Sample records for buteo magnirostris gmelin

  1. Structural, cytochemical, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of blood granulocytes of the roadside hawk Buteo magnirostris (Gmelin, 1788) (Avian, Falconiform). (United States)

    Santos, A A; Da Silva, A Marques Joppert; Silva, M R Regis; Segreto, H R Cômodo; Egami, M Imoto


    In the peripheral blood of the roadside hawk, Buteo magnirostris, the following types of granulocytic leucocytes were identified: heterophil, eosinophil and basophil. The heterophils presented acidophilic and spindle shaped granules, the eosinophils possess spherical eosinophilic granules and the basophils showed spherical and basophilic granules. The heterophils and eosinophils presented positive cytochemical reaction to glycogen and basic polyaminoacid, while the eosinophils presented sudanophilic granules, which were also positive for myeloperoxidase. The heterophils, alone, presented positivity for acid phosphatase in some granules and immunoreactivity to TGF-beta1 was observed only in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. Electron microscopy demonstrated the heterophil granules as predominantly spindle shaped, being strongly electron-dense, while the eosinophils had numerous uniformly electron-dense spherical granules and the basophils presented three different types of granules identified according to their electron-density and the aspect of their matrix.

  2. Buteos (United States)

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.; Stauffer, D.F.; Sauer, J.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Moss, Mary Beth


    Red-tailed, red-shouldered, and broad-winged hawks nest throughout the 11 northeastern states, and red-tailed, red-shouldered, and rough-legged hawks winter in this region. Historical and present ranges of these species are similar, although red-shouldered and broad-winged hawk ranges now have more vacant patches at a local and regional level. Only the red-shouldered hawk is of special concern or officially listed as threatened by some state agencies. Analysis of Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data indicated positive trends in counts of red-tailed hawks along the more developed Northeast corridor. No trends were found in analyses of BBS data for red-shouldered hawks in either more- or less-developed regions of the Northeast. Based on the BBS, we found a decreasing trend in counts of broad-winged hawks along the more-developed Northeast corridor, and an increasing trend in less-developed regions of the Northeast. Our analyses of Christmas Bird Count data indicated no trend in counts of red-shouldered nor rough-legged hawks, but an increase in counts of red-tailed hawks from 1962 to 1983. Many individuals believe that species such as the red-shouldered hawk are declining in the Northeast, but no trends were detected in our analyses.

  3. Erfolgreiche Felsbrut des Mäusebussards Buteo buteo in einem nordwest-deutschen Steinbruch


    Hegemann, Arne


    Im Jahre 2005 wurde in einem Steinbruch in Geseke in Nordrhein-Westfalen eine Felsbrut eines Mäusebussards Buteo buteo entdeckt. Während Felsnester in Großbritannien und den Alpen zumindest gebietsweise vorkommen und teilweise sogar häufig sind, werden für Mitteleuropa außerhalb der Alpen lediglich einige Bodenbruten beschrieben, jedoch keine Bruten auf Felsen. Obwohl ein Uhupaar Bubo bubo seit einigen Jahren im selben Teil des Steinbruches brütet, wurden drei junge Mäusebussarde flügge. I...

  4. Landscape-related variation in the diet composition of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo in Belarus

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    Sidorovich Anna A.


    Full Text Available We examined common buzzard (Buteo buteo feeding patterns in landscapes with different habitat structure in Belarus. A total of 561 pellets and prey remains were sampled in 1998-2012 from which 1065 prey and other food items were identified. Effects of habitat structure on buzzard diet composition were investigated using correlation analysis. The most abundant group in buzzards’ diets were small rodents (49-80% of the biomass consumed, followed by other mammals and birds. Reptiles, anurans, fish and invertebrates constituted the rest. Proportions of all food items varied greatly between landscapes. The mean-weighted body mass of vertebrate prey hunted by common buzzards in different landscapes ranged from 107 to 244 g, constituting on average 180 g. Among small rodents, voles of the genus Microtus were hunted selectively. The food niche breadth was directly proportional to the amount of forest habitat. With increasing amount of forest habitat, the proportion of Microtus voles in buzzards’ diets decreased and the proportions of other food items grew. These findings confirm the majority of previous results indicating feeding opportunism of the common buzzard. Our investigation enables better understanding of predator-prey interactions and the prey choice of the common buzzard in Belarus.

  5. The pharmacokinetic behaviour of marbofloxacin in Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) after intraosseous administration. (United States)

    Garcia-Montijano, Marino; Waxman, Samanta; Lucas, J Julio de; Luaces, Inés; Zalba, Javier; González, Fernando; Andrés, Manuel I San; Rodríguez, Casilda


    This study reports on the administration of a single dose of marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg) to five adult Eurasian buzzards (Buteo buteo) by the intraosseous (IO) route, which has been proposed as a rapid and efficient means for the parenteral delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The drug was rapidly absorbed. Peak marbofloxacin concentration (C(max)) in plasma and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 1.92+/-0.78 microg/mL and 8.53+/-2.73 microg h/mL, respectively. The time marbofloxacin remained in the plasma after IO administration was relatively short (elimination half-life, t(1/2beta)=4.91+/-0.65 h; mean residence time (MRT)=5.38+/-0.57 h). Single dose marbofloxacin gave values for C(max)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 19.2 and an AUC/MIC value of 85.3h after IO administration. The IO route appears to be practical and effective for the rapid delivery of marbofloxacin to buzzards.

  6. Diabetes mellitus in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Wallner-Pendleton, E A; Rogers, D; Epple, A


    An adult, free-living female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with clinical signs of generalized weakness, polyuria, and polydipsia, was killed and necropsied. An ante mortem serum sample taken from the bird contained 54.3 mmole/1 glucose, and large amounts of glucose were found in the urine. At necropsy, the pancreas was small, pale pink with multiple, round, approximately 0.5 mm white foci. Light and electron microscopic examination of the pancreas revealed markedly vacuolated islet cells. Histochemical examination of the tissue showed that the vacuolated cells were beta-cells. This is the first report of spontaneously occurring diabetes mellitus in a raptor.

  7. Imposex in Olivancillaria vesica vesica (Gmelin (Gastropoda, Olividae from a Southeastern Brazilian sandy beach

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    Carlos Henrique Soares Caetano


    Full Text Available Imposex, the development of male sex organs on the female, is registered and described for Olivancillaria vesica vesica (Gmelin, 1791 at Restinga da Marambaia beach, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

  8. Chlamydiosis in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Mirandé, L A; Howerth, E W; Poston, R P


    A red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with signs of respiratory distress and diarrhea was captured in the Manchac Wildlife Management Area, Louisiana (USA) and died the following day. At necropsy, the carcass was emaciated and there were splenomegaly, and fibrinous pericarditis, airsacculitis, and perihepatitis. Microscopically, there were fibrinous pericarditis and airsacculitis, myocardial necrosis, necrotizing hepatitis, splenic necrosis with reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia, interstitial pneumonia and focal pancreatic necrosis. Intracytoplasmic chlamydial inclusion bodies were noticed in macrophages in the fibrinous exudate covering air sac and pericardium, and in spleen, liver, heart, lung, and pancreas. Schizonts compatible with a Sarcocystis sp.-like protozoon were present in the walls of air capillaries in the lung. A Chlamydia sp.-like organism was isolated in embryonating chicken eggs and cell culture and identified as C. psittaci with immunofluorescent staining.

