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Sample records for butorphanol

  1. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have any questions. You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/cder) to obtain the Medication Guide. ... butorphanol, any other medications, or benzethonium chloride (a preservative ... nasal spray. Alcohol can make the side effects of the medication worse.

  2. Bier′s block using lignocaine and butorphanol

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    Abhishek Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Opioids are most commonly used as adjuncts in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA to improve the quality of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. There is paucity of literature on the use of butorphanol in IVRA. Aims : The aim of this study was to evaluate the likely benefits of addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in Bier′s block in terms of onset and duration of sensory block and also for analgesic requirement in postoperative period. Settings and Design : A randomized double blind study was conducted at Tertiary Care Educational Institute. Patients and Methods : A total of 40 adult ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo upper limb surgery were randomized in two groups (n=20. Group I received 3 mg/kg of lignocaine alone and group II received 1 mg butorphanol in addition to 3 mg/kg lignocaine. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation were noted using the pin prick method. Duration of postoperative analgesia was noted using a visual analogue scale. All the patients were compared for the time to first rescue analgesic consumption and total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively. Statistical Analysis Used : The statistical analysis was done using unpaired Student′s t-test. Results : Our study showed significant prolongation of postoperative analgesia in group II as noted by the time to first analgesic requirement. Total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively was less in group II. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation, did not show any significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions : Addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in IVRA significantly prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and 24 hours analgesic consumption is less in patients receiving butorphanol along with lignocaine in IVRA. However, there is no effect on sensory block onset time and time to recovery

  3. Butorphanol suppresses fentanyl-induced cough during general anesthesia induction

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    Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Lun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) is unwanted in the patients requiring stable induction of general anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of butorphanol pretreatment on the incidence and severity of FIC during the induction of general anesthesia. A total of 315 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 equally sized groups (n = 0105). Two minutes before fentanyl bolus, group I received intravenously 5 mL normal saline, groups II and III received butorphanol 0.015 and 0.03 mg/kg (diluted with saline to 5 mL), respectively. Patients were then administrated with fentanyl 2.5 μg/kg within 5 s. The incidence and severity of FIC was recorded for 2 minutes after fentanyl bolus. During experimental period, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded before the administration of butorphanol or normal saline (T0), 2 minutes (T1) after butorphanol injection, and 2 minutes (T2) after fentanyl injection. The incidence of FIC was 31.4% in group I, 11.4% in group II, and 3.8% in group III. Group III had a lowest incidence of FIC among 3 groups (P < 0.001, vs group I; P < 0.05, vs group II). The severe FIC was not observed in groups II and III, but was recoded from 6 patients in group I. At 2 minutes after fentanyl injection (T2), the mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in group I than that in groups II and III (P < 0.01, vs group II; P < 0.05, vs group III), but the values remained within safe limits. In conclusion, pretreatment with butorphanol could effectively and safely suppress FIC during anesthesia induction. PMID:27367987

  4. Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

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    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Martin, Laura; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009. Eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. Body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart (sample 1 mean collection time after darting, 9.4 +/- 2.7 min; sample 2 mean collection time, 18.6 +/- 2.8 min). A significant number of field-captured rhinoceros remained standing at the first sample period when butorphanol was administered in the dart. Higher median values for arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in combination with lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in standing versus recumbent rhinoceros suggested improved ventilation in this posture (P < 0.05). When the effect of time, body position, and age was controlled, median values for respiratory rate, lactate, and pH were better in rhinoceros that received butorphanol in the dart (P < 0.05). There was also a trend toward higher median values for SO2 and bicarbonate in rhinoceros receiving butorphanol in the dart. Intravenous administration of butorphanol resulted in significantly decreased median PaCO2 and heart rate in recumbent rhinoceros (P < 0.05) without changes in PaO2 between sample periods 1 and 2. However, rhinoceros remained hypoxemic during the short anesthetic procedure despite butorphanol administration. Preliminary results suggest that administration of butorphanol (either in the dart or intravenously) improves some metabolic parameters in free-ranging recumbent white rhinoceros without significantly affecting ventilation. It is hypothesized that this may be due to a lighter state of immobilization. Addition of butorphanol to the dart provides handling and physiologic

  5. Combining isoflurane anesthesia with midazolam and butorphanol in rats.

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    Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Uchida, Kaho; Maesato, Shizuka; Sato, Reiichiro; Kanai, Eiichi; Inomata, Tomo

    2016-07-29

    Representative inhalant anesthetic agent, isoflurane is commonly used during surgery in rats. However, isoflurane mediates relatively strong respiratory depression. In human and veterinary medicine, sedatives and analgesics are co-administered to complement the anesthetic action of inhalant anesthesia. The present study aimed to establish the novel balanced anesthesia that combines midazolam and butorphanol with isoflurane (MBI) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups, and administered either isoflurane monoanesthesia or isoflurane with midazolam (2.5 mg/kg, ip) and butorphanol (2.0 mg/kg, ip). The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in each group was evaluated. Induction and recovery times were measured in each group. Adverse reactions during induction were also recorded. In each group, vital signs were assessed for 1 h under 1.5×MAC of isoflurane. Instability of vital signs was assessed under each anesthesia by calculating coefficient of variance. Compared with isoflurane monoanesthesia, MBI anesthesia caused 32% MAC reduction (isoflurane monoanesthesia: 1.30 ± 0.09%, MBI 0.87 ± 0.08%, PMBI anesthesia resulted in a relatively stable respiratory rate without decreases in SPO2 during the anesthetic period. In summary, MB premedication is effective for attenuating respiratory depression induced by isoflurane, and achieving smooth induction. This anesthetic protocol serves as a novel option for appropriate anesthesia in rats. PMID:26876437

  6. Abolished thermal and mechanical antinociception but retained visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Ishihara, Kumatoshi; Uhl, George R; Satoh, Masamichi; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2008-01-01

    Butorphanol is hypothesized to induce analgesia via opioid pathways, although the precise mechanisms for its effects remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) in thermal, mechanical, and visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol using MOP knockout (KO) mice. Butorphanol-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice com...

  7. Combination of Midazolam and Butorphanol for Sedation for Tympanoplasty under Monitored Anaesthesia Care

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    Vinay Dhakate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tympanoplasty is routinely done under local anaesthesia with sedation due to various advantages. Systemic analgesics and sedatives are generally given to improve the patient comfort. Aim & Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of combination of midazolam and butorphanol for sedation and to assess the sedation technique using midazolam and butorphanol for tympanoplasty under monitored anaesthesia care. Material and Methods: One hundred patients scheduled for tympanoplasty under local anaesthesia were given bolus doses of intravenous midazolam 0.03 mg/kg and butorphanol 0.03 mg/kg followed by midazolam infusion at 0.01 mg/kg/hr. If required, additional bolus doses of 0.01 mg/kg of both midazolam and butorphanol were given to achieve desired sedation and analgesia. The total dosage of midazolam and butorphanol, vital parameters, sedation score using Ramsay sedation score, pain score and surgeon satisfaction score using Numeric rating scale were recorded. Results: Ninety nine patients underwent tympanoplasty satisfactorily with sedation technique. Only one patient needed conversion to general anaesthesia. The mean duration of surgery was 92.7±8.16 minutes. The total midazolam and butorphanol dosages were 2.45±0.233 mg and 1.65±0.179 mg respectively. The desired Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS of 3 and pain score Numerical Rating Scale (NRS = 2.82±0.72 were achieved within 4-8 minutes. No side effects of excessive sedation were observed. Conclusion: Combined use of midazolam and butorphanol in low doses produces adequate sedation for tympanoplasty under local anaesthesia without serious adverse effects.

  8. Comparative evaluation of midazolam and butorphanol as oral premedication in pediatric patients

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    Chandni Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg with oral butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg as a premedication in 60 pediatric patients with regards to sedation, anxiolysis, rescue analgesic requirement, and recovery profile. Materials and Methods: In a double blinded study design, 60 pediatric patients belonging to ASA class I and II between the age group of 2-12 years scheduled for elective surgery were randomized to receive either oral midazolam (group I or oral butorphanol (group II 30 min before induction of anesthesia. The children were evaluated for levels of sedation and anxiety at the time of separation from the parents, venepuncture, and at the time of facemask application for induction of anesthesia. Rescue analgesic requirement, postoperative recovery, and complications were also recorded. Results: Butorphanol had better sedation potential than oral midazolam with comparable anxiolysis at the time of separation of children from their parents. Midazolam proved to be a better anxiolytic during venepuncture and facemask application. Butorphanol reduced need for supplemental analgesics perioperatively without an increase in side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or unpleasant postoperative recovery. Conclusion: Oral butorphanol is a better premedication than midazolam in children in view of its excellent sedative and analgesic properties. It does not increase side effects significantly.

  9. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

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    Morgan Karin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET, during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg. Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-aO2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  10. Efficacy and safety of transnasal butorphanol for pain relief after anal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Ming Mai; Liang-Tsai Wan; Yu-Ching Chou; Hsiang-Yu Yang; Chang-Chieh Wu; Shu-Wen Jao; Cheng-Wen Hsiao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare the analgesic properties and efficacy of transnasal butorphanol with intramuscular meperidine after anal surgery. METHODS: Sixty patients who underwent fistulectomy were enrolled in the study from January 2006 to December 2007. They were randomly divided into transnasal butorphanol ( n = 30) or intramuscular meperidine ( n = 30) treatment groups. Assessment of postoperative pain was made using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The VAS score was recorded 6 h after the completion of surgery, before receiving the first dose of analgesic, 60 min after analgesia and the next morning. Any adverse clinical effects such as somnolence, dizziness, nausea or vomiting were recorded. Satisfaction with narcotic efficacy, desire to use the particular analgesic in the future and any complaints were recorded by patients using questionnaires before being discharged. RESULTS: Forty-two men and eighteen women were included in the study. There were no significant differences in VAS scores between the groups within 24 h. Length of hospital stay and the incidence of adverse effects between the groups were similar. In addition, most patients were satisfied with butorphanol nasal spray and wished to receive this analgesic in the future, if needed. CONCLUSION: Butorphanol nasal spray is effective for the relief of pain after fistulectomy. However, it offered patients more convenient usage and would be suitable for outpatients.

  11. Efficacy of tramadol and butorphanol pretreatment in reducing pain on propofol injection: A placebo-controlled randomized study

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    Arvinderpal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Pretreatment with both butorphanol and tramadol significantly reduced pain on propofol injection; however, they exhibited comparable efficacy among each other. Thus, either of these two drugs can be considered for pretreatment to reduce propofol injection pain.

  12. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

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    V. Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  13. Comparative study of epidural bupivacaine with butorphanol and bupivacaine with tramadol for postoperative pain relief in abdominal surgeries

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    Swathi, N.; Ashwini, N.; Shukla, Mukesh I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To compare the efficacy of combination of epidural local anesthetic with tramadol and butorphanol in major abdominal surgeries. Aims: To evaluate duration of analgesia, analgesic efficacy, and safety profile of two groups of drugs-epidural butorphanol with bupivacaine and epidural tramadol with bupivacaine. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled, double-blinded study was undertaken in 50 patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries. Group B received epidural butorphanol 2 mg + bupivacaine 0.125% first dose and subsequent doses, butorphanol 1 mg + bupivacaine 0.125% (total volume 10 ml). Group T received epidural tramadol 2 mg/kg + bupivacaine 0.125% first dose and subsequent doses, tramadol 1 mg/kg + bupivacaine 0.125% (total volume 10 ml). Observed parameters were the quality of analgesia, sedation, and hemodynamic parameters in the intra and post-operative period. Time for request of rescue analgesia was noted in all the patients. Continuous data are analyzed by Student's t-test using IBM SPSS software version 20. P ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. P ≤ 0.001 was considered to be statistically highly significant. Results: Visual analog scale better with butorphanol group than tramadol (0.12 ± 0.332 and 0.84 ± 0.746 for Group B and Group T) at 30 min after first dose. Onset of action (8.44 ± 1.158 min in Group B and 12.80 ± 1.354 min in Group T) faster with butorphanol but duration of analgesia longer with tramadol (5.92 ± 0.76 h in Group B vs. 7.68 ± 0.76 h in Group T). Sedation was seen in patients with butorphanol group. Nausea and vomiting more frequent with tramadol group. Conclusions: Epidural tramadol with antiemetic is better than butorphanol for its longer duration in ambulatory surgery, elderly patients, obese patients, and suitable high-risk patients. PMID:27746533

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the spinal dorsal horn of a rat model of formalin-induced inflammatory pain following intrathecal injection of butorphanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yichun Wang; Yuan Zhang; Qulian Guo; Xiaohong Liu; Mingde Wang; Hui Luo

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and animal experiments have proved that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect. However, whether the analgesic effect is associated with activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor remains unclear. This study presumed that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has an analgesic effect on formalin-induced inflammatory pain in rats, and its analgesic effect is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptors. Concurrently, ketamine was injected into the intrathecal space, which is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, to determine the analgesic mechanism of butorphanol. The total reflection time in phase 1 and phase 2 of rat hind paws carding action was reduced when the butorphanol dose was increased to 25 μg,or a low dose of butorphanol was combined with ketamine. Intrathecal injection of a high dose of butorphanol alone or a Iow dose of butorphanol combined with ketamine can remarkably reduce NMDA receptor expression in the L5 spinal dorsal horn of formalin-induced pain rats. The results suggest that intrathecal injection of butorphanol has analgesic effects on formalin-induced inflammatory pain, and remarkably reduces NMDA receptor expression in the rat spinal dorsal horn.Ketamine strengthens this analgesic effect. The analgesic mechanism of intrathecal injection of butorphanol is associated with inhibition of NMDA receptor activation.

  15. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

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    Bhanu Partap Singh Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg, butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg, guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg, and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a significant increase in ALT values during anaesthesia. The values returned to normal during recovery ruling out any renal or hepatic toxicity. Occasionally, negative T wave, notched P wave, and sinus block were noticed. It is recommended that the anaesthetic combinations xylazine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine can be safely used for short-term total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA in equines under field conditions.

  16. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan Karin; Funkquist Pia; Edner Anna; Marntell Stina; Nyman Görel; Hedenstierna Göran

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecuti...

  17. Sedative effects of dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-pethidine and dexmedetomidine-butorphanol in cats.

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    Nagore, L; Soler, C; Gil, L; Serra, I; Soler, G; Redondo, J I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine, both alone and combined with pethidine or butorphanol, in cats. A prospective randomized blind study was performed. Thirty cats were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 animals: D: dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg IM); DP: dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg IM) and pethidine (2.5 mg/kg IM); DB: dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg IM). Quality of sedation, analgesia, muscle relaxation and the possibility of performing some clinical procedures were compared using a multifactorial scale. Sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation increased progressively over time and did not differ in the three protocols. The three protocols facilitated the completion of several clinical procedures. The clinical variables studied showed a similar behaviour in the three protocols and remained close to the baseline, except for a drop in heart rate in protocol D. In conclusion, dexmedetomidine, either alone or combined with pethidine or butorphanol, offers suitable sedation, analgesia and relaxation to perform various clinical procedures in cats. PMID:22607033

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Xylazine-Butorphanol-Guaifenesin-Ketamine as Short-Term TIVA in Equines

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Partap Singh Thakur; Sandeep Kumar Sharma; Arvind Sharma; Adarsh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg), guaifenesin 5% (20 mg/kg), and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg) combinations were able to induce short-term surgical anaesthesia for 23.33 ± 2.57 min in Spiti ponies with excellent to good muscle relaxation and analgesia. Urination and neighing was a constant feature during recovery period. Biphasic P wave, biphasic T wave, and depressed PR segment were common electrocardiographic findings. Biochemical attributes were within physiological limits except a si...

