,2mL kg-1, pela via intravenosa (IV. Decorridos 15 minutos, administrou-se butorfanol na dose de 0,3mg kg-1 pela mesma via. Aos animais do GL foi adotada a mesma metodologia, porém substituindo-se a solução salina pela levomepromazina na dose de 1mg kg-1. As medidas das variáveis cardiorrespiratórias iniciaram-se imediatamente antes da aplicação dos fármacos (M1. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração da solução salina a 0,9% ou levomepromazina (M2 e 10 minutos após a administração de butorfanol (M3. As demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 10 minutos, durante 30 minutos (M4, M5 e M6, respectivamente. Os dados numéricos colhidos foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA, seguida pelo teste de Tukey (pThis work was aimed at evaluating the effects of the butorphanol in dogs preceded or not buy levomepromazine on heart rate (HR, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP, respectively, respiratory rate (RR, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2, minute volume (MV and tidal volume (TV. Twenty adult animals, clinically health were randomly distributed in two groups with ten animals each one (CG and LG. The first one received intravenous administration (IV of 0.2mL kg-1 of saline solution at 0.9% (control. After 15 minutes, 0.3mg kg-1

  7. 硬膜外泵入布托啡诺复合小剂量氯胺酮在分娩镇痛中的应用%Epidural in fasion butorphanol plus low dose of ketamine in labor analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓燕; 张勇; 王开祥

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察硬膜外持续泵入布托啡诺复合小剂量氯胺酮用于分娩镇痛的效果及其对分娩过程和胎儿的影响.方法 选择单胎足月初产妇60例,随机分为两组.A组(对照组)30例,硬膜外持续泵入0.1%罗哌卡因+芬太尼0.15μg/ml,泵速4 ml/h;B组(观察组)30例,硬膜外持续泵入布托啡诺0.1 mg/kg+氟胺酮0.7 mg/kg,泵速4 ml/h.连续监测呼吸,循环情况;采用视觉模拟疼痛评分(VAS)评估镇痛效应;运动神经阻滞程度按改良的Bromage标准进行测定;观察记录产程进展宫缩及胎儿情况、新生儿情况及不良反应.结果 A、B两组的VAS评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).新生儿各时点的Apgar评分两组间比较差异也无统计学意义(P>0.05).A组第二产程(67±51)min,较B组(41±20)min有所延长(P<0.05).产妇的生命体征、宫缩、胎儿及运动神经阻滞程度,两组差异无统计学意义.结论 硬膜外泵入布托啡诺复合小剂量氨胺酮可安全有效地应用于分娩镇痛.%Objective To evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of butorphanol combined with low dose of ketamine for labor analgesia.Methods Sixty ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ full term primigravidae in active labor who had a single fetus with vertex presentation and were expected to have avaginal deavery were randomly divided into two groups;control group (group A) received with ropicanine and fentany (n=30);observation group (group B) received with butorphanol 0.1 mg/kg in combination with ketamie 0.7 mg/kg in 100 ml normal saline.Both infusion in a rate of 4 ml/h.The intensity of pain was evaluated by patients using VAS and motor function was assessed using modified bromage score.The vital signs (BP,HR,SpO2),fetal neart rate,labor process,mode of delivery.Apgar score of neonates and side effects of analgesia were recorded.Results There was no significant differece in VAS score and fetal apgar score between group A and B(P>0.05) ;the duration of second stage of labor was longer

  8. 布托啡诺与芬太尼对全凭静脉麻醉中诱导期脑电双频指数与异丙酚效应室浓度曲线的影响%Effects of butorphanol and fentanyl on the BIS-propofol effect-site concentration curve during total intravenous anesthesia induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂生; 王洁; 姚尚龙

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of butorphanol and fentanyl on the bispectral index (BIS)-propofol effect-site concentration curve during total intravenous anesthesia induction. Methods One hundred and twelve patients, scheduled for selective surgery of the thyroid or breast between February 2009 and May 2009 in our hospital under total intravenous anesthesia (ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ), were randomly divided into four groups: control group (Group C) , fentanyl group (Group F) , butorphanol group (Group B) , and butorphanol plus fentanyl group (Group BF) , 28 patients in each group. Target controlled infusion of propofol was used for anesthesia induction in all groups. Group C received an intravenous (Ⅳ) bolus of 4 μg/kg fentanyl and 0.2 mg/kg cis-benzene atracurium after loss of consciousness. Group F was given an Ⅳ bolus of 4 μg/kg fentanyl at two minutes before induction; Group B was given an Ⅳ bolus of 40 μg/kg butorphanol at five minutes before induction; Group BF was given an Ⅳ bolus of 20 μg/kg butorphanol at five minutes and fentanyl 2 μg/kg at two minutes before induction. Moreover, a post-induction Ⅳ bolus of 0.2 mg/kg cis-benzene atracurium was given to groups B, F and BF. Endotracheal intubation was used for mechanical ventilation. Bispoctral index (BIS) and corresponding effect-site concentrations (Ce) of propofol were recorded and graphed. Results At each corresponding effect-site concentration, the bispectral indexes were lower in Group F compared to Group C (68±14 vs 76±12, P=0.036), and in Group B compared to Group F (61±11 vs 68±14, P=0.041). Compared with the Group BF, Group B had a higher BIS when the effect-site concentration of propofol was below 1.4 mg/L, and a lower BIS when the effect-site concentration of propofol was above 1.4 mg/L. The group B was the quickest to fulfill the sedation level required of surgery,followed by Group BF, Group F and Group C. Conclusions Both butorphanol and fentanyl may reduce the BIS at each

  9. Efeitos cardiovasculares e neuroendócrinos do butorfanol e da buprenorfina em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine in dogs anesthetized with desflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Souza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do butorfanol e da buprenorfina sobre variáveis cardiovasculares e neuroendócrinas em cães anestesiados com desfluorano, utilizando-se 30 cães adultos, machos e fêmeas, distribuídos em três grupos denominados grupo butorfanol (GBT, grupo buprenorfina (GBP e grupo-controle (GCO. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol (8mg/kgIV e nos animais intubados administrou-se desfluorano (1,5CAM. Após 30 minutos, nos cães do GBT, aplicou-se butorfanol (0,4mg/kgIM; nos do GBP, buprenorfina (0,02mg/kgIM; e nos do GCO, solução de NaCl a 0,9% (0,05ml/kgIM. Avaliaram-se: freqüência cardíaca; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média; débito cardíaco; pressão venosa central; cortisol; hormônio adrenocorticotrópico; noradrenalina; e glicose. As colheitas dos dados foram feitas aos 30 minutos após o início da administração do desfluorano (M0, 15 minutos após a administração do opióide ou placebo (M15, e a cada 15 minutos após M15 (M30, M45, M60 e M75. Para a avaliação neuroendócrina utilizaram-se os momentos M-30 (antes da administração dos fármacos, M0, M15 e M45. Na freqüência cardíaca houve diferença entre M0 e M15 (129 e 111bat/min em GBT, e entre M0 e M30 (131 e 112bat/min em GBP. Na pressão arterial média, a diferença foi entre M0 (86mmHg e todos os momentos que se seguiram (todos os valores foram menores que 72mmHg, em GBT. A pressão arterial diastólica foi menor em todos os momentos (The effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine variables in dogs anesthetized with desflurane were studied. Thirty adult healthy, males and females, mongrel dogs were distributed in three groups denominated butorphanol group (BTG, buprenorphine group (BPG and control group (COG. The anesthetic induction was done using propofol (8mg/kg, IV, and immediately, the dogs were intubated and submited to desflurane anaesthesia (1.5 MAC. After 30 minutes, the BTG animals

  10. 氯胺酮复合布托啡诺静脉麻醉在小儿日间手术中的应用%The application of ketamine combined with butorphanol intravenous anesthesia for pediatric day surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虓宇; 张成密; 陈锡明; 王英伟; 赵璇

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究氯胺酮复合布托啡诺静脉麻醉在小儿日间手术中应用的临床效果.方法 选择美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级行腹股沟疝修补术、包皮环切术的患儿(1岁~6岁)200例,按随机数字表法分为2组(每组100例):氯胺酮复合生理盐水组(KS组)和氯胺酮复合布托啡诺组(KB组).KS组患儿静脉给予氯胺酮2 mg/kg复合生理盐水2 ml行麻醉诱导,KB组患儿则给予氯胺酮2 mg/kg复合2 ml含有30 μg/kg的布托啡诺,若患儿术中出现明显的体动反应,则静脉追加氯胺酮1 mg/kg.记录呼吸、血流动力学变化、苏醒时间、术后CHEOPS疼痛评分(术后即刻、术后1、2、4、8、12、24 h)和镇静评分(术后15、30、60 min)及氯胺酮用量.结果 KB组的氯胺酮用量(42.2±12.9) mg较KS组(75.0±25.3) mg明显减少;且术后平均CHEOPS评分显著降低、术后镇静评分显著较高;麻醉后复苏室内苏醒时间显著延长(P <0.05),但并不延长出室时间.两组患儿的呼吸与血流动力指标差异无统计学意义.结论 氯胺酮复合布托啡诺静脉麻醉能够安全应用于小儿日间手术,减少大剂量氯胺酮所致的副作用,又可以提供较为完善的镇痛与镇静作用,减少小儿苏醒期躁动的发生.%Objective To compare the effects of ketamine combined with butorphanol for intravenous anesthesia with ketamine separately for pediatric day surgery.Methods In this double-blind trial,200 pediatric patients (ASA physical status 1 or 2,1 to 6 years old) undergoing inguinal hernia repair or circumcisions undergoing intravenous anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups.Intravenous anesthesia was induced with 2 mg/kg ketamine combined with 2 ml saline (group KS,n=100) or 2 mg/ kg ketamine combined with 30 μg/kg butorphanol in the volume of 2 ml respectively (group KB,n=100).Repeat doses of ketamine 1 mg/kg were administered when the patients had motor responses.Total dosage of ketamine

