Sample records for butorphanol

  1. Butorphanol Injection (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... given carefully, and ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse if you have any questions or do not ...

  2. Bier′s block using lignocaine and butorphanol

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    Abhishek Bansal


    Full Text Available Background : Opioids are most commonly used as adjuncts in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA to improve the quality of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. There is paucity of literature on the use of butorphanol in IVRA. Aims : The aim of this study was to evaluate the likely benefits of addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in Bier′s block in terms of onset and duration of sensory block and also for analgesic requirement in postoperative period. Settings and Design : A randomized double blind study was conducted at Tertiary Care Educational Institute. Patients and Methods : A total of 40 adult ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo upper limb surgery were randomized in two groups (n=20. Group I received 3 mg/kg of lignocaine alone and group II received 1 mg butorphanol in addition to 3 mg/kg lignocaine. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation were noted using the pin prick method. Duration of postoperative analgesia was noted using a visual analogue scale. All the patients were compared for the time to first rescue analgesic consumption and total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively. Statistical Analysis Used : The statistical analysis was done using unpaired Student′s t-test. Results : Our study showed significant prolongation of postoperative analgesia in group II as noted by the time to first analgesic requirement. Total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively was less in group II. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation, did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions : Addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in IVRA significantly prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and 24 hours analgesic consumption is less in patients receiving butorphanol along with lignocaine in IVRA. However, there is no effect on sensory block onset time and time to recovery

  3. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N


    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (Amazon

  4. Combining isoflurane anesthesia with midazolam and butorphanol in rats. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Uchida, Kaho; Maesato, Shizuka; Sato, Reiichiro; Kanai, Eiichi; Inomata, Tomo


    Representative inhalant anesthetic agent, isoflurane is commonly used during surgery in rats. However, isoflurane mediates relatively strong respiratory depression. In human and veterinary medicine, sedatives and analgesics are co-administered to complement the anesthetic action of inhalant anesthesia. The present study aimed to establish the novel balanced anesthesia that combines midazolam and butorphanol with isoflurane (MBI) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, and administered either isoflurane monoanesthesia or isoflurane with midazolam (2.5 mg/kg, ip) and butorphanol (2.0 mg/kg, ip). The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in each group was evaluated. Induction and recovery times were measured in each group. Adverse reactions during induction were also recorded. In each group, vital signs were assessed for 1 h under 1.5×MAC of isoflurane. Instability of vital signs was assessed under each anesthesia by calculating coefficient of variance. Compared with isoflurane monoanesthesia, MBI anesthesia caused 32% MAC reduction (isoflurane monoanesthesia: 1.30 ± 0.09%, MBI 0.87 ± 0.08%, Panesthesia resulted in a relatively stable respiratory rate without decreases in SPO2 during the anesthetic period. In summary, MB premedication is effective for attenuating respiratory depression induced by isoflurane, and achieving smooth induction. This anesthetic protocol serves as a novel option for appropriate anesthesia in rats.

  5. Injectable Anesthesia for Mice: Combined Effects of Dexmedetomidine, Tiletamine-Zolazepam, and Butorphanol

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    Laura A. Cagle


    Full Text Available Anesthetic protocols for murine models are varied within the literature and medetomidine has been implicated in the development of urethral plugs in male mice. Our objective was to evaluate the combination of butorphanol, dexmedetomidine, and tiletamine-zolazepam. A secondary objective was to identify which class of agent was associated with urethral obstructions in male mice. BALB/c male (n=13 and female (n=23 mice were assigned to dexmedetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam with or without butorphanol or to single agent dexmedetomidine or tiletamine-zolazepam. Anesthesia was achieved in 58% (14/24 of mice without butorphanol and in 100% (24/24 of mice with butorphanol. The combination of dexmedetomidine (0.2 mg/kg, tiletamine-zolazepam (40 mg/kg, and butorphanol (3 mg/kg resulted in an induction and anesthetic duration of 12 and 143 minutes, respectively. Urethral obstructions occurred in 66% (25/38 of trials in male mice that received dexmedetomidine with a mortality rate of 38% (5/13. Tiletamine-zolazepam, when used alone, resulted in a 0% (0/21 incidence of urethral obstructions. Combination use of dexmedetomidine, tiletamine-zolazepam, and butorphanol results in a longer and more reliable duration of anesthesia than the use of dexmedetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam alone. Dexmedetomidine is not recommended for use in nonterminal procedures in male mice due to the high incidence of urethral obstructions and resultant high mortality rate.

  6. A comparison of ketorolac with flunixin, butorphanol, and oxymorphone in controlling postoperative pain in dogs. (United States)

    Mathews, K A; Paley, D M; Foster, R A; Valliant, A E; Young, S S


    Ketorolac tromethamine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic, was compared with flunixin and butorphanol for its analgesic efficacy and potential side effects after laparotomy or shoulder arthrotomy in dogs. Sixty-four dogs were randomly assigned to receive butorphanol 0.4 mg/kg body weight (BW) (n = 21), flunixin 1.0 mg/kg BW (n = 21), or ketorolac 0.5 mg/kg BW (n = 22), in a double blind fashion. The analgesic efficacy was rated from 1 to 4 (1 = inadequate, 4 = excellent) for each dog. The average scores after laparotomy were ketorolac, 3.4; flunixin, 2.7; and butorphanol, 1.6. After shoulder arthrotomy, the average scores were ketorolac, 3.5; flunixin, 3.0; and butorphanol, 1.4 (5/11 dogs). As butorphanol was unable to control pain after shoulder arthrotomy, oxymorphone, 0.05 mg/kg BW, replaced butorphanol in a subsequent group of dogs and had a score of 2.0 (6/11 dogs). Serum alanine aminotransferase and creatinine were significantly elevated above baseline at 24 hours postoperatively in dogs receiving flunixin. One dog in each group developed melena or hematochezia. One dog receiving ketorolac had histological evidence of gastric ulceration. We concluded that ketorolac is a good analgesic for postoperative pain in dogs. PMID:8877043

  7. Evaluation of the perioperative analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine, compared with butorphanol, in cats. (United States)

    Warne, Leon N; Beths, Thierry; Holm, Merete; Carter, Jennifer E; Bauquier, Sébastien H


    To compare the analgesic effects of buprenorphine and butorphanol in domestic cats. 2-phase positive-controlled randomized masked clinical trial. 39 healthy female cats (10 in phase 1 and 29 in phase 2). Cats admitted for ovariohysterectomy received buprenorphine (4 in phase 1; 14 in phase 2) or butorphanol (6 in phase 1; 15 in phase 2). In phase 1, cats were premedicated with buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IM) or butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], IM), in combination with medetomidine. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. After extubation, medetomidine was antagonized with atipamezole. A validated multidimensional composite scale was used to assess signs of pain after surgery starting 20 minutes after extubation and continuing for up to 360 minutes, and pain score comparisons were made between the 2 groups. Phase 2 proceeded similar to phase 1 with the following addition: during wound closure, cats from the butorphanol and buprenorphine groups received butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg, IM) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM), respectively. Phase 1 of the study was stopped after 10 cats were ovariohysterectomized because 9 of 10 cats required rescue analgesia at the first evaluation. In phase 2, at the first pain evaluation, pain scores from the buprenorphine group were lower, and all cats from the butorphanol group required rescue analgesia. None of the cats from the buprenorphine group required rescue analgesia at any time. Buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM) given before surgery and during wound closure provided adequate analgesia for 6 hours following ovariohysterectomy in cats, whereas butorphanol did not.

  8. Control of Intraoperative Shivering Under Spinal Anaesthesia- A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study of Butorphanol with Tramadol

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    Astha Palan


    Full Text Available Background: Shivering is very uncomfortable and distressing for the patient, anaesthesiologist and the surgeon, especially when the patient is under regional anaesthesia. Aim and Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of butorphanol and tramadol in the control of shivering under spinal anaesthesia and to compare their side effects. To compare the efficacy, potency, response time, hemodynamic alterations, and adverse effects of intravenously administered tramadol and butorphanol for relief of shivering occurring during spinal anaesthesia. Material and Methods: This randomized prospective study was conducted in 100 patients who developed shivering under spinal anaesthesia during various abdominal, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological procedures. Patients with fever, acute infections, drug allergy and compromised cardiorespiratory functions were not included in the study. On shivering, patients were randomly allocated in two groups of 50 patients each who received intravenously 1mg of butorphanol or 50 mg of tramadol in a double blinded manner. Control of shivering, time taken for cessation, recurrence, hemodynamic changes, axillary temperatures and side effects were noted and compared for both the groups. Collected data were analysed using Chi square test and Student's unpaired t test. Results: All patients were relieved of shivering after butorphanol, 58% within 1 min, 82% within 3min and 100% within 5 min. Tramadol relieved shivering in 98% of patients, 32% within 1 min, 60% within 3 min, 98% within 5 mins (p<0.05. There was higher incidence of side effects like nausea and vomiting with tramadol (16% and 12% respectively as compared to butorphanol. Conclusion: Both the drugs, tramadol and butorphanol are effective to control shivering after spinal anaesthesia. Butorphanol is better as compared to tramadol in treating shivering under spinal anaesthesia because of its quicker onset of action, higher success rate

  9. Applicable observation of butorphanol in painless colonoscopy examination

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    Li Xuefeng


    Full Text Available Objective:To summarize the clinical effect of butorphanol compound propofol in painless colonoscopy examination and its feasibility.Methods:100 colonoscopy examination patients (56 males and 44 females aged from 19 to 60 years old registered between August, 2016 and September, 2016 in the endoscopy center of our hospital were randomly selected. ASA classification is I or II level. Their body weight ranged from 55 kg to 75kg. They were randomly divided into two groups and each group included 50 cases. All patients went through conventional ambrosia and liquid fasting for 8 hours before the anesthesia and they drank magnesium sulfate liquid of 2500ml to clean their gastrointestinal tracts.After patients entered the operating room, their veins of upper limb were opened so as to monitor their HR, MAP and SPO2. After that, butorphanol of 20μg/kg was injected to patients of the experimental group while normal saline of the same amount of was injected to patients of the contrast group. After 60 seconds, propofol of 1~2 mg/kg was injected to both groups by the way of intravenous injection. The enteroscopy examination was started after patients had no eyelash reflection. Besides, actual application dose of propofol was adjusted according to clinical indications of patients and the adjusting frequency each time was controlled between 30 milligrams and 50 milligrams until the completion of the examination. SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used to analyze and handle research data of this group. Results:Anesthesia effect: The difference of inter-group comparison showed no statistical significance (P>0.05. The intra-group comparison and the inter-group comparison show that the difference in terms of changes of HR, MAP and SpO2 of patients in two groups before and after the anesthesia had no statistical significance (P>0.05.The awakening time, VAS score, postoperative vomiting times and the occurrence rate of respiratory depression of the observation group

  10. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). (United States)

    Riggs, Shannon M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Craigmill, Arthur L; Kass, Philip H; Stanley, Scott D; Taylor, Ian T


    To determine the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after IV and IM single-dose administration in red-tailed hawks (RTHs) and great horned owls (GHOs). 6 adult RTHs and 6 adult GHOs. Each bird received an injection of butorphanol (0.5 mg/kg) into either the right jugular vein (IVj) or the pectoral muscles in a crossover study (1-week interval between treatments). The GHOs also later received butorphanol (0.5 mg/kg) via injection into a medial metatarsal vein (IVm). During each 24-hour postinjection period, blood samples were collected from each bird; plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2- and 1-compartment models best fit the IV and IM pharmacokinetic data, respectively, in both species. Terminal half-lives of butorphanol were 0.94 +/- 0.30 hours (IVj) and 0.94 +/- 0.26 hours (IM) for RTHs and 1.79 +/- 1.36 hours (IVj), 1.84 +/- 1.56 hours (IM), and 1.19 +/- 0.34 hours (IVm) for GHOs. In GHOs, area under the curve (0 to infinity) for butorphanol after IVj or IM administration exceeded values in RTHs; GHO values after IM and IVm administration were less than those after IVj administration. Plasma butorphanol clearance was significantly more rapid in the RTHs. Bioavailability of butorphanol administered IM was 97.6 +/- 33.2% (RTHs) and 88.8 +/- 4.8% (GHOs). In RTHs and GHOs, butorphanol was rapidly absorbed and distributed via all routes of administration; the drug's rapid terminal half-life indicated that published dosing intervals for birds may be inadequate in RTHs and GHOs.

  11. Efficacy of tramadol and butorphanol pretreatment in reducing pain on propofol injection: A placebo-controlled randomized study

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    Arvinderpal Singh


    Conclusion: Pretreatment with both butorphanol and tramadol significantly reduced pain on propofol injection; however, they exhibited comparable efficacy among each other. Thus, either of these two drugs can be considered for pretreatment to reduce propofol injection pain.

  12. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

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    V. Malik


    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  13. Effectiveness of butorphanol as an adjuvant to lidocaine for haematoma or periosteal block: A prospective, randomised, double blind study

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    Nawaz Ahmed Shaik


    Full Text Available Background: The peripheral nerve endings carrying pain contains opiod receptors. Blocking these receptors during haematoma block or periosteal block may provide better analgesia. Aim: Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of butorphanol as an adjuvant to lidocaine for haematoma block. Settings and Design: This is a two centre, prospective, individually randomised, two group, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Methods: In this study, 115 American society of anaesthesiologist grade I and II adult patients scheduled for closed reduction of fractures were randomly allocated into two groups; Group A received 1% lidocaine (2 mg/kg where as Group B received 1% lidocaine (2 mg/kg with butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg during haematoma block. Pain was assessed before, during and after manipulation of fracture by using visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10. Onset time of block, time for first rescue analgesic, 24 hour analgesic requirement and sedation levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data analysed with the unpaired t-test with Welch correction assuming unequal variances and Fisher′s exact test using Graph pad Prism 5.02 version. Results: Onset time of haematoma block was significantly less in the butorphanol group compared to the lidocaine group ( P=0.0003. The mean time for first rescue analgesic was significantly higher and total analgesic requirement was significantly lower in the butorphanol group ( P<0.0001. Mean VAS scores were lower and sedation scores were higher in the butorphanol group. Conclusions: Addition of butorphanol to lidocaine quickens onset of haematoma block, provides excellent post manipulation analgesia and decreases 24 hour total analgesic requirement without excessive sedation.