  9. Trypanosomes and haemosporidia in the buzzard (Buteo buteo) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus): factors affecting the prevalence of parasites. (United States)

    Svobodová, Milena; Weidinger, Karel; Peške, Lubomír; Volf, Petr; Votýpka, Jan; Voříšek, Petr


    The prevalences of heteroxenous parasites are influenced by the interplay of three main actors: hosts, vectors, and the parasites themselves. We studied blood protists in the nesting populations of raptors in two different areas of the Czech Republic. Altogether, 788 nestlings and 258 adult Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) and 321 nestlings and 86 adult common buzzards (Buteo buteo) were screened for parasites by the microscopic examination of blood smears and by cultivation. We examined the role of shared vectors and parasite phylogenetic relationships on the occurrence of parasites. In different years and hosts, trypanosome prevalence ranged between 1.9 and 87.2 %, that of Leucocytozoon between 1.9 and 100 %, and Haemoproteus between 0 and 72.7 %. Coinfections with Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma, phylogenetically distant parasites but both transmitted by blackflies (Simuliidae), were more frequent than coinfections with Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus, phylogenetically closely related parasites transmitted by different vectors (blackflies and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae), respectively). For example, 16.6 % buzzard nestlings were coinfected with Trypanosoma and Leucocytozoon, while only 4.8 % with Leucocytozoon and Haemoproteus and 0.3 % with Trypanosoma and Haemoproteus. Nestlings in the same nest tended to have the same infection status. Furthermore, prevalence increased with the age of nestlings and with Julian date, while brood size had only a weak negative/positive effect on prevalence at the individual/brood level. Prevalences in a particular avian host species also varied between study sites and years. All these factors should thus be considered while comparing prevalences from different studies, the impact of vectors being the most important. We conclude that phylogenetically unrelated parasites that share the same vectors tend to have similar distributions within the host populations of two different raptor species.

  10. Behavioral ecology of the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) in Washington

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    Fitzner, R.E.


    This study examines the breeding ecology and behavior of the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) on its breeding ground in southeastern Washington. Seasonal movements and distribution of the buteo are also described. The birds were observed from blinds, or filmed by Super-8mm time-lapse cameras, during courtship, nest building, egg laying, incubation, and nestling and post-fledging development. Food habits were examined during the nestling and post-fledging periods. Snakes, especially the abundant Western Yellow-bellied racers, were a prey staple, and insects became an important food source during the post-fledging period. It was apparent that Swainson's Hawks feed on smaller and more diverse prey than sympatric buteos (Red-tailed and Ferruginous Hawks), thus reducing competition with neighboring congenerics. Interactions with buteos and other raptor genera were observed, and nearest neighbor distances measured. Organochlorine pesticides in prey species consumed by Swainson's Hawks are concentrated from prey to predator through the food chain. The hawk pellets (regurgitated castings) would contain those concentrations and could easily be monitored without sacrificing any part of the food chain.

  11. Atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiomyopathy in a captive, adult red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Shrubsole-Cockwill, Alana; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Parker, Dennilyn


    An adult, male, captive red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) of at least 19 years of age presented in dorsal recumbency. The hawk was nonresponsive, and despite initial supportive care, died shortly after presentation. Gross postmortem revealed no abnormal findings. Histologic examination demonstrated atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiomyopathy. This is the first reported case of atherosclerosis in a red-tailed hawk.

  12. Contributions to a review of the Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) complex - 2. the eastern forms (Serpentes: Colubridae)

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    G. Vogel; J. van Rooijen


    The Southeast Asian, Indonesian and Philippine forms of the polytypic Dendrelaphis pictus (Gmelin, 1789) are reviewed using multivariate analyses. Several distinct phenetic clusters are discerned. Geographically, these clusters are separated by important biogeographic boundaries, such as the Isthmus

  13. Land cover associations of nesting territories of three sympatric buteos in shortgrass prairie (United States)

    McConnell, S.; O'Connell, T. J.; Leslie, David M.


    Three species of Buteo hawks nest sympatrically in the southern Great Plains of the United States. Dietary overlap among them is broad and we tested the hypothesis these species partition their breeding habitat spatially. We compared land cover and topography around 224 nests of the three species breeding in shortgrass prairie in 2004 and 2005. Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) nested almost exclusively in riparian timber surrounded by prairie (95% prairie land cover around nests) and disproportionately used areas with greater topographic relief within prairie landscapes. Swainson's Hawks (B. swainsoni) commonly nested in low-relief areas dominated by small-grain production agriculture but generally used habitats in proportion to availability. Most nest sites of Ferruginous Hawks (B. regalis) were in prairie (78% prairie land cover around nests), but some were in areas that were at least partially agricultural. Ferruginous Hawks had at least two times more sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) around their nests than their two congeners. We conclude that sympatric breeding Buteos on the southern Great Plains spatially partitioned nest sites according to subtle differences in land cover and topography.

  14. Levels of Cd (II, Mn (II, Pb (II, Cu (II, and Zn (II in Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo from Sicily (Italy by Derivative Stripping Potentiometry

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    P. Licata


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn in different organs (liver, kidney, muscle, lung, skin, and feathers of buzzards (Buteo buteo, utilized as a “biological indicator” for environmental contamination, from different areas of Sicily and to investigate the relationships between birds sex, age, and weight and metal levels in these samples. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA was used to determine the content of Cd(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Pb(II, and Zn(II in bird tissues. For toxic metals, the highest levels of Pb were in liver and those of Cd in lung; Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. The concentrations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle could be considered as an indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in skin could be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The found concentrations of metals in the studied matrices required a highly sensitive method for their determination and a simple sample preparation procedure, and the proposed method was well suited for this purpose.