  11. Clinical Observation of Lappaconitine Combined With Butorphanol in Post-operative Intravenous Analgesia in Elderly Patients With Rectal Cancer%高乌甲素联合布托啡诺在老年直肠癌患者术后静脉镇痛中的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪叶; 张同军

    2015-01-01

    Objective to study the analgesic effect of lappaconitine combined with butorphanol in elderly patients after rectal can-cer operation with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. Methods 60 patients with rectal cancer operation under general anes-thesia were randomly divided into 3 groups .The patients who received butorphanol 10mg and tropisetron 5 mg were divided into group A.Butorphanol 8 mg combined with lappaconitine 20 mg and tropisetron 5 mg were group B. Butorphanol 10mg combined with lappaconitine 20 mg and tropisetron 5 mg were group C.Observe and record the pain score、sedation score at the time 6 h、12 h、24 h、48 h after surgery. Also record the incidence of postoperative adverse reaction and pressing times of PCIA within 48h. Results Compared with group A , group B and group C have a lower VAS score at 12~48 h after surgery(P<0.05),and decrease the effective pressing numbers of PCIA pump at 6~48 h(P<0.05).At the time 6~24 h, group B and group C decrease the Ramsey seda-tion score compared with group A (P<0.05),and group C has a more lower Ramsey sedation score compared with group B (P<0.05). All of the three groups have no obvious adverse reactions. Conclusion The method can reduce the incidence of adverse reaction and has a good analgesic effect of lappaconitine combined with butorphanol in elderly patients after rectal cancer operation with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia .%目的:探讨高乌甲素联合布托啡诺用于老年直肠癌患者术后静脉自控镇痛(PCIA)中的效果。方法60例择期在全身麻醉下行直肠癌根治术的患者随机分为三组:A组布托啡诺10 mg+托烷司琼5mg;B组,布托啡诺8 mg+高乌甲素20mg+托烷司琼5mg,C组,布托啡诺10 mg+高乌甲素20 mg+托烷司琼5 mg。观察并记录患者术后6 h.12 h.24 h.48 h疼痛。镇静评分、术后48 h内PCIA有效按压次数和术后不良反应的发生情况。结果与A 组比较12~48 h 时B.C 组 VAS 评分降低(P<0

  12. 布托啡诺、芬太尼联合治疗术后患者自控静脉镇痛的临床疗效观察%Clincal Effect of Butorphanol Combined with Fentanyl on Postoperative Pain Relief with Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江海霞; 杨文燕; 苏彦伊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the analgesic effects of butorphanol, fentanyl and butorphanol combined with fentanyl for postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA). Methods Sixty ASA class I or Ⅱ patients undergoing abdominal operations were randomly assigned into three groups with 20 cases each. The patients in group B received butorphanol (0.2mg/mL, in group F fentanyl ( 10 ug/mL) , and in group BF butorphanol (0.1 mg/mL) with fentanyl (5 ug/mL) for PCIA. The PC A model for all groups was set with background infusion 2 mL/h, bolus of lml with lock time 15 min. The visual analogue scale (VAS) analgesic score, Ramsay sedation score and side effects were recorded and compared among three groups at 2, 4, 8, 18, 24, 48 h after the operations. Results Adequate analgesia was achieved in all three groups. VAS score of group BF was significantly lower than that of group B at 8, 18, 24 h after the operation (P < 0.05). Ramsay sedation score of group B was significantly higher than that of group F at 4, 8, 18, 24h after the operation (P<0.05) . The incidence of dizziness of group B was significantly higher than that of group F (P < 0.05) . The incidence of postoperative vomiting of group BF was significantly lower than that of group F (P <0.05). Conclusion Butorphanol combined with fentanyl for postoperative intravenous analgesia shows effective analgesia with fewer side effects, which is good mixture for PCIA.%目的 比较布托啡诺、芬太尼、布托啡诺联合芬太尼用于术后患者自控静脉镇痛(PCIA)的临床效果.方法 60例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级的腹部手术患者,随机均分为布托啡诺组(B组)、芬太尼组(F组)、布托啡诺联合芬太尼组(BF组),术毕按3种方案实行PCIA.记录并比较术后2、4、8、18、24、48 h的疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)、Ramsay镇静评分及不良反应.结果 3组患者均达到了良好的镇痛效果,但术后8 h、18 h、24 h,BF组的VAS评分明显低于B组(P<0.05).B组术后4、8、18

  13. The effect comparison of different concentration dexmedetomidine with butorphanol on postoperative analgesia%不同剂量右美托咪定复合布托啡诺在术后镇痛中的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于颜锋; 刘文养; 覃勇华

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through the effect comprison of analgesic calm and side-effect on postoperative analgesia under different concentration dexmedetomidine with butorphanol,to research the best concentration of dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia.Methods Ninety patients with lower abdominal surgery with general anesthesia,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ grade,were divided into 3 groups by random digits table:group A,group B and group C,each group with 30 cases.The group A received 0.2 μg/ (kg·h) dexmedetomidine.The group B received 0.3 μg/ (kg ·h) dexmedetomidine,both added 0.15 mg/kg butorphanol and 8 mg ondansetron.The group C only received 0.15 mg/kg butorphanol and 8 mg ondansetron.Applied patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) pump continuous infusion gave total 100 ml,background infusion 2 ml/h,patient controlled analgesia (PCA) 2 ml,lock time 30 min,analgesia was continued 48 h.Below were recorded at 2,6,12,24 and 48 h after the beginning of PCIA:analgesia VAS score,ramsay sedation scale (RSS),adverse reaction.The total number of button pressing of PCA and the consumption of patient controlled liqnid analgesia (PCLA) solution were also recorded.Results There was no statistically significant difference in VAS score after each time point between group A and group B (P> 0.05).The VAS scores after each time point in group A and group B were significantly lower than those in group C [(2.7 ±0.8),(2.6 ± 0.8) scores vs.(3.2 ± 0.9) scores; (1.8 ± 0.6),(1.7 ± 0.6) scores vs.(2.5 ± 0.6) scores; (1.0 ±0.6),(0.9 ±0.7) scores vs.(1.8 ±0.6) scores; (1.0 ±0.5),(0.8 ±0.5) scores vs.(1.4 ±0.5) scores; (0.7 ±0.5),(0.7 ±0.4) scores vs.(1.0 ±0.5) scores,P <0.05].There was no statistically significant difference in RSS score among 3 groups (P > 0.05).The RSS scores after 6,12,24 and 48 h in group A and group B were significantly higher than those in group C [(2.6 ±0.5),(3.5 ±0.6) scores vs.(2.0 ±0.3) scores; (2.9 ± 0.6),(3.8 ± 1.2) scores vs.(2.4 ± 0.3) scores

  14. The effect of intranasal Butorphanol on the end-tidal pressure of Isoflurane in craniotomy%经鼻给予布托啡诺对开颅手术麻醉呼气末异氟醚浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云珍; 刘文敏; 王保国

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of intranasal Butorphanol on the end-tidal pressure of Isoflurane (PETIso) and the recovery profiles in craniotomy patients. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, parallel study was used. 60 patients of our hospital who was undergoing selective craniotomy in this study were selected and divided into Butorphanol group (group B) and normal saline group (group S), group B was given Butorphanol Tartrate Spray in nasal with 2 puffs (2 mg); Group S was given normal saline with 2 puffs. The medicine was given 15 minutes before anesthesia induction. The concentration of Isoflurane was adjusted to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP) within (+10%)- (-20%) of baseline and was recorded at each point of operation. The blood pressure, PET Iso and BIS were observed. Results: In group B,the PETIso after the points of skin incision, skull drilling, and skull opening were significantly less than that in group S (P<0.01); The PETIso in group B at the points of dura incision, intracranial procedure beginning, intracranial 10, 20, 30 min and suture dura were lower than that in group S (P<0.05). Conclusion: The application of Butorphanol Tartrate in nasal with 2 mg about 15 min before anesthesia can effectively decrease the PET Iso of neurosurgical patients during skull opening and intracranial procedure.%目的:研究麻醉前应用酒石酸布托啡诺鼻喷剂对开颅手术患者术中呼气末异氟醚浓度(PETIso)的影响.方法:采用随机、双盲、对照研究,选择我院择期行开颅手术的患者60例,将其分为布托啡诺组(B组)和生理盐水组(S组),每组30例.B组给予酒石酸布托啡诺 2喷(2 mg),S组给予生理盐水2喷.麻醉前15 min给药.术中调节异氟醚浓度,维持平均动脉压(MAP)在基础值的(+10%)~(-20%)范围内.记录手术各个时间点的血压、心率、PETIso及脑电双频指数(BIS).结果:B组在切皮、钻骨、开骨瓣后的PETIso显著低于S组(P<0.01);B组在剪硬膜、