  14. Effects of acepromazine, butorphanol and buprenorphine on thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds in horses. (United States)

    Love, E J; Taylor, P M; Murrell, J; Whay, H R


    To investigate the antinociceptive effects of buprenorphine administered in combination with acepromazine in horses and to establish an effective dose for use in a clinical environment. To evaluate the responses to thermal and mechanical stimulation following administration of 3 doses of buprenorphine compared to positive (butorphanol) and negative (glucose) controls. Observer blinded, randomised, crossover design using 6 Thoroughbred geldings (3-10 years, 500-560 kg). Thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds were measured 3 times at 15 min intervals. Horses then received acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg bwt with one of 5 treatments i.v.: 5% glucose (Glu), butorphanol 100 µg/kg bwt (But) buprenorphine 5 µg/kg bwt (Bup5), buprenorphine 7.5 µg/kg bwt (Bup7.5) and buprenorphine 10 µg/kg bwt (Bup10). Thresholds were measured 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 230 min, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 24 h post treatment administration. The 95% confidence intervals for threshold temperature (ΔT) for each horse were calculated and an antinociceptive effect defined as ΔT, which was higher than the upper limit of the confidence interval. Duration of thermal antinociception was analysed using a within-subjects ANOVA and peak mechanical thresholds with a general linear model with post hoc Tukey tests. Significance was set at Pbuprenorphine produced antinociception to a thermal stimulus for significantly longer than acepromazine and either butorphanol or glucose. This study suggests that buprenorphine has considerable potential as an analgesic in horses and should be examined further under clinical conditions and by investigation of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  15. A prospective multi-centre clinical trial to compare buprenorphine and butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in cats. (United States)

    Taylor, Polly M; Kirby, Jonathan J; Robinson, Clare; Watkins, Elizabeth A; Clarke, David D; Ford, Marion A; Church, Karen E


    One hundred and fifty-three cats undergoing surgery in seven veterinary practices in Great Britain were studied. They were randomly allocated to receive either 10-20 microg/kg buprenorphine or 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol with acepromazine before anaesthesia with propofol, Saffan or thiopentone and isoflurane or halothane. Routine monitoring was undertaken. Pain and sedation were assessed blind using a four point (0-3) simple descriptive scale (SDS) at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h. Pain and sedation data were compared using non-parametric statistical tests and continuous data using t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Anaesthesia and surgery were uneventful, and cardiorespiratory data were within normal limits. After surgery, overall, more cats had pain score 0 after buprenorphine and more had pain score 3 after butorphanol (P=0.0465). At individual time points, more cats had lower pain scores after buprenorphine at 2 (P=0.040) and 24 (P=0.036)h. At 24h 83% after buprenorphine and 63% after butorphanol had pain score 0 (PBuprenorphine provided better and longer lasting postoperative analgesia than butorphanol. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Butorphanol on Anaesthesia Induction by Isoflurane in the Green Iguana (Iguana iguana

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    Š. Trnková


    Full Text Available A total of 10 clinically healthy green iguanas (5 males and 5 females, body weight ranging from 1 350 to 2 770 g were given butorphanol by intramuscular injection following 24 h fasting. Inhalation anaesthesia was administered by mask (5% isoflurane with oxygen, 1.0 l/min, once reactions to external stimuli had decreased (15.45 ± 1.54 min later. Tracheal intubation was performed as soon as the iguanas exhibited complete tolerance to mechanical stimuli. A second study was performed 4 weeks later using the same green iguanas with no pre-medication. Marked individual reactions to masking were observed during both experiments. Some iguanas exhibited breath holding which prolonged anaesthetic induction. Physical stimulation was used in these cases in order to stimulate spontaneous breathing. The mean anaesthetic induction time was similar in both groups of green iguanas (4.34 ± 0.47 and 4.93 ± 0.88 min. There was also a comparable interval from masking to safe tracheal intubation in both experimental groups (15.21 ± 4.26 and 14.31 ± 1.39 min. In view of the results, pre-medication with butorphanol cannot be considered an effective method of anaesthetic induction in green iguanas.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a long-acting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). (United States)

    Laniesse, Delphine; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Smith, Dale A; Mosley, Cornelia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Beaufrère, Hugues


    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after SC administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old). PROCEDURES A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] × 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg, SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of ≥ 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained > 100 ng/mL for > 3 hours (all birds) or > 4 hours (5/8 birds) but parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/kg, SC, would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.

  18. Physicochemical stability of ternary admixtures of butorphanol, ketamine, and droperidol in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled analgesia use

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    Fang BX


    Full Text Available Baoxia Fang,1 Linhai Wang,2 Junfeng Gu,3 Fuchao Chen,1 Xiao-ya Shi1 1Department of Pharmacy, Dongfeng Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Background: Delivery of drug admixtures by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia is a common practice for the management of postoperative pain; however, analytical confirmation of the compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol combined in ternary admixtures is not available.Methods: Butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol have been examined for compatibility and stability when combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection stored at 4°C and 25°C with light protection for a total of 14 days. Concentrations were 0.067 mg/mL, 1.33 mg/mL, and 0.033 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.Results: All three drugs were very stable (>97% at 4°C and 25°C for 14 days. The ternary admixtures were initially clear and colorless throughout the observation period, and the pH value did not change significantly.Conclusion: The results confirm that the ternary admixture of butorphanol tartrate 0.067 mg/mL, ketamine hydrochloride 1.33 mg/mL, and droperidol 0.033 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. Keywords: analgesia, patient-controlled analgesia, drug stability, butorphanol, ketamine, droperidol, HPLC

  19. Analgesic effects of butorphanol tartrate and phenylbutazone administered alone and in combination in young horses undergoing routine castration. (United States)

    Sanz, Macarena G; Sellon, Debra C; Cary, Julie A; Hines, Melissa T; Farnsworth, Kelly D


    To compare the analgesic efficacy of administration of butorphanol tartrate, phenylbutazone, or both drugs in combination in colts undergoing routine castration. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 36 client-owned colts. Horses received treatment with butorphanol alone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb], IM, prior to surgery and then q 4 h for 24 hours), phenylbutazone alone (4.4 mg/kg [2.0 mg/lb], IV, prior to surgery and then 2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h for 3 days), or butorphanol and phenylbutazone at the aforementioned dosages (12 horses/group). For single-drug-treated horses, appropriate placebos were administered to balance treatment protocols among groups. All horses were anesthetized, and lidocaine hydrochloride was injected into each testis. Physical and physiological variables, plasma cortisol concentration, body weight, and water consumption were assessed before and at intervals after surgery, and induction of and recovery from anesthesia were subjectively characterized. Observers assessed signs of pain by use of a visual analogue scale and a numerical rating scale. Significant changes in gastrointestinal sounds, fecal output, and plasma cortisol concentrations were evident in each treatment group over time, compared with preoperative values. At any time point, assessed variables and signs of pain did not differ significantly among groups, although the duration of recumbency after surgery was longest for the butorphanol-phenylbutazone-treated horses. With intratesticular injections of lidocaine, administration of butorphanol to anesthetized young horses undergoing routine castration had the same apparent analgesic effect as phenylbutazone treatment. Combined butorphanolphenylbutazone treatment was not apparently superior to either drug used alone.

  20. A multicentre, prospective, randomised, blinded clinical trial to compare some perioperative effects of buprenorphine or butorphanol premedication before equine elective general anaesthesia and surgery


    Taylor, P. M.; Hoare, H. R.; de Vries, A.; Love, E. J.; Coumbe, K. M.; White, KL; Murrell, J. C.


    Reasons for performing study: Buprenorphine, a μ-agonist opioid, has recently been licensed for equine use, but butorphanol, a κ-agonist opioid, is more commonly used in horses. The effect of the 2 opioids has not previously been compared in a large clinical study. Objectives: To compare post operative analgesia and physiological variables in horses undergoing elective surgery following premedication with either buprenorphine or butorphanol in a conventional clinical setting. Study design: Mu...

  1. A multicentre, prospective, randomised, blinded clinical trial to compare some perioperative effects of buprenorphine or butorphanol premedication before equine elective general anaesthesia and surgery. (United States)

    Taylor, P M; Hoare, H R; de Vries, A; Love, E J; Coumbe, K M; White, K L; Murrell, J C


    Buprenorphine, a μ-agonist opioid, has recently been licensed for equine use, but butorphanol, a κ-agonist opioid, is more commonly used in horses. The effect of the 2 opioids has not previously been compared in a large clinical study. To compare post operative analgesia and physiological variables in horses undergoing elective surgery following premedication with either buprenorphine or butorphanol in a conventional clinical setting. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, blinded clinical investigation. Eighty-nine healthy horses admitted for elective surgery to one of 6 UK equine veterinary clinics were premedicated with acepromazine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and romifidine followed by intravenous (i.v.) buprenorphine or butorphanol. Anaesthesia was induced with diazepam/ketamine and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A range of surgical procedures were performed and supplementary anaesthetic agents given as required. Physiological variables were monitored during anaesthesia and pain, ataxia, sedation and vital function were assessed post operatively. Data were analysed using t-tests, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-squared test as appropriate and Pbuprenorphine than after butorphanol. Horses experienced less post operative pain after buprenorphine than after butorphanol premedication. Compared with butorphanol, buprenorphine did not cause any different effects on vital function. © 2015 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Equine Veterinary Association.

  2. Intramuscular injection of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol for sedation in cats. (United States)

    Deutsch, Julia; Jolliffe, Colette; Archer, Emma; Leece, Elizabeth A


    To assess quality of sedation following intramuscular (IM) injection of two doses of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol in cats. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A total of 38 cats undergoing diagnostic imaging or noninvasive procedures. Cats were allocated randomly to be administered butorphanol 0.2 mg kg-1 combined with alfaxalone 2 mg kg-1 (group AB2) or 5 mg kg-1 (group AB5) IM. If sedation was inadequate, alfaxalone 2 mg kg-1 IM was administered and cats were excluded from further analysis. Temperament [1 (friendly) to 5 (aggressive)], response to injection, sedation score at 2, 6, 8, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, overall sedation quality scored after data collection [1 (excellent) to 4 (inadequate)] and recovery quality were assessed. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR) and arterial haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) were recorded every 5 minutes. Groups were compared using t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Sedation was analysed using two-way anova, and additional alfaxalone using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Groups were similar for sex, age, body mass and response to injection. Temperament score was lower in group AB2 [2 (1-3)] compared to AB5 [3 (1-5)] (p = 0.006). Group AB5 had better sedation at 6, 8, 20 and 30 minutes and overall sedation quality was better in AB5 [1 (1-3)], compared to AB2 [3 (1-4)] (p = 0.0001). Additional alfaxalone was required for 11 cats in AB2 and two in AB5 (p = 0.005). Recovery quality, HR, fR and SpO2 were similar. Seven cats required oxygen supplementation. Complete recovery times were shorter in AB2 (81.8 ± 24.3 versus 126.6 ± 33.3 minutes; p = 0.009). Twitching was the most common adverse event. In combination with butorphanol, IM alfaxalone at 5 mg kg-1 provided better quality sedation than 2 mg kg-1. Monitoring of SpO2 is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by

  3. Comparison of intramuscular alfaxalone and ketamine combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration in cats. (United States)

    Khenissi, Latifa; Nikolayenkova-Topie, Olga; Broussaud, Ségolène; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola


    Objectives Cardiorespiratory parameters and anaesthesia quality in cats anaesthetised with either intramuscular (IM) alfaxalone or ketamine both combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration were evaluated. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats were randomly assigned to receive either alfaxalone (A; 3 mg/kg IM) or ketamine (K; 5 mg/kg IM), combined with dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (T°) were recorded prior to drug administration. Pulse rate (PR) and RR were recorded 10 (T10) and 15 (T15) mins after injection (T0). Cardiorespiratory values (PR, RR, SPO2, blood pressure, PE'CO2) were recorded every 5 mins for the duration of the procedure. Pain at injection, intubation and recovery were evaluated with simple descriptive scores. Feasibility of anaesthesia was evaluated by the number of top-ups of anaesthetic needed. Cat attitude, ability to walk and presence of ataxia were assessed several times after extubation (Texmin) and the time between injection and extubation recorded. Pain was assessed at Tex120 and Tex240 with the 4Avet-pain score. Results The RR was significantly lower in group K at T10 (RRK = 28 ±13.35 breaths per minute [brpm], RRA= 43.24 ±7.04 brpm) and T15 (RRK = 28 ±11.53 brpm vs RRA = 43 ±12.18 brpm). Time to extubation was significantly longer in group A (TA = 62 ±14.6 mins, TK = 45.13 ± 7.38 mins). Cats in group K needed more top-ups, were more ataxic at Tex120, had a worse recovery score at Tex60 and were less willing to walk at Tex30. Conclusions and relevance Cats receiving alfaxalone had a longer but better quality recovery. Cardiorespiratory parameters were stable and within clinically acceptable values following IM injection of either alfaxalone or ketamine in healthy cats. Intramuscular alfaxalone is a suitable alternative to ketamine for short procedures requiring anaesthesia when used in combination with dexmedetomidine and

  4. Evaluation of intranasal oxygen supplementation in mules anesthetized with the combination of ketamine, butorphanol, and guaifenesin

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    T.J.C. Módolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hypoxemia is a major complication of field anesthesia and no studies regarding this occurrence in mules has been done. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate intranasal oxygen supplementation (IOS in mules (Equus caballus x Equus asinus anesthetized with ketamine/butorphanol/guaifenesin combination. For this, we used six male, adult mules (322±29kg which underwent premedication (MPA with 0.2mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly after 15 minutes, 0.02mg/kg detomidine IV 5 minutes after, induction IV with combination of ketamine (2mg/mL, butorphanol (22.5mg/mL, and guaifenesin (50mg/mL (K/B/G until lateral decumbency. Maintenance was done with the same anesthetic combination. The animals were submitted twice to the protocol described above, 20 days apart, forming two groups. CG: MPA, induction (0.92±0.24mL/kg (mean±SD, and maintenance (2.2±0.2mL/kg/h without SIO; TG: MPA, induction (0.98±0.17mL/kg, and maintenance (2.3±0.4mL/kg/h with IOS flow 40mL/kg/h. During anesthesia arterial blood was collected every 20 minutes (T0, T20, T40, and T60 for blood gas analysis. Data analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Hypoxemia of the animals in the CG in periods (59±5; 55±5; 53±7; 49±8 with lower averages than the TG (160±4, 115±34, 92±25, 81±19 was observed, demonstrating that IOS increases PaO2 avoiding the occurrence of hypoxemia.