  15. Digital dissection - using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard- and soft-tissue anatomy in the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo. (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Bright, Jen A; Rayfield, Emily J


    Gross dissection has a long history as a tool for the study of human or animal soft- and hard-tissue anatomy. However, apart from being a time-consuming and invasive method, dissection is often unsuitable for very small specimens and often cannot capture spatial relationships of the individual soft-tissue structures. The handful of comprehensive studies on avian anatomy using traditional dissection techniques focus nearly exclusively on domestic birds, whereas raptorial birds, and in particular their cranial soft tissues, are essentially absent from the literature. Here, we digitally dissect, identify, and document the soft-tissue anatomy of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) in detail, using the new approach of contrast-enhanced computed tomography using Lugol's iodine. The architecture of different muscle systems (adductor, depressor, ocular, hyoid, neck musculature), neurovascular, and other soft-tissue structures is three-dimensionally visualised and described in unprecedented detail. The three-dimensional model is further presented as an interactive PDF to facilitate the dissemination and accessibility of anatomical data. Due to the digital nature of the data derived from the computed tomography scanning and segmentation processes, these methods hold the potential for further computational analyses beyond descriptive and illustrative proposes.

  16. Structure and Composition of Natural Gmelin Larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii Forests in Response to Spatial Climatic Changes.

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    Jingli Zhang

    Full Text Available Many theoretical researches predicted that the larch species would decrease drastically in China under future climatic changes. However, responses of the structural and compositional changes of Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii forests to climatic changes have rarely been reported.Field survey was conducted to examine the structures and compositions of natural Gmelin larch forests along a climatic gradient. Stepwise linear regression analyses incorporating linear and quadratic components of climatic and non-climatic factors were performed on the structural and compositional attributes of those natural Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality, Max Temperature of Warmest Month (TempWarmestMonth, Precipitation of Wettest Month (PrecipWettestMonth, Precipitation Seasonality (PrecipSeasonality and Precipitation of Driest Quarter (PrecipDriestQuarter were observed to be effective climatic factors in controlling structure and composition of Gmelin larch forests. Isothermality significantly affected total basal area of larch, while TempWarmestMonth, PrecipWettestMonth and PrecipSeasonality significantly affected total basal area of Mongolian pine, and PrecipDriestQuarter significantly affected mean DBH of larch, stand density of larch and total basal area of spruce and fir.The summer and winter temperatures and precipitations are all predicted to increase in future in Northeast China. Our results showed the increase of total basal area of spruce and fir, the suppression of regeneration and the decrease of stand density of larch under increased winter precipitation, and the decrease of total basal area of larch under increased summer temperature in the region of current Gmelin larch forest. Therefore, we suggest that larch would decrease and spruce and fir would increase in the region of future Gmelin larch forest.

  17. Etograma da maria-preta, Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin (Aves, Emberizidae, Icterinae Ethogram of the Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis Gmelin (Aves, Emberizidae, Icterinae

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    Gabriele R. Porto


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar padrões comportamentais de Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789 em condições naturais, traçando seu etograma. As coletas de dados foram efetuadas em Seropédica, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, através de observações naturalísticas contínuas e animal-focal, utilizando-se binóculos 10 x 50 principalmente pela manhã até às 07:00h e à tarde após as 16:00h. Foram detectadas 25 condutas, agrupadas em sete categorias comportamentais: locomoção (n = 7, manutenção (n = 5, social não-agonístico (n = 5, alimentação (n = 2, social-agonístico (n = 2, vigilância (n = 2 e sonora (n = 2.The aim of this work is to study behavioral patterns of Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789 in natural conditions, drawing its ethogram. Field efforts were carried out in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, by means of continuous naturalistic observations and focal-animal, using a 10 x 50 binoculars mainly in the morning until 07:00 h and in the afternoon after 16:00 h. A total of 25 conducts were detected and grouped in seven behavioral categories: locomotion (n = 7, maintenance (n = 5, social non-agonistic (n = 5, feeding (n = 2, social-agonistic (n = 2, vigilance (n = 2 and sonorous (n = 2.

  18. The Mitochondrial Genomes of Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus (Aves, Accipitriformes): Sequence, Structure and Phylogenetic Analyses



    The family Accipitridae is one of the largest groups of non-passerine birds, including 68 genera and 243 species globally distributed. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial sequences of two species of accipitrid, namely Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus, and conducted a comparative mitogenome analysis across the family. The mitogenome length of A. fasciata and B. lagopus are 18,513 and 18,559 bp with an A + T content of 54.2% and 55.0%, respectively. For both the two ...

  19. Oxyphil cells in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. (United States)

    Long, P; Choi, G; Rehmel, R


    A captive, immature red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was presented with multiple long-bone fractures, a serum calcium of 7.9 mg/dl, and a history of being fed an all-meat diet. Gross and microscopic examinations of the parathyroid glands revealed marked glandular hypertrophy and the presence of interlacing cords and clusters of light chief cells and oxyphil cells in approximately equal numbers. Bone sections showed severe fibrous osteodystrophy. These findings support the observation that the oxyphil cell is a product of continued stimulation, and they suggest that hypocalcemia may be a stimulating factor.

  20. Brachial plexus injury in two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Shell, L; Richards, M; Saunders, G


    Two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), found near Deltaville, Virginia (USA), were evaluated because of inability to use a wing. Results of needle electromyographic studies of the affected wing muscles in both hawks were compatible with denervation. On euthanasia, one hawk had extensive axon and myelin loss with multifocal perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of its brachial plexus and radial nerve. Demyelination and axon loss in the dorsal white matter of the spinal cord on the affected side also were found at the origin of the brachial plexus. The other hawk's wing had not returned to functional status > 2 yr after injury.

  1. Pansteatitis in a free-ranging red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Wong, E; Mikaelian, I; Desnoyers, M; Fitzgerald, G


    A free-ranging juvenile female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) that was unable to fly was admitted to a rehabilitation center and died 1 day later. Hematology and serum chemistry abnormalities included moderate regenerative anemia, elevated creatine kinase, and hyperphosphatemia. Necropsy revealed a generalized steatitis, and histology showed a necrotizing and granulomatous pansteatitis with intralesional pigment compatible with ceroid. There was also moderate diffuse myodegeneration, mild multifocal cardiomyopathy, and mild multifocal hepatic necrosis. These changes and lesions resemble those caused by vitamin E deficiency in mammals and fish-eating birds.

  2. The red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, a native definitive host of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa) in North America. (United States)

    Upton, S J; McKown, R D


    Oral inoculation of prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, with coccidian sporocysts isolated from the feces of a red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis, in Kansas, USA, resulted in formation of Frenkelia microti (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) tissue cysts in the brains of the voles. Five additional isolates of morphologically similar sporocysts collected from red-tailed hawks or other Buteo spp. in Kansas failed to result in detectable infections in rodents. These results are the first to verify that red-tailed hawks are natural definitive host in North America for F. microti.

  3. Isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with a concurrent pox virus infection. (United States)

    Pace, L W; Chengappa, M M; Greer, S; Alderson, C


    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skin of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) which had a concurrent avian pox virus infection. The hawk had been housed on a farm with domestic turkeys, providing a possible source of the E. rhusiopathiae.