  15. Hemogasometria e variáveis cardiopulmonares após administração do butorfanol em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea Acid-base and cardiopulmonary effects after butorphanol administration in spontaneously breathing dogs anesthetized by desflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivos avaliar as possíveis alterações cardiopulmonares e hemogasométricas decorrentes do uso do butorfanol em cães submetidos à anestesia pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea. Para tal, foram utilizados vinte cães adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, pesando 12±3kg. Os animais foram distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos, GS e GB, e induzidos à anestesia com propofol (8,4±0,8mg kg-1, IV, intubados e submetidos à anestesia inalatória pelo desfluorano (10V%. Decorridos 40 minutos da indução, foi administrado aos animais do GS 0,05mL kg-1 de solução fisiológica a 0,9% (salina, enquanto que, no GB, foi aplicado butorfanol na dose de 0,4mg kg-1, ambos pela via intramuscular. As observações das variáveis freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD e média (PAM, pH arterial (pH, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial (PaO2, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono no sangue arterial (PaCO2, déficit de base (DB, bicarbonato (HCO3 e saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SatO2 tiveram início imediatamente antes da aplicação do opióide ou salina (M0. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração do butorfanol ou salina (M15 e as demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 15 minutos, por um período de 60 minutos (M30, M45, M60 e M75. Os dados numéricos dessas variáveis foram submetidos à Análise de Perfil (PThe cardiopulmonary and acid-base effects of butorphanol in desflurane anesthetized dogs breathing spontaneously were evaluated. Twenty adult healthy, male and female dogs were used. They were separated into two groups of 10 animals each (GS and GB. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (8.4±0.8mg kg-1 IV and maintained with desflurane (10V%. After 40 minutes of induction, the animals from GS received saline solution at 0.9% (0.05mL kg-1 and from GB received butorphanol (0.4mg kg-1

  16. Effect Comparison on Patient-controlled Intravenous Analgesia Using Butorphanol or Tramador Combined with Fentanyl after General Anesthesia%布托啡诺或曲马多复合芬太尼用于全麻术后镇痛的临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双凤; 王亚平; 王丹; 肖艳英; 吕静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect and safety between butorphanol combined with fentanyl and tramadol with fentanyl after general anesthesia.Methods 60 patients received general anesthesia during selective radical mastectomy, with ASA Ⅰ to Ⅱ, were randomly divided into two groups with 30 cases for each.The butorphanol combined with fentanyl or tramadol combined with fentanyl were used in group A and B respectively.The visual analogue scale( VAS), Brugmann comfort score (BCS), Ramsay sedative score and side effects were recorded and compared between two groups within 48 hours after the operation.Results There was no significant difference in VAS and the times of self-compression between two groups ( P > 0.05 ).BCS and Ramsay score of group A was significantly higher than those of group B at 4,8,16 and 24 hours after operation ( P < 0.05).The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pruritus of group A was significantly lower than those of group B ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion The use of butorphanol combined with fentanyl has a good effect of analgesia and fewer adverse reaction in patients-controlled analgesia after general anesthesia.%目的 比较布托啡诺复合芬太尼与曲马多复合芬太尼用于全麻术后病人自控镇痛的效果及不良反应.方法 60例择期乳腺癌根治术行全身麻醉患者,随机分为两组,每组30例:A组为布托啡诺配伍芬太尼组,B组为曲马多配伍芬太尼组.记录并比较术后4、8、16、24、48 h疼痛视觉模拟评分(visual analogue pain scale,VAS)、舒适度评分(Bruggman comfort score,BCS)及Ramsay镇静评分及不良反应.结果 两组术后镇痛效果VAS评分和自主按压次数相比均无统计学差异(P>0.05);A组术后4、8、16、24 h BCS及Ramsay镇静评分明显高于B组(P<0.05),其恶心呕吐及皮肤瘙痒发生率均明显低于B组(P<0.05).结论 布托啡诺复合芬太尼镇痛效果确切,不良反应较少,是全麻术后镇痛治疗的良好选择之一.

  17. Clinical observation of sufentanil combined butorphanol in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after old gynecologic operation.%舒芬太尼复合布托啡诺用于老年妇科术后镇痛的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉民; 孙灿林; 谢国柱; 李晓静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of butorphanol and sufentanil in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after senile gynecologic operation. Methods Sixty ASA Ⅰ ~ Ⅱ patients undergoing elective extended hysterectomy were randomized into 2 groups who received PCIA with 0.175 μg/kg sufentanil (group S) and 0.1 μg/kg sufentanil with 0.01 mg/kg butorphanol ( group BS),30 patients in each group. At 4、8、12、20、24、48 h after operation visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain score were recorded. The Ramsay sedation scoring assessment was used to evaluate the sedation level. The adverse reactions and the overall patient satisfaction were statistically analysed. Resuits n the two groups of patients at different time points,VAS scores had no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) ,but The Ramsay scores of group BS were significantly higher than those of group S (P<0.05). the overall patient satisfaction of group BS were significantly higher than that of group S(P < 0. 05), The prevalence of side effects in group BS was significantly lower than that in groups S. Conclusion Sufentanil combined butorphanol in PCIA exhibits satisfactory effect and minor side effects,which is a safe and effective method of postoperative analgesia.%目的 探讨舒芬太尼复合布托啡诺用于老年妇科术后患者自控静脉镇痛(PCIA)的临床效果及其安全性.方法 60例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级拟择期行子宫全切除术的患者,随机分为两组,每组30例.S组给予舒芬太尼0.175μg/kg以及BS组给予舒芬太尼0.1 μg/kg和布托啡诺0.01 mg/kg行术后镇痛治疗,分别记录术后4h、8 h、12 h、20 h、24h、48 hVAS疼痛评分及Ramsay镇静、恶心、呕吐评分,患者总体满意度等.结果 两组患者术后各时间点VAS评分比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),BS组Ramsay镇静评分明显高于S组(P<0.05),BS组镇痛总体满意度明显高于S组(P<0.05),BS组不良反应的发生率明显低于S组(P<0

  18. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  19. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine concentrations following caudal epidural administration in horses Concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina após administração epidural caudal em eqüinos

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    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of determining the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations after epidurally administered alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine in horses. Five clinically healthy adult horses were studied. Morphine 0.1mg kg-1, alfentanil 0.02mg kg-1, and butorphanol 0.08mg kg-1 in equal volumes (20ml were epidurally injected. A 10-ml sample of CSF and blood were drawn at sampling times before the epidural administration and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 120 minutes, and hourly for 24 hours Enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA was used as the screening test to detect the injected opioids. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used with a P values Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se detectar as concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina administrados por via epidural caudal em cavalos. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos adultos, clinicamente hígidos. Doses de morfina (0,1mg kg-1, alfentanil (0,02mg kg-1, e butorfanol (0,08mg kg-1, diluídos em volume idêntico de 20ml em solução salina 0,9%, foram administrados por via epidural. Uma amostra de 10ml de sangüe venoso e de líqüido cérebro-espinhal foram colhidas anteriormente à administração epidural e 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 120 minutos e a cada hora por 24 horas. O teste enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA foi utilizado como método analítico para detecção dos opióides. Os resultados foram avaliados com teste ANOVA e Bonferroni com valor de P<0,05. O teste de ELISA mostrou-se eficiente para detecção plasmática e no LCE de alfentanil, butorfanol, e morfina administrados por via epidural. A administração epidural de alfentanil em eqüinos produz níveis no líquido cérebro-espinhal mais rapidamente que no plasma. Opióides de maior hidrossolubilidade tais como morfina e butorfanol produzem níveis plasmáticos mais rapidamente do que no líquido cérebro-espinhal quando

  20. Comparison of Effects Between Butorphanol and Tramadol Combined with Sufentanil in Postoperative Analgesia after Spinal Operation%布托啡诺或曲马多联合舒芬太尼用于脊柱手术术后镇痛的效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培玉; 向芮; 吴文知; 张兰

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较布托啡诺合舒芬太尼与曲马多合舒芬太尼用于脊柱术后患者自控镇痛的效果及不良反应。方法:将60例ASA I~II级的择期后路脊柱手术患者随机分为布托啡诺联合舒芬太尼组(B组)与曲马多联合舒芬太尼组(T组),记录术后4、8、12、24、48h疼痛视觉模拟评分(visual analogue pain scale,VAS)、舒适度评分(Bruggman comfort score,BCS)、Ramsay镇静评分、PCA按压次数及不良反应。结果:两组术后各时段的VAS评分和自主按压次数差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);B组各时段的BCS和Ramsay镇静评分均高于T组(P0.05). BCS and Ramsay score of group B was significantly higher than those of group T at 8, 12 and 24 hours after operation (P<0.05). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pruritus of group B was significantly lower than those of group T (P<0.05). Conclusion:Two groups of patients with analgesic effect are exact. The use of butorphanol combined with sufentanil has better patients’satisfaction and fewer adverse reac-tions, but its strong sedative effect should be paid special attention in clinical.