  5. Buprenorphine provides better anaesthetic conditions than butorphanol for field castration in ponies: results of a randomised clinical trial. (United States)

    Rigotti, C; De Vries, A; Taylor, P M

    A prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical trial in 47 ponies compared butorphanol and buprenorphine administered intravenously with detomidine prior to castration under anaesthesia. Detomidine 12 μg/kg intravenously was followed by butorphanol 25 μg/kg (BUT) or buprenorphine 5 μg/kg (BUP) before induction of anaesthesia with intravenous ketamine and diazepam. Quality of sedation, induction and recovery from anaesthesia, response to tactile stimulation, and surgical conditions were scored. If anaesthesia was inadequate 'rescue' was given with intravenous ketamine (maximum three doses) followed by intravenous thiopental and detomidine. Time from induction to first rescue, total ketamine dose and number of rescues were recorded. Postoperative locomotor activity was scored and abnormal behaviour noted. Simple descriptive scales were used for all scoring. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance, t tests, Mann-Whitney or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate; Pbuprenorphine appeared to provide better intraoperative analgesia. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Evaluation of a combination of alfaxalone with medetomidine and butorphanol for inducing surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice


    Higuchi, Shota; Yamada, Riku; Hashimoto, Asami; MIYOSHI, Kenjiro; YAMASHITA, Kazuto; Ohsugi, Takeo


    The anesthetic effects of alfaxalone were investigated in mice. Mice were administered alfaxalone (100 mg/kg) alone or the combinations of 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol with alfaxalone at doses of 20 mg/kg (M/B/A20), 40 mg/kg (M/B/A40), 60 mg/kg (M/B/A60), or 80 mg/kg (M/B/A80). Control mice received 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine, 4 mg/kg of midazolam, and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol (M/M/B). Each drug was administrated by intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC) routes. M/M/B ...

  7. Dose sparing of induction dose of propofol by fentanyl and butorphanol: A comparison based on entropy analysis

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    Jasleen Kaur


    Full Text Available Background: The induction dose of propofol is reduced with concomitant use of opioids as a result of a possible synergistic action. Aim and Objectives: The present study compared the effect of fentanyl and two doses of butorphanol pre-treatment on the induction dose of propofol, with specific emphasis on entropy. Methods: Three groups of 40 patients each, of the American Society of Anaesthesiologistsphysical status I and II, were randomized to receive fentanyl 2 μg/kg (Group F, butorphanol 20 μg/kg (Group B 20 or 40 μg/kg (Group B 40 as pre-treatment. Five minutes later, the degree of sedation was assessed by the observer′s assessment of alertness scale (OAA/S. Induction of anesthesia was done with propofol (30 mg/10 s till the loss of response to verbal commands. Thereafter, rocuronium 1 mg/kg was administered and endotracheal intubation was performed 2 min later. OAA/S, propofol induction dose, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and entropy (response and state were compared in the three groups. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA test with posthoc significance, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and Fischer exact test. A P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The induction dose of propofol (mg/kg was observed to be 1.1±0.50 in Group F, 1.05±0.35 in Group B 20 and 1.18±0.41 in Group B40. Induction with propofol occurred at higher entropy values on pre-treatment with both fentanyl as well as butorphanol. Hemodynamic variables were comparable in all the three groups. Conclusion: Butorphanol 20 μg/kg and 40 μg/kg reduce the induction requirement of propofol, comparable to that of fentanyl 2 μg/kg, and confer hemodynamic stability at induction and intubation.

  8. Evaluation of an oral transmucosal administration of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol and dexmedetomidine-methadone in dogs.

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    Daniela Gioeni


    Full Text Available Oral transmucosal (OTM delivery is a simple and painless method for sedative administration in veterinary medicine and allows a rapid absorption without a first-pass metabolism by the liver (Porters et al. 2014.. OTM is particularly useful in aggressive animals (Santos et al. 2010. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the OTM route in dogs for sedative administration in comparison with intramuscular (IM injection. 24 mix-bread dogs undergoing soft tissue surgery or diagnostic procedures were randomly divided in 4 groups (n = 6: two groups received OTM administration of dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg-1 together with butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg-1, BTF-OTM group or methadone (0.2mg/kg-1, MTD-OTM group; two groups received intramuscular (IM administration of dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg-1 together with butorphanol (0.2 m/kg-1, BTF-IM group or methadone (0.2 mg/kg-1, MTD-IM. Heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, sedation score (Gruney et al. 2009 and side effects were recorded 10 (T10, 20 (T20 and 30 (T30 minutes after premedication. Induction was performed at T30 with titrate-to-effect propofol administration and the dosage required was recorded. At each time point BTF-IM group showed a statistically lower HR compared to BTF-OTM; RR was statistically lower at T10 in MTD-OTM group (21.33 ± 8.64 pm compared to BTF-OTM (46.16 ± 17.98; Dogs in group MTD-IM reached a higher sedation scores at each time point compared to MTD-OTM. The induction dose of propofol appears comparable among groups. Marked vasoconstriction was observed after OTM administration, as probably related to α2-agonists use. Emesis and sialorrhea occurred in two subjects of MTD-OTM group while only one dog presented sialorrhea in BTF-OTM group. In conclusion, OTM administration appears effective and easy to perform; it takes a longer time to achieve a good sedation score, probably related to a gradual absorption of drugs that also leads to a more gradual hemodynamic effects.

  9. Evaluation of BAM (butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine) in captive African lion (Panthera leo) immobilization. (United States)

    Semjonov, Aleksandr; Andrianov, Vladimir; Raath, Jacobus P; Orro, Toomas; Venter, Derik; Laubscher, Liesel; Pfitzer, Silke


    The combination of butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-yohimbine or naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive African lions (Panthea leo). Prospective, clinical trial. Twenty lions, 11 males and nine females, weighing 38-284 kg were immobilized in South Africa. The BAM volume dose rate administered was 0.005-0.008 mL kg-1 (0.6 mL 100 kg-1). Physiologic variables were recorded every 5 minutes. Four arterial blood samples were collected from all animals at 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after immobilization for analysis of blood-gases and acid-base status. The actual doses administered were as follows: butorphanol, 0.18±0.03 mg kg-1; azaperone, 0.07±0.01 mg kg-1; and medetomidine, 0.07±0.01 mg kg-1. The inductions were calm and smooth, and induction time ranged from 4 to 10 minutes (7±2 minutes). The amount of time needed to work with each lion was 70 minutes, and no additional drug doses were needed. Heart rate (40±8 beats minute-1) and respiratory frequency (15±4 breaths minute-1) were stable throughout immobilization. The mean arterial blood pressure of all animals was stable but elevated (142±16 mmHg). The rectal temperature slightly increased over time but remained within acceptable range. The recovery time was significantly shorter when using naltrexone and atipamezole (9±1 minutes) compared to using naltrexone and yohimbine (22±7 minutes). The BAM combination proved to be reliable for general veterinary anaesthesia in lions. During anaesthesia, minor veterinary procedures such a blood collection, intubation, vaccination and collaring could safely be performed with no additional dosing required. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effets de l’administration intramusculaire du butorphanol et de l’instillation oculaire du tropicamide sur l’ouverture pupillaire et la pression intraoculaire chez le chien‎


    Grillot, Aure-Eline


    Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer chez le chien sédaté par le butorphanol si la mydriase induite par l’instillation de tropicamide était retardée, et si l’augmentation de la pression intraoculaire (PIO) par le butorphanol était renforcée par celle-ci. Douze chiens Beagles sains ont reçu une injection intramusculaire de butorphanol 0,2 mg/kg ou de NaCl 0,9%. Des mesures du diamètre pupillaire et de la PIO ont été réalisées sur les yeux de chaque chien dont un tiré au sort ayant reçu une in...

  11. The effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or combined, on the dose and quality of anaesthetic induction with alfaxalone in goats

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    T. Brighton Dzikiti


    Full Text Available Goats are rarely anaesthetised; consequently, scant information is available on the efficacy of anaesthetic drugs in this species. Alfaxalone is a relatively new anaesthetic agent, of which the efficacy in goats has not yet been studied. In this study, the sedative and alfaxalonesparing effects of midazolam and butorphanol, administered alone or concomitantly, in goats were assessed. Eight clinically healthy goats, four does and four wethers, were enlisted in a randomised crossover manner to receive intramuscular sedative treatments consisting of saline 0.05 mL/kg, or midazolam 0.30 mg/kg, or butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg, or a combination ofmidazolam 0.30 mg/kg with butorphanol 0.10 mg/kg before intravenous induction of general anaesthesia with alfaxalone. Following induction, the goats were immediately intubated and the quality of anaesthesia and basic physiological cardiorespiratory and blood-gas parameters were assessed until the goats had recovered from anaesthesia. The degree of sedation, quality of induction and recovery were scored. When compared with saline (3.00 mg/kg, midazolam,administered alone or with butorphanol, caused a statistically significant increased level of sedation and a reduction in the amount of alfaxalone required for induction (2.00 mg/kg and 1.70 mg/kg, respectively. Butorphanol alone (2.30 mg/kg did not cause significant changes in level of sedation or alfaxalone-induction dose. During induction and recovery, the goats were calm following all treatments, including the control group. Cardiorespiratory and blood gasparameters were maintained within clinically acceptable limits. The present study showed that midazolam, administered alone or combined with butorphanol, produces a degree of sedation that significantly reduces the dose of alfaxalone required for induction of general anaesthesia in goats, without causing any major adverse cardiorespiratory effects.

  12. Field anesthesia of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) using tiletamine-zolazepam, medetomidine, and butorphanol. (United States)

    Larsen, R Scott; Moresco, Anneke; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P


    Telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. Variability in induction response has been seen between individuals that have received similar dosages, with young lemurs seeming to need more anesthetic than mature lemurs. This investigation evaluated Telazol induction in young (2.0-4.9 yr) and mature (> or = 5.0 yr) ring-tailed lemurs and compared postinduction supplementation with medetomidine or medetomidine-butorphanol. Forty-eight lemurs were anesthetized with Telazol administered via blow dart; then, 20 min after darting, they were supplemented via hand injection with either medetomidine (0.04 mg/ kg) or medetomidine-butorphanol (0.04 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively). The odds ratio for young lemurs to need more than one dart for induction, relative to mature lemurs, was 3.8, even though the initial dose of Telazol received by young lemurs (19 +/- 7 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the initial dose administered to mature lemurs (12 +/- 5 mg/kg). The total Telazol dosage was also significantly different between young lemurs (33 +/- 15 mg/kg) and mature lemurs (18 +/- 9 mg/kg). Both medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol provided good muscle relaxation and sedation for all procedures. Physiologic values were similar between the two protocols. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was generally good, although there were a few SaO2 values lemurs. In young lemurs, time to standing was correlated with Telazol induction dosage and time of last Telazol administration. Lemurs that received hand injections of Telazol took longer to recover than those that did not. Further refinements are needed to increase induction reliability and to decrease recovery time, particularly in young lemurs.