  19. A prospective multi-centre clinical trial to compare buprenorphine and butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in cats.

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    Taylor, Polly M; Kirby, Jonathan J; Robinson, Clare; Watkins, Elizabeth A; Clarke, David D; Ford, Marion A; Church, Karen E

    2010-04-01

    One hundred and fifty-three cats undergoing surgery in seven veterinary practices in Great Britain were studied. They were randomly allocated to receive either 10-20 microg/kg buprenorphine or 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol with acepromazine before anaesthesia with propofol, Saffan or thiopentone and isoflurane or halothane. Routine monitoring was undertaken. Pain and sedation were assessed blind using a four point (0-3) simple descriptive scale (SDS) at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h. Pain and sedation data were compared using non-parametric statistical tests and continuous data using t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Anaesthesia and surgery were uneventful, and cardiorespiratory data were within normal limits. After surgery, overall, more cats had pain score 0 after buprenorphine and more had pain score 3 after butorphanol (P=0.0465). At individual time points, more cats had lower pain scores after buprenorphine at 2 (P=0.040) and 24 (P=0.036)h. At 24h 83% after buprenorphine and 63% after butorphanol had pain score 0 (P<0.04). Buprenorphine provided better and longer lasting postoperative analgesia than butorphanol. PMID:19836984

  20. Alfaxalone-butorphanol versus alfaxalone-morphine combination for immersion anaesthesia in oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

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    Adami, Chiara; d'Ovidio, Dario; Casoni, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) are small semi-aquatic anuran species popular as both pets and laboratory animals. Although they are commonly anaesthetized to undergo clinical and experimental procedures, very little is known about their anaesthetic management. The aims of this prospective, randomized, cross-over experimental trial were to establish effective butorphanol and morphine concentrations to be added to alfaxalone for immersion anaesthesia (pilot study), and to compare the anaesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the two drug mixtures (alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine), in Bombina orientalis toads. For the actual trial, the toads were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: AB and AM, with seven animals in each group, which received alfaxalone-butorphanol and alfaxalone-morphine combinations, respectively, at the concentrations established during the pilot study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, von Frey filament threshold and response to nociceptive withdrawal (NWR), righting and myotactic reflexes were measured at 5 min intervals until return of righting reflex was observed. The investigator who carried out all the measurements was blinded to the treatment. Any undesired effect or complication was noted and recorded. The two treatments were found to be comparable in terms of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and occurrence of undesired effects. However, group AM resulted in lower NWR scores and higher von Frey filament thresholds than group AB. It is concluded that, at the investigated concentrations and in combination with alfaxalone by immersion, morphine provides better antinociception than butorphanol in oriental fire-bellied toads.

  1. Comparison of epidural butorphanol and fentanyl as adjuvants in the lower abdominal surgery: A randomized clinical study

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    Jasleen Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidural opioids acting through the spinal cord receptors improve the quality and duration of analgesia along with dose-sparing effect with the local anesthetics. The present study compared the efficacy and safety profile of epidurally administered butorphanol and fentanyl combined with bupivacaine (B. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 adult patients of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status I and II, aged 20-60 years, undergoing lower abdominal under epidural anesthesia were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomly divided into three groups of 25 each: B, bupivacaine and butorphanol (BB and bupivacaine + fentanyl (BF. B (0.5% 20 ml was administered epidurally in all the three groups with the addition of 1 mg butorphanol in BB group and 100 μg fentanyl in the BF group. The hemodynamic parameters as well as various block characteristics including onset, completion, level and duration of sensory analgesia as well as onset, completion and regression of motor block were observed and compared. Adverse events and post-operative visual analgesia scale scores were also noted and compared. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with post-hoc significance, Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test. Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.001 as highly significant. Results: The demographic profile of patients was comparable in all the three groups. Onset and completion of sensory analgesia was earliest in BF group, followed by BB and B group. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in BB group followed by BF as compared with group B. Addition of butorphanol and fentanyl to B had no effect on the time of onset, completion and regression of motor block. No serious cardio-respiratory side effects were observed in any group. Conclusions: Butorphanol and fentanyl as epidural adjuvants are equally safe and provide comparable stable hemodynamics, early onset and establishment of sensory

  2. Clinical evaluation of detomidine-butorphanol-guaifenesin-ketamine as short term TIVA in Spiti ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, B P S; Sharma, S K; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Adarsh

    2011-06-01

    Veterinarians working under remote field conditions are routinely presented with variety of surgical interventions in equines like castrations, management of wound, traumatic and congenital hernias and musculoskeletal disorders thus necessitating the use of general anaesthesia for management of these conditions. The present study was carried out to evaluate and recommend the suitable short term anaesthetic technique for Spiti ponies under field conditions. Seven clinically healthy male Spiti ponies presented for castration were evaluated for short term Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) using detomidine (0.02 mg kg(-1)), butorphanol (0.01 mg kg(-1)), 5% guaifenesin (20 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.0 mg kg(-1)). The studies conducted were open label trials and all the animals received same treatment. After proper tetanus prophylaxis and preanesthetic fasting, detomidine was administered intravenously. Subsequently at head down position the animals received butorphanol intravenously. Thereafter, guaifenesin was administered intravenously. As soon as the signs of ataxia developed, the induction of surgical anaesthesia was achieved by intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride. The onset of sedation was observed in 2.43 +/- 0.53 min following detomidine administration and the animals were ataxic in 1.43 +/- 0.43 min after butorphanol and guaifenesin administration when ketamine was injected. The ponies were in surgical plane of anaesthesia within 2.28 +/- 0.42 min following ketamine administration. During recovery the limb/head movement and sternal recumbency were attained in 18.71 +/- 1.98 and 26.14 +/- 1.62 min, respectively whereas standing ataxia and normal gait were seen at 29.42 +/- 3.21 and 71.14 +/- 4.74 min, respectively. There was excellent to good muscle relaxation. The surgical anaesthesia remained for 22.57 +/- 1.48 min. The recovery was smooth. Moderate to good suppression of palpebral and corneal reflexes were observed immediately after

  3. Dose sparing of induction dose of propofol by fentanyl and butorphanol: A comparison based on entropy analysis

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    Jasleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The induction dose of propofol is reduced with concomitant use of opioids as a result of a possible synergistic action. Aim and Objectives: The present study compared the effect of fentanyl and two doses of butorphanol pre-treatment on the induction dose of propofol, with specific emphasis on entropy. Methods: Three groups of 40 patients each, of the American Society of Anaesthesiologistsphysical status I and II, were randomized to receive fentanyl 2 μg/kg (Group F, butorphanol 20 μg/kg (Group B 20 or 40 μg/kg (Group B 40 as pre-treatment. Five minutes later, the degree of sedation was assessed by the observer′s assessment of alertness scale (OAA/S. Induction of anesthesia was done with propofol (30 mg/10 s till the loss of response to verbal commands. Thereafter, rocuronium 1 mg/kg was administered and endotracheal intubation was performed 2 min later. OAA/S, propofol induction dose, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and entropy (response and state were compared in the three groups. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA test with posthoc significance, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and Fischer exact test. A P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The induction dose of propofol (mg/kg was observed to be 1.1±0.50 in Group F, 1.05±0.35 in Group B 20 and 1.18±0.41 in Group B40. Induction with propofol occurred at higher entropy values on pre-treatment with both fentanyl as well as butorphanol. Hemodynamic variables were comparable in all the three groups. Conclusion: Butorphanol 20 μg/kg and 40 μg/kg reduce the induction requirement of propofol, comparable to that of fentanyl 2 μg/kg, and confer hemodynamic stability at induction and intubation.

  4. Butorphanol suppresses fentanyl-induced cough during general anesthesia induction: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Lun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) is unwanted in the patients requiring stable induction of general anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of butorphanol pretreatment on the incidence and severity of FIC during the induction of general anesthesia. A total of 315 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 equally sized groups (n = 0105). Two minutes before fentanyl bolus, group I received intravenously 5 mL normal saline, groups II and III received butorphanol 0.015 and 0.03 mg/kg (diluted with saline to 5 mL), respectively. Patients were then administrated with fentanyl 2.5 μg/kg within 5 s. The incidence and severity of FIC was recorded for 2 minutes after fentanyl bolus. During experimental period, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded before the administration of butorphanol or normal saline (T0), 2 minutes (T1) after butorphanol injection, and 2 minutes (T2) after fentanyl injection. The incidence of FIC was 31.4% in group I, 11.4% in group II, and 3.8% in group III. Group III had a lowest incidence of FIC among 3 groups (P < 0.001, vs group I; P < 0.05, vs group II). The severe FIC was not observed in groups II and III, but was recoded from 6 patients in group I. At 2 minutes after fentanyl injection (T2), the mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in group I than that in groups II and III (P < 0.01, vs group II; P < 0.05, vs group III), but the values remained within safe limits. In conclusion, pretreatment with butorphanol could effectively and safely suppress FIC during anesthesia induction. PMID:27367987

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUPIVACAINE AND FENTANYL V/s BUPIVACAINE AND BUTORPHANOL IN LABOUR ANALGESIA BY EPIDURAL TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarjuna Reddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain is a subjective experience with sensory and emotional components that are inextricably linked to each other. P ain during labour is very intense for many mothers. Severe labour pains may adversely affect both mother and fetus. Variety of regional anal gesia techniques are available, Of all these techniques epidural analgesia using local anaesthetics and opiates has gained popularity as a safe and effective technique of pain relief largely replacing other modalities. AIM: The present study was undertaken to compare bupivacaine and fentanyl with a combination of bupivacaine and butorphanol by intermittent bolus epidural technique in relieving pain during labour. DESIGN: Randomized control study . METHODS: A total number of 100 parturients studied were divid ed into two groups randomly. Group - 1: received a combination of Bupivacaine and Fentanyl. The initial bolus dose was 0.1% Bupivacaine 10ml with 2mcg/ml [20mcg] of Fentanyl and top up doses were 0.1% Bupivacaine with Fentanyl 2mcg/ml [10ml]. Group - 2: This G roup received a combination of Bupivacaine and Butorphanol. The initial bolus dose was 0.1% Bupivacaine 10ml with 0.01% of Butorphanol [1mg] and top up doses were with 0.1% Bupivacaine [10ml]. Maternal blood pressure, pulse rate, fetal heart rate were moni tored every 1 - 2 min for first 10 min and then every 5 - 10 min for subsequent 30 min and later every half an hour. Time of onset of analgesia, level of sensory blockade and motor blockade, if any was noted. VISUAL ANALOGUE PAIN SCALE [VAPS] assessed pain a t different time intervals. The sedation was assessed by WILSON GRADING, BROMAGE SCALE assessed the motor blockade. RESULTS: The onsets of analgesia were quicker in group - 1 parturients who received 0.1% bupivacaine with 0.0002% fentanyl. The duration of anal gesia with the 1st dose was significantly more in the group - 2 also the requirement of top up doses was also less in group - 2 and also the quality in group

  6. Preemptive analgesia with butorphanol in psychotic patients following modified electroconvulsive therapy A randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingxi Wu; Handong Zou; Qingshan Zhou; Zhongchun Liu; Bangchang Cheng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preemptive analgesia involves introducing an analgesic prior to the onset of pain stimulation to prevent sensitizing the nervous system to subsequent stimuli that could amplify pain. OBJECTIVE: To treat psychiatric patients with intravenous (i.v.) injection of butorphanol prior to modified electroconvulsive therapy, and to observe its effect on alleviating myalgia after treatment and adverse reactions. DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation. SETTING: Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 120 psychiatric patients, who accepted modified electroconvulsive therapy, were selected from the Mental Health Center of Wuhan University from June to September in 2006. All patients corresponded to the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders, and those with diseases of heart, liver, lung and kidney, glaucoma, intracranial hypertension, hyperthyreosis, and hyperkalemia were excluded. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (n = 60) and treatment group (n = 60). In the control group, there were 42 males and 18 females, aged 17–50 years, with a mean age of (34 ± 11) years. The patients weighed 50–70 kg, with a mean body mass of (63 ± 18) kg. In the treatment group, there were 40 males and 20 females, aged 20–54 years, with a mean age of (36 ± 13) years. The patients weighed 48–72 kg, with a mean body mass of (64 ± 16) kg. Approval was obtained from the Hospital's Ethics Committee. Informed consents were obtained from the patients' relatives. A SPECTRUM5000Q multifunctional mobile electroconvulsive therapy apparatus (CORPERATION, USA) was used.METHODS: ① Treatments: In the control group, the patients were anesthetized by I.v. Injection of propofol (AstraZeneca, Italy, No.CN309) containing 0.075% efedrina, and then modified electroconvulsive therapy was performed. Circulation, respiration, and firing of brain electrical activity were continuously monitored. In the treatment group, the

  7. Comparison of butorphanol and fentanyl for balanced anaesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries under general anaesthesia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Laparoscopic surgeries have advantages like shorter stay and rapid return to normal activities because of small incision and less pain. Pain is an unpleasant sensation in the post-operative period. Methods: Fifty patients of American society Anesthesiologists (ASA grade I and II, scheduled to undergo laparoscopic surgery, were randomized into butorphanol group (Group B (n=25 and fentanyl group (Group F (n=25. Four minutes before induction of anesthesia, Group B received inj. butorphanol 40 µg/Kg intravenously while Group F received Inj. fentanyl 2 µg/kg intravenously. All patients received general anaesthesia with controlled ventilation. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2, and oxygen saturation were monitored at different intervals. Results: The demographic data was comparable in both groups (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the two groups in pulse rate after 12 minutes after intubation that persisted till the 2nd hour of post-operative period. There was no significant difference in DBP till 9 min after intubation, and then onwards significant changes were noted till 4th hour of post-operative period. Butorphanol provided prolonged analgesia when compared to fentanyl. Conclusions: We conclude that butorphanol is a better alternative to fentanyl for use as analgesic in laparoscopic surgeries because of its ability to produce prolonged analgesia, and less post-operative complications.

  8. Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract examination in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether acepromazine (ACE) and butorphanol (BUT) combination can be used for restraint of dogs during positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) examination. 6 healthy dogs. In a randomized crossover design study, weekly UGIT examinations were performed on each dog for 5 weeks after administration of normal saline solution (0.5 ml), xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or a combination of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) and 1 of 3 doses of BUT (0.05, 0.2, 1.0 mg/kg). Gastrointestinal tract emptying time, GI motility, pulse, respiratory rate, and quality of restraint were assessed. Total gastric emptying time was significantly prolonged by use of an ACE and BUT (0.05 mg/kg) combination. Xylazine and higher dosages of BUT significantly prolonged gastric and intestinal emptying times. All anesthetic protocols significantly decreased motility and facilitated nonmanual restraint. Xylazine and BUT (1.0 mg/kg) significantly decreased pulse and respiratory rate. The ACE and BUT combination prolonged GI tract emptying times, decreased GI motility, and facilitated nonmanual restraint for duration of the examination. Although GI motility was decreased and total gastric emptying time was prolonged, administration of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) plus BUT (0.05 mg/kg) allowed morphologic examination of the GI tract within 5 hours. Xylazine prolonged GI tract emptying, decreased GI motility, and provided good to excellent initial restraint. Clinical Relevance-The ACE and BUT combination prohibits functional examination of the GI tract; however, morphologic examination is possible when low dosages of BUT (0.05 mg/kg) are used

  9. Effect of the analgesic butorphanol on activity behaviour in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwalder, T; Huber-Eicher, B

    2005-12-01

    During fattening, the bodyweight of modern broad-breasted turkeys increases considerably within a very short space of time. In particular, the breast muscles increase disproportionately. This leads to a disadvantageous distribution in weight, and as a consequence, to a disturbed leg position and skeletal deformations like antitrochanteric degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, bending, twisting and rotation of the tibia, osteochondrosis, osteomyelitis, rickets, and epiphyseolysis of the femoral head increases. This cases of degenerative joint disease cause severe pain in humans and there are indications that this is also true for turkeys. The purpose of this study was to determine if behaviour indicative of such pain in turkeys of the B.U.T. Big 6 breeding line could be attenuated by administering a quick-acting analgesic, butorphanol. Twelve pairs of turkeys were tested at the ages of 7 and 12 weeks. One bird in each pair received an analgesic opioid injection, while the other one received a control injection of physiologically balanced saline solution. The time the birds spent putting weight on their legs, i.e., 'walking' and 'standing' and the distance covered by the birds were recorded during the 30 min periods before and after the application of the drug. At week seven the treated birds spent significantly more time putting weight on their legs than control birds. At week 12, the same tendency was observed. No significant differences were found in the distances covered by the animals. It is concluded that fattening turkeys reduce the time they are putting weight on their legs because these behaviours may be associated with pain.