  1. 布托啡诺对妇科腔镜手术全麻患者气管拔管后应激反应影响的综合效果评价%The comprehensive effect of butorphanol on patients with clinical anesthesia in gynecological endoscopy surgery after tracheal extubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余叶挺

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the comprehensive effect of butorphanol,using in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery anesthesia induction and maintenance process in tube drawing on cardiovascular response to the stress,as well as comprehensive effect.Methods There were 98 cases of patients with laparoscopic gynecologic surgery in center hospital of Zhuji city.All patients were randomly divided into group B and group F.The patients of group F were given fentanyl as an anesthetic and group B give butorphanol as narcotics.The Heart Rate(HR)was recorded,which was at the entering operation room(T0),4 min after injecting fentanyl or buotrphanol(T1),after intubation(T2),the beginning of operation(T3),5 minutes after pneumoperitoneum (T4 ),5 minutes before extubation(T5 )and half an hour after extubation(T6 ).The patients Oberver’s assessment of alertness/sedation(OAA/s)score was assessed,as well as the adrenaline,cortisol and blood sugar of all petients.Results All the operation indicators did not have significant difference in both groups before operation.HR in Tl and T2 ,T5 were higher than based values,which reduced in T3 ,T4 point,and fell the base value rate in T6 moment.But there was no significant difference between two groups.The OAA/S score in group B was lower than that of group F at 30 min after extubation(P<0.05 ).Group B patients with anesthesia satisfaction were higher.Adrenaline and cortisol of group F declined more than group B, however,the blood sugar rised less than group B.Conclusion The butorphanol has small effects on cardiovascular.The anesthesia time is longer,and has small side effects.It has clinical advantages comparing with fentanyl.%目的:观察布托啡诺用于腹腔镜妇科手术全麻诱导及维持过程中拔管时对患者心血管反应等应激方面的影响,综合评价其效果。方法选取在诸暨市中心医院治疗的98例腹腔镜妇科手术患者,随机均分为对照组和实验组,每组各49例。对照组(F组)给予

  2. A comparison of postoperative analgesic effects with preoperative injection of the different doses of butorphanol in patients undergoing laparoscopically hysterectomy%预注不同剂量布托啡诺对妇科腹腔镜患者术后镇痛效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄龙; 袁世荧; 王开俊; 任俏

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较不同剂量布托啡诺静脉预注用于腹腔镜子宫切除术( laparoscopically hysterectom,LH)对患者术后镇痛作用的影响.方法 48例行全麻下择期LH患者,年龄35岁~60岁,ASA Ⅰ ~Ⅱ级,采用随机数字表法随机分为4组(每组12例),B1组、B2组、B3组分别于切皮前10 min缓注布托啡诺0.01、0.02、0.03 mg/kg(生理盐水稀释至20 ml),C组为对照组,静注生理盐水20 ml,分别记录4组患者术毕苏醒时间、术后视觉模拟(visual analogue scale,VAS)评分、镇静(Ramsay)评分及副作用.所有患者的全麻药用量差异无统计学意义,术后加用镇痛药的病例予以剔除.结果 B3组术毕苏醒时间(18.9±0.87)s较其他3组[(6.3±0.38)、(7.0±0.37)、(5.5±0.03)s]明显延长(P<0.05);各实验组术后VAS评分比C组明显降低(P<0.05),实验组间,B2组、B3组术后VAS评分比B1组明显降低(P<0.05);与C组相比,各实验组术后Ramsay评分明显升高(P<0.05),与B1组、B2组比较,B3组在术后2、4、6h的Ramsay评分明显升高(P<0.05).B3组术后的头晕发生率(41.6%)明显高于其他3组(P<0.05).结论 布托啡诺0.02 mg/kg静脉预注具有良好的术后镇痛效果及较少副作用,是用于妇科腹腔镜手术超前镇痛的适宜剂量.%Objective To investigate and compare postoperative analgesia effects with preoperative injection of butorphanol at different doses in patients undergoing laparoscopically hysterectomy.Methods 48 patients received general anesthesia undergoing laparoscopically hysterectomy,ASA Ⅰ -Ⅱ grade,were randomly divided into 4 groups(n=12):butorphanol 0.01,0.02,0.03 mg/kg was given slowly over 10 min before skin incision to patients in B1,B2 and B3 groups respectively; saline was injected into C (control) group.Pain and sedation were assessed using visual analogue scale(VAS) and Ramsay score at 2,4,6,12 h and 24 h after surgery.The time to regain consciousness and the adverse reactions (nausea

  3. Avaliação algimétrica por estímulo nociceptivo térmico e pressórico em cães pré-tratados com levomepromazina, midazolam e quetamina associados ou não ao butorfanol ou buprenorfina The algimetry evaluation for thermic and pressoric nociceptive stimulus in pre treated dogs with methotrimeprazine, midazolam and ketamine associated or not with butorphanol or buprenorphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leguthe Rosa

    2005-02-01

    methotrimeprazine and midazolam put on the same syringe with ketamine. The animals of GII received the same treatment of GI but associated with butorphanol and finally the animals of GIII received the same treatment of GI but associated with buprenorphine. The routine parametric evaluations has been proceeded, although using the thermo algimetry measured in °C with the average of 52°C and the pressoric algimetry in Kg. RESULTS: In the thermo algimetry, there has been significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M1, M4 and M5; in GII it was found at M0, M1, M5 and M6 and in GIII it was observed the significant at M0 and M1. It has also been shown in pressoric algimetry significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M2 and M3. Among GII it has observed significant difference at all moments and it has found at M0, M9 in GIII. Thus, it has observed significant differences between all groups; for such the M2 of GII smaller than the others; and M4, M5 of GIII bigger than GI and GII. In the assessment of all periods it was observed significant latent period bigger in GI, however, with reasonable period and short recovery in GII and GIII. In the order hand, the postural tonus recovery it was longer in GIII, followed by GII and finally GI. CONCLUSION: The used method for the measurement of algic stimulus was efficient, noticing a reasonable analgesic period of 3 hours for butorphanol and 6 hours for buprenorphine.

  4. Evaluation of intrathecal bupivacaine alone, bupivacaine with butorphanol and bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine for lower segment caesarean section: a randomized control trial

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    Ashem Jack Meitei

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Addition of dexmedetomidine to spinal bupivacaine block in caesarean section increase the duration of analgesia and motor block with minimal side effect and no adverse effects on the babies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2675-2682

  5. Efficacy of epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine for orthopaedic surgery in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Durej M.; Ledecký V.; Michalák D.; Hluchý M.; Kòazovický D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine provides more intense and sufficient perioperative analgesia compared with parenterally administrated butorphanol during orthopaedic surgery. Sheep were assigned to group C (control group, 6 sheep) and group E (epidural, 5 sheep). Sheep from group C were pre-medicated with midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, i.m.) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.). Propofol was used ...

  6. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats.

  7. Effets oculaires de la tranquilisation avec le buthorphanol chez le chien

    OpenAIRE

    Dongay, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Le butorphanol est utilisé en médecine vétérinaire pour ses propriétés analgésiques et sédatives dans divers protocoles anesthésiques L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer les effets oculaires de la sédation au butorphanol lors d’un examen ophtalmologique de routine. Vingt-deux beagles sans anomalie oculaire ont reçu une injection intramusculaire de butorphanol à la dose de 0,2 mg/kg. Des examens cliniques répétés ont été effectués 20 minutes avant et juste avant l’administration puis 10,...

  8. Midazolam / ketamine induction and isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised African buffalo (Syncerus caffer : clinical communication

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    G.F. Stegmann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a midazolam / ketamine combination for induction of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised buffalo calf (Syncerus caffer described to allow endotracheal intubation for the maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and oxygen. Intraoperative complications were hypotension and hypothermia. For postoperative analgesia meloxicam and butorphanol was administered intramuscularly.

  9. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  10. Evaluation of three immobilization combinations in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jay D; Congdon, Elizabeth; Tosta, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodent. Owing to its uniqueness, 50 AZA institutions in North America display this species. As shown by a survey, no standard anesthetic protocol has been developed for this species. As a part of an ongoing behavioral study in Venezuela, capybaras were surgically implanted with radio transmitters. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the three immobilization protocols: (1) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl, (2) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl, and (3) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl/Butorphanol tartrate. The protocol recommended for minimally invasive procedures when inhalant anesthetics are unavailable is a combination of Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl/Butorphanol tartrate. This is based on ease of administration, volume, onset of action, depth of anesthetic achieved, reversibility, safety, and costs.

  11. Translational Advances in Pain and Anesthesia for Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    morphine , hydromorphone, oxycodone, fentanyl, and methadone) as well as agonist antagonists (e.g., buprenorphine, butorphanol, penta zocine, dezocine...opioids and other drugs are converted to active molecules in the body, and multiple SNPs have been identified that affect the metabolism of codeine...enzyme to metabolize drugs. Patients with two non functional alleles are poor metabolizers and exhibit decreased drug response and altered drug

  12. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation...

  13. Establishment of an anesthetic protocol for semen collection by electroejaculation in six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus, 1758

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    P.C. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim was to verify the effects of different anesthetic protocols used during electroejaculation (EEJ in six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus. Four sexually matured animals were physically restrained and subjected to semen collection by the EEJ following three treatments: The control group consisted of no use of anesthesia; in the others, the anesthetic combinations xylazine/ketamine/propofol or butorphanol/ ketamine/propofol were administered. For each group, twelve procedures were conducted for EEJ. Semen was evaluated for volume, color, aspect, motility, sperm concentration, morphology, viability, and functional membrane integrity. The highest efficiency (100% ejaculates was achieved when the control group was used; the xylazine/ketamine/propofol association provided only 11 ejaculates from a total of 12 attempts (91.6% efficiency, while only 4 ejaculates (33% efficiency were obtained with butorphanol/ketamine/propofol (P0.05. The semen volume and sperm concentration obtained in the use of xylazine/ketamine/propofol association were significantly higher than those verified for butorphanol/ketamine/propofol protocol. In conclusion, the xylazine/ketamine/propofol association is indicated for anesthesia of six-banded armadillos submitted to EEJ.