  13. Evaluation of a romifidine constant rate infusion protocol with or without butorphanol for dentistry and ophthalmologic procedures in standing horses. (United States)

    Marly, Charlotte; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Nussbaumer, Paeivi; Moine, Sebastien; Ringer, Simone K


    To compare the clinical usefulness of constant rate infusion (CRI) protocols of romifidine with or without butorphanol for sedation of horses. Prospective 'blinded' controlled trial using block randomization. Forty healthy Freiberger stallions. The horses received either intravenous (IV) romifidine (loading dose: 80 μg kg(-1) ; infusion: 30 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (treatment R, n = 20) or romifidine combined with butorphanol (romifidine loading: 80 μg kg(-1) ; infusion: 29 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) , and butorphanol loading: 18 μg kg(-1) ; infusion: 25 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (treatment RB, n = 20). Twenty-one horses underwent dentistry and ophthalmic procedures, while 19 horses underwent only ophthalmologic procedure and buccal examination. During the procedure, physiologic parameters and occurrence of head/muzzle shaking or twitching and forward movement were recorded. Whenever sedation was insufficient, additional romifidine (20 μg kg(-1) ) was administered IV. Recovery time was evaluated by assessing head height above ground. At the end of the procedure, overall quality of sedation for the procedure was scored by the dentist and anaesthetist using a visual analogue scale. Statistical analyses used two-way anova or linear mixed models as relevant. Sedation quality scores as assessed by the anaesthetist were R: median 7.55, range: 4.9-9.0 cm, RB: 8.8, 4.7-10.0 cm, and by the dentist R: 6.6, 3.0-8.2 cm, RB: 7.9, 6.6-8.8 cm. Horses receiving RB showed clinically more effective sedation as demonstrated by fewer poor scores and a tendency to reduced additional drug requirements. More horses showed forward movement and head shaking in treatment RB than treatment R. Three horses (two RB, one R) had symptoms of colic following sedation. The described protocols provide effective sedation under clinical conditions but for dentistry procedures, the addition of butorphanol is advantageous. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the

  14. Efficacy of a low-dosage combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) to immobilize Rocky Mountain elk. (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Fisher, Mark C; Davis, Tracy R; Miller, Michael W


    We compared dosages of a combination of sedatives, which included butorphanol tartrate, azaperone tartrate, and medetomidine HCl (BAM) in captive adult Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). All three BAM dosages (low, medium, and high) effectively immobilized elk and produced an adequate level of sedation in all subjects. Induction times were similar among the three groups (mean ± SD: low=6.9 ± 1.1 min; medium=6.3 ± 0.9 min; high=4.7 ± 1.3 min). Most elk became hypoxemic regardless of BAM dosage, but hypoxemia tended to be most severe in the high-BAM group; regardless of BAM dosage, oxygen supplementation improved the percentage of oxygen saturation and stabilized the vital rates. Recovery after administration of antagonists (3 mg atipamezole/mg medetomidine and 2 mg/kg tolazoline) was comparable among groups (range of means=9 ± 1.5-11.7 ± 1 min). Based on the findings from clinical trials and field data from free-ranging elk immobilizations, we recommend low-dose BAM (2 mL dose; equivalent to 46 mg butorphanol, 30 mg azaperone, and 18 mg medetomidine) and supplemental oxygen for adult elk; immobilization should be antagonized using 3-5 mg atipamezole/mg medetomidine and 2 mg/kg tolazoline, with tolazoline injected about 5-10 min before atipamezole to smooth out recovery.

  15. Evaluation of intrathecal bupivacaine alone, bupivacaine with butorphanol and bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine for lower segment caesarean section: a randomized control trial


    Ashem Jack Meitei; Okram Rubina; Laithangbam PKS; Joyshankar Singh I.; Dilip Ingudum; Mithun Raj R.


    Background: Following caesarean operation, a painless early ambulation is necessary to mother for caring of the neonate. Aim of the study is to compare more effective analgesic by intrathecal bupivacaine or combination with butorphanol or dexmedetomidine. Methods: Ninety parturients undergoing elective caesarean section were randomly divided into three equal groups (n=30). Group B: received bupivacaine (0.5%) 2 ml + 0.5 ml of normal saline (NS); group BB, bupivacaine (0.5%) 2 ml + 25 mcg b...

  16. O butorfanol na anestesia pela romifidina-tiletamina-zolazepam em gatos Butorphanol in romifidine-tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in cats

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    André Luis Selmi


    Full Text Available Visando observar os efeitos do butorfanol (B na anestesia produzida pela associação de romifidina (R e tiletamina-zolazepam (TZ, foram utilizados seis gatos adultos, de forma que todos animais receberam a associação de romifidina-tiletamina-zolazepam (grupo RTZ ou a associação de romifidina-tiletamina-zolazepam-butorfanol (grupo RTZB. Os animais receberam em aplicação única, por via intramuscular, de tiletamina e de zolazepam e 40µ de romifidina (grupo RTZ ou a mesma associação acrescida de 0, de B (grupo RTZB. A freqüência cardíaca, freqüência respiratória, pressão arterial sistólica, diastólica e média por método não-invasivo oscilométrico, saturação de oxihemoglobina e temperatura retal foram avaliadas durante 120 minutos e comparadas aos valores basais. Os efeitos anestésicos foram caracterizados por meio de um sistema de escores. Outros dados como período de latência, período anestésico hábil e período de recuperação foram mensurados para efeito comparativo. Os períodos de latência e anestésico hábil foram significativamente mais prolongados no grupo RTZB. Ocorreu diminuição da freqüência respiratória no grupo RTZB, havendo decréscimo transitório no grupo RTZ. A freqüência cardíaca não variou no grupo RTZ até os 60 minutos e decresceu significativamente no grupo RTZB. Conclui-se que a associação RTZ produz anestesia com mínimos efeitos cardiovasculares e que a adição do butorfanol à associação prolonga o tempo anestésico hábil, além de proporcionar analgesia mais duradoura, mas provoca efeitos colaterais como decréscimo da freqüência cardíaca e da freqüência respiratória em gatos.The effect of butorphanol was investigated in six adult cats anesthetized with romifidine-tiletamine-zolazepam. Cats were given romifidine (40µ tiletamine ( and zolazepam ( (RTZ intramuscularly, or RTZ and butorphanol ( (RTZB. Heart

  17. Racemic ketamine in comparison to S-ketamine in combination with azaperone and butorphanol for castration of pigs. (United States)

    Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R; Stauffer, S; Hässig, M; Flaherty, D; Ringer, S K


    In this prospective blinded randomised study, 28 male 9 week old pigs of bodyweight 25 kg, were anaesthetised for castration using 5 mg/kg azaperone, 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol and 0.4 mg/kg meloxicam, in conjunction with either 15 mg/kg racemic ketamine (Keta-Race) or 9 mg/kg S-ketamine (S-Keta), all drugs being injected intramuscularly. Anaesthesia induction, maintenance and recovery were timed and scored. Insufficient anaesthesia was supplemented with ¼ the initial dose of ketamine or S-ketamine, respectively, administered intravenously. A t-test was utilised for analysis of timings, and, for repeated recovery time data, ANOVA was used. In relation to quantification and timing of supplemental drug doses, a chi square test was used and the scoring was analysed by two sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Ketamine re-dosing was required in 23 animals on a total of 46 occasions distributed evenly throughout both groups. The only group differences occurred during recovery, with the S-Keta group showing earlier movements, sternal recumbency and ability to stand. Three pigs in each group showed muscle fasciculations during the recovery period, while an additional two animals of the Keta-Race group exhibited marked and unacceptable paddling in recovery. In conclusion, S-ketamine at a dose rate of 60 % of that of racemic ketamine induced comparable anaesthesia for castration in pigs, but with superior recovery characteristics.

  18. Antinociceptive effects of intravenous administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride alone or followed by buprenorphine hydrochloride or butorphanol tartrate to healthy conscious cats. (United States)

    Simon, Bradley T; Steagall, Paulo V; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Troncy, Eric; Lizarraga, Ignacio


    To evaluate antinociceptive effects of IV administration of hydromorphone alone or followed by buprenorphine or butorphanol to cats. 6 healthy adult cats. In a randomized, blinded crossover design, cats received each of 4 treatments in which 2 IV injections were given 30 minutes apart: 2 of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (Sal-Sal) or 1 each of hydromorphone HCl and saline solution (H-Sal), hydromorphone and buprenorphine HCl (H-Bupre), or hydromorphone and butorphanol tartrate (H-Butor). Skin temperature and thermal threshold were recorded before (baseline) and for 12 hours after the first injection. Percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and thermal excursion (TE) were compared among treatments and measurement points. Compared with baseline values, skin temperature was higher from 0.75 to 2 hours after the first injection for H-Sal; at 0.5, 1, 3, and 4 hours for H-Bupre; from 0.5 to 3 hours for H-Butor; and from 0.5 to 1 hours for Sal-Sal. Thermal excursion was higher than at baseline from 0.25 to 2 hours for H-Sal and H-Bupre and 0.25 to 0.75 hours for H-Butor; %MPE increased from 0.25 to 2 hours for H-Sal, 0.25 to 3 hours for H-Bupre, and 0.25 to 0.75 hours for H-Butor. Results were similar for comparisons with Sal-Sal, except TE was greater for H-Sal versus Sal-Sal and TE and %MPE were greater for H-Bupre versus Sal-Sal from 0.25 to 1 hours after the first injection. Butorphanol administration decreased the duration of antinociception achieved with hydromorphone administration in cats. This opioid interaction and its impact on pain management require additional investigation.


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    Isabela Ciniello Araujo


    Full Text Available O propofol é um agente anestésico intravenoso usado para indução e manutenção da anestesia, mas produz analgesia limitada, havendo a necessidade do uso concomitante de analgésicos. Avaliou-se o efeito analgésico do butorfanol na dor somática em gatos anestesiados com doses fracionadas de propofol. Foram utilizados 16 animais, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos. Os animais do grupo controle foram pré-tratados com 0,2mg/kg de acepromazina por via IM e, após 15 minutos, receberam 6mg/kg de propofol por via IV. Os animais do grupo tratamento foram pré-medicados com uma combinação de acepromazina (0,2mg/kg e butorfanol (0,8mg/kg, administrados na mesma seringa por via IM, e, após 15 minutos, receberam 6mg/kg de propofol por via IV. Em ambos os grupos, a manutenção da anestesia foi feita com administrações de propofol, na dose de 3mg/kg, por via IV, sempre que necessário, durante 60 minutos. A necessidade de readministração de propofol foi verificada pela resposta apresentada ao pinçamento cutâneo, através de uma pinça de Kocher. Avaliaram-se também as freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, pressão arterial média, saturação de oxiemoglobina e temperatura retal. A administração de butorfanol causou apenas redução nas freqüências cardíaca e respiratória e na saturação de oxiemoglobina, em comparação com o grupo controle,sem exercer influência significativa sobre o período hábil, a dose total administrada e o período de recuperação do propofol. Concluiu-se que a adição de butorfanol não produziu analgesia somática em gatos anestesiados com doses fracionadas de propofol.Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia but produces limited analgesia, and concomitant use of analgesics is necessary. The analgesic effect of butorphanol in somatic pain in cats anesthetized with intermittent doses of propofol was evaluated. Sixteen animals were randomly

  20. Butorphanol Nasal Spray (United States)

    ... Put the bottle back in the child-resistant storage container. Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ... Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while you are using this ... online ( or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  1. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios do butorfanol em cães pré-tratados ou não pela levomepromazina Cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol in dogs treated with levomepromazine

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    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos do butorfanol precedido ou não pela levomepromazina sobre a freqüência cardíaca (FC, as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM, respectivamente, a freqüência respiratória (f, a concentração de dióxido de carbono ao final da expiração (ETCO2, a saturação da oxihemoglobina (SpO2, o volume corrente (VC e o volume minuto (VM, em cães. Para tal, foram empregados vinte animais adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos (GC e GL. Ao GC administrou-se solução salina a 0,9% (Controle, no volume de 0,2mL kg-1, pela via intravenosa (IV. Decorridos 15 minutos, administrou-se butorfanol na dose de 0,3mg kg-1 pela mesma via. Aos animais do GL foi adotada a mesma metodologia, porém substituindo-se a solução salina pela levomepromazina na dose de 1mg kg-1. As medidas das variáveis cardiorrespiratórias iniciaram-se imediatamente antes da aplicação dos fármacos (M1. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração da solução salina a 0,9% ou levomepromazina (M2 e 10 minutos após a administração de butorfanol (M3. As demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 10 minutos, durante 30 minutos (M4, M5 e M6, respectivamente. Os dados numéricos colhidos foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA, seguida pelo teste de Tukey (pThis work was aimed at evaluating the effects of the butorphanol in dogs preceded or not buy levomepromazine on heart rate (HR, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP, respectively, respiratory rate (RR, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2, minute volume (MV and tidal volume (TV. Twenty adult animals, clinically health were randomly distributed in two groups with ten animals each one (CG and LG. The first one received intravenous administration (IV of 0.2mL kg-1 of saline solution at 0.9% (control. After 15 minutes, 0.3mg kg-1

  2. Efeitos cardiovasculares e neuroendócrinos do butorfanol e da buprenorfina em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine in dogs anesthetized with desflurane

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    A.P. Souza


    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do butorfanol e da buprenorfina sobre variáveis cardiovasculares e neuroendócrinas em cães anestesiados com desfluorano, utilizando-se 30 cães adultos, machos e fêmeas, distribuídos em três grupos denominados grupo butorfanol (GBT, grupo buprenorfina (GBP e grupo-controle (GCO. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol (8mg/kgIV e nos animais intubados administrou-se desfluorano (1,5CAM. Após 30 minutos, nos cães do GBT, aplicou-se butorfanol (0,4mg/kgIM; nos do GBP, buprenorfina (0,02mg/kgIM; e nos do GCO, solução de NaCl a 0,9% (0,05ml/kgIM. Avaliaram-se: freqüência cardíaca; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média; débito cardíaco; pressão venosa central; cortisol; hormônio adrenocorticotrópico; noradrenalina; e glicose. As colheitas dos dados foram feitas aos 30 minutos após o início da administração do desfluorano (M0, 15 minutos após a administração do opióide ou placebo (M15, e a cada 15 minutos após M15 (M30, M45, M60 e M75. Para a avaliação neuroendócrina utilizaram-se os momentos M-30 (antes da administração dos fármacos, M0, M15 e M45. Na freqüência cardíaca houve diferença entre M0 e M15 (129 e 111bat/min em GBT, e entre M0 e M30 (131 e 112bat/min em GBP. Na pressão arterial média, a diferença foi entre M0 (86mmHg e todos os momentos que se seguiram (todos os valores foram menores que 72mmHg, em GBT. A pressão arterial diastólica foi menor em todos os momentos (The effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine variables in dogs anesthetized with desflurane were studied. Thirty adult healthy, males and females, mongrel dogs were distributed in three groups denominated butorphanol group (BTG, buprenorphine group (BPG and control group (COG. The anesthetic induction was done using propofol (8mg/kg, IV, and immediately, the dogs were intubated and submited to desflurane anaesthesia (1.5 MAC. After 30 minutes, the BTG animals

  3. Evaluation of cortisol and glycemia levels of dogs anesthetized with sevoflurane and premedicated with either butorphanol or phetidine / Avaliação dos níveis de cortisol e glicemia em cães anestesiados pelo sevofluorano, pré-medicados com butorfanol ou meperidina