  4. Caryospora uptoni n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis borealis). (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L


    Oocysts of Caryospora uptoni n. sp. were described from the feces of red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis borealis. Sporulated oocysts were spherical or subspherical and measured 28.1 by 26.4 micron. The oocyst wall was composed of a yellowish outer layer and brownish inner layer and was about 1.5 micron thick. Neither micropyle, polar granules, nor oocyst residuum were present. A single, spherical sporocyst 18.2 by 17.9 micron was present; a Stieda body was absent. A spherical eccentrically located sporocyst residuum was present in many sporocysts, but it degenerated to form a dispersed granular residuum in other sporocysts. Eight randomly arranged sporozoites, 12.6 by 4.2 micron, were present in each sporocyst; they contained a centrally or slightly posteriorly located nucleus.

  5. Cardiomyopathy and right-sided congestive heart failure in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rapoport, Gregg; Williams, Jamie; Brainard, Benjamin; Driskell, Elizabeth; Uhl, Elizabeth; Crochik, Sonia; Divers, Stephen J


    A 15-year-old female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated because of dyspnea, anorexia, and coelomic distension. Diagnostic imaging results confirmed severe coelomic effusion and revealed a markedly dilated right ventricle. The diagnosis was right-sided congestive heart failure. Results of measurements of vitamin E, selenium, lead, zinc, and cardiac troponin levels were normal or nondiagnostic. The hawk was treated with furosemide, antifungal and antimicrobial agents, and supplemental fluids and oxygen, but euthanasia was elected because of the poor prognosis and the practical difficulties associated with intensive case management. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure in a captive red-tailed hawk.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of secondary anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Murray, Maureen; Tseng, Florina


    Anticoagulant rodenticides inhibit the activation of vitamin K-ependent clotting factors, resulting in fatal hemorrhage. Nontarget species are exposed to these rodenticides primarily by direct consumption of baits or secondarily by consumption of poisoned prey. The diagnosis of anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis is more challenging in birds than in mammals because of the limited availability of laboratory tests to evaluate avian coagulation. In addition, the presenting signs in birds may differ from those commonly seen in mammals. Treatment for acute blood loss and therapy with vitamin K1 can result in a favorable outcome in birds. This report describes the presenting signs, diagnosis, and successful treatment of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with secondary anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis.

  7. Caryospora uptoni and Frenkelia sp.-like coccidial infections in red-tailed hawks (Buteo borealis). (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L


    The feces from 16 red-tailed hawks (Buteo borealis) were examined by fecal flotation for the presence of coccidial oocysts or sporocysts. Oocysts of Caryospora uptoni were found in five (31%), sporocysts of a Frenkelia sp.-like coccidium were found in eight (50%), and mixed infections with both species of coccidia were found in three (19%) red-tailed hawks. Neither oocysts nor sporocysts were found in six (38%) red-tailed hawks. Sexual stages of C. uptoni were found in the duodenum and jejunum of a naturally infected red-tailed hawk. Sexual stages were located in enterocytes on the distal three-fourths of the villi. This study shows that over 60% of red-tailed hawks may be passing coccidial oocysts/sporocysts in their feces and provides morphological information for diagnosing C. uptoni infections in histological sections.

  8. Haemoproteus iwa n. sp. in great frigatebirds (Fregata minor [Gmelin]) from Hawaii: parasite morphology and prevalence (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.


    We describe a new species of Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890 from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor [Gmelin]) captured on Tern Island-French Frigate Shoals and Laysan Island in Hawaii. Parasite prevalence on Laysan Island (35%) was not significantly different than that of Tern Island (36%). On Laysan, prevalence was highest in juveniles (52%), followed by adult males (29%) and adult females (19%). Prevalence on Tern was 36% both for adult females and juveniles, and 28% for adult males. Parasitemia was low (mean < 2 parasites/10,000 red blood cell). Parasitized red cells had significantly greater areas than unparasitized cells. We named this parasite Haemoproteus iwa after the Hawaiian name for frigatebirds (iwa). This is the first documentation of a hemoparasite from tropical pelagic seabirds in Hawaii and the first description of an endemic hemoparasite in the archipelago.

  9. Contrasting molecular and morphological evidence for the identification of an anomalous Buteo: a cautionary tale for hybrid diagnosis. (United States)

    Clark, William S; Galen, Spencer C; Hull, Joshua M; Mayo, Megan A; Witt, Christopher C


    An adult Buteo was found dead as a road-kill south of Sacramento, California, and was thought to represent the first state record of the eastern Red-shouldered Hawk (B. lineatus lineatus;). It is now a specimen in the Museum of Wildlife and Fisheries Biology (WFB 4816) at the University of California, Davis. We examined this specimen and found that many of its plumage characters differed from all other adult Red-shouldered Hawks examined, including nominate adults. Plumage markings and measurements were intermediate between Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, ssp calurus) and Red-shouldered Hawk (ssp elegans), leading us to hypothesize that the bird was a hybrid. However, mtDNA sequences and nuDNA microsatellites proved definitively that the bird was a Red-shouldered Hawk, most likely of eastern origin. This case illustrates that apparent hybrids or apparent vagrants could be individuals with anomalous phenotypes caused by rare genetic variation or novel epigenetic effects.

  10. A new oligacanthorhynchid acanthocephalan described from the great horned owl, Bubo virginianus (Strigidae), and red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis (Accipitridae), from central Arizona, U.S.A. (United States)

    Bolette, David P


    Oligacanthorhynchus nickoli n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) is described from the great-horned owl, Bubo virginianus (Gmelin, 1788) (type host), and red-tailed hawk, Buteojamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788), collected in central Arizona. The new species is most similar to Oligacanthorhynchus iheringi and Oligacanthorhynchus minor, but it differs from all congeners primarily by trunk length, proboscis size and armature, egg size, geographical range, and host species. It is distinguished from the 9 Oligacanthorhynchus species occurring in avian hosts from both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Descriptions of juvenile forms of O. nickoli from the intestine of B. jamaicensis are provided from recently ingested cystacanths with everted proboscides.

  11. Parasite infections in nestling red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) in northeast Wisconsin. (United States)

    King, Janet C; Dubay, Shelli A; Huspeni, Todd C; VanLanen, Andrew R; Gerhold, Richard W


    Red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) are threatened in Wisconsin and long-term data suggest that nest productivity is low in the state for unknown reasons. Our objective was to determine whether red-shouldered hawks in northeast Wisconsin were infected with parasites that could contribute to low nest productivity. We examined nestlings for the presence of Trichomonas gallinae, Protocalliphora avium, and blood parasites in June 2006 and 2007. We did not detect T. gallinae in throat swabs taken from 24 nestlings in 2007. Ear canals of nestlings were parasitized by P. avium larvae in 10 of 11 (91%) nests and in 22 of 24 (92%) nestlings. Larvae were found in higher intensity in 1 ear relative to the other. Leucocytozoon toddi was present in 90.5% (38/42) of the nestlings. At least 1 bird in each nest was infected. Intensity of L. toddi averaged 48.6 +/- 58.3 infected cells per 2,000 erythrocytes (2.4 +/- 2.9%). No other blood parasites were identified.