  10. Sedative, hematologic and hemostatic effects of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol alone or in combination with ketamine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Julieta; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Beier, Suzane Lilian; Coelho, Mirelly Medeiros; Tocheto, Ronise; Kirsten, Cristine Elizabeth; Yonezawa, Letícia Andreza; Saito, Mere Erika

    2015-06-01

    Acute stress induced by physical restraint can interfere with the validity of laboratory findings. Sedation could minimize such stress. However, it is not known whether sedation can affect hematologic and hemostatic parameters in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hematologic and hemostatic parameters in domestic cats subjected to physical restraint in addition to one of two sedation protocols. In total, 50 cats were subjected to physical restraint and were then randomly divided into two groups of 25 animals, receiving dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) and butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg; DB group) or dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg), butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg; DBK group). The cats were assessed for acute stress, sedation level, onset of sedation and duration of sedation. Blood samples were collected after handling and after sedation. The complete blood count (CBC), platelet count, buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT), whole-blood clotting time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) were determined for each sample, before and after chemical restraint. No statistically significant differences were found in the hematologic parameters. Certain hemostatic parameters (PT, aPTT and TT) were higher in the DB group (P cats, and no clinically relevant effects on hematologic or hemostatic parameters were detected. PMID:25216730

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EPIDURAL BUTORPHANOL AND EPIDURAL FENTANYL FOR THE RELIEF OF POST-OPERATIVE PAIN IN LOWER ABDOMINAL AND LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

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    Ashwini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidural anaesthesia is used extensively for both intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. This prospective randomized study was conducted using opioids epidurally for post-operative analgesia. Fentanyl is a pure opioid agonist. Butorphanol tartarate which is an agonist antagonist opioid is considered safer than pure opioid agonist. Hence, we compared epidural 4mg butorphanol and epidural 100 µg fentanyl for the relief of post-operative pain. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the onset, duration, quality of analgesia, hemodynamic effects and side effects between the 2 study drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 60 patients of either sex posted for elective lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each. Group A received butorphanol 4mg epidurally. Group B received fentanyl 100 µg epidurally. All surgeries were done under lumbar epidural anaesthesia with catheter in situ. Post-operatively when patients complained of pain, intensity of pain was assessed using visual analogue scale [VAS]. When the VAS score was > 5, Group A received butorphanol 4mg diluted to 10 ml with NS or Group B received 100 µg fentanyl epidurally diluted to 10 ml with NS. Onset, duration, quality of analgesia, hemodynamic effects and incidence of side effects were compared between the two groups and treated accordingly. RESULTS: Demographic profile was comparable in both groups. Mean time of onset of analgesia was rapid (3.22 ±0.9 (S.D min in group B compared to group A (6.38± 1.26 (S.D min. Duration of analgesia was longer in group A (344.00 ±63.39 min compared to group B (227±38.12 min. Quality of analgesia was better with group A compared to group B. There was no significant difference in hemodynamic parameters in both groups. Sedation was the main side effect in group A. Incidence of pruritis, vomiting, hypotension and respiratory depression was more in group B. CONCLUSION: Epidural Butorphanol though has a delayed

  12. Racemic ketamine in comparison to S-ketamine in combination with azaperone and butorphanol for castration of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R; Stauffer, S; Hässig, M; Flaherty, D; Ringer, S K

    2013-12-01

    In this prospective blinded randomised study, 28 male 9 week old pigs of bodyweight 25 kg, were anaesthetised for castration using 5 mg/kg azaperone, 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol and 0.4 mg/kg meloxicam, in conjunction with either 15 mg/kg racemic ketamine (Keta-Race) or 9 mg/kg S-ketamine (S-Keta), all drugs being injected intramuscularly. Anaesthesia induction, maintenance and recovery were timed and scored. Insufficient anaesthesia was supplemented with ¼ the initial dose of ketamine or S-ketamine, respectively, administered intravenously. A t-test was utilised for analysis of timings, and, for repeated recovery time data, ANOVA was used. In relation to quantification and timing of supplemental drug doses, a chi square test was used and the scoring was analysed by two sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Ketamine re-dosing was required in 23 animals on a total of 46 occasions distributed evenly throughout both groups. The only group differences occurred during recovery, with the S-Keta group showing earlier movements, sternal recumbency and ability to stand. Three pigs in each group showed muscle fasciculations during the recovery period, while an additional two animals of the Keta-Race group exhibited marked and unacceptable paddling in recovery. In conclusion, S-ketamine at a dose rate of 60 % of that of racemic ketamine induced comparable anaesthesia for castration in pigs, but with superior recovery characteristics.

  13. Absolute quantification of swine brain glutamate compounds concentration using MR spectroscopy and LCModel after nasal spraying butorphanol tartrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the central nervous system (CNS) analgesics affect the metabolites of swine brain by nasal spraying. Methods: Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed on 9 swine. The data were post-processed using LCModel software. Results: Before nasal spraying butorphanol tartrate, the mean Glutamate compounds (Glxs) concentration was (9.276±0.542) mmol/kg. After nasal spraying, the mean Glx concentration was (7.283±0.540) mmol/kg. Using paired sample t-test we found that swine brain ax level was significantly decreased after using nasal spray analgesic (t=2.826, P=0.022). However, there were no significant differences in mean NAA and Choline (Cho) concentrations before and after nasal spraying [(6.094±0.384) mmol/kg vs. (5.530±0.346) mmol/kg (t=1.270, P=0.240) and (1.547±0.114) mmol/kg vs. (1.255±0.079) mmol/kg (t=1.800, P=0.110), respectively). Conclusion: Our results imply that Glxs are nociceptive neurotransmitters and play an important role in the analgesia. (authors)

  14. 布托啡诺在神经外科术后镇痛中的应用研究%Butorphanol used for postoperative analgesia in neurosurgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 李蕾; 王保国

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinic effects of butorphanol nasal spray for postoperative analgesia in neurosurgical patients. Methods Sixty patients undergoing selective craniotomy were randomized into two groups , group B (butorphanol, received butorphanol nasal spray for postoperative analgesia ) and group S ( sufentanil received sufentanil patient-controlled subcutaneouly analgesia PCSA ). The VAS, side effects and vital signs after applying analgesia were recorded immediately when the patients awaked ,and 2 h,6 h,12 h,24 h after the surgery. At the end, the whole appreciations of the postoperative analgesia were evaluated by the patients . Results Effective and satisfied analgesia were achieved in the two groups. In group B, the VAS were smaller than those in group S , but there were no statistic differences (P > 0. 05 ). There were no statistic differences in the MAP , HR, SPO2 of the two groups. At the time of 12 h later the extent of the nause and vomiting in group B were significantly less than that in group S (P 0.05);各观察点的MAP、HR、SpO2无统计学差异(P>0.05);各观察点镇静程度评分无统计学差异(P>0.05);恶心程度、呕吐发生率等在术后6 h时有统计学差异,B组要明显低于S组(P<0.05);B组和S组镇痛满意度为93%和83%.结论 布托啡诺可安全、有效地用于神经外科术后镇痛,经鼻喷给药方便有效,患者满意度较高.

  15. Role of butorphanol and ondansetron premedication in reducing postoperative shivering after general and spinal anesthesia: A randomized comparative study from North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sujeet; Verma, Satyajeet; Pandey, H. P.; Yadav, Pramod; Patel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postoperative shivering (PAS) is a common problem following general and spinal anesthesia and may lead to multiple complications. This placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of Ondansetron and butorphanol premedication reduces shivering after general and spinal anaesthesia. Aims: The aim of this study to highlight the efficacy of Butorphenol and ondosteron in controlling postoperative shivering. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial included 180 patients scheduled for elective general surgery, E.N.T., Ophthamological operations, randomly divided to six groups. Three groups in which General Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 1-ondansetron 8 mg intravenously(IV).Group 2 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 3 – saline 4 ml IV. And three groups where spinal Anaesthesia was used i.e. Group 4-Ondosteron 8 mg IV, Group 5 butorphanol 2 mg IV and Group 6 – saline 4 ml IV 3-5 minutes before anaesthesia. Patients were observed in terms of vital signs, side effects and shivering. Settings and Design: The type of the study was double blind randomized trial. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13.0 statistical analysis software. Results: Postoperative shivering was observed in 15.5%, 22.2% and 60% in general anaesthesia groups I II and III respectively. The reduction of core and dermal temperature during the anaesthesia and recovery, changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were similar in all three groups (i.e. Group I,II,III). In spinal anaesthesia groups, PAS occurred 10%, 13.3% and 43.3% in group IV, V, VI respectively. The reduction of core temperature is similar in all three groups of spinal anaesthesia. But heart rate and mean arterial pressure increase were significant in control saline group in post operative recovery time. No complication seen in any of the six groups. Conclusion: This study suggested that use of Butorphanol and Ondansteron both are effective

  16. Analgesia effect of tartaric acid butorphanol for after total hysterectomy%酒石酸布托啡诺用于全子宫切除术后镇痛效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡劲杨

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe analgesia effect of tartaric acid butorphanol for after total hysterectomy. Methods: A total of 60 patients with total hysterectomy and morphine were randomly divided into group (group A) , and butorphanol group (group B). Postoperative analgesia effect was observed and compared. Result: Butorphanol showed the same analgesia effect as morphine, but was of for less adverse reaction. Conclusions: Tartaric acid butorphanol has satisfactory analgesia effect for total hysterectomy good analgesia and is of no adverse reactions.%目的:观察酒石酸布托啡诺在全子宫切除术后镇痛中的临床效果.方法:选择60例全子宫切除术后镇痛患者,随机分为吗啡组(A组)、布托啡诺组(B组),进行术后镇痛临床效果比较.结果:布托啡诺用于全子宫术后镇痛与吗啡有相同镇痛效果,且不良反应比吗啡少.结论:酒石酸布托啡诺用于全子宫切除术镇痛效果好,且无不良反应.

  17. The effect of anesthesia with propofol and sedation with butorphanol on quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the healthy feline kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van der Vekens, Elke; Haers, Hendrik; Duchateau, Luc; Polis, Ingeborgh; Hesta, Myriam; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the left kidney was performed using a commercial contrast agent in six healthy adult purpose-bred cats. A cross-over design was used to compare three protocols: (1) awake, (2) butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg IM), and (3) propofol (3.5-7.7 mg/kg IV boluses to effect). Time-intensity curves were created from two regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex. The curves were analyzed for blood flow parameters representing blood volume (base intensity, peak intensity, area-under-curve) and blood velocity (arrival time, time-to-peak, wash-in/out). There was no difference in the subjective enhancement pattern between the three protocols. No significant effect of butorphanol was observed in any of the perfusion parameters (P > 0.05). Propofol did not influence the most important perfusion parameter, area-under-the-curve, and is adequate for use in contrast-enhanced ultrasound studies. PMID:25458879

  18. The effect of anesthesia with propofol and sedation with butorphanol on quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the healthy feline kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Van der Vekens, Elke; Haers, Hendrik; Duchateau, Luc; Polis, Ingeborgh; Hesta, Myriam; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the left kidney was performed using a commercial contrast agent in six healthy adult purpose-bred cats. A cross-over design was used to compare three protocols: (1) awake, (2) butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg IM), and (3) propofol (3.5-7.7 mg/kg IV boluses to effect). Time-intensity curves were created from two regions-of-interest drawn in the renal cortex. The curves were analyzed for blood flow parameters representing blood volume (base intensity, peak intensity, area-under-curve) and blood velocity (arrival time, time-to-peak, wash-in/out). There was no difference in the subjective enhancement pattern between the three protocols. No significant effect of butorphanol was observed in any of the perfusion parameters (P > 0.05). Propofol did not influence the most important perfusion parameter, area-under-the-curve, and is adequate for use in contrast-enhanced ultrasound studies.

  19. Cardiorespiratory effects of induction and maintenance of anesthesia with ketamine-midazolam combination, with and without prior administration of butorphanol or oxymorphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J D; McGrath, C J; Smith, E P

    1994-04-01

    Cardiorespiratory effects of an IV administered bolus of ketamine (7.5 mg/kg of body weight) and midazolam (0.375 mg/kg) followed by IV infusion of ketamine (200 micrograms/kg/min) and midazolam (10 micrograms/kg/min) for 60 minutes was determined in 6 dogs. Ketamine-midazolam combination was administered to dogs on 3 occasions to determine effects of prior administration of IV administered saline solution (1 ml), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), or oxymorphone (0.1 mg/kg). The infusion rate of ketamine and midazolam was decreased by 25% for anesthetic maintenance after opioid administration. There were no significant differences in cardiorespiratory variables after saline solution or butorphanol administration; however, oxymorphone caused significant (P ketamine-midazolam combination after saline solution caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and significant decreases in stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, arterial and mixed venous oxygen tension, arterial oxygen content, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Opioid administration was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) lower values than was saline administration for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and arterial and mixed venous pH and with higher values for stroke index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension. Prior oxymorphone administration resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) values for mean pulmonary blood pressure, venous admixture, and arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension, and the lowest values for arterial oxygen tension, and arterial and mixed venous pH. Each treatment provided otherwise uncomplicated anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8017701

  20. 布托啡诺、哌替啶与曲马多治疗围麻醉期病人寒战的效果%A comparison among butorphanol, pethidine and tramadol in treating perioperative chilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚; 鲁卫华; 柳兆芳; 鲁美静

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of butorphanol , pethidine and tramadol in treatment of patients with perioperative shivering. METHODS: Sixty ASA I - II patients with shivering response during anesthesia were randomly divided into three groups(n = 20) : butorphanol group (group B), intravenous injection of butorphanol 0.02 mg/kg; pethidine group (group P), intravenous injection of pethidine 0.5 mg/kg; and tramadol group (group T), intravenous tramadol 1 mg/kg. Observed the degree and time of occurrence of shivering, shivering response after treatment and adverse effect in sedation score. RESULTS: Butorphanol group and tramadol group were effective than pethidine group in treatment of shivering (P<0. 01). Butorphanol group was significantly higher than tramadol group and pethidine group in sedation (P < 0. 05). Tramadol group was significantly higher than pethidine group and butorphanol group in incidence of nausea and vomiting ( P < 0. 05 ). CONCLUSION: Butorphanol and tramadol can effectively treat perioperative shivering,but clinical patients should be reasonable select different drugs according to particular case.%目的:观察布托啡诺、哌替啶与曲马多三种药物治疗围麻醉期病人寒战的效果.方法:60例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级麻醉期间发生寒战反应的病人,随机分为三组,每组20例:布托啡诺组,静脉注射布托啡诺0.02 mg/kg;哌替啶组,静脉注射哌替啶0.5mg/kg;曲马多组,静脉注射曲马多1 mg/kg.观察寒战程度及治疗效果,用药后镇静评分及不良反应.结果:布托啡诺组和曲马多组寒战治疗有效率高于哌替啶组(P<0.01);哌替啶组和曲马多组的镇静评分显著高于布托啡诺组(P<0.05);曲马多组恶心呕吐发生率高于哌替啶组和布托啡诺组(P<0.05).结论:布托啡诺与曲马多可有效控制麻醉后的寒战反应,但布托啡诺镇静作用较强,而曲马多增加恶心呕吐发生率,临床上应根据患者的情况合理应用相应药物.