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    Selwyn Arlinton Headley


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the influence of butorphanol and phetidine as part of the preanesthetic medication, in 20 healthy dogs submitted to experimental orthopedic surgery. Dogs were randomly allocated in two groups: GI, acepromazine and butorphanol (0,05 1 and 0,4 1, respectively, i.m. and, GII, acepromazine and phetidine (0,05 1and 4 1, respectively, i.m.. Anesthesia was induced by administration of propofol (5 1 and maintained by the use of sevoflurane delivered in a 100% oxygen circuit. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and glucose were measured during several surgical procedures: T0, before preanesthetic medication; T1, 20 minutes after preanesthetic medication; T2, at skin incision; T3, at periostal stimulation; and, T4, at skin suture. Concentrations of plasma glucose were not significantly different between the surgical procedures and between the two groups evaluated. Concentrations of plasma cortisol were significantly higher in dogs administered with butorphanol between the surgical procedures of T0 and T3, compared with values for dogs administered with phetidine. These results suggest that phetidine is more adequate to control plasma cortisol in dogs submitted to orthopedic surgery than anesthesia with sevoflurane.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a influência do butorfanol ou meperidina como medicação préanestesica nos níveis de cortisol e glicemia em vinte cães submetidos a cirurgia ortopédica experimental. Os cães foram distribuídos em grupos: GI recebeu acepromazina e butorfanol (0,05 1 e 0,4 1 respectivamente, i.m. e GII, acepromazina e meperidina (0,05 1 e 4 1 respectivamente, i.m.. A indução anestésica constou de propofol (5 1 e para a manutenção sevofluorano em 100% de oxigênio. A concentração plasmátca de cortisol e glicose foram mensuradas no momentos: T0 antes da medicação pré-anestésica; T1 – vinte minutos após a

  4. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

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    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani


    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  5. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine concentrations following caudal epidural administration in horses Concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina após administração epidural caudal em eqüinos

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    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini


    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of determining the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations after epidurally administered alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine in horses. Five clinically healthy adult horses were studied. Morphine 0.1mg kg-1, alfentanil 0.02mg kg-1, and butorphanol 0.08mg kg-1 in equal volumes (20ml were epidurally injected. A 10-ml sample of CSF and blood were drawn at sampling times before the epidural administration and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 120 minutes, and hourly for 24 hours Enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA was used as the screening test to detect the injected opioids. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used with a P values Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se detectar as concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina administrados por via epidural caudal em cavalos. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos adultos, clinicamente hígidos. Doses de morfina (0,1mg kg-1, alfentanil (0,02mg kg-1, e butorfanol (0,08mg kg-1, diluídos em volume idêntico de 20ml em solução salina 0,9%, foram administrados por via epidural. Uma amostra de 10ml de sangüe venoso e de líqüido cérebro-espinhal foram colhidas anteriormente à administração epidural e 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 120 minutos e a cada hora por 24 horas. O teste enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA foi utilizado como método analítico para detecção dos opióides. Os resultados foram avaliados com teste ANOVA e Bonferroni com valor de P<0,05. O teste de ELISA mostrou-se eficiente para detecção plasmática e no LCE de alfentanil, butorfanol, e morfina administrados por via epidural. A administração epidural de alfentanil em eqüinos produz níveis no líquido cérebro-espinhal mais rapidamente que no plasma. Opióides de maior hidrossolubilidade tais como morfina e butorfanol produzem níveis plasmáticos mais rapidamente do que no líquido cérebro-espinhal quando

  6. Avaliação algimétrica por estímulo nociceptivo térmico e pressórico em cães pré-tratados com levomepromazina, midazolam e quetamina associados ou não ao butorfanol ou buprenorfina The algimetry evaluation for thermic and pressoric nociceptive stimulus in pre treated dogs with methotrimeprazine, midazolam and ketamine associated or not with butorphanol or buprenorphine

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    André Leguthe Rosa


    methotrimeprazine and midazolam put on the same syringe with ketamine. The animals of GII received the same treatment of GI but associated with butorphanol and finally the animals of GIII received the same treatment of GI but associated with buprenorphine. The routine parametric evaluations has been proceeded, although using the thermo algimetry measured in °C with the average of 52°C and the pressoric algimetry in Kg. RESULTS: In the thermo algimetry, there has been significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M1, M4 and M5; in GII it was found at M0, M1, M5 and M6 and in GIII it was observed the significant at M0 and M1. It has also been shown in pressoric algimetry significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M2 and M3. Among GII it has observed significant difference at all moments and it has found at M0, M9 in GIII. Thus, it has observed significant differences between all groups; for such the M2 of GII smaller than the others; and M4, M5 of GIII bigger than GI and GII. In the assessment of all periods it was observed significant latent period bigger in GI, however, with reasonable period and short recovery in GII and GIII. In the order hand, the postural tonus recovery it was longer in GIII, followed by GII and finally GI. CONCLUSION: The used method for the measurement of algic stimulus was efficient, noticing a reasonable analgesic period of 3 hours for butorphanol and 6 hours for buprenorphine.

  7. 77 FR 60442 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone... (United States)


    ... (NADA) and three abbreviated new animal drug applications (ANADAs) at the sponsors' request because the... approval of the NADA and ANADAs listed in table 1 of this document because the products are no longer manufactured or marketed. Table 1--NADA and ANADAs for Which Withdrawal of Approval Has Been Requested NADA...

  8. The toxic effect of opioid analgesics on human sperm motility in vitro. (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Yan-Juan; Lu, Pei-Hua; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Hai


    Opioid analgesics are the most common therapeutic analgesic for acute pain. In this study, the toxicological and pharmacological features of a group of opioid analgesics were characterized by the motility of human sperm. Aliquots of sperm were incubated with various concentrations of opioid analgesics in vitro. Computer-assisted sperm analysis was used to assess sperm motility at 15 minutes, 2 hours, and 4 hours after drug addition to the medium. Butorphanol and dezocine showed marked reduction of motility after incubation with sperm for 15 minutes. Butorphanol was more effective than dezocine in immobilizing sperm. Other opioids studied, such as fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil, showed only partial inhibitory activity. Based on the data reported herein, we have found that butorphanol and dezocine exert a sperm-immobilizing effect. However, fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil exhibit only partial inhibition of sperm motility. Given the increasing use of opioids and their potential effect on sperm motility, these findings are greatly relevant to male reproductive health.

  9. Effect of two sedative protocols and hepatosplenic disease on Doppler indices of splenic arteries in dogs: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Ferrandis, Inma; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Aprea, Francesco; Corletto, Federico


    Doppler flow indices (DFIs), such as the resistive index (RI) and the pulsatility index (PI), are commonly used to characterize blood flow. Parenchymal infiltration of an organ and administration of sedative and anaesthetic drugs can affect DFIs by altering resistance to blood flow. In this prospective study, the effect on DFIs of two sedative protocols (acepromazine or dexmedetomidine, each combined with butorphanol) and the presence or absence of hepatic and/or splenic disease, was investigated in the splenic arteries of 75 dogs. The RI and PI in splenic arteries of dogs sedated with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol were lower than those of dogs sedated with acepromazine and butorphanol. PI in splenic arteries was higher in animals with hepatosplenic disease than in healthy animals. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves suggested that PI measured in canine splenic arteries could be useful in predicting the presence of hepatosplenic disease in the absence of other abdominal disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Midazolam / ketamine induction and isoflurane maintenance of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised African buffalo (Syncerus caffer : clinical communication

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    G.F. Stegmann


    Full Text Available The use of a midazolam / ketamine combination for induction of anaesthesia in a 2-month-old, hand-raised buffalo calf (Syncerus caffer described to allow endotracheal intubation for the maintenance of anaesthesia with isoflurane and oxygen. Intraoperative complications were hypotension and hypothermia. For postoperative analgesia meloxicam and butorphanol was administered intramuscularly.

  11. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.


    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  12. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production. (United States)


    ... treatment for dairy and breeder stock when organic system plan-approved preventive management does not... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF... period of at least 12 days after administering to dairy animals. (4) Biologics—Vaccines. (5) Butorphanol...

  13. Anesthetic and Airways Management of a Dog with Severe Tracheal Collapse during Intraluminal Stent Placement

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    M. Argano


    Full Text Available This case report describes the anesthetic and airways management of a dog affected by 4th degree tracheal collapse and undergoing endoscope-guided intraluminal stent placement. After premedication with acepromazine and butorphanol, general anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with intravenous propofol and butorphanol in constant rate infusion. During intraluminal stent placement, oxygen was supplemented by means of a simple and inexpensive handmade device, namely, a ureteral catheter inserted into the trachea and connected to an oxygen source, which allowed for the maintenance of airways’ patency and adequate patient’s oxygenation, without decreasing visibility in the surgical field or interfering with the procedure. The use of the technique described in the present paper was the main determinant of the successful anesthetic management and may be proposed for similar critical cases in which surgical manipulation of the tracheal lumen, which may potentially result in hypoxia by compromising airways patency, is required.

  14. (United States)

    Csik-Salmon, J; Blais, D; Vaillancourt, D; Garon, O; Bisaillon, A


    Loss of rear motor control is the main limiting factor in the use of caudal epidural anesthesia in the horse. In man and laboratory animals, a small dose of an opiate combined with a local anesthetic enhances analgesia without impairing motor function. Thus, the amount of local anesthetic administered may be reduced. Butorphanol is an opiate widely used in horses. It has a good margin of safety and few cardiorespiratory effects. The effects of lidocaine (0.25 mg/kg) and lidocaine-butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg, and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) were compared in 2 groups of 5 healthy unsedated mares. Horses in each group received either lidocaine or lidocaine-butorphanol in saline solution for a total volume of 0.0165 mg/kg. Epidural injection was performed at the first coccygeal interspace. Each mare was used only once. Cutaneous analgesia was assessed by a response to a pin prick; and visceral analgesia was assessed by response to a noxious stimulus applied to the urethra. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure were also measured. Analysis of the results showed an increase in duration of both cutaneous and visceral analgesia in the mares given lidocaine-butorphanol. Cutaneous analgesia increased from 36 +/- 13 to 150 +/- 21 min and visceral analgesia increased from 22 +/- 10 to 162 +/- 16 min. A cranial extension of the cutaneous analgesia was also observed. Cardiorespiratory depression or signs of excitation were not observed. However, these mares demonstrated peculiar walking in the hind limbs, not associated with signs of ataxia or hyperkinesia. PMID:9026402

  15. Effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia compared with opioid administration in a dog model: a pilot study. (United States)

    Groppetti, D; Pecile, A M; Sacerdote, P; Bronzo, V; Ravasio, G


    Although opioid analgesics are the usual drugs to treat post-surgical pain, acupuncture has also been demonstrated to relieve various pain syndromes. The present pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of electroacupuncture compared with a conventional opioid compound, butorphanol, for postoperative pain treatment in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Twelve dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs received either electroacupuncture stimulation (16 and 43 Hz) at Shen Shu, Chang Shu, He Gu, Tai Yuan, Zu San Li, Yang Ling Quan, and Bai Hui acupoints, while control dogs were treated with butorphanol. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were recorded for both groups during operation. Plasma β-endorphin concentrations were evaluated before surgery (baseline) and up to 24 h later. For each dog, pain was measured according to a dedicated subjective pain scoring system. Plasma β-endorphin levels in dogs receiving electroacupuncture increased significantly against baseline values after 1 and 3 h after surgery. Moreover, the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed for second ovary traction was significantly lower in acupuncture-treated dogs than control animals. All animals having electroacupuncture experienced prolonged analgesia, over 24 h at least, while four out of six dogs treated with butorphanol needed post-surgical ketorolac and tramadol supplementation to their pain relief. The results obtained from the present investigation showed some evidence for electroacupuncture as an alternative technique to provide postoperative analgesia in dogs.

  16. Establishment of an anesthetic protocol for semen collection by electroejaculation in six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus, 1758

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    P.C. Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim was to verify the effects of different anesthetic protocols used during electroejaculation (EEJ in six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus. Four sexually matured animals were physically restrained and subjected to semen collection by the EEJ following three treatments: The control group consisted of no use of anesthesia; in the others, the anesthetic combinations xylazine/ketamine/propofol or butorphanol/ ketamine/propofol were administered. For each group, twelve procedures were conducted for EEJ. Semen was evaluated for volume, color, aspect, motility, sperm concentration, morphology, viability, and functional membrane integrity. The highest efficiency (100% ejaculates was achieved when the control group was used; the xylazine/ketamine/propofol association provided only 11 ejaculates from a total of 12 attempts (91.6% efficiency, while only 4 ejaculates (33% efficiency were obtained with butorphanol/ketamine/propofol (P0.05. The semen volume and sperm concentration obtained in the use of xylazine/ketamine/propofol association were significantly higher than those verified for butorphanol/ketamine/propofol protocol. In conclusion, the xylazine/ketamine/propofol association is indicated for anesthesia of six-banded armadillos submitted to EEJ.

  17. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

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    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  18. Efficacy of epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine for orthopaedic surgery in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durej M.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine provides more intense and sufficient perioperative analgesia compared with parenterally administrated butorphanol during orthopaedic surgery. Sheep were assigned to group C (control group, 6 sheep and group E (epidural, 5 sheep. Sheep from group C were pre-medicated with midazolam (0.3 mg/kg, i.m. and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.. Propofol was used for induction of general anesthesia in both groups. Sheep from group E were pre-medicated with midazolam, but without butorphanol. Sacrococcegeal epidural analgesia with morphine (0.1 mg/kg and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg was performed. We detected a significant increase in heart rate (19%, p=0.021 during surgery in group C. Two hours after surgery, the heart rate was 14.9% lower than prior to surgery in group E (p=0.017. In group E, throughout the surgery, we measured an insignificant increase in respiratory rate of 1.99%. In the same group, 120 minutes post surgery, we measured an increase in respiratory rate of 14.7%, while in group C there was a smaller increase of only 10.9%. The result from both groups was insignificant (p>0.05. The consumption of isoflurane in group C was higher than in group E by 27.3% (p=0.0043. The mean MAC was in group C higher by 27.6% as it was in group E (0.75% ± 0.25, 0.95 ± 0.3 in Group E and C, respectively. This distinction, according to the Mann-Whitney test, was not significant (p=0.329.