  12. Health evaluation of Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) on Santiago Island, Galapagos. (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Rivera-Parra, Jose Luis; Parker, Patricia G


    Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), the only endemic, diurnal raptor species in Galapagos, are currently distributed on eight Galapagos Islands having been extirpated from three of the human-inhabited islands. In January 2009, we performed health assessments of 89 Galapagos Hawks on Santiago Island, Galapagos. Four of the 89 Galapagos Hawks (4%) evaluated had physical abnormalities. Blood parameters did not differ between males and females, except for aspartate transaminase values, which were significantly higher in females than males. No Galapagos Hawks tested positive for antibodies to avian encephalitis virus, Marek virus, and paramyxovirus-1 or to haemosporidian antigen. Chlamydophila psittaci antigen was detected in 2 of 86 Galapagos Hawks (2%), with 24 of 43 Galapagos Hawks (56%) antibody-positive for avian adenovirus-1 and 1 of 48 Galapagos Hawks (2%) antibody positive for Toxoplasma gondii. There were no significant differences in infectious disease results based on sex. This study contributes to the understanding of the health status of the Galapagos Hawk and to the establishment of baseline information for the species.

  13. Multifocal respiratory and vertebral mycobacteriosis in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Sadar, Miranda J; McRuer, David; Hawkins, Michelle G; Armién, Aníbal G


    An adult, female, free-ranging red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was presented to a rehabilitation facility for an inability to stand. On examination, it displayed bilateral exaggeration of the pelvic limb reflexes with extensor muscle rigidity, intact superficial pain response, and positive withdrawal reflexes. A complete blood count identified moderate leukocytosis characterized by moderate heterophilia. No abnormalities were appreciable on radiographic evaluation. After initial improvement, it regressed and was euthanized 27 days after presentation. Necropsy and histologic investigation identified reduction in the diameter of the vertebral canal and spinal cord at cervical segments 8-9 with coalescing granulomas and intralesional acid-fast bacilli within the intertrabecular space, left side of the clavicular air sac, and cranial left lung. Bacterial culture and genetic sequencing from respiratory lesions identified Mycobacterium avium avium. Real time-polymerase chain reaction of paraffin-fixed spinal tissue tested positive for M. avium complex. Mycobacteriosis should be considered when peripheral neurologic deficits are present in raptors.

  14. Fine structure of the pecten oculi of the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Braekevelt, C R


    The pecten oculi of the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) has been examined by light and electron microscopy. In this species the pecten is very large and of the pleated type. It consists of 17-18 accordion folds which are joined apically by a heavily pigmented bridge of tissue which holds the pecten in a fan-like shape, widest at its base. It is situated over the optic nerve head and extends into the vitreous. Within each fold are numerous capillaries, larger supply and drainage vessels and melanocytes. The capillaries are specialized and display extensive microfolds on both the luminal and abluminal borders. The endothelial cell bodies are thin with most organelles present in a paranuclear location. The capillaries are surrounded by thick fibrillar basal laminae which are probably structurally important and which often enclose pericytes. The melanocytes which are most plentiful in the bridge region and peripherally in the pecten, form an incomplete sheath around the capillaries and other blood vessels. These melanocytes are also felt to be fulfilling a structural role within the pecten. The morphology of the pecten of the red-tailed hawk is indicative of a heavy involvement in the transport of materials to the avascular avian retina.

  15. Growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Rush, E Marie; Shores, Andrew; Meintel, Sarah; Hathcock, John T


    Growing skull fractures have been reported in humans for many years, usually resulting from injury to the soft skull during the rapid growth period of an infant's life. Nestling raptors have thin, fragile skulls, a rapid growth rate, and compete aggressively for food items. Skull trauma may occur, which may lead to the development of a growing skull fracture. Growing skull fractures may be under-diagnosed in raptor rehabilitation facilities that do not have access to advanced technologic equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography was used to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The lesion was surgically repaired and the animal was eventually returned to the wild. This is the first report of a growing skull fracture in an animal. In this case, 3-D computed topographic imaging was utilized to diagnose a growing skull fracture in a red-tailed hawk, surgical repair was performed, and the bird recovered completely and was ultimately released.

  16. Retinal photoreceptor fine structure in the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Braekevelt, C R


    The retinal photoreceptors of the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) consist of rods, single cones and double (unequal) cones present in a ratio of about 2:1:5. In the light-adapted state, the rods are slender elongated cells with outer segments that reach to the retinal epithelial (RPE) cells. The inner segment displays an ellipsoid of mitochondria, plentiful polysomes, some rough ER and Golgi zones. The rod nucleus is located deep within the outer nuclear layer and the synaptic spherule displays both invaginated (ribbon) and superficial (conventional) synaptic sites. Single cones show a thin tapering outer segment, a large electron lucent oil droplet at the apex of the inner segment and an ellipsoid of mitochondria. Double cones consist of a larger chief member which displays a thin tapering outer segment and an electron dense oil droplet as well as a smaller accessory cone which shows no oil droplet, an ellipsoid and a paraboloid of glycogen. As in the single cone, polysomes, RER and Golgi zones are also noted in the inner segments of both members of the double cone. Near the external limiting membrane the chief and accessory cones show membrane specializations indicative of junctions on their contiguous surfaces. All cone photoreceptors are of a smaller diameter than is normally reported for avian species. Both single and double cones display several invaginated synapses as well as numerous superficial synaptic sites.

  17. Nomina nova in Platyhelminthes pro Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882 (non [Gmelin, 1801]; non Dunker, 1843), and Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 (non Andrews, 1922). (United States)

    Hornung, Jahn J


    Two genus-group names of flat-worms-Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882-are junior homonyms that are preoccupied by fossil diapsid reptile genera-Leptocleidus Andrews, 1922, and Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843-and an extant teleost fish genus-Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] ex La Cépède, 1800. These are replaced by nomina nova (Pharyngodytes nom. nov.; Graffiellus nom. nov.). Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] is an objective senior synonym of Macrorhyncus Dumeríl, 1805 ex La Cépède, 1800 (syn. nov.), and a senior homonym of Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843, and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882.