  1. Experimental comparison of ketamine with a combination of ketamine, butorphanol and medetomidine for general anaesthesia of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, A N S; Forrester, G J; Spyvee, P D; Brash, M G I; Delahay, R J

    2004-03-01

    The refinement of anaesthetic regimes is central to improving the welfare of captured wildlife. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) has been the subject of an intensive long-term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, England. During routine trapping operations (June 21st, 2000-January 23rd, 2001) an experimental trial was conducted on 89 badgers to compare the physiological effects of anaesthesia using ketamine hydrochloride alone, and in conjunction with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate. The mixture induced a significantly longer period of anaesthesia, and either substantially reduced or eliminated the adverse effects associated with ketamine anaesthesia (e.g., excessive salivation, bouts of sneezing, rough recoveries, and muscle rigidity). In a sub-sample of badgers given the mixture, anaesthesia was reversed using atipamezole hydrochloride. Under ketamine anaesthesia, heart rates were initially significantly higher and respiration rates were consistently higher, than in badgers given the mixture. In all badgers heart rates declined and respiration rates increased during anaesthesia, but the rate of change was greatest in animals given only ketamine. Overall, the mixture provided a more balanced anaesthesia characterised by muscle relaxation and complete unconsciousness. PMID:14975394

  2. Analgesia after feline ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia with buprenorphine or butorphanol, and carprofen or meloxicam: a prospective, randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, Sally; Taylor, Polly M; Yates, David

    2012-08-01

    One hundred female cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia were included in a blinded, randomised, prospective clinical study to compare postoperative analgesia produced by four analgesic drug combinations given preoperatively (n = 25 per group). A secondary aim was to assess the effects in kittens and pregnant animals. Buprenorphine 180 µg/m(2) or butorphanol 6 mg/m(2) were given with either carprofen 4 mg/kg (groups BUPC and BUTC, respectively) or meloxicam 0.3 mg/kg (groups BUPM or BUTM, respectively). Medetomidine was not antagonised. A simple, descriptive scale (SDS; 0-4), a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS; 0-100 mm) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MT; 2.5-mm diameter probe) were used to evaluate postoperative pain. All pain scores were low (DIVAS 10 N) and there were no significant differences between the groups. It was concluded that all protocols provided adequate analgesia and when used with midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine are effective for routine feline ovariohysterectomy. PMID:22505603

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE (0.125% VERSUS EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE (0.125% AND BUTORPHANOL (2mg FOR POST-OPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF IN LOWER ABDOMINAL AND LOWER LIMB SURGERIES

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    Krishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain gives rise to various physiological and psychological phenomenons. Epidural analgesia with combination of local anesthetics and opioids provides better pain relief than local anesthetics alone in the postoperative period. Epidural opioids acting through the spinal cord receptors improve the quality and duration of analgesia along with dose-sparing effect with the local anesthetics. AIMS: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of addition of opioids to local anesthetics for postoperative pain relief. METHODS: Fifty patients of American society of anesthesiology grade and physical status undergoing lower abdominal surgeries & lower limb surgeries in narayana general hospital, Nellore, were divided into two groups B and BB. Group B was given 0.125% bupivacaine alone and Group BB was given 0.125% bupivacaine plus 2mg of butorphanol postoperatively when the patients first complained of pain. Onset of Analgesia, duration of analgesia, visual analog scores and side effects were compared. RESULTS: The onset of analgesia in group B patients (10ml of 0.125% Bupivacaine was varied from 4-8 minutes (mean 5.2 minutes and duration of analgesia lasted for 2-4 hours (mean 2.98(p<0.0001 where as in group BB patients (2mg butorphanol + 0.125% bupivacaine the onset was 2-4 minutes (mean 2.69 and duration of analgesia lasted for 6-8 hours (mean 6.98 (p<0.0001.The Visual Analog Scores of Group B were in the range of 7 to 9 and Group BB were in the range of 5 to 6 (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that addition of butorphanol (2mg to bupivacaine (0.125% gives more effective and prolonged duration of postoperative pain relief when administered epidurally, without significant side effects.

  4. 酒石酸布托啡诺对全麻诱导期枸橼酸芬太尼诱发呛咳的影响%Effects of Butorphanol Pretreatment on Fentanyl-induced Cough during General Aneasthesia Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万路; 贾佳; 刘瑶; 黄宁; 王国年

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of pre-induction butorphanol administration on fentanyl-induced cough during aneasthesia induction. Methods: 80 elective surgical patients, scaled Ⅰ - Ⅱ by ASA, were randomly divided into two groups. Butorphanol or equal volume normal saline was injected through peripheral cannula 5 minutes prior to intravenous administration of 3 μg/kg fentanyl in 2 seconds. The incidence of cough was observed in 2 minutes and hemodynamics during the procedure were recorded. Results: Only 2 (5 %) patients had mild to moderate cough in pre-treatment butorphanol group, while 27 (67.5 %) patients in control group, in which there were 8 mild cases (20.0 %), 15 moderate (37.5 %) and 4 severe (10.0 %). Besides, compared with control group, the blood-pressure and heartrate of patients in pre-treatment butorphanol group were more stable. Conclusions: Butorphanol pre-treatment 5 min before induction significantly suppresses fentanyl-induced cough and intubation reaction during general aneasthesia induction.%目的:探讨布托啡诺对全麻诱导期芬太尼诱发呛咳的影响.方法:将80例ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ级患者随机分成两组,布托啡诺组和对照组(每组40例).麻醉诱导前预注布托啡诺(布托啡诺组)或等量生理盐水(对照组),5 min后由外周静脉快速注射芬太尼3μg/kg(2s内),观察2min内呛咳反应的发生率,随后给予依托咪酯0.3 mg/kg,顺式阿曲库铵0.15 mg/kg进行气管插管,行机械通气并观测血流动力学变化.结果:布托啡诺组仅有2例患者出现轻中度呛咳(5%),而对照组有27例(67.5%)出现不同程度的呛咳,其中轻度8例(20.0%),中度15例(37.5%),重度为4例(10.0%).与对照组相比,布托啡诺组血流动力学更为平稳.结论:全麻诱导前5 min预注射布托啡诺可显著抑制芬太尼诱发的呛咳反应,且可减轻插管反应.

  5. Observation on Effects of Butorphanol for Preventing Shivering during Abdominal Operation under Epidural Anesthesia%布托啡诺预防硬膜外麻醉下腹部手术中寒战30例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of butorphanol in the prevention of shivering during abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia. Methods Ninety patients undergoing abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into three groups: butorphanol group (group B), pethidine group (group D) and the control group (normal saline, group C).The group B was given intravenous injection of butorphanol at a dose of 1 mg/5 mL, the group D was given intravenous injection of pethidine at a dose of 15 ~ 30 mg/5 mL and the group C was given intravenous injection of 5 mL normal saline. The preventive effects of shivering, changes of vital signs and adverse reactions were recorded at 5, 15, 30 min after administration for comparing with group C ascontrol. Results The effectiveness of shivering prevention in the group B and D within 5 min after administration were 96. 67% and 86. 67% respectively, without significant difference between the two groups. But comparing one of these two groups with the control group showed significant difference (P < 0. 05). The changes of vital signs before and after administration in the group B and C had no significant difference, the changes in the group D showed significant difference compared with before administration(P <0. 05). The group B was prone to sleepiness than the group D {P<0. 05). The group D was more likely to nausea and vomiting than the group B {P<0. 05). Allthree groups had no respiratory depression. Conclusion Butorphanol and pethidine both have significant effects on the prevention of shivering in abdominal surgery under epidural anesthesia. Butorphanol is superior to pethidine in the curative effects without significant difference.%目的 观察布托啡诺在预防硬膜外麻醉下腹部手术中寒战的效果.方法 选取硬膜外麻醉下腹部手术患者90例,随机均分成布托啡诺组(B组)、哌替啶组(D组)、对照组(生理盐水组,C组).记录各组在给药后5,15,30min时的寒战预防效

  6. Butorphanol significantly suppresses fentanyl-induced cough during general anesthesia induction%布托菲诺显著抑制全麻诱导时芬太尼诱发的咳嗽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 周伟; 徐振东; 丁晓楠; 梁伟民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of pre-induction butorphanol administration on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods This was a random, double-blind study. One hundred and sixty elective surgical patients were equally and randomly assigned to one of the following groups in which butorphnol or equal volume normal saline (control) was injected through peripheral cannula 1 minute prior to intravenous administration of 3 μg/kg fentanyl in 3 seconds. The grade of cough and hemodynamics during the procedure were recorded. Results Only 2 (2.50 % )patients had mild to moderate cough in pre-treatment butorphanol group, while 23 (28.75 % )patients in control group coughed after giving fentanyl intravenously, in which there were 5 mild cases (6.25%), 14 moderate (17.5%) ,and 7 severe (8.75 % ). Compared with the control group, pre-induction butorphanol did not influenced heart rate(HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) before tracheal intubation, but significantly suppressed increase of HR and MAP caused by intubation. Conclusions Butorphanol pre-treatment significantly suppresses 3 μg/kg fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction.%目的 评价在麻醉诱导前预注布托菲诺对全麻诱导时芬太尼诱发咳嗽的抑制效应.方法 本试验为随机双盲研究.160例患者随机分为2组(每组80例):麻醉诱导前预注布托菲诺组或等量生理盐水组(对照组).观察外周静脉快速注射3 μg/kg芬太尼(3 s内)所诱发的咳嗽发生情况以及实验过程中的血流动力学变化即心率(HR)和平均动脉压(MAP).结果 布托菲诺组仅有2位患者出现轻中度咳嗽(2.5%),而生理盐水组则有26位(32.5%)患者出现不同程度的咳嗽,其中轻度为5例(6.25%),中度为14例(17.5%),重度为7例(8.75%).与对照组相比,诱导前预注布托菲诺不影响插管前HR和MAP,但可以降低气管插管后HR和MAP的升高.结论 布托菲诺显著降低全麻诱导时注射3 μg/kg芬太尼所诱发的咳嗽反应.

  7. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios do butorfanol em cães pré-tratados ou não pela levomepromazina Cardiopulmonary effects of butorphanol in dogs treated with levomepromazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos do butorfanol precedido ou não pela levomepromazina sobre a freqüência cardíaca (FC, as pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM, respectivamente, a freqüência respiratória (f, a concentração de dióxido de carbono ao final da expiração (ETCO2, a saturação da oxihemoglobina (SpO2, o volume corrente (VC e o volume minuto (VM, em cães. Para tal, foram empregados vinte animais adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos (GC e GL. Ao GC administrou-se solução salina a 0,9% (Controle, no volume de 0,2mL kg-1, pela via intravenosa (IV. Decorridos 15 minutos, administrou-se butorfanol na dose de 0,3mg kg-1 pela mesma via. Aos animais do GL foi adotada a mesma metodologia, porém substituindo-se a solução salina pela levomepromazina na dose de 1mg kg-1. As medidas das variáveis cardiorrespiratórias iniciaram-se imediatamente antes da aplicação dos fármacos (M1. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração da solução salina a 0,9% ou levomepromazina (M2 e 10 minutos após a administração de butorfanol (M3. As demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 10 minutos, durante 30 minutos (M4, M5 e M6, respectivamente. Os dados numéricos colhidos foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA, seguida pelo teste de Tukey (pThis work was aimed at evaluating the effects of the butorphanol in dogs preceded or not buy levomepromazine on heart rate (HR, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP, respectively, respiratory rate (RR, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2, oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2, minute volume (MV and tidal volume (TV. Twenty adult animals, clinically health were randomly distributed in two groups with ten animals each one (CG and LG. The first one received intravenous administration (IV of 0.2mL kg-1 of saline solution at 0.9% (control. After 15 minutes, 0.3mg kg-1

  8. 布托啡诺与曲马朵治疗剖宫产术中寒颤效果比较%Comparison of the effects of butorphanol and tramadol on shiver in patients with cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董美荣; 姜东; 刘满生; 陈锋; 张帆; 张琴

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较布托啡诺与曲马朵治疗剖宫产术中寒颤的效果.方法 选择剖宫产术中发生寒颤产妇200例(均为腰硬联合麻醉,ASA Ⅰ ~Ⅱ级),按数字表法随机分为两组(各100例),观察组(Ⅰ组)术中给予布托啡诺(0.015 mg/kg),对照组(Ⅱ组)术中给予曲马朵(1 mg/kg),分别记录用药前及用药后5 min、10 min寒颤的评级、不良反应及平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、呼吸(RR)、脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO2)、不良反应发生率等.结果 两组术中、术后BP、HR、RR、SpO2等差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).观察组于5 min、10 min时寒颤消失总有效率分别为100%、98%,对照组分别为100%、88%,两组差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).观察组术中发生血压下降5例、嗜睡8例、恶心呕吐1例、寒颤复发2例,对照组分别为4例、6例、26例、12例,两组血压下降、嗜睡发生率差异均无统计学意义(均P >0.05),两组恶心呕吐、寒颤复发的发生率差异均有统计学意义(x2=26.7609、7.6805,均P<0.05).结论 治疗剖宫产术中寒颤布托啡诺比曲马朵更优.%Objective To compare the effects of butorphanol and tramadol on shiver in patients with cesarean section.Methods 200 cases with maternal shiver (both for waist hard combined anesthesia,ASA Ⅰ ~ Ⅱ) were chosen in this study.According to the digital meter method,they were randomly divided into two groups,100 cases in each group.The observation group(group Ⅰ) was intraoperatively given butorphanol (0.015mg/kg),the control group(group Ⅱ) was intraoperatively given tramadol(1mg/kg).Shivers rating before and after drug use 5min,10min,adverse reactions,blood pressure (MAP),heart rate (HR),respiratory (RR),pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2)and incidence rate of adverse reaction were recorded.Results Perioperative and postoperative BP,HR,RR,SpO2,etc between two groups had no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05).At 5 min,10 min,the total

  9. Clinical Observation of Lappaconitine Combined With Butorphanol in Post-operative Intravenous Analgesia in Elderly Patients With Rectal Cancer%高乌甲素联合布托啡诺在老年直肠癌患者术后静脉镇痛中的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪叶; 张同军