  19. Comparison of the efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-based anesthetic protocols in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). (United States)

    Williams, Cathy V; Glenn, Kelly M; Levine, Jay F; Horne, William A


    The relative efficacies and cardiorespiratory effects of three injectable anesthetic combinations containing medetomidine were evaluated in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). In addition, the direct effects of medetomidine on heart rate and blood pressure were evaluated in lemurs anesthetized with isoflurane. For injectable anesthesia, captive adult ring-tailed lemurs were anesthetized with medetomidine and ketamine (0.04-0.06 mg/kg, i.m. and 3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively), medetomidine, butorphanol, and ketamine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m., 0.4 mg/kg, i.m., and 3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively), or medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg, i.m., 0.4 mg/kg, i.m., and 0.3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively). For inhalation anesthesia, lemurs were mask-induced and maintained with isoflurane for 30 min before receiving medetomidine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m.). Sedation produced by medetomidine-ketamine was unpredictable and of short duration. Both medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine (MBK) and medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam (MBMz) provided adequate anesthesia for routine physical exams; however, the effects of MBMz lasted longer than those of MBK. Heart rates and respiratory rates were within clinically normal ranges for all groups, and lemurs remained normotensive throughout the study. Common side effects such as hypertension and bradycardia associated with the use of alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist combinations in other species were not observed. Likewise, medetomidine administration had no effect on HR in lemurs receiving isoflurane. Lemurs in all groups were well ventilated and remained well oxygenated throughout the procedures, though arterial partial pressure of O2 was lowest in the MBMz group. All three injectable medetomidine combinations were effective in ring-tailed lemurs but only MBK and MBMz provided adequate depth and duration of anesthesia for use as sole regimes. For many clinical procedures in lemurs, MBMz offers advantages over MBK because of its longer duration of

  20. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A F Nasr

    Full Text Available The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM landing time (seconds birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3, 2.2 (0.3, p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6, 16.9 (6.7, p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4, 26.3 (7.6, p = 0.02 150 cm. Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems.


    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H


    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (dogs. Short-term and diffuse heterogeneity of the spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. The effect of opioid and acepromazine premedication on the anesthetic induction dose of propofol in cats. (United States)

    Hall, T L; Duke, T; Townsend, H G; Caulkett, N A; Cantwell, S L


    The median effective dosage (ED50) for induction of anesthesia with propofol was determined by using the up-and-down method in 31 unpremedicated cats, in 30 cats premedicated with butorphanol, 0.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and acepromazine, 0.1 mg/kg BW, intramuscularly, and in 30 cats premedicated with morphine, 0.2 mg/kg BW, and acepromazine, 0.1 mg/kg BW, intramuscularly. The dose required for a satisfactory anesthetic induction in 50% of unpremedicated cats (ED50) was 7.22 mg/kg BW and of premedicated cats was 5.00 mg/kg BW. The reduction in dose was statistically significant in both premedicated groups compared with no premedication. There was no significant difference in ED50 between premedication regimes. Cyanosis was the most common adverse effect observed in all groups following anesthetic induction with propofol. PMID:10646062

  3. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  4. Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya (United States)

    Gitari, Anderson; Nguhiu, James; Varma, Vijay; Mogoa, Eddy


    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9.8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic. Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement colic. Flunixin meglumine as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was used as the only pain management treatment in 85.3% of the cases, flunixin meglumine and butorphanol as NSAID-OPIOD combination in 6.4% of the cases, while buscopan as an antispasmodic was recorded in 5.9% of the cases mainly in spasmodic colic. Univariate analysis revealed simple association between various factors and the type of colic a horse was having. There was an association between the type of colic and the decision-making on the pain management protocol to use, whether single analgesic protocol (χ2=22.5, pflunixin meglumine, followed by flunixin-butorphanol combination. Surgery for horses with colic in Nairobi County is not commonly done due to impeding poor prognoses. The horse owners tend to prefer euthanasia for such cases. PMID:29184373

  5. Evaluation of Oral Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation in Cats: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; King, Jonathan N.


    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03–2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  6. Effects of chemical restraint on electroretinograms recorded sequentially in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs. (United States)

    Freeman, Kate S; Good, Kathryn L; Kass, Philip H; Park, Shin Ae; Nestorowicz, Natalia; Ofri, Ron


    To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs. Six 6-month-old Beagles. A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 states of consciousness: awake, sedated (dexmedetomidine and butorphanol), and anesthetized (atropine and hydromorphone, followed by propofol and midazolam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane). Low- and high-frequency noise levels were quantified via Fourier analysis, and the effect of consciousness state on signal amplitude, implicit time, and noise was analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA. In addition, 13 veterinary ophthalmologists who were unaware of the dogs' consciousness states subjectively graded the ERG recording quality, and scores for each tracing were compared. ERG amplitudes were highest in awake dogs and lowest in anesthetized dogs. Implicit times were shortest in awake dogs and longest in anesthetized dogs. Differences in b-wave amplitudes and a-wave implicit times were significant. Neither low- nor high-frequency noise levels differed significantly among consciousness states. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified among observers' scores assigned to ERG tracings. Anesthesia and sedation resulted in significant attenuation and delay of ERG responses in dogs. Chemical restraint of dogs had no consistently significant effect on low- or high-frequency noise levels or on observer perception of signal quality.


    Kottwitz, Jack; Boothe, Matthew; Harmon, Roy; Citino, Scott B; Zuba, Jeffery R; Boothe, Dawn M


    An online survey utilizing Survey Monkey linked through the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians listserve examined current practices in megavertebrate analgesia. Data collected included drugs administered, dosing regimens, ease of administration, efficacy, and adverse events. Fifty-nine facilities (38 housing elephants, 33 housing rhinoceroses) responded. All facilities administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with phenylbutazone (0.25-10 mg/kg) and flunixin meglumine (0.2-4 mg/kg) being most common. Efficacy was reported as "good" to "excellent" for these medications. Opioids were administered to elephants (11 of 38) and rhinoceroses (7 of 33), with tramadol (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05-1.0 mg/kg) being most common. Tramadol efficacy scores were highly variable in both elephants and rhinoceroses. While drug choices were similar among institutions, substantial variability in dosing regimens and reported efficacy between and within facilities indicates the need for pharmacokinetic studies and standardized methods of analyzing response to treatment to establish dosing regimens and clinical trials to establish efficacy and safety.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Deracoxib for the Control of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation Associated with Dental Surgery in Dogs (United States)

    Bienhoff, Stephen E.; Smith, Eric S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Baker, Larry D.


    The efficacy and safety of deracoxib administered at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days was assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery in dogs. Client-owned dogs scheduled for dental extractions were premedicated with butorphanol and randomly assigned to receive either deracoxib (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31) preoperatively and again once daily for 2 additional days. Dogs were evaluated prior to and after surgery using a modified Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (mGCPS). Dogs could be rescued at any time if they scored ≥4 on the mGCPS or in cases of obvious discomfort. Rescued dogs were considered treatment failures for determining treatment response and were removed from the study. Of the 62 dogs enrolled, 57 were usable for the efficacy analyses and all were assessed for safety. Four of 27 deracoxib-treated dogs (14.8%) were rescued compared to 20 of 30 placebo dogs (66.7%) (P = 0.0006). Deracoxib-treated dogs also had numerically lower mGCPS scores. Eight of 31 deracoxib dogs (26%) had adverse events reported compared to 6 of 31 placebo dogs (19%). Results indicate perioperative administration of deracoxib to dogs at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly improves analgesia after dental surgery. PMID:23738113

  9. Assessment of the sedative effects of buprenorphine administered with 10 μg/kg detomidine in horses. (United States)

    Love, E J; Taylor, P M; Murrell, J; Whay, H R; Waterman-Pearson, A E


    The aim of this randomised, observer-blinded, crossover study was to compare the effects of six treatments, administered intravenously to six horses: saline and saline (S/S); detomidine and saline (D/S); detomidine and 5 µg/kg buprenorphine (D/B5); detomidine and 7.5 µg/kg buprenorphine (D/B7.5); detomidine and 10 µg/kg buprenorphine (D/B10); and detomidine and 25 µg/kg butorphanol (D/BUT). The detomidine dose was 10 µg/kg for all treatments in which it was included. Sedation was subjectively assessed and recorded on a visual analogue scale. Peak sedation, duration of sedation and the area under the curve (AUC) for sedation scores were investigated using a univariate general linear model with post-hoc Tukey tests (P<0.05). Peak sedation and duration of sedation were statistically significantly different between treatments (P<0.001). No sedation was apparent after administration of S/S. The AUC was significantly different between treatments (P=0.010), with S/S being significantly different from D/S, D/BUT, D/B5 and D/B7.5, but not D/B10 (P=0.051).

  10. Comparison of computed tomography pulmonary angiography and point-of-care tests for pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosis in dogs. (United States)

    Goggs, R; Chan, D L; Benigni, L; Hirst, C; Kellett-Gregory, L; Fuentes, V L


    To evaluate the feasibility of CT pulmonary angiography for identification of naturally occurring pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs using predefined diagnostic criteria and to assess the ability of echocardiography, cardiac troponins, D-dimers and kaolin-activated thromboelastography to predict the presence of pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs. Twelve dogs with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and evidence of respiratory distress were prospectively evaluated. Dogs were sedated immediately before CT pulmonary angiography using intravenous butorphanol. Spiral CT pulmonary angiography was performed with a 16 detector-row CT scanner using a pressure injector to infuse contrast media through peripheral intravenous catheters. Pulmonary thromboembolism was diagnosed using predefined criteria. Contemporaneous tests included echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, kaolin-activated thromboelastography, D-dimers and cardiac troponins. Based on predefined criteria, four dogs were classified as pulmonary thromboembolism positive, three dogs were suspected to have pulmonary thromboembolism and the remaining five dogs had negative scans. The four dogs identified with pulmonary thromboembolism all had discrete filling defects in main or lobar pulmonary arteries. None of the contemporaneous tests was discriminant for pulmonary thromboembolism diagnosis, although the small sample size was limiting. CT pulmonary angiography can be successfully performed in dogs under sedation, even in at-risk patients with respiratory distress and can both confirm and rule out pulmonary thromboembolism in dogs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H


    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood.

  12. Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gitari


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9.8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic. Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement colic. Flunixin meglumine as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID was used as the only pain management treatment in 85.3% of the cases, flunixin meglumine and butorphanol as NSAID-OPIOD combination in 6.4% of the cases, while buscopan as an antispasmodic was recorded in 5.9% of the cases mainly in spasmodic colic. Univariate analysis revealed simple association between various factors and the type of colic a horse was having. There was an association between the type of colic and the decision-making on the pain management protocol to use, whether single analgesic protocol (χ2=22.5, p<0.001 or use of analgesic combinations (χ2=18.3, p<0.001. The type of colic strongly influenced the decision for performing nasogastric intubation (χ2=265, p<0.001, but performing nasogastric intubation was weakly (χ2=4.9, p=0.03 associated with horse recovery from colic. Type of colic also strongly influenced the need for the use of metabolic stimulants, particularly vitamin B-complex (χ2=99.3, p<0.001. Recovery or death of the horse from colic was

  13. Effect of corneal contact lens wear on healing time and comfort post LGK for treatment of SCCEDs in boxers. (United States)

    Wooff, Penelope J; Norman, Joanna C


    To determine whether dogs with spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs) would heal faster and with an improved comfort score following linear grid keratotomy (LGK) combined with corneal contact lens (Acrivet(™) ) wear when compared to dogs having the LGK procedure alone. Prospective study. Twenty-seven boxer dogs (27 eyes) diagnosed with a SCCEDs were enrolled in the study. A LGK was performed on all dogs under dexmedetomidine and butorphanol sedation. Fourteen eyes were randomly assigned to receive a corneal contact lens. The dogs were evaluated typically at 7, 10, and 14 days or until the ulceration was healed. Client surveys were completed by the owners to subjectively assess comfort level and contact lens retention. Statistical analyses were performed utilizing generalized linear models and survival analysis with the Wilcoxon-Gehan test to evaluate group differences. All ulcers healed after the LGK procedure. Dogs with bandage contact lenses had a statistically significant (P = 0.035) decrease in median healing time (7 days (95% CI [7,9]) compared to those without contact lenses (10 days (95% CI [7,12])). There was no difference in subjective comfort score between treatment groups. Early contact loss occurred in 28.6% (95% CI [8.4%, 58.1%]) of dogs. All of the Acrivet(™) ruler corneal measurements agreed to within 1 mm (95% CI [87.2%, 100%]) of the Jameson caliper measurements of horizontal corneal diameter. The use of corneal bandage contact lenses significantly decreased median healing time although there was no effect on subjective comfort score. The Acrivet(™) ruler measurements were accurate in determining corneal diameter and therefore contact lens size. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine in rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    Gerak, L R; France, C P


    Three rhesus monkeys discriminated between 0.178 mg/kg of nalbuphine and saline while responding under a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of stimulus-shock termination. Nalbuphine produced dose-related increases in drug-lever responding with > or = 90% of responses occurring on the drug lever at doses larger than 0.1 mg/kg. The duration of action of the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine was less than 5.25 hr. Rank order potency of compounds that substituted for the nalbuphine discriminative stimulus (i.e., > or = 90% responding on the nalbuphine lever) in all three subjects was fentanyl > butorphanol > methadone > morphine. Compounds that did not substitute completely in all monkeys included the kappa agonists ethylketocyclazocine, enadoline, spiradoline and U-50,488 and the nonopioids cocaine, d-amphetamine, clonidine, ketamine and phencyclidine. Naltrexone antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine, shifting the nalbuphine dose-effect curve in a manner that was consistent with mu receptor mediation. Results from the current study demonstrate that, in rhesus monkeys, the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine are mediated by mu opioid receptors. Although there is evidence suggesting that nalbuphine has kappa agonist effects (e.g., subjective effects in humans), results from several studies, including the current study, strongly suggest that in rhesus monkeys nalbuphine does not exert agonist actions at kappa receptors. Moreover, these data indicate that differences in behavioral effects between nalbuphine and prototypic mu opioids (e.g., morphine) probably result from differences in activity (e.g., efficacy) at mu receptors rather than any kappa agonist actions of nalbuphine.