  18. Morphological aspects of the ovary of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

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    Maria das Graças Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The study of the female genital system of Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is part of the research on the reproductive biology of Brazilian birds. This work describes the morphological aspects of the ovary of Columba livia, as well as the histological differences observed in the ovarian follicles during the ovocyte maturation process. Ten Columba livia females were studied, whose ovaries had been dissected, fixed in Bouin and Helly solutions, and histologically processed for staining (Hematoxylin-Eosin; Gomori's trichromic and Weigert's technique and Gomori's technique for connective tissue fibers. The ovary has an irregular surface, is located in the abdominal cavity, and relates to the cranial portion of the left kidney and caudal extremity of the left lung. Histological examination shows that the ovary is covered with simple cubical epithelium, underlined by loose connective tissue that continues internally, surrounding the follicles. The ovarian follicles were described, in their different stages of development, with basis on the morphological changes occurring in the ovocyte and in the layers that surround it, in each phase of maturation. Among the follicles, groups lof cells of two distinct types, surrounded by connective tissue, are observable: clear cells with a spherical nucleus, and acidophilic cells with a slightly elongated nucleus. The studies of the ovary of Columba livia reveal histological similarities between this species and Columbina talpacoli (Temminck, 1811, whose ovaries were examined by Ribeiro et al. (1991.

  19. Morphological study of the testes of the dove Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes

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    Sandra Maria das Graças Maruch


    Full Text Available Known as "domestic dove", the Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a columbidae species widely distributed in Brazil, whose reproductive biology has been studied by many researchers. The testes of 12 Columba livia males were collected and prepared for histologic examination under an optical microscope, the results of which were analysed and photographed. The tunica albuginea that covers the testes consists of a thick, not very cellular layer of dense connective tissue. Groups of interstitial cells with typical morphological appearance and surrounded by loose, well vascularized connective tissue are observable within the organ, between the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are thick, intensely wound and, when seen in cross section, show Sertoli cells and spermatogenic lineage cells in different stages of development. These include spermatogonia (type A, clear; type A, dark; and type B, spermatocytes I and II, spermatids, and a large number of spermatozoons. Similarities are found between the histological findings described and those reported for the testes of Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811.

  20. The Mitochondrial Genomes of Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus (Aves, Accipitriformes: Sequence, Structure and Phylogenetic Analyses.

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    Lan Jiang

    Full Text Available The family Accipitridae is one of the largest groups of non-passerine birds, including 68 genera and 243 species globally distributed. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial sequences of two species of accipitrid, namely Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus, and conducted a comparative mitogenome analysis across the family. The mitogenome length of A. fasciata and B. lagopus are 18,513 and 18,559 bp with an A + T content of 54.2% and 55.0%, respectively. For both the two accipitrid birds mtDNAs, obvious positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew biases were detected for all 12 PCGs encoded by the H strand, whereas the reverse was found in MT-ND6 encoded by the L strand. One extra nucleotide'C'is present at the position 174 of MT-ND3 gene of A. fasciata, which is not observed at that of B. lagopus. Six conserved sequence boxes in the Domain II, named boxes F, E, D, C, CSBa, and CSBb, respectively, were recognized in the CRs of A. fasciata and B. lagopus. Rates and patterns of mitochondrial gene evolution within Accipitridae were also estimated. The highest dN/dS was detected for the MT-ATP8 gene (0.32493 among Accipitridae, while the lowest for the MT-CO1 gene (0.01415. Mitophylogenetic analysis supported the robust monophyly of Accipitriformes, and Cathartidae was basal to the balance of the order. Moreover, we performed phylogenetic analyses using two other data sets (two mitochondrial loci, and combined nuclear and mitochondrial loci. Our results indicate that the subfamily Aquilinae and all currently polytypic genera of this subfamily are monophyletic. These two novel mtDNA data will be useful in refining the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary processes of Accipitriformes.

  1. The Mitochondrial Genomes of Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus (Aves, Accipitriformes): Sequence, Structure and Phylogenetic Analyses. (United States)

    Jiang, Lan; Chen, Juan; Wang, Ping; Ren, Qiongqiong; Yuan, Jian; Qian, Chaoju; Hua, Xinghong; Guo, Zhichun; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jianke; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Hengwu; Bi, De; Zhang, Zongmeng; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Dongsheng; Kan, Xianzhao


    The family Accipitridae is one of the largest groups of non-passerine birds, including 68 genera and 243 species globally distributed. In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial sequences of two species of accipitrid, namely Aquila fasciata and Buteo lagopus, and conducted a comparative mitogenome analysis across the family. The mitogenome length of A. fasciata and B. lagopus are 18,513 and 18,559 bp with an A + T content of 54.2% and 55.0%, respectively. For both the two accipitrid birds mtDNAs, obvious positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew biases were detected for all 12 PCGs encoded by the H strand, whereas the reverse was found in MT-ND6 encoded by the L strand. One extra nucleotide'C'is present at the position 174 of MT-ND3 gene of A. fasciata, which is not observed at that of B. lagopus. Six conserved sequence boxes in the Domain II, named boxes F, E, D, C, CSBa, and CSBb, respectively, were recognized in the CRs of A. fasciata and B. lagopus. Rates and patterns of mitochondrial gene evolution within Accipitridae were also estimated. The highest dN/dS was detected for the MT-ATP8 gene (0.32493) among Accipitridae, while the lowest for the MT-CO1 gene (0.01415). Mitophylogenetic analysis supported the robust monophyly of Accipitriformes, and Cathartidae was basal to the balance of the order. Moreover, we performed phylogenetic analyses using two other data sets (two mitochondrial loci, and combined nuclear and mitochondrial loci). Our results indicate that the subfamily Aquilinae and all currently polytypic genera of this subfamily are monophyletic. These two novel mtDNA data will be useful in refining the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary processes of Accipitriformes.

  2. Landscape characteristics influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread raptor (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Hull, Joshua M; Hull, Angus C; Sacks, Benjamin N; Smith, Jeff P; Ernest, Holly B


    Landscape-scale population genetic structure in vagile vertebrates was commonly considered to be a contradiction in terms whereas recent studies have demonstrated behaviour and habitat associated structure in several such species. We investigate whether landscape features influence morphological and genetic differentiation in a widespread, mobile raptor. To accurately describe genetic differentiation associated with regional landscape factors, we first investigated subspecies relationships at a continental scale. We used 17 microsatellite loci and five morphological measurements to investigate differentiation between eastern and western subspecies of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and to identify patterns between differentiation and habitat within western North America. Bayesian and frequency-based analyses of microsatellite data revealed clear distinctions between B. j. borealis (eastern) and B. j. calurus (western) samples. Furthermore, hawks sampled in Texas were stouter than those collected from the Rocky Mountains and farther west. Among western samples, birds from the Great Basin, Rocky Mountains, and Washington were significantly different in morphology than those from Oregon and California. We identified a pattern of isolation by distance among western breeding sites around the Sierra Nevada. Given the long-range dispersal capabilities of raptors, this pattern suggests that population-specific habitat preferences, corresponding with habitat breaks between eastern and western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, and/or regionally variable population densities limit migration between the Mediterranean habitat of central California and the xeric habitats of southern California and interior west. We suggest habitat preferences and regionally disparate population densities may play a role in shaping genetic structure in vagile avian taxa.