    2015-01-01

    Objective to study the analgesic effect of lappaconitine combined with butorphanol in elderly patients after rectal can-cer operation with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. Methods 60 patients with rectal cancer operation under general anes-thesia were randomly divided into 3 groups .The patients who received butorphanol 10mg and tropisetron 5 mg were divided into group A.Butorphanol 8 mg combined with lappaconitine 20 mg and tropisetron 5 mg were group B. Butorphanol 10mg combined with lappaconitine 20 mg and tropisetron 5 mg were group C.Observe and record the pain score、sedation score at the time 6 h、12 h、24 h、48 h after surgery. Also record the incidence of postoperative adverse reaction and pressing times of PCIA within 48h. Results Compared with group A , group B and group C have a lower VAS score at 12~48 h after surgery(P<0.05),and decrease the effective pressing numbers of PCIA pump at 6~48 h(P<0.05).At the time 6~24 h, group B and group C decrease the Ramsey seda-tion score compared with group A (P<0.05),and group C has a more lower Ramsey sedation score compared with group B (P<0.05). All of the three groups have no obvious adverse reactions. Conclusion The method can reduce the incidence of adverse reaction and has a good analgesic effect of lappaconitine combined with butorphanol in elderly patients after rectal cancer operation with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia .%目的:探讨高乌甲素联合布托啡诺用于老年直肠癌患者术后静脉自控镇痛(PCIA)中的效果。方法60例择期在全身麻醉下行直肠癌根治术的患者随机分为三组:A组布托啡诺10 mg+托烷司琼5mg;B组,布托啡诺8 mg+高乌甲素20mg+托烷司琼5mg,C组,布托啡诺10 mg+高乌甲素20 mg+托烷司琼5 mg。观察并记录患者术后6 h.12 h.24 h.48 h疼痛。镇静评分、术后48 h内PCIA有效按压次数和术后不良反应的发生情况。结果与A 组比较12~48 h 时B.C 组 VAS 评分降低(P<0

  10. Hemogasometria e variáveis cardiopulmonares após administração do butorfanol em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea Acid-base and cardiopulmonary effects after butorphanol administration in spontaneously breathing dogs anesthetized by desflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivos avaliar as possíveis alterações cardiopulmonares e hemogasométricas decorrentes do uso do butorfanol em cães submetidos à anestesia pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea. Para tal, foram utilizados vinte cães adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, pesando 12±3kg. Os animais foram distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos, GS e GB, e induzidos à anestesia com propofol (8,4±0,8mg kg-1, IV, intubados e submetidos à anestesia inalatória pelo desfluorano (10V%. Decorridos 40 minutos da indução, foi administrado aos animais do GS 0,05mL kg-1 de solução fisiológica a 0,9% (salina, enquanto que, no GB, foi aplicado butorfanol na dose de 0,4mg kg-1, ambos pela via intramuscular. As observações das variáveis freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD e média (PAM, pH arterial (pH, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial (PaO2, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono no sangue arterial (PaCO2, déficit de base (DB, bicarbonato (HCO3 e saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SatO2 tiveram início imediatamente antes da aplicação do opióide ou salina (M0. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração do butorfanol ou salina (M15 e as demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 15 minutos, por um período de 60 minutos (M30, M45, M60 e M75. Os dados numéricos dessas variáveis foram submetidos à Análise de Perfil (PThe cardiopulmonary and acid-base effects of butorphanol in desflurane anesthetized dogs breathing spontaneously were evaluated. Twenty adult healthy, male and female dogs were used. They were separated into two groups of 10 animals each (GS and GB. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (8.4±0.8mg kg-1 IV and maintained with desflurane (10V%. After 40 minutes of induction, the animals from GS received saline solution at 0.9% (0.05mL kg-1 and from GB received butorphanol (0.4mg kg-1

  11. 21 CFR 522.246 - Butorphanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Treatment should not normally be required for longer than 7 days. (ii) Indications for use. For the relief of chronic nonproductive cough associated with tracheo-bronchitis, tracheitis, tonsillitis... repeated within 3 to 4 hours. Treatment should not exceed 48 hours. (ii) Indications for use. For...

  12. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA, a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1, butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1 e atropina (0,044mg kg-1, via intramuscular. Trinta minutos após MPA, a indução foi realizada com propofol (5,0mg kg-1 por via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica foi obtida com halotano e oxigênio 100% sob ventilação artificial manual. Os gatos foram submetidos à toracotomia intercostal para implante de um segmento autólogo de pericárdio no diafragma. As variáveis avaliadas foram: freqüência cardíaca (bpm, saturação de oxigênio da hemoglobina (%, pressão arterial sistólica (mmHg e vaporização de halotano (%. As variáveis foram mensuradas 20 minutos após a MPA (TMPA, 10 minutos após indução e a cada 10 minutos até o final do procedimento cirúrgico (T10 a T100.Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através de ANOVA e teste de Bonferroni (pIntercostal thoracotomy is a very painful procedure that deserves proper prevention and treatment. In this study we aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effect of the association of tramadol, butorphanol and atropine in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol and halothane. Twelve cats of mixed breed, female and male, with mean body weight of 2.7 ± 0.62kg were premedicated with 2.0mg kg-1 tramadol and 0.4mg kg-1 butorphanol and 0.044mg kg-1 atropine combined in the same syringe intramuscularly administered. After 30 minutes of premedication, anesthetic induction was obtained with 5.0mg kg-1 propofol intravenously. Anesthetic maintenance was done with halothane and 100% oxygen with manual artificial

  13. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine concentrations following caudal epidural administration in horses Concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina após administração epidural caudal em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of determining the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations after epidurally administered alfentanil, butorphanol, and morphine in horses. Five clinically healthy adult horses were studied. Morphine 0.1mg kg-1, alfentanil 0.02mg kg-1, and butorphanol 0.08mg kg-1 in equal volumes (20ml were epidurally injected. A 10-ml sample of CSF and blood were drawn at sampling times before the epidural administration and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 120 minutes, and hourly for 24 hours Enzyme-linked immonosorbent assay (ELISA was used as the screening test to detect the injected opioids. ANOVA and Bonferroni’s test were used with a P values Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se detectar as concentrações plasmáticas e no líquido cérebro-espinhal de alfentanil, butorfanol e morfina administrados por via epidural caudal em cavalos. Foram utilizados cinco eqüinos adultos, clinicamente hígidos. Doses de morfina (0,1mg kg-1, alfentanil (0,02mg kg-1, e butorfanol (0,08mg kg-1, diluídos em volume idêntico de 20ml em solução salina 0,9%, foram administrados por via epidural. Uma amostra de 10ml de sangüe venoso e de líqüido cérebro-espinhal foram colhidas anteriormente à administração epidural e 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 120 minutos e a cada hora por 24 horas. O teste enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA foi utilizado como método analítico para detecção dos opióides. Os resultados foram avaliados com teste ANOVA e Bonferroni com valor de P<0,05. O teste de ELISA mostrou-se eficiente para detecção plasmática e no LCE de alfentanil, butorfanol, e morfina administrados por via epidural. A administração epidural de alfentanil em eqüinos produz níveis no líquido cérebro-espinhal mais rapidamente que no plasma. Opióides de maior hidrossolubilidade tais como morfina e butorfanol produzem níveis plasmáticos mais rapidamente do que no líquido cérebro-espinhal quando

  14. 预先静注布托啡诺对腰硬联合麻醉后寒战反应的影响%The effects of pre-treatment with butorphanol on postanesthesia shivering in patients undergoing operation of hypogustric zone after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茆庆洪; 阮加萍; 柳胜安

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of pre-treatment with butorphanol on postanesthesia shivering in patients undergoing operation of hypogastric zone after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Methods Sixty patients (ASA Ⅰ,Ⅱ) undergoing operation of hypogastric zone were randomly assigned into two groups(n = 30). Group A(test group) : The patients were injected intravenously with butorphanoi 1 mg/5 ml at the time of 10 min before combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Group B(control group) : The patients were injected intravenously with 0.9% saline 5 ml at the same time point. The development of shivering and sedation degree was observed after the anesthesia. Results The incidence rate on shivering in test group was significantly lower than that in control group(P <0.01). While the satisfaction rate on sedation score in test group was higher than that in control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion Pre-treatment with butorphanol is effective and safe on poatanesthesia shivering in patients undergoing operation of hypogastric zone.%目的 观察预先静脉注射布托啡诺对下腹部手术腰硬联合麻醉后寒战反应的影响.方法 选择60例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级下腹部手术腰硬联合麻醉患者,随机分为两组A组(观察组)、B组(对照组),A组在腰硬联合麻醉前10 min静脉注射布托啡诺1 mg/5 ml,B组注射5 ml生理盐水.观察麻醉后两组患者寒战发生的情况及镇静评分.结果 观察组寒战反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.01),镇静评分满意率观察组显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 预先静脉注射布托啡诺能够有效地预防下腹部手术腰硬联合麻醉后寒战的发生,且镇静效果满意.

  15. Butorphanol Clinical Research on the Prevention of Gynecological Surgical Spinal-epidural Anesthesia Shivering Reaction%布托啡诺对预防妇科手术腰-硬联合麻醉后寒战反应的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹恒

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨布托啡诺对预防妇科手术腰-硬联合麻醉(CSEA)后寒战反应的临床效果。方法收集我院2011年~2012年70例行妇科手术治疗患者70例,随机分为观察组及对照组,各35例,两组患者手术均在CSEA下进行,观察组患者静脉应用布托啡诺,对照组患者注射哌替啶,观察两组患者麻醉后寒战发生率及改善情况。结果观察组患者寒战反应发生率低,与对照组患者比较差异明显,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论布托啡诺可有效预防妇科手术CSEA后寒战反应,对生命体征影响较小,值得在临床推广。%  Objective To investigate the butorphanol clinical effect of shivering after to preventive gynecological surgery waist-epidural anesthesia (CSEA). Method Collected in our hospital from 2011 to 2012, 70 gynecological surgical treatment of 70 patients were randomly divided into observation group and the control group, 35 cases in each, the two groups of patients were operated in the CSEA under observation group patients intravenous Bhutto brown promise, the control group patients were injected with pethidine, the observed incidence of shivering in the two groups of patients were anesthetized and improve the situation. Results The patients chills reaction low incidence of significant differences compared with the control group patients, a statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Butorphanol effective prevention of gynecological surgery CSEA shivering little effect on vital signs, worth in clinical practice.

  16. 21 CFR 520.246 - Butorphanol tartrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Conditions of use. The drug is used for the treatment of dogs as follows: (1) Amount. 0.25 milligram of... nonproductive cough associated with tracheo-bronchitis, tracheitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, and pharyngitis... milligram per pound of body weight. Treatment should not normally be required for longer than 7...

  17. Avaliação algimétrica por estímulo nociceptivo térmico e pressórico em cães pré-tratados com levomepromazina, midazolam e quetamina associados ou não ao butorfanol ou buprenorfina The algimetry evaluation for thermic and pressoric nociceptive stimulus in pre treated dogs with methotrimeprazine, midazolam and ketamine associated or not with butorphanol or buprenorphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leguthe Rosa

    2005-02-01

    methotrimeprazine and midazolam put on the same syringe with ketamine. The animals of GII received the same treatment of GI but associated with butorphanol and finally the animals of GIII received the same treatment of GI but associated with buprenorphine. The routine parametric evaluations has been proceeded, although using the thermo algimetry measured in °C with the average of 52°C and the pressoric algimetry in Kg. RESULTS: In the thermo algimetry, there has been significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M1, M4 and M5; in GII it was found at M0, M1, M5 and M6 and in GIII it was observed the significant at M0 and M1. It has also been shown in pressoric algimetry significant difference in GI at the moments M0, M2 and M3. Among GII it has observed significant difference at all moments and it has found at M0, M9 in GIII. Thus, it has observed significant differences between all groups; for such the M2 of GII smaller than the others; and M4, M5 of GIII bigger than GI and GII. In the assessment of all periods it was observed significant latent period bigger in GI, however, with reasonable period and short recovery in GII and GIII. In the order hand, the postural tonus recovery it was longer in GIII, followed by GII and finally GI. CONCLUSION: The used method for the measurement of algic stimulus was efficient, noticing a reasonable analgesic period of 3 hours for butorphanol and 6 hours for buprenorphine.

  18. 77 FR 60442 - Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Butorphanol; Doxapram; Triamcinolone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... (NADA) and three abbreviated new animal drug applications (ANADAs) at the sponsors' request because the... approval of the NADA and ANADAs listed in table 1 of this document because the products are no longer manufactured or marketed. Table 1--NADA and ANADAs for Which Withdrawal of Approval Has Been Requested...

  19. Butorphanol Combined with Ropivacaine for Brachial Plexus Block Anesthesia Status%布托啡诺复合罗哌卡因用于臂丛神经阻滞的应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣

    2015-01-01

    臂丛神经阻滞的术中镇静镇痛可以提高患者的满意度,减少术中不良刺激,但是也存在一定的缺陷,需要重视对术中镇静方法的改进和完善。本文首先概述了臂丛神经阻滞的研究现状,具体分析了布托啡诺与罗哌卡因的作用特点,最后探讨了布托啡诺复合罗哌卡因用于臂丛神经阻滞的现状。%Brachial plexus block of intraoperatie sedation analgesia can improve the satisfaction of patients, reduce intraoperative undesirable stimulation, but there are also some defects, need to pay much at ention to intraoperatie sedation method is improved and perfected. This article first summarizes the research status quo of brachial plexus block, concrete analysis the bhut o brown with ROM pp paid function characteristic, final y discusses the bhut o brown, composite, pp paid for the cur ent situation of the brachial plexus block.

  20. Effects of sedation on echocardiographic variables of left atrial and left ventricular function in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L; Schober, Karsten E; Fuentes, Virginia Luis; Bonagura, John D

    2012-10-01

    Although sedation is frequently used to facilitate patient compliance in feline echocardiography, the effects of sedative drugs on echocardiographic variables have been poorly documented. This study investigated the effects of two sedation protocols on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats, with special emphasis on the assessment of left atrial size and function, as well as left ventricular diastolic performance. Seven cats underwent echocardiography (transthoracic two-dimensional, spectral Doppler, color flow Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging) before and after sedation with both acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM) and butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM), or acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg IM), butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg IM) and ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV). Heart rate increased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol/ketamine (mean±SD of increase, 40±26 beats/min) and non-invasive systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following acepromazine/butorphanol (mean±SD of decrease, 12±19 mmHg). The majority of echocardiographic variables were not significantly different after sedation compared with baseline values. Both sedation protocols resulted in mildly decreased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and mildly increased left ventricular end-diastolic wall thickness. This study therefore failed to demonstrate clinically meaningful effects of these sedation protocols on echocardiographic measurements, suggesting that sedation with acepromazine, butorphanol and/or ketamine can be used to facilitate echocardiography in healthy cats. PMID:22577049

  1. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani; Cláudio Corrêa Natalini; João Eduardo Wallau Schossler; Saulo Tadeu Lemos Pinto Filho; Adriana Paula Bertin

    2003-01-01

    A toracotomia é um procedimento cirúrgico que produz estímulo doloroso intenso. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito cardiovascular da associação tramadol, butorfanol e atropina na medicação pré-anestésica de gatos anestesiados com propofol e halotano. Doze animais, SRD, machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 2,7 ± 0,62kg receberam como medicação pré-anestésica (MPA), a associação de tramadol (2,0mg kg-1), butorfanol (0,4mg kg-1) e atropina (0,044mg kg-1), via intramuscular. Trinta minut...

  2. Effets oculaires de la tranquilisation avec le buthorphanol chez le chien

    OpenAIRE

    Dongay, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Le butorphanol est utilisé en médecine vétérinaire pour ses propriétés analgésiques et sédatives dans divers protocoles anesthésiques L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer les effets oculaires de la sédation au butorphanol lors d’un examen ophtalmologique de routine. Vingt-deux beagles sans anomalie oculaire ont reçu une injection intramusculaire de butorphanol à la dose de 0,2 mg/kg. Des examens cliniques répétés ont été effectués 20 minutes avant et juste avant l’administration puis 10,...