  15. Anterior segment fluorescein angiography of the normal canine eye using a dSLR camera adaptor. (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Pirie, Christopher G; Pizzirani, Stefano


     To describe anterior segment fluorescein angiography (ASFA) of the normal canine eye using two different sedation/anesthetic protocols and a digital single lens-reflex (dSLR) camera adaptor. Dogs free of ocular and systemic disease were used for this study. Dogs received maropitant citrate (1.0 mg/kg SQ) and diphenhydramine (2.0mg/kg SQ) 20min prior to butorphanol [n = 6] (0.2 mg/kg IV) or propofol [n=6] (4 mg/kg IV bolus, 0.2 mg/kg/min CRI). Standard color and red-free images were obtained prior to administration of 10% sodium fluorescein (20 mg/kg IV). Image acquisition was performed using a dSLR camera (Canon 7D), dSLR camera adaptor, camera lens (Canon EF-S 60 mm f/2.8 macro), and an accessory flash (Canon 580EXII). Imaging occurred at a rate of 1/s immediately following bolus for a total of 30 s, then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 min.  Twelve dogs with a combined mean age of 5.1 years and various iris colors were imaged. Arterial, capillary, and venous phases were identified and time sequences recorded. Visibility of the vascular pattern was inversely related to iris pigmentation. Complete masking of blood flow was noted with heavily pigmented irises. Vessel leakage was noted in some eyes. Proper patient positioning and restricted ocular movements were critical in acquiring quality images. No adverse events were noted. This study demonstrated that quality high resolution ASFA images were obtainable using a novel dSLR camera adaptor. ASFA of the normal canine eye is limited to irises, which are moderately to poorly pigmented. Use of general anesthesia produced higher quality images and is recommended for ASFA in the dog. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Anterior segment angiography of the normal canine eye: a comparison between indocyanine green and sodium fluorescein. (United States)

    Pirie, C G; Alario, A


    The objective of this study was to assess and compare indocyanine green (IG) and sodium fluorescein (SF) angiographic findings in the normal canine anterior segment using a digital single lens reflex (dSLR) camera adaptor. Images were obtained from 10 brown-eyed Beagles, free of ocular and systemic disease. All animals received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg IM), maropitant citrate (1.0 mg/kg SC) and diphenhydramine (2.0 mg/kg SC) 20 min prior to propofol (4 mg/kg IV bolus, 0.2 mg/kg/min continuous rate infusion). Standard color imaging was performed prior to the administration of 0.25% IG (1 mg/kg IV). Imaging was performed using a full spectrum dSLR camera, dSLR camera adaptor, camera lens (Canon 60 mm f/2.8 Macro) and an accessory flash. Images were obtained at a rate of 1/s immediately following IG bolus for 30 s, then at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min. Ten minutes later, 10% SF (20 mg/kg IV) was administered. Imaging was repeated using the same adaptor system and imaging sequence protocol. Arterial, capillary and venous phases were identified during anterior segment IG angiography (ASIGA) and their time sequences were recorded. ASIGA offered improved visualization of the iris vasculature in heavily pigmented eyes compared to anterior segment SF angiography (ASSFA), since visualization of the vascular pattern during ASSFA was not possible due to pigment masking. Leakage of SF was noted in a total of six eyes. The use of IG and SF was not associated with any observed adverse events. The adaptor described here provides a cost-effective alternative to existing imaging systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of modified techniques for immobilization of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). (United States)

    Larsen, R Scott; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P


    Wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) can be anesthetized with Telazol via blow dart, but improved techniques are needed so that each lemur is reliably induced with a single dart. Medetomidine-butorphanol (MB) is a good supplemental protocol to be administered once the lemurs are captured, but other protocols may provide longer periods of sedation and immobility. One possible way of increasing the efficacy of each dart is to increase the time it is retained in the leg. In this investigation, a "double-sleeve" technique was used to try to increase the time of dart retention. This technique used a standard silicone sleeve on the needle, along with a second sleeve at the needle hub. Induction values were compared between lemurs darted with double-sleeve needles and those induced with needles that each had a single silicone sleeve. Once the lemurs were induced, supplementation with MB (0.04 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg) was compared with supplementation with ketamine-medetomidine (KM) (10 mg/ kg and 0.04 mg/kg). Twenty-three lemurs were darted with Telazol by using single-sleeve needles, and 24 were darted with double-sleeve needles. The number of darts per lemur and number of escapes were not different between animals darted with a single sleeve compared with a double-sleeve; thus, there were no significant improvements in induction success with the double-sleeve technique. Adequate sedation and muscle relaxation were achieved with both MB and KM; however, lemurs that received MB were more relaxed and needed fewer additional supplements that those that received KM. Single-sleeve dart needles are recommended for Telazol induction of ring-tailed lemurs via blow dart and MB is preferable to KM for supplemental sedation and muscle relaxation.

  18. Tremors in white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum during etorphine–azaperone immobilisation

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    Stephanie S. de Lange


    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. Therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. We studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine–azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. Repeated measures analysis of variance and a Friedman test were used to determine differences in variables over time and between interventions. Spearman and Pearson correlations were used to test for associations between variables. Tremor intensity measured objectively by activity loggers correlated well (p < 0.0001; r2 = 0.9 with visual observations. Tremor intensity was greatest when animals were severely hypoxaemic and acidaemic. Tremor intensity correlated strongly and negatively with partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 (p = 0.0003; r2 = 0.9995 and potential of hydrogen (pH (p = 0.02, r2 = 0.97. It correlated strongly and positively with adrenaline concentrations (p = 0.003; r2 = 0.96, and adrenaline correlated strongly and negatively with PaO2 (p = 0.03; r2 = 0.95 and pH (p = 0.03; r2 = 0.94. Therefore, hypoxaemia and acidaemia were likely associated with the intensity of tremors through their activation of the release of tremorgenic levels of adrenaline. Tremors can be reduced if circulating adrenaline is reduced, and this can be achieved by the administration of butorphanol plus oxygen insufflation. Furthermore, to assist with reducing the risks associated with rhinoceros immobilisation, tremor intensity could be used as a clinical indicator of respiratory and metabolic compromise.

  19. Comparaison des effets de la xylazine et de la romifidine administrées en période péri-opératoire sur le réveil de chevaux anesthésiés (United States)

    Bauquier, Sébastien H.; Kona-Boun, Jean-Jacques


    Cette étude prospective compare les effets de la xylazine et de la romifidine sur la qualité du réveil de chevaux anesthésiés. Vingt-huit chevaux sains présentés pour des arthroscopies étaient aléatoirement distribués entre 2 groupes. Le protocole anesthésique intraveineux du groupe xylazine comprenait : butorphanol (0,02 mg/kg) et xylazine (0,5–0,7 mg/kg) en prémédication, diazépam (0,1 mg/kg), kétamine (2,2 mg/kg) et isoflurane comme agents anesthésiques, et xylazine (0,1 mg/kg) comme sédatif au réveil. La xylazine était remplacée par la romifidine 0,05–0,08 mg/kg (prémédication) et 0,01 mg/kg (réveil) dans le groupe romifidine. La qualité du réveil était évaluée à l’aveugle au moyen d’une grille d’évaluation. Le test de la somme des rangs de Wilcoxon (P statistique. Les notes de la qualité du réveil n’étaient pas statiquement différentes entre les deux groupes. Dans cette étude, la romifidine et la xylazine influençaient de façon similaire la qualité du réveil. PMID:22379199

  20. Evaluation of oxygen administration with a high-flow nasal cannula to clinically normal dogs. (United States)

    Daly, Jennifer L; Guenther, Christine L; Haggerty, Jamie M; Keir, Iain


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oxygen administration by use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in sedated clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs undergoing routine dental prophylaxis. PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated with butorphanol tartrate and dexmedetomidine. An esophageal balloon catheter was inserted into the esophagus, a double-pronged nasal cannula was inserted into the nares, and a catheter was inserted into the dorsal pedal artery. Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency. After a 6-minute acclimation period, baseline blood gas values and transpulmonary pressure were measured. Dogs then received supplemental oxygen via conventional oxygen therapy (COT) at a rate of 100 mL/kg/min (COT-100 treatment) and an HFNC at a rate of 20 L/min (HF-20 treatment) and 30 L/min (HF-30 treatment). Arterial blood gas and transpulmonary pressure were measured after a 6-minute acclimation period for each oxygen delivery method. Radiographs were obtained before and after oxygen administration to evaluate gastric distension. RESULTS Median Pao2 was significantly higher for HF-20 (519.9 mm Hg) and HF-30 (538.1 mm Hg) treatments, compared with median Pao2 for the COT-100 treatment (202.9 mm Hg). The Pao2 did not differ significantly between the HF-20 and HF-30 treatments. There was no significant difference in Paco2 or change in transpulmonary pressure between baseline and any oxygen delivery method. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, HFNC appeared to be a safe and effective method for oxygen delivery to sedated healthy dogs. Further studies are needed to evaluate use of HFNCs for oxygen administration to hypoxemic patients.

  1. A scavenging double mask to reduce workplace contamination during mask induction of inhalation anesthesia in dogs

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    Säre Heli


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace contamination by the use of volatile anesthetic agents should be kept to a minimum if a potential health hazard is to be minimised. Mask induction of animals is a common procedure. The present study investigates the efficiency of a novel scavenging double mask in reducing waste gas concentrations in the breathing zone of the anesthetist performing this procedure. Methods Twelve beagle dogs (ASA I undergoing general anesthesia for a dental procedure were intravenously premedicated with medetomidine and butorphanol (10 μg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Anesthesia was induced via a custom-made scavenging mask using isoflurane in oxygen. In six dogs (group S, scavenging from the mask was performed whereas in six other dogs (group NS the scavenging function was disabled. Isoflurane concentration was continuously measured with photoacoustic spectroscopy at the level of the shoulder of the anesthetist before and during mask induction and additionally during intubation. Statistical analysis was performed with a Student t- test and a Mann-Whitney U test (p Results The mean isoflurane concentration during baseline (premedication was 1.8 ± 0.8 ppm and 2.3 ± 0.6 ppm in group S and NS respectively. This increased during mask induction to 2.0 ± 0.8 ppm and 11.2 ± 6.0 ppm respectively (p Conclusion This double mask can be used to induce inhalation anesthesia in dogs. Scavenging from the mask significantly decreases the amount of waste anaesthetic gas concentrations in the breathing zone of the anesthetist. Therefore, such a system can be recommended whenever induction or maintenance of general anesthesia by mask is considered.

  2. The effects of lactated Ringer’s solution (LRS) or LRS and 6% hetastarch on the colloid osmotic pressure, total protein and osmolality in healthy horses under general anesthesia (United States)

    Wendt-Hornickle, Erin L; Snyder, Lindsey BC; Tang, Rui; Johnson, Rebecca A


    Objective To investigate changes in colloid osmotic pressure (COP), total protein (TP) and osmolality (OSM) during anesthesia in horses given intravenous lactated Ringer’s solution (LRS) or LRS and hetastarch (HES). Study design Prospective, clinical trial. Animals Fourteen horses presented for surgery. Mean age 8.3 ± 1.9 years; mean weight 452 ± 25 kg. Methods Horses were premedicated with xylazine intravenously (IV); anesthesia was induced with ketamine and diazepam IV, and maintained with sevoflurane. Butorphanol was administered IV with pre-medications or immediately after induction. Xylazine was administered IV for recovery if necessary. LRS was administered IV to all horses with a target rate of 5–10 mL kg−1 hour−1. Half of the horses also received 6% HES, 2.5 mL kg−1 over 1 hour in addition to LRS. Horses that received LRS only were considered the LRS group. Horses that received both LRS and HES were considered the LRS/HES group. Blood was drawn pre- and post-anesthesia, immediately following induction, and every 30 minutes throughout anesthesia. COP, TP and OSM were measured. Results COP and TP significantly decreased at similar rates for both treatment groups from pre-anesthetic values. Pre-anesthetic COP was significantly greater in the LRS group when compared to the LRS/HES group pre-, post- and throughout anesthesia. In the LRS group post-anesthetic OSM was significantly different than the pre-anesthesia value and that for the LRS/HES group. Conclusions and clinical relevance Administration of IV HES (2.5 mL kg−1, over 1 hour) in combination with LRS does not attenuate the decrease in COP typically seen during anesthesia with crystalloid administration alone. Based on these results, administration of HES at this rate and total volume would not be expected to prevent fluid shifts into the interstitium through its effects on COP. PMID:21627758

  3. Effect of firocoxib or flunixin meglumine on recovery of ischemic-injured equine jejunum. (United States)

    Cook, Vanessa L; Meyer, Colleen T; Campbell, Nigel B; Blikslager, Anthony T


    To determine whether treatment of horses with firocoxib affects recovery of ischemic-injured jejunum, while providing effective analgesia. 18 horses. Horses (n = 6 horses/group) received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/50 kg, IV), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), or firocoxib (0.09 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) before 2 hours of jejunal ischemia. Horses were monitored via pain scores and received butorphanol for analgesia. After 18 hours, ischemic-injured and control mucosa were placed in Ussing chambers for measurement of transepithelial resistance and permeability to lipopolysaccharide. Histomorphometry was used to determine denuded villus surface area. Western blots for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 were performed. Plasma thromboxane B(2) and prostaglandin E(2) metabolite (PGEM) concentrations were determined. Pain scores did not significantly increase after surgery in horses receiving flunixin meglumine or firocoxib. Transepithelial resistance of ischemic-injured jejunum from horses treated with flunixin meglumine was significantly lower than in saline- or firocoxib-treated horses. Lipopolysaccharide permeability across ischemic-injured mucosa was significantly increased in horses treated with flunixin meglumine. Treatment did not affect epithelial restitution. Cyclooxygenase-1 was constitutively expressed and COX-2 was upregulated after 2 hours of ischemia. Thromboxane B(2) concentration decreased with flunixin meglumine treatment but increased with firocoxib or saline treatment. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib prevented an increase in PGEM concentration after surgery. Flunixin meglumine retarded mucosal recovery in ischemic-injured jejunum, whereas firocoxib did not. Flunixin meglumine and firocoxib were effective visceral analgesics. Firocoxib may be advantageous in horses recovering from ischemic intestinal injury.