  14. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

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    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  15. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  16. Efficacy of epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine for orthopaedic surgery in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durej M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine provides more intense and sufficient perioperative analgesia compared with parenterally administrated butorphanol during orthopaedic surgery. Sheep were assigned to group C (control group, 6 sheep and group E (epidural, 5 sheep. Sheep from group C were pre-medicated with midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, i.m. and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.. Propofol was used for induction of general anesthesia in both groups. Sheep from group E were pre-medicated with midazolam, but without butorphanol. Sacrococcegeal epidural analgesia with morphine (0.1 mg/kg and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg was performed. We detected a significant increase in heart rate (19%, p=0.021 during surgery in group C. Two hours after surgery, the heart rate was 14.9% lower than prior to surgery in group E (p=0.017. In group E, throughout the surgery, we measured an insignificant increase in respiratory rate of 1.99%. In the same group, 120 minutes post surgery, we measured an increase in respiratory rate of 14.7%, while in group C there was a smaller increase of only 10.9%. The result from both groups was insignificant (p>0.05. The consumption of isoflurane in group C was higher than in group E by 27.3% (p=0.0043. The mean MAC was in group C higher by 27.6% as it was in group E (0.75% ± 0.25, 0.95 ± 0.3 in Group E and C, respectively. This distinction, according to the Mann-Whitney test, was not significant (p=0.329.

  17. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Nicol, Christine J; Murrell, Joanna C

    2012-01-01

    The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM) landing time (seconds) birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3), 2.2 (0.3), p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6), 16.9 (6.7), p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4), 26.3 (7.6), p = 0.02 150 cm). Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems.

  18. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A F Nasr

    Full Text Available The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM landing time (seconds birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3, 2.2 (0.3, p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6, 16.9 (6.7, p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4, 26.3 (7.6, p = 0.02 150 cm. Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems.

  19. An evaluation of chemical arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint in the horse by using monoiodoacetate.

    OpenAIRE

    Penraat, J H; Allen, A L; Fretz, P. B.; Bailey, J. V.

    2000-01-01

    The use of monoiodoacetate (MIA) for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) and the effect of exercise on the degree of fusion were investigated. Eight horses received 3 injections (Weeks 0, 3, 6) of MIA (2 mL; 60 mg/mL) into the right or left front PIJ. Peri-operatively, the horses received phenylbutazone, butorphanol, and abaxial sesamoidean nerve blocks to relieve pain. During the study, the horses were monitored for general health, lameness, and swelling around the inject...

  20. Balanced anaesthetic approach in a late-term gravid cow undergoing metacarpal fracture repair

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An 800 kg Swiss cow, eighth months gravid, was presented for anaesthesia to repair metacarpal fracture. The cow was premedicated with intravenous isoxsuprine, butorphanol, ketoprofen, and xylazine IM and induced with ketamine and diazepam IV. In lateral recumbency, the trachea was intubated, and isoflurane in oxygen and air was administered. Despite a ring block with lidocaine, purposeful movement happened, and xylazine 0.02 mg kg−1 h−1 and ketamine 0.6 mg kg−1 h−1 constant rate infusion was ...

  1. Balanced Anaesthetic Approach in a Late-Term Gravid Cow Undergoing Metacarpal Fracture Repair

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An 800 kg Swiss cow, eighth months gravid, was presented for anaesthesia to repair metacarpal fracture. The cow was premedicated with intravenous isoxsuprine, butorphanol, ketoprofen, and xylazine IM and induced with ketamine and diazepam IV. In lateral recumbency, the trachea was intubated, and isoflurane in oxygen and air was administered. Despite a ring block with lidocaine, purposeful movement happened, and xylazine 0.02 mg kg−1 h−1 and ketamine 0.6 mg kg−1 h−1 constant rate infusion was ...

  2. CUMMULATIVE EFFECT OF INCISIONAL INFILTRATION IN ADDITION TO WOUND INSTILLATION, AMONG TWO SESSIONS OF TUMESCENT ANALGESIA IN POSTOPERATIVE MODIFIED RADICAL MASTECTOMY (MRM PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasa Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two sequential sessions of tumescent analgesia in modified radical mastectomy patients for immediate postoperative pain relief. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective randomized controlled study 100 patients treated by MRM for operable breast carcinoma in S.V.R.R.G.G. Hospital and Sri Venkateswara Medical College , Tirupati , were included in the study. They were evaluated for two consecutive sessions of tumescent analgesia. Session I involved infiltration of 20 cc of 0.25% bupivacaine subcutaneously in to the incisional area plus wound i nstillation of 100 CC of 0.4% xylocaine with adrenaline with 1 mg of butorphanol through the axillary drains. Pain was assessed every 30 minutes by using visual analogue scale ( VAS . Pain of VAS - 3 was taken as cut off point and session II of wound instillation ( 100 CC of 0.4% xylocaine with adrenaline with 1 mg of butorphanol through the axillary drains alone was executed. The efficacy of these two methods of tumescent analgesia was assessed and compared. Statistical analysis was performe d using SPSS version. RESULTS : Session I tumescent analgesia conferred 9 to 10 hours of pain relief and session II for 7 to 8 hours. CONCLUSION : Incisional infiltration of bupivacaine showed cumulative effect and imporved the quality and duration of analgesia in MRM patients in the immediate postoperative period . Tumescent analgesia is a simple and effective means of providing good postoperative pain relief without any major side - effects.

  3. EFFECT OF SEDATION ON CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding.

  4. Pain control in horses: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L C; Robertson, S A

    2014-07-01

    Currently, approaches to pain control in horses are a mixture of art and science. Recognition of overt pain behaviours, such as rolling, kicking at the abdomen, flank watching, lameness or blepharospasm, may be obvious; subtle signs of pain can include changes in facial expression or head position, location in the stall and response to palpation or human interaction. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and firocoxib), opioids (i.e. butorphanol, morphine and buprenorphine) and α2 -adrenergic agonists (i.e. xylazine, detomidine, romifidine and medetomidine) are the most commonly used therapeutic options. Multimodal therapy using constant-rate infusions of lidocaine, ketamine and/or butorphanol has gained popularity for severe pain in hospitalised cases. Drugs targeting neuropathic pain, such as gabapentin, are increasingly used for conditions such as laminitis. Optimal strategies for management of pain are based upon severity and chronicity, including special considerations for use of intra-articular or epidural delivery and therapy in foals. Strategies that aim to mitigate adverse effects associated with use of various analgesic agents are briefly discussed.

  5. Effects of two different kinds of opiate receptor agonists associated with intercostal nerve blockade for pain relief after Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery%两种不同阿片受体激动剂联合肋间神经阻滞用于胸腔镜肺叶切除术患者的镇痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯建伟; 刘金龙; 陈新荣; 钟茂林; 彭道珍; 叶军明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of butorphanol or sulfentanyl associated with intercostal nerve block (INB) for postoperative pain relief after Video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Methods 80 patients (28 - 56 years) who underwent VATS lobectomy were rando mLy divided into butorphanol group 1 (group Bl, re = 20), INB associated with butorphanol (group B2, n = 20), sufentanil group (group S1, n = 20) and INB associated with sufentanil (group S2, n = 20). Postoperative analgesia consisted of continuous intravenous infusion of for 48 h butorphanol or sufentanil for all patients. Loading dose of butorphanol was 30 μg/kg in group Bl and B2, and that of sufentanil was 0.1 M-g/kg in group SI and S2 30 min before the end of operation. 20 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine was ad ministrated for INB in group B2 and S2. Intravenous analgesia maintenance dose of butorphanol in group Bl and B2 was 3 μg/(kg·h), and that of sufentanil was 0.075 μg/(kg·h) in group SI and S2 after operation, respectively. Recorded the visual analogue score (VAS) , Ramsay sedative scores, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and SpO2 at 0, 6, 12, 18 ,24, 36 h , and 48 h after ad ministration; VAS was recorded when patients coughing at 24, 48h and 7 days after ad ministration. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the first postoperative day. Results There were no significant differences between the four groups about sedative scores, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and SpO2 48 h. The VAS was higher in group B1 and S1 than those in group B2 and S2 during 6 - 24 h and when patients coughing after ad ministration, but no significant difference between group B2 and S2 (P < 0.05). Moreover, INB improved PaO2 and oxygenation index in group B2 and S2 significantly. Conclusion INB associated with butorphanol or sufentanil reduces postoperative pain and provides a better postoperative recovery for adult patients of VATS.%目的:探讨布托啡诺和舒芬太尼两种不

  6. Anesthesia in a Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, C M; Lamberski, N; Kissel, D I; Quandt, J E

    1998-06-01

    A Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) was satisfactorily immobilized on two occasions with i.m. detomidine (0.065-0.13 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.13-0.2 mg/kg). On the second occasion, anesthesia was induced by i.v. administration of ketamine (2.2 mg/kg). Twenty minutes later, endotracheal intubation was performed after an additional i.v. injection of ketamine (1.5 mg/kg). Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, which provided excellent conditions for radiology and surgery. Anesthesia was associated with hypoxemia when the tapir was allowed to breathe air and with hypoventilation. Mean arterial pressure remained satisfactory. No antagonist drugs were administered, and recovery from anesthesia was rapid and smooth.