  3. Drug: D03197 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ; Antitussive Same as: C06863 ATC code: N02AF01 kappa-opioid receptor agonist [HSA:4986] [KO:K04214]; mu-opioi...d receptor partial antagonist [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] hsa04080(4986+4988) Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction map07039 Opioi...d analgesics map07224 Opioid receptor agonists/antagonists A...natomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOID...S N02AF Morphinan derivatives N02AF01 Butorphanol D03197 Butorphanol (USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Opioi

  4. Science.gov (United States)

    Csik-Salmon, J; Blais, D; Vaillancourt, D; Garon, O; Bisaillon, A

    1996-01-01

    Loss of rear motor control is the main limiting factor in the use of caudal epidural anesthesia in the horse. In man and laboratory animals, a small dose of an opiate combined with a local anesthetic enhances analgesia without impairing motor function. Thus, the amount of local anesthetic administered may be reduced. Butorphanol is an opiate widely used in horses. It has a good margin of safety and few cardiorespiratory effects. The effects of lidocaine (0.25 mg/kg) and lidocaine-butorphanol (0.25 mg/kg, and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively) were compared in 2 groups of 5 healthy unsedated mares. Horses in each group received either lidocaine or lidocaine-butorphanol in saline solution for a total volume of 0.0165 mg/kg. Epidural injection was performed at the first coccygeal interspace. Each mare was used only once. Cutaneous analgesia was assessed by a response to a pin prick; and visceral analgesia was assessed by response to a noxious stimulus applied to the urethra. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure were also measured. Analysis of the results showed an increase in duration of both cutaneous and visceral analgesia in the mares given lidocaine-butorphanol. Cutaneous analgesia increased from 36 +/- 13 to 150 +/- 21 min and visceral analgesia increased from 22 +/- 10 to 162 +/- 16 min. A cranial extension of the cutaneous analgesia was also observed. Cardiorespiratory depression or signs of excitation were not observed. However, these mares demonstrated peculiar walking in the hind limbs, not associated with signs of ataxia or hyperkinesia. PMID:9026402

  5. Efficacy of preanesthetic intramuscular administration of ephedrine for prevention of anesthesia-induced hypotension in cats and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Christine; McCrackin, Mary-Ann; Hofmeister, Erik; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola; Rohrbach, Bart

    2009-01-01

    To determine if the preanesthetic administration of ephedrine would prevent anesthesia-induced hypotension in dogs and cats, 10 cats were anesthetized with acepromazine, butorphanol, ketamine, and isoflurane, and 8 dogs were anesthetized with acepromazine, morphine, propofol, and halothane. Cats received ephedrine or saline 10 minutes after premedication. Dogs received ephedrine or saline at the time of premedication. Systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, end-tidal C...

  6. The effect of body position, sedation, and thoracic bandaging on functional residual capacity in healthy deep-chested dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Bedenice, Daniela; Lofgren, Jennifer; Abrams, Julie; Bach, Jonathan; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body position, chest wrap, and sedation on functional residual capacity (FRC) in 6 healthy dogs. Functional residual capacity was determined by helium dilution (re-breathing) whilst in different clinically relevant conditions. These conditions included the standing (sternal) and lateral positions in unsedated dogs and then again both standing and lateral following chest bandaging, and sedation with acepromazine, IV and butorphanol, IV...

  7. EFFECT OF SEDATION ON CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE SPLEEN IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Fina, Caroline; Stock, Emmelie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Duchateau, Luc; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen enables the dynamic assessment of the perfusion of this organ, however, both subjective and quantitative evaluation can be strongly influenced by sedative agent administration. The purpose of this prospective, experimental study was to test effects of two sedative agents on splenic perfusion during contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen in a sample of healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the spleen was repeated in six healthy Beagles following a cross-over study design comparing three protocols: awake, butorphanol 0.2 mg/Kg intramuscular (IM), and dexmedetomidine 500 μg/m(2) IM. After intravenous injection of a phospholipid stabilized sulfur hexafluoride microbubble solution (SonoVue®, Bracco Imaging, Milano, Italy), the enhancement intensity and perfusion pattern of the splenic parenchyma were assessed and perfusion parameters were calculated. Normal spleen was slightly heterogeneous in the early phase, but the parenchyma was homogeneous at a later phase. Sedation with butorphanol did not modify perfusion of the spleen. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced splenic enhancement, providing diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity during the entire examination. Measured parameters were significantly modified, with increased arrival time (AT; (wash-in (P = 0.0014), and area under the curve (AUC; P = 0.0421). Findings supported the use of butorphanol and contraindicated the use of dexmedetomidine as sedatives for splenic contrast ultrasound procedures in dogs. Short-term and diffuse heterogeneity of the spleen in the early venous phase was determined to be a normal finding. PMID:26777031

  8. Behavioral response and cost comparison of manual versus pharmacologic restraint protocols in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Michele; Raffe, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Although sedatives are routinely administered to dogs for diagnostic and minimally invasive procedures, manual restraint is often used. The study compared intra-procedural behavioral response, scored on a 100-point, visual analog scale, and cost of restraint in healthy dogs given 1 of 5 treatments: manual restraint, dexmedetomidine at 125 μg/m(2) (Dex 125) or 375 μg/m(2) (Dex 375), Dex 125 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 125 + Bu), or Dex 375 plus butorphanol at 0.4 mg/kg (Dex 375 + Bu). Mean behavioral response scores in dogs declined from baseline in the manual restraint group and improved in a linear fashion in the group order Dex 125, Dex 375, Dex 125 + Bu, and Dex 375 + Bu. Dexmedetomidine at 375 μg/m(2) or at 125 μg/m(2) or at 375 μg/m(2) in combination with butorphanol produced the best intra-procedural behavioral response. The cost of sedative drugs was offset by the opportunity cost of diverting personnel from revenue-generating activity to manual restraint. PMID:26933261

  9. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  10. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  11. An evaluation of chemical arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint in the horse by using monoiodoacetate.

    OpenAIRE

    Penraat, J H; Allen, A L; Fretz, P. B.; Bailey, J. V.

    2000-01-01

    The use of monoiodoacetate (MIA) for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) and the effect of exercise on the degree of fusion were investigated. Eight horses received 3 injections (Weeks 0, 3, 6) of MIA (2 mL; 60 mg/mL) into the right or left front PIJ. Peri-operatively, the horses received phenylbutazone, butorphanol, and abaxial sesamoidean nerve blocks to relieve pain. During the study, the horses were monitored for general health, lameness, and swelling around the inject...

  12. Do laying hens with keel bone fractures experience pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A F Nasr

    Full Text Available The European ban on battery cages has forced a change towards the use of non-cage or furnished cage systems, but unexpectedly this has been associated with an increased prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. Bone fractures are acutely painful in mammals, but the effect of fractures on bird welfare is unclear. We recently reported that keel bone fractures have an effect on bird mobility. One possible explanation for this is that flying becomes mechanically impaired. However it is also possible that if birds have a capacity to feel pain, then ongoing pain resulting from the fracture could contribute to decreased mobility. The aim was to provide proof of concept that administration of appropriate analgesic drugs improves mobility in birds with keel fracture; thereby contributing to the debate about the capacity of birds to experience pain and whether fractures are associated with pain in laying hens. In hens with keel fractures, butorphanol decreased the latency to land from perches compared with latencies recorded for these hens following saline (mean (SEM landing time (seconds birds with keel fractures treated with butorphanol and saline from the 50, 100 and 150 cm perch heights respectively 1.7 (0.3, 2.2 (0.3, p = 0.05, 50 cm; 12.5 (6.6, 16.9 (6.7, p = 0.03, 100 cm; 20.6 (7.4, 26.3 (7.6, p = 0.02 150 cm. Mobility indices were largely unchanged in birds without keel fractures following butorphanol. Critically, butorphanol can be considered analgesic in our study because it improved the ability of birds to perform a complex behaviour that requires both motivation and higher cognitive processing. This is the first study to provide a solid evidential base that birds with keel fractures experience pain, a finding that has significant implications for the welfare of laying hens that are housed in non-cage or furnished caged systems.

  13. Discovery and development of veterinary pharmaceuticals in telemetered animals

    OpenAIRE

    dr. Zwijnenberg, R.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    The NMDA antagonist Perzinfotel was tested for anaesthetic sparing properties in telemetered dogs and cats when used in a pre-anaesthetic protocol. In dogs, IV, SQ and IM administration of perzinfotel (10-30 mg/kg) decreased the mean isoflurane MAC values by 32 – 44%. The greatest MAC reduction (59%) was observed with a combination of 20 mg/kg perzinfotel and 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol. Thus, all doses of perzinfotel resulted in a significant reduction of MAC. A dose of 30 mg/kg resulted in signif...

  14. Flurbiprofen ester compound opioid in gynecological laparotomy postoperative analgesia%氟比洛芬酯复合阿片类药物在妇科开腹术后镇痛中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓峰; 呼霞

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察氟比洛芬酯复合阿片类药物用于妇科开腹术后静脉自控镇痛的临床效果及对比研究。方法:选择妇科行开腹手术患者90例,随机分为三组,每组30例。布托啡诺组(B组)持续量:布托啡诺6mg+氟比洛芬酯90mg+托烷司琼6mg+生理盐水至100ml;吗啡组(M 组)持续量:吗啡30mg+氟比洛芬酯90mg+托烷司琼6mg+生理盐水至100ml;氟比洛芬酯组(F组)持续量:氟比洛芬酯120mg+托烷司琼6mg+生理盐水至100ml ,三组患者术毕时均静脉注射氟比洛芬酯60mg作为负荷剂量,然后连接PCIA泵。术后6、12、24、48h监测HR、MAP、RR和sPO2,分别于术后6、12、24、48h记录镇痛评分(VAS评分)、PCA按压次数、恶心呕吐评分、瘙痒评分及呼吸抑制等不良反应。结果:三组患者V A S评分:布托啡诺组(B组)和吗啡组(M 组)与氟比洛芬酯组(F组)相比有统计学差异,布托啡诺组(B组)和吗啡组(M 组)镇痛效果优于氟比洛芬酯组(F组);布托啡诺组(B组)与吗啡组(M 组)镇痛效果比较无统计学差异。不良反应发生情况:恶心呕吐与皮肤瘙痒评分均显示,布托啡诺组(B组)和氟比洛芬酯组(F组)明显低于吗啡组(M 组),布托啡诺组(B组)与氟比洛芬酯组(F组)相比无统计学差异。结论:氟比洛芬酯复合布托啡诺用于妇科开腹术后镇痛效果确切,恶心呕吐、皮肤瘙痒、呼吸抑制等副作用发生率低,更适用于妇科开腹术后静脉自控镇痛。%Objects :The observed the flurbiprofen axetil composite opioids for controlled analgesia after gynecological laparotomy clinical efficiency and comparative study .Method:Select Chang’an Hospital gynecological surgery Randomly divided into three groups ,Butorphanol group (B ) ,sustained amount :butorphanol 6mg + flur-biprofen axetil The 90mg + tropisetron 6mg to 100ml

  15. Anaesthesia recovery quality after racemic ketamine or S-ketamine administration to male cats undergoing neutering surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenza, M P; Althaus, H; Conrot, A; Balmer, C; Schatzmann, U; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2008-12-01

    Postoperative anaesthesia recovery and analgesia qualities were compared in cats anaesthetised with racemic ketamine (RS-ket) or S-ketamine (S-ket) undergoing orchiectomy. Twenty client-owned male cats received medetomidine (0.03 mg/kg) and S-ket (6 mg/kg; n = 10) or RS-ket (10 mg/kg; n = 10), all intramuscularly. After routine orchiectomy, animals received atipamezole (0.15 mg/kg) intramuscularly. Thirty and 60 min after atipamezole administration, one observer unaware of the treatment identity evaluated analgesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and, by means of four points scales, sedation, unprovoked behaviour and behavioural reactions to external stimuli. Cats with a VAS > or = 15 mm were to receive butorphanol. Times to sternal and standing positions were recorded. After 60 min, cats were given carprofen (4 mg/kg) subcutaneously. Anaesthesia with S-ket, at 60% of the RS-ket dose, provided faster recoveries. At 60 min, undisturbed cats in S-ket group had a trend towards fewer behavioural changes. Cats in RS-ket group were more sedate at 30 min and responded with a lower intensity to external stimulation. Immediate postoperative analgesia was considered adequate for both groups and no cat required butorphanol administration. PMID:19034844

  16. Pain control in horses: what do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, L C; Robertson, S A

    2014-07-01

    Currently, approaches to pain control in horses are a mixture of art and science. Recognition of overt pain behaviours, such as rolling, kicking at the abdomen, flank watching, lameness or blepharospasm, may be obvious; subtle signs of pain can include changes in facial expression or head position, location in the stall and response to palpation or human interaction. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (i.e. phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and firocoxib), opioids (i.e. butorphanol, morphine and buprenorphine) and α2 -adrenergic agonists (i.e. xylazine, detomidine, romifidine and medetomidine) are the most commonly used therapeutic options. Multimodal therapy using constant-rate infusions of lidocaine, ketamine and/or butorphanol has gained popularity for severe pain in hospitalised cases. Drugs targeting neuropathic pain, such as gabapentin, are increasingly used for conditions such as laminitis. Optimal strategies for management of pain are based upon severity and chronicity, including special considerations for use of intra-articular or epidural delivery and therapy in foals. Strategies that aim to mitigate adverse effects associated with use of various analgesic agents are briefly discussed. PMID:24645799

  17. Anesthesia in a Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trim, C M; Lamberski, N; Kissel, D I; Quandt, J E

    1998-06-01

    A Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) was satisfactorily immobilized on two occasions with i.m. detomidine (0.065-0.13 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.13-0.2 mg/kg). On the second occasion, anesthesia was induced by i.v. administration of ketamine (2.2 mg/kg). Twenty minutes later, endotracheal intubation was performed after an additional i.v. injection of ketamine (1.5 mg/kg). Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, which provided excellent conditions for radiology and surgery. Anesthesia was associated with hypoxemia when the tapir was allowed to breathe air and with hypoventilation. Mean arterial pressure remained satisfactory. No antagonist drugs were administered, and recovery from anesthesia was rapid and smooth.

  18. Use of Acoustic Transmitter-Equipped Remote Sedation to Aid in Tracking and Capture of Entangled California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurter, Greg; DeRango, Eugene; Johnson, Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Free-ranging California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) with marine debris entanglements were darted with a combination of medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam by using acoustic transmitter-equipped darts. Of the 15 animals sedated, 13 (87%) reentered the water and were tracked by using a unidirectional hydrophone. Sea lions that entered the water continued to surface and breathe postsedation. There were three mortalities (20%) during the course of this study due to the following: suspected drowning caused by entrapment under a dock, overdose due to inaccurate weight estimation, and trauma caused by a dart puncturing the animal's abdomen. The drug combination, new dart design, and tracking techniques allowed for successful remote sedation and capture of California sea lions in high-risk situations and improved our ability to determine the final outcome for all cases. These methods allow targeting and capture of individual animals, while minimizing disturbance to other animals.

  19. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kruger

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min. The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.