  3. The pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular dose of amikacin in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Bloomfield, R B; Brooks, D; Vulliet, R


    The pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin were determined in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) following the i.m. administration of a single 20 mg/kg dose. After a rapid absorption phase, mean amikacin serum concentrations peaked at 65 +/- 12 micrograms/ML 30-45 min following injection. The serum amikacin concentrations decreased to 2.3 +/- 2 micrograms/ml at 12 hr postinjection. Amikacin was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life of 2.02 +/- 0.63 hr. The volume of distribution was estimated to be 0.28 +/- 0.03 L/kg. Forty-two isolates of gram-negative bacteria and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species were cultured from birds of prey presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California-Davis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of amikacin ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 micrograms/ml (mean = 2.5 micrograms/ml). The 20 mg/kg dose used in this study resulted in serum concentrations at or above the MICs for > 12 hr for most of the isolates examined. The heaviest birds had the lowest peak serum amikacin concentrations, and the lightest birds had the highest, despite exact volume replacement for each sample drawn. This observation suggests that doses should be based on factors other than weight alone. Amikacin administered at 15-20 mg/kg/day, either as a single dose or divided into two or three doses, is effective in treating sensitive pathogens of the red-tailed hawk.

  4. Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) abundance and habitat in a reclaimed mine landscape (United States)

    Balcerzak, M.J.; Wood, P.B.


    Fragmentation of the landscape by large-scale mining may affect Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) populations by reducing the amount of forested habitat available in a landscape and by creating fragmented forest parches surrounded by reclaimed mine lands. We examined habitat characteristics and relative abundance of Red-shouldered Hawks in reclaimed mine landscapes within four treatments: early-successional grassland habitat, mid-successional shrub/pole habitat, late-successional fragmented forest habitat, and late-successional intact forest habitat. We quantified microhabitat characteristics within an 11.3-m-radius plot centered on 156 vegetation plots throughout the four treatments. We surveyed 48 stations on and adjacent to three mines for Red-shouldered Hawks using standardized broadcast call techniques during February 2000-January 2001 and measured landscape characteristics within 1000-m buffer zones centered on each station from digitized aerial photographs. Mean abundance of Red-shouldered Hawks was significantly higher in the intact forest (x?? = 0.07 detections/ point, SE = 0.03) than the grassland (x?? = 0.01, SE = 0.01) treatment, but did not differ from the fragmented forest (x?? = 0.03, SE = 0.01) or shrub/pole (x?? = 0.03, SE = 0.01) treatments. Most microhabitat characteristics in both fragmented and intact forest differed from shrub/pole and grasslands. Amount of wetland was the most important characteristic determining presence of Red-shouldered Hawks in a forest-dominated landscape. More wetlands in the landscape may provide abundant amphibians and reptiles, which are important in the diet of Red-shouldered Hawks. ?? 2003 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Landscape alterations influence differential habitat use of nesting buteos and ravens within sagebrush ecosystem: implications for transmission line development (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.


    A goal in avian ecology is to understand factors that influence differences in nesting habitat and distribution among species, especially within changing landscapes. Over the past 2 decades, humans have altered sagebrush ecosystems as a result of expansion in energy production and transmission. Our primary study objective was to identify differences in the use of landscape characteristics and natural and anthropogenic features by nesting Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and 3 species of buteo (Swainson's Hawk [Buteo swainsoni], Red-tailed Hawk [B. jamaicensis], and Ferruginous Hawk [B. regalis]) within a sagebrush ecosystem in southeastern Idaho. During 2007–2009, we measured multiple environmental factors associated with 212 nest sites using data collected remotely and in the field. We then developed multinomial models to predict nesting probabilities by each species and predictive response curves based on model-averaged estimates. We found differences among species related to nesting substrate (natural vs. anthropogenic), agriculture, native grassland, and edge (interface of 2 cover types). Most important, ravens had a higher probability of nesting on anthropogenic features (0.80) than the other 3 species (Artemisia spp.), favoring increased numbers of nesting ravens and fewer nesting Ferruginous Hawks. Our results indicate that habitat alterations, fragmentation, and forthcoming disturbances anticipated with continued energy development in sagebrush steppe ecosystems can lead to predictable changes in raptor and raven communities.

  6. Contrasting molecular and morphological evidence for the identification of an anomalous Buteo: a cautionary tale for hybrid diagnosis

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    William S. Clark


    Full Text Available An adult Buteo was found dead as a road-kill south of Sacramento, California, and was thought to represent the first state record of the eastern Red-shouldered Hawk (B. lineatus lineatus;. It is now a specimen in the Museum of Wildlife and Fisheries Biology (WFB 4816 at the University of California, Davis. We examined this specimen and found that many of its plumage characters differed from all other adult Red-shouldered Hawks examined, including nominate adults. Plumage markings and measurements were intermediate between Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis, ssp calurus and Red-shouldered Hawk (ssp elegans, leading us to hypothesize that the bird was a hybrid. However, mtDNA sequences and nuDNA microsatellites proved definitively that the bird was a Red-shouldered Hawk, most likely of eastern origin. This case illustrates that apparent hybrids or apparent vagrants could be individuals with anomalous phenotypes caused by rare genetic variation or novel epigenetic effects.

  7. New host records for parasitic mites of the family Syringophilidae from accipitriform birds (Aves: Accipitriformes). (United States)

    Zmudzinski, Mateusz; Unsoeld, Markus; Knee, Wayne; Skoracki, Maciej


    Four accipitriform bird species of the family Accipitridae are reported as new hosts for quill mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae): Megasyringophilus aquilus Skoracki, Lontkowski and Stawarczyk, 2010 was collected from Hieraaetus pennatus Gmelin, 1788 in France and Spain, and Buteo jamaicensis Gmelin, 1788 in Canada; Peristerophila accipitridicus Skoracki, Lontkowski and Stawarczyk, 2010 was collected from Circaetus gallicus Gmelin, 1788 in France, and Buteo lagopus Pontoppidan, 1763 in Germany.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after single oral dose administration in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Bechert, Ursula; Christensen, J Mark; Poppenga, Robert; Fahmy, Sahar A; Redig, Patrick