  7. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  8. The clinic application of propofol combined with different analgesics in patients of ERCP%丙泊酚复合不同镇痛药用于内镜下经胰胆管造影术的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊江琴; 陈世彪; 刘添银; 朱云生; 高素清

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察丙泊酚复合芬太尼、舒芬太尼、布托啡诺、氟比洛芬酯用于内镜下经胰胆管造影(ERCP)术麻醉时对患者的影响.方法 250例ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级拟行ERCP术患者,排除手术时间短于5 min和长于60 min的患者,随机均分为五组,丙泊酚分别复合芬太尼(A组)、舒芬太尼(B组)、布托啡诺(C组)、氟比洛芬酯(D组)和生理盐水(E组)进行麻醉.观察并记录不同时点的生命体征、术中体动、丙泊酚的诱导和维持用量、麻醉苏醒时间、患者对麻醉的满意度等指标.结果 术后患者对麻醉的舒适满意度均较高;A、B、C、D组患者丙泊酚诱导和维持剂量均少于E组(P<0.05);A组和B组丙泊酚诱导后即刻及手术开始后2minRR减慢明显(P<0.05);E组术中体动多于A、B、C、D组(P<0.05);D组有呃逆现象,明显多于A、B、C、E组(P<0.05).结论 五组患者术后对麻醉的舒适满意度均较高,上述五种麻醉方法均可用于ERCP术静脉全身麻醉.复合使用镇痛药后,丙泊酚诱导和维持剂量明显减少,术中体动减少.其中布托啡诺麻醉更加平稳.%Objective To observe the effects of propofol combined with fentanyl, sufentanil, butorphanol and flurbiprofen in the patients with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopanereatography (ERCP) operations. Methods Two hundreds and fifty ASA I or II patients with ERCP operations (time between 5-60 minutes) were given with propofol combined analgesics, they were randomly devided into five groups. Propofol combined with fentanyl (group A), sufentanil (group B), butorphanol (group C),flurbiprofen(group D),flurbiprofen saline(group E). Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and body activity, the consumption of propofol for induction and maintenance, recovery time and the comfort level of anesthesia were recorded. Results The comfort level of anesthesia was relatively great and had no differences in each group. Compared with group E, the consumption of

  9. Oral clonidine premedication exacerbates hypotension following tourniquet deflation by inhibiting noradrenaline release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Koichi; Takeda, Shinhiro; Hongo, Takashi; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; Kim, Chol; Ogawa, Ryo

    2004-02-01

    Clonidine premedication prevents tourniquet pain and reduces sympathetic nerve activity. We evaluated hemodynamic changes and catecholamine release following tourniquet deflation during spinal anesthesia in patients who received oral clonidine premedication. The final analysis included 24 otherwise healthy patients undergoing lower-limb surgery randomly assigned to two groups: those receiving approximately 5 micrograms/kg of oral clonidine 1 hr before anesthesia (clonidine group, n = 12), and those receiving no premedication (control group, n = 12). After lumbar anesthesia, a tourniquet was applied for approximately 60 minutes to each patient. Electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure, and consumption of butorphanol for tourniquet pain were monitored. Blood samples were obtained at different times to measure serum concentration of catecholamine. In the clonidine group, mean blood pressure decreased from 87 +/- 7 mmHg at baseline to 65 +/- 10 mmHg after tourniquet deflation (P clonidine group was significantly lower than in the control group. After receiving clonidine premedication, the plasma noradrenaline concentrations in the clonidine group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Noradrenaline concentration increased in the control group from 162.3 +/- 89.2 pg/mL before tourniquet deflation to 199.3 +/- 95.7 pg/mL afterward (P clonidine group. We conclude that oral clonidine premedication exacerbated the reduction in mean blood pressure following tourniquet deflation by inhibiting noradrenaline release.

  10. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Intramuscular Piroxicam and Tramadol for Post-operative Pain in Patients Undergoing Caesarean Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, Tejashree; Bengalorkar, Girish M; Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-caesarean section pain can be both stressful and unfavourable. Effective and rapid reduction of pain facilitates early ambulation and care of the new born. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids are used for pain relief but they are associated with adverse effects both in the mother and the child. Aim To evaluate efficacy and safety of piroxicam and tramadol in post-caesarean section pain. Materials and Methods Primigravidae who underwent elective caesarean section received either piroxicam 20mg or tramadol 100mg intra-muscularly, following recovery from anaesthesia. Severity of pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and side-effects to study drugs were noted. Rescue analgesic butorphanol 2mg was administered if VAS score was more than four. Patient’s satisfaction score was assessed at 12 hours post-operatively. Results Mean age in piroxicam and tramadol groups were 23.32±3.43 and 22.03±2.0 years respectively. Significant reduction in pain was observed at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours in both groups (ppiroxicam group compared to tramadol. Twenty-one and 12 patients in tramadol and piroxicam groups received rescue analgesic respectively. Sedation and nausea was significantly higher in tramadol group (ppiroxicam group. Conclusion Intra-muscular piroxicam was effective in reducing post-caesarean section pain for 24 hours with minimal side-effects compared to tramadol. PMID:28050391

  11. 咪达唑仑伍用不同镇痛药在腰-硬联合麻醉下妇科经腹手术中的应用%Application of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia by midazolam combined with different pain-killers for abdomen operation in gynecological patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌敏

    2012-01-01

    目的观察比较咪达唑仑伍用不同静脉镇痛药在腰-硬联合麻醉(CSEA)下妇科经腹手术中的镇静镇痛效果和安全性.方法择期妇科手术80例,均行腰-硬联合麻醉,根据咪达唑仑联合不同镇痛药随机分为4组:芬太尼组(FM组)、哌替啶组(PM组)、布托啡诺组(BM组)、地佐辛组(DM组).4组患者均在切皮前15 min静脉缓慢推注咪达唑仑0.05 mg/kg,随后分别在FM组予芬太尼1 μg/kg,PM组予哌替啶0.8 mg/kg,BM组予布托啡诺0.04 mg/kg,DM组予地佐辛0.1 mg/kg缓慢静脉推注.术中患者Ramsay镇静评分小于2分者,酌情追加咪达唑仑和各组镇痛药,剂量为首次的1/2~2/3.记录4组患者切皮时(T0)、打开腹膜上腹腔撑开器时(T1)、分离结扎盆腔脏器时(T2)、术毕清理腹腔时(T3)、关闭腹膜时(T4)和缝皮时(T5)的Ramsay镇静评分;记录4组术中舌后坠、呼吸抑制、低血压、心动过缓、牵拉痛发生率;术后24 h内随访,记录4组患者对手术操作过程的遗忘程度及头晕、嗜睡、恶心呕吐、寒战发生率.结果 FM、PM组在T0-T5各时点Ramsay镇静评分均明显高于BM和DM组(P 0.05);术后24 h内随访,4组完全遗忘率均明显高于无遗忘率和不全遗忘率(P 0.05).结论布托啡诺或地佐辛伍用咪达唑仑辅助腰-硬联合麻醉下行妇科手术,术中镇静镇痛效果好,完全遗忘率高,生命体征平稳,术后不良反应少,较芬太尼或哌替啶与咪达唑仑配伍更安全有效.%Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of mitigation and analgesia of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) by midazolam combined with different pain-killers in gynecological patients undergoing abdomen operation. Methods Eighty gynecological patients undergoing elective abdomen operation by CSEA were randomly divided into four groups according to different pain-killers combined with midazolam: fentanyl group(FM group), pethidine group(PM group), butorphanol group(BM group) and

  12. RESULTS OF THE MEGAVERTEBRATE ANALGESIA SURVEY: ELEPHANTS AND RHINO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Jack; Boothe, Matthew; Harmon, Roy; Citino, Scott B; Zuba, Jeffery R; Boothe, Dawn M

    2016-03-01

    An online survey utilizing Survey Monkey linked through the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserve examined current practices in megavertebrate analgesia. Data collected included drugs administered, dosing regimens, ease of administration, efficacy, and adverse events. Fifty-nine facilities (38 housing elephants, 33 housing rhinoceroses) responded. All facilities administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with phenylbutazone (0.25-10 mg/kg) and flunixin meglumine (0.2-4 mg/kg) being most common. Efficacy was reported as "good" to "excellent" for these medications. Opioids were administered to elephants (11 of 38) and rhinoceroses (7 of 33), with tramadol (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05-1.0 mg/kg) being most common. Tramadol efficacy scores were highly variable in both elephants and rhinoceroses. While drug choices were similar among institutions, substantial variability in dosing regimens and reported efficacy between and within facilities indicates the need for pharmacokinetic studies and standardized methods of analyzing response to treatment to establish dosing regimens and clinical trials to establish efficacy and safety.

  13. Propofol with ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine induction of general anaesthesia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, L P; Kasten, J I; Kata, C

    2013-12-07

    To document the suitability of intravenous propofol and ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine anaesthetic induction in horses. Retrospective. 100 client-owned horses. Anaesthetic records were evaluated to determine: signalment, anaesthetic drug and dosages, need for additional induction agents, notation of any adverse events, duration of anaesthesia and recovery characteristics (rough or smooth, and rapid or prolonged). Horses were sedated with xylazine 0.99±(0.2) mg/kg intravenous and 23 horses were also administered butorphanol 0.02±(0.001) mg/kg intravenous. Horses were anaesthetised with a combination of propofol 0.40±(0.1) mg/kg intravenous and ketamine 2.8±(0.3) mg/kg intravenous. Six horses required additional ketamine. None became apnoeic and no adverse events were noted. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 66 horses and a combination of guaifenesin, ketamine and xylazine (GKX) in 34 horses. Total anaesthesia time was 125.4±(46) minutes. Fifty-one horses were administered romifidine 0.016 (±0.008) mg/kg intravenous at recovery. Time from orotracheal extubation to standing was 27.6±(25) minutes. Of the 58 records with recovery characteristics, the number per category was: rapid n=6, prolonged n=3, smooth n=46, rough n=6. Intravenous propofol and ketamine following xylazine provided satisfactory anaesthetic inductions and recoveries in a varied population of horses without any clinically relevant adverse events.