  20. Comparison of Propacetamol and Butorphanol′s effects in preemptive analgesia for brachial plexus%丙帕他莫与布托啡诺超前镇痛辅助臂丛麻醉效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓东; 孙霄翀; 华豪; 丁浩中

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察盐酸丙帕他莫、酒石酸布托啡诺、盐酸哌替啶术前超前镇痛辅助手部显微外科手术臂丛麻醉的效果.方法 选择ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级手外科手术患者120例,将其随机分为三组,每组各40例.所有患者都采用神经刺激器辅助定位下行臂丛神经阻滞,使用药物0.5%罗哌卡因30 mL.麻醉前15 min Ⅰ组静脉注射酒石酸布托啡诺1 mg,Ⅱ组注射盐酸丙帕他莫2 mg,Ⅲ组静脉注射盐酸哌替啶50 mg,手术开始前再次重复上述操作.观察记录患者麻醉起效时间、麻醉维持时间、麻醉效果和术中、术毕、术后4 h的VAS评分和镇静评分及不良反应的发生情况.结果 Ⅰ、Ⅱ组麻醉维持时间显著长于Ⅲ组(P < 0.05);Ⅰ组术中、术毕、术后4 h 的VAS评分<3分者明显高于Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(P < 0.05);Ⅰ组不良反应的发生例数明显低于Ⅱ、Ⅲ组(P < 0.05).结论 手部显微外科手术臂丛麻醉辅助使用酒石酸布托啡诺行超前镇痛能够增强臂丛麻醉的麻醉效果,镇痛、镇静效果明显,延长术后镇痛时间,不良反应发生率低,值得临床推广使用.%Objective To observe the effects of Propacetamol, Butorphanol and Pethidine Hydrochloride in preemptive analgesia for hand microsurgeries to brachial plexus. Methods 120 patients (ASA Ⅰ -Ⅱ) were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 40 cases in each group. Neuro-Stimulator was used to help position the lower brachial plexus' s nerve blocking with the use of 30 mL 0.5% Ropivacaine. 1 mg Butorphanol were injected to group Ⅰ , 2 mg Propacetamol to group Ⅱ , and 50 mg Pethidine Hydrochloride to group Ⅲ 15 minutes before anesthesia, then the above procedure were repeated before the surgery. The duration as well as the effects of the anesthesia, the VAS scores during the surgery, right after the surgery and 4 hours after the surgery, the calmness score and any adverse reaction were recorded. Results The duration of anesthesia of group Ⅰand

  1. [Opioid tolerance and dependence--pharmacological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaba, I M; Luncanu, I; Mungiu, O C

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged opioids administration leads inevitably to tolerance and dependence, a phenomenon we meet more often in healthy people than in ill patients. Tolerance means a hypersensibility of neuronal membranes as well as changes in the number and affinity of opioid receptors, which implies intake of larger doses to obtain the initial effect. Physical dependence, quite different of the psychological one, is the appearance of abstinence syndrome on sudden interruption of opioid administration or on administration of an antagonist. There is usually cross-tolerance in opioids, but it can also be incomplete, when the initial opioid can be replaced with another one that produces a milder abstinence syndrome. Classically, metadone is used in long time therapy, after detoxification with an antagonist is performed (naloxon, naltrexon). Modern pharmacological alternatives are levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol (LAAM) and agonists-antagonists (butorphanol, buprenorphine, pentazocine, nalbuphine). An antagonist can also be used if associated with an alpha--stimulant (clonidine), in order to remove noradrenergic manifestations of abstinence syndrome. Now other therapeutical principles are being studied: enkephalinaze inhibitors to reduce the abstinence syndrome, NMDA receptor antagonists, NO sintetasis inhibitors, that facilitates opioid analgesia and hinders tolerance development; colecystokinin-receptors agonists or antagonists to reduce tolerance on morphine. A recent study showed that the concomitant administration of an opioid agonist (sufentanil) and a calcium channels blocker (nimodipine) not only prevents from tolerance development but also triggers hypersensibility to analgesic effects of the opioid. PMID:12092171

  2. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826

  3. Blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a mixture of three anesthetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yuichiro; Iwano, Hidetomo; Sakamoto, Takako; Hirabayashi, Manabu; Kaneko, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Currently, from the viewpoint of animal welfare, anesthesia or analgesia is required during experimental procedures in animals that are likely to cause pain. A part of these anesthetics have been reported to influence a blood biochemical level. It is important for us to understand the effect of the anesthetic on blood biochemistry when we choose the anesthetic agent to be used in experiments. In this study, we examined the blood biochemical changes in mice after administration of a new mixture of three anesthetic agents -medetomidine / midazolam / butorphanol (MMB). We subcutaneously administered two dose combinations of MMB (0.45 / 6 / 7.5 and 0.9 / 12 / 15 mg/kg) in mice, followed by administration of atipamezole, for reversal of anesthetic effects, after 1 hr. Thereafter, blood biochemistry was assessed at 1, 4 and 24 hr after MMB administration. We observed that MMB administration caused a transient increase in blood sugar, inorganic phosphorus, potassium and creatine kinase levels. These, however, returned to the reference range 24 hr after MMB administration. In conclusion, MMB changes the levels of some blood biochemical parameters, but not to an extent that would threaten health. However, when using laboratory animals, this effect of MMB may influence the experimental results, depending on the experimental content. Hence, the choice of anesthetic agents used in laboratory animals should be based on detailed knowledge of their pharmacological effects. PMID:26902544

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Deracoxib for the Control of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation Associated with Dental Surgery in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhoff, Stephen E.; Smith, Eric S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Baker, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of deracoxib administered at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days was assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery in dogs. Client-owned dogs scheduled for dental extractions were premedicated with butorphanol and randomly assigned to receive either deracoxib (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31) preoperatively and again once daily for 2 additional days. Dogs were evaluated prior to and after surgery using a modified Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (mGCPS). Dogs could be rescued at any time if they scored ≥4 on the mGCPS or in cases of obvious discomfort. Rescued dogs were considered treatment failures for determining treatment response and were removed from the study. Of the 62 dogs enrolled, 57 were usable for the efficacy analyses and all were assessed for safety. Four of 27 deracoxib-treated dogs (14.8%) were rescued compared to 20 of 30 placebo dogs (66.7%) (P = 0.0006). Deracoxib-treated dogs also had numerically lower mGCPS scores. Eight of 31 deracoxib dogs (26%) had adverse events reported compared to 6 of 31 placebo dogs (19%). Results indicate perioperative administration of deracoxib to dogs at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly improves analgesia after dental surgery. PMID:23738113

  5. Efficacy of preanesthetic intramuscular administration of ephedrine for prevention of anesthesia-induced hypotension in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Christine; McCrackin, Mary-Ann; Hofmeister, Erik; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola; Rohrbach, Bart

    2009-02-01

    To determine if the preanesthetic administration of ephedrine would prevent anesthesia-induced hypotension in dogs and cats, 10 cats were anesthetized with acepromazine, butorphanol, ketamine, and isoflurane, and 8 dogs were anesthetized with acepromazine, morphine, propofol, and halothane. Cats received ephedrine or saline 10 minutes after premedication. Dogs received ephedrine or saline at the time of premedication. Systolic arterial blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, O2 saturation, cardiac rhythm, and rectal temperature were recorded.The systolic arterial pressure in cats receiving saline was significantly lower than baseline at 10 minutes after premedication, and systolic arterial pressure was cats receiving ephedrine, the systolic arterial pressure was significantly lower than baseline for the duration of anesthesia, but systolic arterial pressure was not < 80 mmHg until 25 min after induction. In dogs, systolic arterial pressure was significantly lower than baseline by 5 and 40 min after pre-medication in dogs receiving saline and ephedrine, respectively. There was no difference in heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO2, rectal temperature, O2 saturation, or cardiac rhythm among treatment groups. Prophylactic ephedrine delayed, but did not prevent, the onset of hypotension. PMID:19412398

  6. Propofol with ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine induction of general anaesthesia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, L P; Kasten, J I; Kata, C

    2013-12-01

    To document the suitability of intravenous propofol and ketamine following sedation with xylazine for routine anaesthetic induction in horses. Retrospective. 100 client-owned horses. Anaesthetic records were evaluated to determine: signalment, anaesthetic drug and dosages, need for additional induction agents, notation of any adverse events, duration of anaesthesia and recovery characteristics (rough or smooth, and rapid or prolonged). Horses were sedated with xylazine 0.99±(0.2) mg/kg intravenous and 23 horses were also administered butorphanol 0.02±(0.001) mg/kg intravenous. Horses were anaesthetised with a combination of propofol 0.40±(0.1) mg/kg intravenous and ketamine 2.8±(0.3) mg/kg intravenous. Six horses required additional ketamine. None became apnoeic and no adverse events were noted. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in 66 horses and a combination of guaifenesin, ketamine and xylazine (GKX) in 34 horses. Total anaesthesia time was 125.4±(46) minutes. Fifty-one horses were administered romifidine 0.016 (±0.008) mg/kg intravenous at recovery. Time from orotracheal extubation to standing was 27.6±(25) minutes. Of the 58 records with recovery characteristics, the number per category was: rapid n=6, prolonged n=3, smooth n=46, rough n=6. Intravenous propofol and ketamine following xylazine provided satisfactory anaesthetic inductions and recoveries in a varied population of horses without any clinically relevant adverse events. PMID:24218416

  7. 咪达唑仑伍用不同镇痛药在腰-硬联合麻醉下妇科经腹手术中的应用%Application of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia by midazolam combined with different pain-killers for abdomen operation in gynecological patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌敏

    2012-01-01

    目的观察比较咪达唑仑伍用不同静脉镇痛药在腰-硬联合麻醉(CSEA)下妇科经腹手术中的镇静镇痛效果和安全性.方法择期妇科手术80例,均行腰-硬联合麻醉,根据咪达唑仑联合不同镇痛药随机分为4组:芬太尼组(FM组)、哌替啶组(PM组)、布托啡诺组(BM组)、地佐辛组(DM组).4组患者均在切皮前15 min静脉缓慢推注咪达唑仑0.05 mg/kg,随后分别在FM组予芬太尼1 μg/kg,PM组予哌替啶0.8 mg/kg,BM组予布托啡诺0.04 mg/kg,DM组予地佐辛0.1 mg/kg缓慢静脉推注.术中患者Ramsay镇静评分小于2分者,酌情追加咪达唑仑和各组镇痛药,剂量为首次的1/2~2/3.记录4组患者切皮时(T0)、打开腹膜上腹腔撑开器时(T1)、分离结扎盆腔脏器时(T2)、术毕清理腹腔时(T3)、关闭腹膜时(T4)和缝皮时(T5)的Ramsay镇静评分;记录4组术中舌后坠、呼吸抑制、低血压、心动过缓、牵拉痛发生率;术后24 h内随访,记录4组患者对手术操作过程的遗忘程度及头晕、嗜睡、恶心呕吐、寒战发生率.结果 FM、PM组在T0-T5各时点Ramsay镇静评分均明显高于BM和DM组(P 0.05);术后24 h内随访,4组完全遗忘率均明显高于无遗忘率和不全遗忘率(P 0.05).结论布托啡诺或地佐辛伍用咪达唑仑辅助腰-硬联合麻醉下行妇科手术,术中镇静镇痛效果好,完全遗忘率高,生命体征平稳,术后不良反应少,较芬太尼或哌替啶与咪达唑仑配伍更安全有效.%Objective To observe the efficacy and safety of mitigation and analgesia of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) by midazolam combined with different pain-killers in gynecological patients undergoing abdomen operation. Methods Eighty gynecological patients undergoing elective abdomen operation by CSEA were randomly divided into four groups according to different pain-killers combined with midazolam: fentanyl group(FM group), pethidine group(PM group), butorphanol group(BM group) and

  8. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats. PMID:27423150

  9. Activation profiles of opioid ligands in HEK cells expressing δ opioid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark J

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to characterize the activation profiles of 15 opioid ligands in transfected human embryonic kidney cells expressing only δ opioid receptors. Activation profiles of most of these ligands at δ opioid receptors had not been previously characterized in vitro. Receptor activation was assessed by measuring the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Results Naltrexone and nalorphine were classified as antagonists at δ opioid receptor. The other ligands studied were agonists at δ opioid receptors and demonstrated IC50 values of 0.1 nM to 2 μM, maximal inhibition of 39–77% and receptor binding affinities of 0.5 to 243 nM. The rank order of efficacy of the ligands tested was metazocine = xorphanol ≥ fentanyl = SKF 10047 = etorphine = hydromorphone = butorphanol = lofentanil > WIN 44,441 = Nalbuphine = cyclazocine ≥ met-enkephalin >> morphine = dezocine. For the first time these data describe and compare the function and relative efficacy of several ligands at δ opioid receptors. Conclusions The data produced from this study can lead to elucidation of the complete activation profiles of several opioid ligands, leading to clarification of the mechanisms involved in physiological effects of these ligands at δ opioid receptors. Furthermore, these data can be used as a basis for novel use of existing opioid ligands based on their pharmacology at δ opioid receptors.

  10. Evaluation of Oral Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation in Cats: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; King, Jonathan N.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of robenacoxib were assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats. The study was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded, and parallel group clinical trial. A total of 249 client-owned cats scheduled for forelimb onychectomy plus either ovariohysterectomy or castration surgeries were included. All cats received butorphanol prior to anesthesia and forelimb four-point regional nerve blocks with bupivacaine after induction of general anesthesia. Cats were randomized to receive daily oral tablet robenacoxib, at a mean (range) dosage of 1.84 (1.03–2.40) mg/kg (n = 167), or placebo (n = 82), once prior to surgery and for two days postoperatively. Significantly (P < 0.05) fewer robenacoxib cats received additional analgesia rescue therapy (16.5%) than placebo cats (46.3%). Pain elicited on palpation of the soft tissue incision site, behavior following social interaction, and posture assessed during the first 8 hours after extubation were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in cats receiving robenacoxib. Frequency of reported adverse clinical signs, hematology, serum chemistry and urinalysis variables, and body weight changes weresimilar between groups. In conclusion, robenacoxib was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation in cats undergoing onychectomy with ovariohysterectomy or castration. PMID:23738129

  11. Influence of low-dose naloxone on the pain-killing effect of opium receptor agonist%小剂量纳络酮对阿片受体激动剂镇痛效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何珂; 何毅; 刘毅; 么继钢; 卓九五; 刘旭; 戴体俊

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察小剂量纳络酮(naloxone,N)对阿片受体(部分)激动剂镇痛效应的影响.方法:将小鼠分为芬太尼(fenta-nyl,F)、瑞芬太尼(remifentanil,R)及布托啡诺(butorphanol,B)3大组,每组再分为4小组:即F+NS组、F+N(100,10,1 ng)组,R+NS组、R+N(100,10,1 ng)组以及B+NS组、B+N(100,10,1 ng)组.用热板实验和扭体实验观察纳络酮对以上药物镇痛小鼠热板实验痛阈(pain threshold in hot-plate test,HPPT)和扭体次数的影响.结果:分别与F+NS组、R+NS组或B+NS组比较,F+N(10 ng)组、R+N(100,10,1 ng)组的HPPT增高(P0.05);F+N(100,10 ng)组、R+N(100,10,1 ng)组、B+N(10 ng)组小鼠扭体次数均减少(P0. 05);The stretching numbers of mice of F+N(100,10 ng) group, R+N (100,10,1 ng) group, B+N (10 ng) group decreased (F<0. 05 or P<0. 01). CONCLUSION Low-dose naloxone can increase the pain-killing effect of opium recep-tor (partial) agonist.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RECOVERY TIME AFTER GENERAL ANESTHESIA AND SUBARCHNOID BLOCK FOR INGUINAL HERNIORRAPHY IN PACU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipalisingh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inguinal herniorraphy is commonly performed on an outpatient basis under nerve blocks, local, spinal or general anesthesia (GA. We have selected inguinal herniorraphy under general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia (SA. OBJECTIVE: To compare the recovery time, postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in the Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU. METHODS: A prospective, single blinded, controlled study involved total 60 patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I/II scheduled for elective repair of unilateral inguinal hernia. Randomization was done using computer generated random numbers. GA group received intravenous (IV propofol (2mg/kg, butorphanol (40μg/kg and skeletal muscle relaxation was achieved with vecuronium bromide (0.1 mg/kg. Patient was maintained with nitrous oxide and oxygen (66:33 and sevoflurane. SA group received 2ml of 0.5% of hyperbaric bupivacaine intrathecal in lateral decubitus position with 0.04mg/kg midazolam injection IV for sedation. Modified Aldrete scoring system, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and modified Bromage score were employed to assess recovery time. When pain score was more than 5, rescue analgesia was given with IV injection ketorolac 30mg. All data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Patients in GA group (136.23 ±17.82 minutes showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 recovery time to get shifted from PACU compared with patients in the SA group (176.00 ± 11.92 minutes. But patients in the SA group had significantly less VAS score pain (1.30±1.76 vs. 3.23±2.88, less number of patient received rescue analgesia (16.7% vs. 50% and satisfaction was higher than GA group. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that GA group resulted in faster recovery time from PACU but SA group had less post-operative pain and better satisfied