  4. Impact of sedation method on the diagnosis of hip and elbow dysplasia in Swedish dogs. (United States)

    Malm, Sofia; Strandberg, Erling; Danell, Birgitta; Audell, Lars; Swenson, Lennart; Hedhammar, Ake


    Our objective was to investigate the effect of sedation method on the screening result for hip and elbow dysplasia. The study was based on a questionnaire survey of routines for hip and elbow screening at Swedish veterinary clinics and results of hip and elbow status, for eight breeds (Bernese Mountain Dog, Boxer, German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Newfoundland, Rottweiler, and Saint Bernard) recorded by the Swedish Kennel Club. In total 5877 and 5406 dogs examined for hip and elbow dysplasia, respectively, from January 2002 through March 2003 were included. We used logistic regression to examine whether the type of chemical restraint used for sedation affected the screening result for hip and elbow dysplasia. In addition to sedation method, the effects of veterinary clinic, sex, breed, and age at screening were studied. The type of chemical restraint used for sedation affected the screening result for hip but not for elbow dysplasia. Acepromazine gave less than half the odds of hip dysplasia compared with medetomidine and butorphanol (the most common method), medetomidine alone or xylazine. Females had about 25% higher odds for developing hip dysplasia whereas males had almost 40% higher odds for developing elbow dysplasia. Saint Bernard, Newfoundland and German Shepherd Dog had the highest odds of developing hip dysplasia, whereas Rottweiler and Labrador Retriever had the lowest odds. Boxer had the lowest risk for elbow dysplasia, followed by Labrador Retriever. Saint Bernard and Rottweiler had the highest odds of elbow dysplasia. Increasing age increased the odds of both hip and elbow dysplasia, by about 2.5% per month. Following the results in this study, recording of the type of chemical restraint used for sedation during hip screening has now become mandatory in Sweden. This makes it possible to account for the effect of sedation method in a model for prediction of breeding values for hip dysplasia.

  5. International online survey to assess current practice in equine anaesthesia. (United States)

    Wohlfender, F D; Doherr, M G; Driessen, B; Hartnack, S; Johnston, G M; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R


    Multicentre Confidential Enquiries into Perioperative Equine Fatalities (CEPEF) have not been conducted since the initial CEPEF Phases 1-3, 20 years ago. To collect data on current practice in equine anaesthesia and to recruit participants for CEPEF-4. Online questionnaire survey. An online questionnaire was prepared and the link distributed internationally to veterinarians possibly performing equine anaesthesia, using emails, posters, flyers and an editorial. The questionnaire included 52 closed, semiclosed and open questions divided into 8 subgroups: demographic data, anaesthetist, anaesthesia management (preoperative, technical equipment, monitoring, drugs, recovery), areas of improvements and risks and motivation for participation in CEPEF-4. Descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests for comparison of categorical variables were performed. A total of 199 questionnaires were completed by veterinarians from 14 different countries. Of the respondents, 43% worked in private hospitals, 36% in private practices and 21% in university teaching hospitals. In 40 institutions (23%) there was at least one diplomate of the European or American colleges of veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia on staff. Individual respondents reported routinely employ the following anaesthesia monitoring modalities: electrocardiography (80%), invasive arterial blood pressures (70%), pulse oximetry (60%), capnography (55%), arterial blood gases (47%), composition of inspired and expired gases (45%) and body temperature (35%). Drugs administered frequently or routinely as part of a standard protocol were: acepromazine (44%), xylazine (68%), butorphanol (59%), ketamine (96%), diazepam (83%), isoflurane (76%), dobutamine (46%), and, as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, phenylbutazone (73%) or flunixin meglumine (66%). Recovery was routinely assisted by 40%. The main factors perceived by the respondents to affect outcome of equine anaesthesia were the preoperative health status of the

  6. Analgesia. (United States)

    Clark, J O; Clark, T P


    Critical to reducing patient morbidity as well as heightened ethical awareness, alleviation of pain in animals has become integral to medical case management and surgical procedures. Pharmacotherapy is directed at peripheral nociceptors, primary and secondary spinal neurons, and pain-processing areas in the CNS. Accordingly, three primary pharmacologic strategies have evolved: drugs that bind to and activate opioid receptors, drugs that bind to and activate alpha 2 receptors, and drugs that reduce de novo prostaglandin synthesis. In horses, the two predominant types of pain encountered are musculoskeletal and visceral pain. Several factors must be considered when devising a therapeutic strategy, including the etiology of the painful event, desired duration of therapy (acute vs chronic), desire for sedation, and potential side effects and toxicity. Opioids and alpha 2 agonists are particularly effective for visceral pain associated with colic. Butorphanol remains the only commercially available opioid and provides superior visceral analgesia compared with pentazocine or flunixin meglumine but not compared with the alpha 2 agonists. The behavioral changes such the sedative effects of alpha 2 agonists and the increased locomotion and CNS excitability seen with some opioids are important considerations when these agents are used as analgesics. NSAIDs may be considered for visceral pain therapy also, especially pain associated with an inflammatory component or endotoxemia. In particular, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen provide prolonged analgesia and suppress the effects of endotoxin. Long-term therapy of musculoskeletal diseases usually necessitates chronic NSAID use. Although many NSAIDs are now available in approved equine formulations, there remain some important differences among NSAIDs for the practitioner to consider when choosing an analgesic. NSAIDs differ in their ability to ameliorate pyrexia, affect platelet function, alleviate pain, and reduce

  7. Alfaxalone for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing field castration: continuous infusion compared with intravenous boluses. (United States)

    Deutsch, Julia; Ekiri, Abel; de Vries, Annemarie


    To compare alfaxalone as continuous intravenous (IV) infusion with intermittent IV injections for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing castration. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A group of 33 entire male Welsh ponies undergoing field castration. After preanaesthetic medication with IV detomidine (10 μg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.05 mg kg-1), anaesthesia was induced with IV diazepam (0.05 mg kg-1) followed by alfaxalone (1 mg kg-1). After random allocation, anaesthesia was maintained with either IV alfaxalone 2 mg kg-1 hour-1 (group A; n = 16) or saline administered at equal volume (group S; n = 17). When necessary, additional alfaxalone (0.2 mg kg-1) was administered IV. Ponies were breathing room air. Using simple descriptive scales, surgical conditions and anaesthesia recovery were scored. Total amount of alfaxalone, ponies requiring additional alfaxalone and time to administration, time from induction to end of infusion and end of infusion to standing were noted. Indirect arterial blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rates, end-expiratory carbon dioxide partial pressure and arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. Data were analysed using Student t, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests, where appropriate (p < 0.05). Total amount of alfaxalone administered after induction of anaesthesia (0.75 ± 0.27 versus 0.17 ± 0.23 mg kg-1; p < 0.0001) and time to standing (14.8 ± 4 versus 11.6 ± 4 minutes; p = 0.044) were higher in group A compared to group S. Ponies requiring additional alfaxalone boluses [four (group A) versus seven (group S)] and other measured variables were similar between groups; five ponies required oxygen supplementation [three (group A) versus two (group S)]. Continuous IV infusion and intermittent administration of alfaxalone provided similar anaesthesia quality and surgical conditions in ponies undergoing field castration. Less alfaxalone is required

  8. Opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions: from the perspectives of evidence based on randomized controlled trials and clinical risk management

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    Feng XQ


    Full Text Available Xiu-qin Feng,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Quan Zhou3 1Nursing Administration Office, Division of Nursing, 2VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: Multimorbidity results in complex polypharmacy which may bear a risk of drug interactions. A better understanding of opioid analgesics combination therapy used for pain management could help warrant medication safety, efficacy, and economic relevance. Until now there has been no review summarizing the opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions from the perspective of evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Method: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library, using a PRISMA flowchart. Results: Fifty-two RCTs were included for data interpretation. Forty-two RCTs (80.8% were conducted in healthy volunteers, whereas 10 RCTs (19.2% enrolled true patients. None of the opioid–drug/herb pairs was listed as contraindications of opioids involved in this review. Circumstances in which opioid is comedicated as a precipitant drug include morphine–P2Y12 inhibitors, morphine–gabapentin, and methadone–zidovudine. Circumstances in which opioid is comedicated as an object drug include rifampin–opioids (morphine, tramadol, oxycodone, methadone, quinidine–opioids (morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, codeine, dihydrocodeine, methadone, antimycotics–opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, tilidine, tramadol, protease inhibitors–opioids (ritonavir, ritonavir/lopinavir–oxycodone, ritonavir–fentanyl, ritonavir–tilidine, grapefruit juice–opioids (oxycodone, fentanyl, methadone, antidepressants–opioids (paroxetine–tramadol, paroxetine–hydrocodone, paroxetine–oxycodone, escitalopram–tramadol, metoclopramide–morphine, amantadine–morphine, sumatriptan–butorphanol

  9. Opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions: from the perspectives of evidence based on randomized controlled trials and clinical risk management. (United States)

    Feng, Xiu-Qin; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan


    Multimorbidity results in complex polypharmacy which may bear a risk of drug interactions. A better understanding of opioid analgesics combination therapy used for pain management could help warrant medication safety, efficacy, and economic relevance. Until now there has been no review summarizing the opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions from the perspective of evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library, using a PRISMA flowchart. Fifty-two RCTs were included for data interpretation. Forty-two RCTs (80.8%) were conducted in healthy volunteers, whereas 10 RCTs (19.2%) enrolled true patients. None of the opioid-drug/herb pairs was listed as contraindications of opioids involved in this review. Circumstances in which opioid is comedicated as a precipitant drug include morphine-P2Y12 inhibitors, morphine-gabapentin, and methadone-zidovudine. Circumstances in which opioid is comedicated as an object drug include rifampin-opioids (morphine, tramadol, oxycodone, methadone), quinidine-opioids (morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, codeine, dihydrocodeine, methadone), antimycotics-opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, tilidine, tramadol), protease inhibitors-opioids (ritonavir, ritonavir/lopinavir-oxycodone, ritonavir-fentanyl, ritonavir-tilidine), grapefruit juice-opioids (oxycodone, fentanyl, methadone), antidepressants-opioids (paroxetine-tramadol, paroxetine-hydrocodone, paroxetine-oxycodone, escitalopram-tramadol), metoclopramide-morphine, amantadine-morphine, sumatriptan-butorphanol nasal sprays, ticlopidine-tramadol, St John's wort-oxycodone, macrolides/ketolides-oxycodone, and levomepromazine-codeine. RCTs investigating the same combination, almost unanimously, drew consistent conclusions, except two RCTs on amantadine-intravenous morphine combination where a different amantadine dose was used and two RCTs on morphine


    Balko, Julie A; Wilson, Sarah K; Lewbart, Gregory A; Gaines, Brian R; Posner, Lysa P


    Propofol is a novel immersion anesthetic in goldfish ( Carassius auratus ). Objectives were to characterize propofol as an anesthetic and assess its suitability in a minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) reduction model. Using a crossover design, eight goldfish were submerged in 1, 5, or 10 mg/L propofol. Data included induction time, recovery time, heart rate, opercular rate, and response to supramaximal stimulation. Baseline MAC (Dixon's up-and-down method) was determined, and 15 fish were anesthetized with propofol on 4 consecutive days with MAC determination on the fifth day, weekly, for 1 mo. Using a crossover design, MAC of propofol (n = 15) was determined 1 hr following administration of i.m. butorphanol 0.05, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, dexmedetomidine 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 mg/kg, ketoprofen 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg, morphine 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, or saline 1 ml/kg. Comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P Propofol at 1 mg/L did not produce anesthesia. Induction time with 10 mg/L (112, 84-166 s) was faster than 5 mg/L (233, 150-289 s; P = 0.0078). Heart and opercular rates for 5 and 10 mg/L were 36 (24-72) beats/min, 58 (44-68) operculations/min and 39 (20-48) beats/min, 57 (48-80) operculations/min, respectively. Recovery time was 249 (143-396) s and 299 (117-886) s with 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Response to supramaximal stimulation was not significantly different with 5 mg/L (1/8) compared with 10 mg/L (0/8). Baseline and weekly MAC following daily exposure was 8.4 and 9.0, 8.1, 8.1, and 8.7 mg/L, respectively. MAC reduction was no more than 8% following any drug or dosage. Propofol at 5 and 10 mg/L produced anesthesia, and anesthetic needs were similar following repeated exposure. Propofol was not suitable to test MAC reduction in goldfish in this study.