  14. Balanced Anaesthetic Approach in a Late-Term Gravid Cow Undergoing Metacarpal Fracture Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martin Jurado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 800 kg Swiss cow, eighth months gravid, was presented for anaesthesia to repair metacarpal fracture. The cow was premedicated with intravenous isoxsuprine, butorphanol, ketoprofen, and xylazine IM and induced with ketamine and diazepam IV. In lateral recumbency, the trachea was intubated, and isoflurane in oxygen and air was administered. Despite a ring block with lidocaine, purposeful movement happened, and xylazine 0.02 mg kg−1 h−1 and ketamine 0.6 mg kg−1 h−1 constant rate infusion was started. During anaesthesia, slight hypercapnia and hypoxaemia developed. Total time of xylazine and ketamine infusion was 3.5 hours. Total anaesthesia time was 4.5 hours. For recovery of anaesthesia, isoflurane was discontinued, and in sternal recumbency, the trachea was extubated when the cow swallowed. Paralysis of the left radial nerve occurred, and the cow was supported to stand up after 2 hours. The radial nerve paralysis resolved within three days. A healthy calf was born at term. This is the first paper that describes the successful use of adjunctive xylazine and ketamine infusion to isoflurane anaesthesia in a late-term gravid cow undergoing fracture repair during 4.5 hours.

  15. New visible endotracheal intubation method using the endoscope system for mice inhalational anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Kenjiro; Itano, Naoki; Ogawa, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Mika; Shioya, Kyoko; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2014-06-01

    Appropriate and effective anesthesia is critical, because it has a strong influence on laboratory animals, and its affect greatly impacts the experimental data. Inhalational anesthesia by endotracheal intubation is currently prevailing in general anesthesia and is prefered over injection anesthesia, especially for large laboratory animals, because it is a safe and easy control agent. However, it is not common for small laboratory animals, because of the high degree of technical skills required. We assessed the capability of use for mice of the endotracheal intubation by using the endoscope system "TESALA AE-C1" and inhalational anesthesia using a ventilator. Endotracheal intubation was successfully performed on all 10 C57BL/6 mice injected with M/M/B: 0.3/4/5 comprised of medetomidine, midazoram and butorphanol, at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg + 4.0 mg/kg + 5.0 mg/kg body weight/mouse, respectively. After the intubated mice were connected with the inhalational anesthesia circuit and the ventilator, vital signs were measured until 15 min after the connection. The data with M/M/B: 0.3/4/5 showed stable and normal values, which indicated that this new endotracheal intubation method was simple, reliable and safe, which mean that this anesthesia is favorable in regard to the animal's welfare.

  16. Evaluation of Oral Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation in Cats: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; King, Jonathan N.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03–2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  17. Postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats by Canadian veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, S E; Dohoo, I R

    1996-09-01

    Four hundred and seventeen Canadian veterinarians were surveyed to determine their postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, and to determine their opinions toward pain perception and perceived complications associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid analgesics. Three hundred and seventeen (76%) returned the questionnaire. The percentage of animals receiving analgesics postoperatively ranged from 84% of dogs and 70% of cats following orthopedic surgery to 10% of dogs and 9% of cats following castration. In general, with the exception of orthopedic surgery, roughly equal percentages of dogs and cats received postoperative analgesics. Opioids were used almost exclusively to provide postoperative analgesia, with butorphanol the most commonly administered drug to both dogs and cats. Analgesics were usually administered either once or twice postoperatively. With regard to the administration of potent opioid agonists, the 3 major concerns included respiratory depression, bradycardia, and sedation in dogs, and excitement, respiratory depression, and bradycardia in cats. Seventy-seven percent of veterinarians considered their knowledge of issues related to the recognition and control of postoperative pain to be inadequate. Experience in practice is currently the major source of knowledge, with undergraduate veterinary school and research articles in journals ranked as the least important sources. Lectures or seminars delivered at the regional level were the preferred format for continuing education.

  18. Effects of parecoxib combined with analgesia on inflammatory response and stress response in patients after radical excision of breast cancer%帕瑞昔布钠联合镇痛对乳腺癌患者术后炎症及应激反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡惠英; 李斌; 张传汉; 李建华; 程磊; 吴坛光

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨帕瑞昔布钠联合镇痛对乳腺癌患者术后炎症和应激反应的影响.方法 择期在全麻下行乳腺癌根治术患者60例,随机分为帕瑞昔布钠联合镇痛组(P组)和对照组(C组),每组30例.两组术后均采用布托啡诺行自控静脉镇痛.分别于术毕即刻、术后12、24、36 h静注帕瑞昔布钠40 mg(P组)和生理盐水5ml(C组).用放免法测定血浆前列腺素E2(PGE2)、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)-α、白细胞介素(IL)-6及肾素、血管紧张素-Ⅱ(ANG-Ⅱ)、醛固酮(ALD)、皮质醇(Cor)浓度.结果 术后12~48 h,P组血浆PGE2、TNF-α、IL-6及肾素、ANG-Ⅱ、ALD、Cor浓度无明显变化,但在术后12、24 h明显低于C组(P<0.05).结论 帕瑞昔布钠联合布托啡诺镇痛可减轻乳腺癌根治术患者术后的炎症反应和应激反应,有一定的免疫保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of parecoxib combined with analgesia on inflammatory response and stress response in patients after radical excision of breast cancer. Methods Sixty breast cancer patients with ASA Ⅰ orⅡ undergoing radical excision of breast cancer were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups: parecoxib combined analgesia group (group P, n= 30) and control group (group C, n = 30). All patients received intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with butorphanol. In group P, 40 mg parecoxib was administered at the end of the surgery and 12, 24 h and 36 h after surgery, respectively; group C received iv saline 5 ml at the same time points. PGE2, TNF-a, IL-6, renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ, aldosterone and cortisol in plasma in each group were measured. Results There was no significant difference in the concentrations of plasma PGE2, TNF-a, IL-6. renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ, aldosterone and cortisol at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h postoperatively compared to before anesthesia in group P, while the concentrations at 12 h and 24 h postoperatively were significantly increased compared in group C(P<0. 05). The

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RECOVERY TIME AFTER GENERAL ANESTHESIA AND SUBARCHNOID BLOCK FOR INGUINAL HERNIORRAPHY IN PACU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipalisingh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inguinal herniorraphy is commonly performed on an outpatient basis under nerve blocks, local, spinal or general anesthesia (GA. We have selected inguinal herniorraphy under general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia (SA. OBJECTIVE: To compare the recovery time, postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in the Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU. METHODS: A prospective, single blinded, controlled study involved total 60 patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I/II scheduled for elective repair of unilateral inguinal hernia. Randomization was done using computer generated random numbers. GA group received intravenous (IV propofol (2mg/kg, butorphanol (40μg/kg and skeletal muscle relaxation was achieved with vecuronium bromide (0.1 mg/kg. Patient was maintained with nitrous oxide and oxygen (66:33 and sevoflurane. SA group received 2ml of 0.5% of hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecal in lateral decubitus position with 0.04mg/kg midazolam injection IV for sedation. Modified Aldrete scoring system, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and modified Bromage score were employed to assess recovery time. When pain score was more than 5, rescue analgesia was given with IV injection ketorolac 30mg. All data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Patients in GA group (136.23 ±17.82 minutes showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 recovery time to get shifted from PACU compared with patients in the SA group (176.00 ± 11.92 minutes. But patients in the SA group had significantly less VAS score pain (1.30±1.76 vs. 3.23±2.88, less number of patient received rescue analgesia (16.7% vs. 50% and satisfaction was higher than GA group. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that GA group resulted in faster recovery time from PACU but SA group had less post-operative pain and better satisfied

  20. Anesthetic effects of a three-drugs mixture--comparison of administrative routes and antagonistic effects of atipamezole in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and butorphanol (BUT) produced anesthetic duration of around 40 minutes (min) in ICR mice. We reported that this anesthetic mixture produced almost the same anesthetic effects in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of drugs has been widely used in mice. However, various injectable routes of the anesthetic mixture may cause different anesthetic effects. First, we examined effects of the anesthetic mixture by subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) injection compared to IP injection. After injection of the anesthetic mixture, administration of atipamezole (ATI) induced mice recovery from anesthesia. Secondly, we examined how different dosage and optimum injection timing of ATI affected mice recovery from anesthesia. We used an anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs under anesthesia. Usually, drugs from SC injection work more weakly than IP or IV injection. However, we found no significant differences of anesthetic duration among the three different injection routes. Antagonistic effects of ATI (0.3 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg) worked equally when administered at 30 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. Antagonistic effects of ATI (1.5 mg/kg) were stronger than ATI (0.3 mg/kg) at 10 min after injection of the anesthetic mixture. The anesthetic mixture is a useful drug to induce nearly the same anesthetic effects by different injection routes and has an antagonist of ATI which helps mice quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals.