  13. Anestesia em eqüinos com síndrome cólica: análise de 48 casos e revisão de literatura Anesthesia in horses with colic syndrome: analysis of 48 cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Gabriel Pereira Guedes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A cólica eqüina é uma síndrome que cursa com dor abdominal, distúrbios hidroeletrolíticos e ácido-base e disfunção de órgãos vitais como pulmões e coração. Os procedimentos anestésicos nesses animais apresentam particularidades que aumentam o risco de complicações. Os animais devem ser avaliados no período pré-anestésico e as terapias de reposição devem ser instituídas quando necessárias. A medicação pré-anestésica deve proporcionar analgesia e sedação do animal. A xilazina e/ou butorfanol podem ser utilizados com esse objetivo. A indução pode ser realizada com éter gliceril guaiacolato e cetamina com ou sem diazepam, ou mesmo com cetamina e diazepam pela via intravenosa. A manutenção anestésica deve ser feita preferencialmente com isofluorano, mas o halotano também pode ser utilizado. Manter ventilação pulmonar mecânica, com o animal recebendo oxigênio a 100% durante todo o período cirúrgico e pós-operatório imediato. A recuperação deve ser feita em ambiente escurecido e calmo, com forração e piso não escorregadio. Analgesia e oxigenoterapia também são importantes nessa fase.The equine colic is a syndrome that leads to abdominal pain, hydroeletrolitic and acid-base disturbances and functional alterations of the vital organs like lungs and heart. Anesthetic procedures in these animals show certain particularities that elevate the complications risk. The animals should be evaluated at the preanesthetic period and the reposition treatments should be done as necessary. The premeds should give analgesia and sedation to the animal. Xylazina and/or butorphanol may be used to this aim. Induction can be done with guaiacol glycerine ether, ketamine with/without diazepam, or even with ketamine and diazepam by the intravenous route. Isoflurane is the anesthetic of choice for the maintenance of the anesthesia, but halothane also can be used. Intermitent positive pressure ventilation should be established

  14. Current research and advances in cancer breakthrough pain%癌症爆发痛的现状和研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 刘巍

    2011-01-01

    虽然癌症患者的基础疼痛控制相当稳定,但也可能会遭受短暂的疼痛加重,即癌症爆发痛.典型的爆发痛有快速发作和持续时间短等临床特征,这种疼痛对患者生活质量和卫生资源的不良影响显而易见.即释型口服阿片类药物目前已广泛用于爆发痛的治疗,但其起效时间及作用持续时间长的特点并不适合治疗大部分的爆发痛.相比之下一些芬太尼制剂,如芬太尼透黏膜口含剂(oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate,OTFC)、芬太尼口腔泡腾片(fentanyl buccal tablet,FBT)、芬太尼舌下含片(sublingual fentanyl citrate,SLF)和芬太尼鼻喷雾剂(intranasal fentanyl spray,INFS)等,为癌症爆发痛的治疗带来了令人欣慰的疗效.另外,国内对布托啡诺鼻喷剂治疗癌症爆发痛也已有一定的研究.%Although the control of background pain is satisfying, the patients may also suffer from transient exacerbation of pain, which is known as cancer breakthrough pain (BTP). A typical episode of BTP has a fast onset and a short duration. The BTP can apparently affect the quality of life and may also have an adverse impact on healthcare resources. Normal-release oral opioids have been applied in the treatment of cancer BTP, but the late onset and long duration of action of oral opioids may not appropriate for controlling a typical cancer BTP. Some formulations of fentanyl provide more favourable efficacy in the control of cancer BTP, such as oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC), buccal fentanyl citrate (FBT), sublingual fentanyl citrate (SLF), and intranasal fentanyl spray (INFS). In addition, some studies have focused on the treatment of cancer BTP with transnasal butorphanol.

  15. Effects of pain mitigation and method of castration on behavior and feedlot performance in cull beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenning, P E; Ahola, J K; Callan, R J; Fox, J T; French, J T; Giles, R L; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Engle, T E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of castration method (banding vs. surgical) and use of analgesia on behavior and feedlot performance in cull bulls. Angus, Hereford, and Angus-crossbred bulls (n = 20; initial BW = 384 ± 59.3 kg; 336 ± 20.1 d old) were housed in feedlot pens equipped with the ability to measure individual daily feed intake. A balanced randomized block design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A multimodal analgesia (MMA) protocol was used and consisted of sutcutaneous ketamine stun containing butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg BW), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg BW), ketamine (0.04 mg/kg BW), and a local 2% lidocaine hydrochloride anesthetic block of the spermatic cords (10 mL/cord) and scrotum (10 mL) on d 0. Flunixin meglumine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered intravenously on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 to MMA cattle. Cattle were stratified to treatments based on breed, BW, age, and a temperament score. Treatments included 1) band castration without analgesia (BND), 2) band castration with analgesia (BND-MMA), 3) surgical castration without analgesia (SURG), and 4) surgical castration with analgesia (SURG-MMA). All castrations were performed on d 0. Chute exit velocity (EV) and time in chute (TIC) were collected on d -9, 0, 1, 2, and 13. Willingness-to-enter-chute (WTE) score, rectal temperature (TEMP), heart rate (HR), and respiration (RESP) were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13. Cattle were weighed on d -9 and 13 while feeding behaviors were collected continuously for 57 d precastration and 28 d postcastration. There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for ADG to be greater in cattle receiving analgesia. Both SURG treatments exhibited elevated TEMP on d 1 (P < 0.001) and 2 (P < 0.05) compared to BND treatments. Postcastration DMI was greater (P = 0.02) in MMA treatments compared with nonmedicated treatments throughout the trial. Meal duration was greater (P < 0.05) in BND than SURG castrates during the first week postcastration. Results

  16. 不同方式超前镇痛对儿童腹腔镜术后多模式镇痛效果的影响%Effect of multimodal analgesia by different ways of preemptive analgesia after laparoscopic surgery in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊伟; 曾彩红; 伍淑韫; 梁秀兰; 关柏锐; 黄丹辉

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察不同方式超前镇痛对儿童腹腔镜术后多模式镇痛安全性及效果的影响.方法 选择在全身麻醉下接受择期腹腔镜手术的患儿90例,年龄5~ 14岁,美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)分级Ⅰ~Ⅱ级.采用完全随机双盲法均分为对乙酰氨基酚栓塞肛组(A组)、布托啡诺喷鼻组(B组)和空白对照组(C组).A组患儿全身麻醉后予对乙酰氨基酚栓40 mg/kg塞肛;B组患儿予布托啡诺20μg/kg喷鼻;C组于手术开始前10 min缓慢静脉注射生理盐水2 ml.监测三组患儿术后的心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MAP)、血氧饱和度(SpO2)、拔管时间和在PACU停留时间.记录患儿的VAS评分、Ramsay镇静评分及不良反应.结果 A组和B组苏醒期躁动评分显著低于C组(P<0.01).B组镇静评分显著高于A组和C组(P<0.01),A组也高于C组(P<0.05).术后1、4hA组、B组VAS评分显著低于C组(P<0.01),术后8 h VAS评分低于C组(P<0.05);术后1、4、8hB组VAS评分低于A组(P<0.05).C组术后首次按压镇痛泵的时间早于A组和B组(P<0.01),且按压总次数明显多于A组和B组(P< 0.01).结论 对乙酰氨基酚栓塞肛和布托啡诺喷鼻均可为儿童腹腔镜手术提供同样安全、有效的超前镇痛效果,但前者不良反应更少,较适合在基层中推广使用.%Objective To observe the abirritation effect and safety of multimodal analgesia by different ways of preemptive analgesia after laparoscopic surgery in children.Methods 90 patients (5-14 years old,ASA Ⅰ ~ Ⅱ) scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were selected.With a completely randomized and double blind method,they were divided into three groups with 30 patients in each group.Group A received acetaminophen suppository 40 mg/kg by rectal administration after general anesthesia.Group B received transnasal butorphanol 20 μ g/kg after general anesthesia.Group C received an injection of 2 ml saline before the operation.We observed the HR and BP,RR and SPO2,the

  17. Clinical Observation of Propacetamol Hydrochloride Applied in Preemptive Analgesia of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy%丙帕他莫超前镇痛用于腹腔镜胆囊切除术的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾东; 古军; 何东江; 陈余

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察丙帕他莫超前镇痛用于腹腔镜胆囊切除术的临床效果和安全性。方法90例ASA I~Ⅱ级拟行腹腔镜胆囊切除术患者随机分为A组、B组和C组,每组30例。麻醉诱导前15 min,A组将盐酸丙帕他莫2g溶入100 ml生理盐水静脉滴入;B组按照布托啡诺20μg/kg计算用量,用生理盐水稀释至100 ml静脉滴入;C组静脉滴注生理盐水100 ml。观察并记录术后患者自主呼吸恢复时间、麻醉苏醒时间、拔管时间。采用视觉模拟镇痛评分法(VAS)评价三组患者术后1h、2h、4h、8h和24 h疼痛程度,同时观察嗜睡、烦躁、恶心呕吐、呼吸抑制等不良反应。结果与B组比较,A组和C组的苏醒时间、拔管时间均明显缩短(P<0.05),A组与C组间比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);与C组比较,A组和B组患者在术后2h、4h、8h和24h的VAS评分明显降低(P<0.05);A组和C组术后嗜睡例数明显少于B组(P<0.05),三组均未发生呼吸抑制,烦躁、恶心呕吐不良反应发生率无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论丙帕他莫超前镇痛用于腹腔镜胆囊切除术具有显著的术后镇痛作用,且不影响患者的苏醒质量,不增加术后不良反应。%Objective To observe the clinical effect and the safety of propacetamol hydrochloride applied in preemptive analgesia of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods 90 cases to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ASA grading from I to II were ran-domly divided into 3 groups:Group A, Group B and Group C, 30 cases in each;15 minutes before anesthesia, infusion of propacetamol hydrochloride (2g diluted in 100ml saline) was made to cases in Group A, infusion of butorphanol with the dosage calculation of 20μg/kg diluted in 100ml saline was made to cases in Group B and infusion of 100ml saline was made to cases in Group C;the recovery time of spontaneous respiration after operation, the anesthesia awaking time and

  18. 阿片类镇痛药体外对精子运动的影响%Effects of opioid analgesics on sperm motility in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许波; 王志萍; 王雁娟; 胡毅平; 王丽君; 汪小海

    2012-01-01

    阿芬太尼相比均有显著性的差异(P<0.05),芬太尼与阿芬太尼相比无显著性差别(P>0.05).结论:不同阿片受体镇痛药在相同作用时间内,低浓度布托啡诺、地佐辛对精子运动无影响,高浓度呈现完全抑制精子活力,而相同低浓度芬太尼、阿芬太尼、舒芬太尼均显著抑制精子活力,所测相同浓度范围内仅部分抑制精子活力.与此相反,高浓度喷他佐辛可促进精子运动.%Objective; To observe the effects of short-term exposure to opioid analgesics on human sperm motility. Methods:Twenty normal semen samples were collected, each divided into 19 groups, one as the control and the others treated in vitro with six opioid analgesics at three different concentrations, respectively, and sperm motility was assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis at 15 min, 2 h and 4 h. Results-. Compared with the control group, fentanyl, alfentanil and sufentanil at 1×10-15, 2×10-3 and 0.05 mg/ml significantly decreased the percentage of grade a + b sperm at 15 min, 2 h and 4 h ( P 0. 05). Pentazocine effected no significant difference at 3×10 -3 and 0. 05 mg/ml (P > 0.05 ) but a gradual increase in the percentage of grade a + b sperm at 0.5 mg/ml at the three time points ( P 0.05). Conclusion; Given the same length of time of treatment, butorphanol and dezocine totally inhibit sperm motility at a high concentration, but make no significant change at a low concentration. While fentanyl, alfentanil and sufentanil can significantly decrease sperm motility at the same low concentration, and partially inhibit it at all concentrations. On the contrary, a high concentration of pentazocine can promote human sperm motility.

  19. 不同阿片类镇痛药对体外人精子活力的影响%Effect of opioid analgesics on human sperm motility in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许波; 王志萍; 王雁娟; 胡毅平; 王丽君; 汪小海

    2011-01-01

    的作用与浓度有关.%Objective To assess the effects of fentanyl (F),alfentanil (A),sufentaril (S),butorphanol (B),dezocine (D) and pentazocine (P) on human sperm motility in vitro.Methods Twenty samples of semen with normal sperm motility were collected.The semen was mixed with HTF liquid culture medium and sperm concentration was adjusted to (40-80) × 106/ml.Then semen suspension 50 μl was added into the culture dishes.The semen suspensions were randomly divided into 3 groups:group Ⅰ control-semen suspension 50 μl + 0.9% NaCl 50 μl.GroupⅡ single opioid-semen suspension 50 μl + 50 μl of 4 concentrations of F,A,S,B,D and P (10-3,10-4,10-5,10-7 mol/L).Group Ⅲ combined opioid-naloxone-semen suspension 50 μl + 25 μl of 3concentrations of naloxone (2 × 10-8,1 × 10-7,2 × 10-7 mol/L) + 25 μl of 4 concentrations of F,A,S,B and D.After being incubated for 1 h the sperm motility was assessed by sperm analyzer and the amplitude of change in sperm motility was calculated.Median inhibition concentration (IC50) and complete inhibition concentration ( IC100 ) of the 6 opioids were calculated from concentration-response curve.Results ( 1 ) The shape of concentration-response curve for F,A and S was straight line.The maximal decrease in sperm motility was (56 ± 5)%(F),(58±7)% (A) and(79±:6)% (S).(2) The shape of concentration-response curve for B,D and P was sigmoid.Low concentrations of B,D and P did not affect sperm motility.Median and high concentrations of B and D could inhibit sperm motility.The maximal inhibition was 100%.High concentration of P increased sperm motility.The maximal increase was (19 ± 6)%.(3) Naloxone shifted the concentration-response curve for F,A,S,B and D to the right,and decreased the maximal inhibitory effect of F,A and S dose-dependently but did not affect the maximal inhibitory effect of B and D.(4) IC50 was in the order of A≈ F > D > S≈- B.IC100 was D > B.Conclusion F,A and S inhibit sperm motility by acting on opioid receptor on human