  1. The effects of repeated opioid administration on locomotor activity: II. Unidirectional cross-sensitization to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Greene-Naples, Jennifer L; Felder, Jennifer N; Iordanou, Jordan C; Lyle, Megan A; Walker, Katherine L

    2009-08-01

    Sensitization refers to an increase in sensitivity to the effects of a drug and is believed to play a role in the etiology of substance use disorders. Cross-sensitization has been observed between drugs from different pharmacological classes and may play a role in the escalation of drug use in polydrug-abusing populations. The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sensitization between opioids and cocaine and to determine the extent to which cross-sensitization is mediated by an opioid's selectivity for mu, kappa, and delta receptors. Separate groups of rats were treated with opioid receptor agonists and antagonists every other day for 10 days, and the locomotor effects of cocaine were tested 8 days later. The mu agonists, morphine and buprenorphine, and the delta agonist, BW373U86 [(+/-)-4-[(R(*))-[(2S(*),5R(*))-2,5-dimethyl-4-(2-propenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-(3-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide hydrochloride], produced cross-sensitization to cocaine, such that repeated administration of these drugs over a 10-day period significantly enhanced cocaine's locomotor effects when tested later. Coadministration of the opioid antagonist naltrexone prevented morphine and buprenorphine from producing cross-sensitization. Coadministration of naltrexone, but not the delta antagonist naltrindole, also prevented BW373U86 from producing cross-sensitization. The kappa agonist spiradoline failed to produce cross-sensitization, but coadministration of spiradoline prevented morphine and buprenorphine from producing cross-sensitization. The ability of spiradoline to block cross-sensitization was itself blocked by the kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. The mixed mu/kappa opioids butorphanol, nalbuphine, and nalorphine did not produce cross-sensitization under any condition examined. These data indicate that agonist activity at mu receptors positively modulates cross-sensitization between opioids and cocaine, whereas agonist activity at kappa receptors negatively modulates

  2. Current research and advances in cancer breakthrough pain%癌症爆发痛的现状和研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 刘巍

    2011-01-01

    虽然癌症患者的基础疼痛控制相当稳定,但也可能会遭受短暂的疼痛加重,即癌症爆发痛.典型的爆发痛有快速发作和持续时间短等临床特征,这种疼痛对患者生活质量和卫生资源的不良影响显而易见.即释型口服阿片类药物目前已广泛用于爆发痛的治疗,但其起效时间及作用持续时间长的特点并不适合治疗大部分的爆发痛.相比之下一些芬太尼制剂,如芬太尼透黏膜口含剂(oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate,OTFC)、芬太尼口腔泡腾片(fentanyl buccal tablet,FBT)、芬太尼舌下含片(sublingual fentanyl citrate,SLF)和芬太尼鼻喷雾剂(intranasal fentanyl spray,INFS)等,为癌症爆发痛的治疗带来了令人欣慰的疗效.另外,国内对布托啡诺鼻喷剂治疗癌症爆发痛也已有一定的研究.%Although the control of background pain is satisfying, the patients may also suffer from transient exacerbation of pain, which is known as cancer breakthrough pain (BTP). A typical episode of BTP has a fast onset and a short duration. The BTP can apparently affect the quality of life and may also have an adverse impact on healthcare resources. Normal-release oral opioids have been applied in the treatment of cancer BTP, but the late onset and long duration of action of oral opioids may not appropriate for controlling a typical cancer BTP. Some formulations of fentanyl provide more favourable efficacy in the control of cancer BTP, such as oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC), buccal fentanyl citrate (FBT), sublingual fentanyl citrate (SLF), and intranasal fentanyl spray (INFS). In addition, some studies have focused on the treatment of cancer BTP with transnasal butorphanol.

  3. Which potent opioid? Important criteria for selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovill, J G

    1987-05-01

    Opioids remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of severe pain. In recent years several new potent opioids have become available for clinical use. These newer drugs are generally safer than the older morphine-like compounds and their differing pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties allow the physician to choose an appropriate drug according to the clinical situation and need of an individual patient. These drugs are classified according to their activity at the opioid receptors. The opioid agonists produce their pharmacological effect by an almost exclusive action at mu-receptors. The agonist-antagonist group are kappa-receptor agonists and either competitive antagonists at the mu-receptor or weak mu-agonists. The use of the potent opioid agonists, because of their potential for causing respiratory depression, is restricted to hospitals. Fentanyl, the oldest drug of this class, is extensively used as a supplement to general anaesthesia, or in high doses as a 'complete' anaesthetic for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Alfentanil and sufentanil are newer fentanyl derivatives. Alfentanil is unique in having a very short elimination half-life. This is a particular advantage during short operations and for day-case surgery. For longer operations alfentanil can be given as a continuous infusion to supplement nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Sufentanil is about 10 times more potent than fentanyl and is more rapidly eliminated. Initial reports suggest that it may be more effective than fentanyl as an anaesthetic supplement and that recovery may be more rapid. Both sufentanil and alfentanil are also used in cardiac anaesthesia. The newer agonist-antagonist opioids, butorphanol, nalbuphine and buprenorphine, have largely replaced pentazocine in clinical practice. Unlike pentazocine, they cause a low incidence of dysphoric side effects. Like the pure agonists, they cause respiratory depression; however, in contrast to the pure agonists this is not dose related

  4. Anestesia em eqüinos com síndrome cólica: análise de 48 casos e revisão de literatura Anesthesia in horses with colic syndrome: analysis of 48 cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Gabriel Pereira Guedes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A cólica eqüina é uma síndrome que cursa com dor abdominal, distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos e ácido-base e disfunção de órgãos vitais como pulmões e coração. Os procedimentos anestésicos nesses animais apresentam particularidades que aumentam o risco de complicações. Os animais devem ser avaliados no período pré-anestésico e as terapias de reposição devem ser instituídas quando necessárias. A medicação pré-anestésica deve proporcionar analgesia e sedação do animal. A xilazina e/ou butorfanol podem ser utilizados com esse objetivo. A indução pode ser realizada com éter gliceril guaiacolato e cetamina com ou sem diazepam, ou mesmo com cetamina e diazepam pela via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica deve ser feita preferencialmente com isofluorano, mas o halotano também pode ser utilizado. Manter ventilação pulmonar mecânica, com o animal recebendo oxigênio a 100% durante todo o período cirúrgico e pós-operatório imediato. A recuperação deve ser feita em ambiente escurecido e calmo, com forração e piso não escorregadio. Analgesia e oxigenoterapia também são importantes nessa fase.The equine colic is a syndrome that leads to abdominal pain, hydroeletrolitic and acid-base disturbances and functional alterations of the vital organs like lungs and heart. Anesthetic procedures in these animals show certain particularities that elevate the complications risk. The animals should be evaluated at the preanesthetic period and the reposition treatments should be done as necessary. The premeds should give analgesia and sedation to the animal. Xylazina and/or butorphanol may be used to this aim. Induction can be done with guaiacol glycerine ether, ketamine with/without diazepam, or even with ketamine and diazepam by the intravenous route. Isoflurane is the anesthetic of choice for the maintenance of the anesthesia, but halothane also can be used. Intermitent positive pressure ventilation should be established

  5. 全麻在血小板减少症剖宫产术中的应用体会15例%The sentiment of 15 general anaesthesia used in cesarean section of thrombocytopenia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 周志鹏; 蔡迪盛; 宋歌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe selective treatment of intravenous anesthesia supplemented with local anesthesia used in patieflts with thrombocytopenia in cesarean section, whether the mother and the fetus are safer, the management of anesthesia are better, the anesthetic effect are more precisely, the surgeon are more satisfied. Method: select 15 patients,39w±2.0 for pregnancy, preoperative Pit <7.0×109/L.Give cryoprecipitate infusion and induction of anesthesia prior to anesthesia, midazolam 0.2mg/kg.When the patient were falling asleep, the surgeon plus local infiltration of 1 % lidocaine 20ml (on the incision), while giving intravenous infusion of atracurium 0.4mg-0.5mg/kg. Butorphanol 8ug/kg were given immediately in intravenous after the fetus removed (no propofol and less isoflurane were given during the operation). Results: 15 cases of general anesthesia patients wew anesthesia managed with satisfactory results. The surgeon were satisfied with operation, and the maternal and the newborn was delivered safely. Conclusion: inhalation anesthesia in the selectivity of drug safety, support to local anesthesia, is indeed the safe and effective method of anesthesia in cesarean section patients with thrombocytopenia, and it is the superior choice, that played a good sedative and analgesic effects , but also ensure that the patient airway to facilitate the safe surgery and take the baby out fast.%目的:观察体会静脉复合麻醉,选择性用药,辅以局部麻醉,应用于血小板减少症剖宫产术患者,是否使产妇、胎儿娩出更安全,麻醉管理更完善,麻醉效果更确切,手术医生更满意.方法:①选择15例患者,孕39w±2.0,术前Pit< 7.0×109/L,麻醉开始前冷沉淀输注;完毕后行麻醉诱导,咪唑安定0.2mg/kg,入睡后,术者再加局部浸润1%利多卡因20ml(切口处),同时静注阿曲库铵0.4mg-0.5mg/kg,胎儿取出后,立即静脉布托啡喏8ug/kg(术中不用丙泊酚,少用异氟醚).结果:15例全麻手术患