    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered terbinafine hydrochloride for potential treatment of aspergillosis in raptors, 10 adult red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) were used in single dose trials by using 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg doses with a 2-week washout period between trials. After administration of 15 mg/kg terbinafine, mean (+/- SD) plasma concentration peaked in approximately 5 hours at 0.3 +/- 0.24 microg/mL, whereas a 30 mg/kg dose resulted in peak mean (+/- SD) plasma concentration of 1.2 +/- 0.40 microg/mL in 3 hours and a 60 mg/kg dose resulted in mean (+/- SD) concentration of 2.0 +/- 0.75 microg/mL in 5 hours. The volume of distribution decreased with increasing doses, averaging 76.8 +/- 38.06 mL/kg for the 15 mg/kg dose and falling to 55.2 +/- 17.4 mL/kg for the 30 mg/kg dose. This suggests that terbinafine accumulated in deep tissues, limiting further distribution at higher doses. The harmonic mean (+/- SD) half-life was biphasic, with initial values of 14.7 +/- 6.67 hours, 17.5 +/- 8.7 hours, and 13.3 +/- 5.03 hours for 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg doses, respectively. A rapid first-elimination phase was followed by a slower second phase, and final elimination was estimated to be 161 +/- 78.2 and 147 +/- 65.6 hours for 15 and 30 mg/kg doses, respectively. Linearity was demonstrated for the area under the curve but not for peak plasma concentrations for the 3 doses used. Calculations based on pharmacokinetic parameter values indicated that a dosage of 22 mg/kg terbinafine q24h would result in steady-state trough plasma concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration of terbinafine (0.8-1.6 microg/mL). This dosage is recommended as a potential treatment option for aspergillosis in raptors. However, additional research is required to determine both treatment efficacy and safety.

  9. Aspectos histológicos e histoquímicos da cloaca feminina de Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiformes Histological and histochemical aspects of female cloaca of Columba livia (Gmelin (Columbidae, Columbiforme

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    Maria Eloíza de Oliveira Teles


    Full Text Available The domestic dove Columba livia (Gmelin, 1789 is a species well adapted to Brazil and the study of its reproductive biology is part of a broad research project on birds. This essay describes the morphological aspects of the cloaca of female Columba livia, describing compartments lengthwise starting from the head such as the coprodeo, urodeo and proctodeo limited by mucosal folds. Each compartment of the cloaca presents its own morphological characteristics which differ one from the other in form, height and position of mucosal projections, kinds of tissues, presence and histological aspects of glands, presence of lymphonodus. The rectum opens into the coprodeo, the ureter opens into the oviduct and the cloacal sac opening into the proctodeo. Histochemical studies have shown the presence of glycoproteins in tissue cells and gland cells on the three segments of the cloaca.

  10. Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva extract attenuates ultraviolet B radiation-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes. (United States)

    Piao, M J; Kim, K C; Zheng, J; Yao, C W; Cha, J W; Kang, H K; Yoo, E S; Koh, Y S; Ko, M H; Lee, N H; Hyun, Jin Won


    The purpose of this study was to assess the protective effects of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva (GBE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes. GBE exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species that were induced by either hydrogen peroxide or UVB radiation. In addition, both the superoxide anion and the hydroxyl radical were scavenged by GBE in cell-free systems. GBE absorbed light in the UVB range (280-320 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum and lessened the extent of UVB-induced oxidative damage to cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA. Finally, GBE-treated keratinocytes showed a reduction in UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that GBE exerts cytoprotective actions against UVB-stimulated oxidative stress by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB rays, thereby attenuating injury to cellular constituents and preventing cell death.

  11. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint. (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph


    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia.


    Lee, Kelly A; Goetting, Valerie S; Tell, Lisa A


    Changes in inflammatory marker concentrations or activity can be used to monitor health and disease condition of domestic animals but have not been applied with the same frequency to wildlife. We measured concentrations or activity of six inflammatory markers (ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin-dependent complement [MBL/complement], unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and plasma iron) in apparently healthy and sick or injured Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin activities were consistently elevated in sick or injured hawks (2.1 and 2.5 times higher, respectively), and plasma iron concentrations decreased (0.46 times lower), relative to those of healthy birds. There were no differences between healthy and unhealthy hawks in TIBC and UIBC concentrations or MBL/complement activity. Therefore, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and plasma iron would be useful inclusions in a panel of inflammatory markers for monitoring health in raptors.

  13. Eddy covariance CO2 flux above a Gmelin larch forest on continuous permafrost in Central Siberia during a growing season (United States)

    Nakai, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kajimoto, T.; Abaimov, A. P.; Yamamoto, S.; Zyryanova, O. A.


    Gmelin larch ( Larix gmelinii) forests are representative vegetation in the continuous permafrost region of Central Siberia. Information on the carbon budget is still limited for this Siberian larch taiga in comparison to boreal forests in other regions, while the larch forests are expected to play a key role in the global carbon balance due to their wide distribution over North-East Eurasia. The authors reported results of eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements at a mature Gmelin larch stand in Central Siberia, Russia (64°16'N, 100°12'E, 250 m a.s.l.). The measurements were conducted during one growing season (June-early September in 2004). CO2 uptake was initiated in early June and increased sharply until late June, which was closely related to the phenology of the larch trees (i.e., bud-break and needle flush). Maximum half-hourly net CO2 uptake was ˜6 µmol m-2 s-1. Maximum daily net uptake of ˜2 g C m-2 day-1 occurred at the end of June and in mid-July. Cumulative net uptake was 76-78 g C m-2, indicating that the mature larch forest acted as a net sink for CO2 during the growing season (91 days). In comparison with other boreal forests, however, the magnitude of net CO2 uptake and night-time release of the forest, and cumulative net CO2 uptake were lower. We suggest that lower net ecosystem CO2 uptake of the study stand was primarily associated with low leaf area index.

  14. Further studies on allopurinol-induced hyperuricaemia and visceral gout in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Lumeij, J T; Sprang, E P; Redig, P T


    To investigate the usefulness of allopurinol for the treatment of hyperuricemia in birds, experimental studies were performed using the physiologically occurring post-prandial hyperuricaemia in birds of prey as a model. Pre-and post-prandial plasma concentrations of allopurinol, oxypurinol, xanthine, hypoxan-thine and uric acid were established by high performance liquid chromatography in red-tailed hawks (RTH, Buteo jamaicensis) at various time intervals after receiving allopurinol (50 mg/kg SID) or placebo. The dosage used caused slight, but significantly elevated plasma uric acid concentrations compared to controls, as well as vomiting in the majority of treated birds. Markedly elevated plasma concentrations of oxypurinol, xanthine and hypoxanthine were seen in experimental birds. Toxic signs were attributed to oxypurinol, the active (and toxic) metabolite of allopurinol. Xanthinuria was considered to be the cause of the observed renal function disorder. Extrapolation of data from studies in humans and combining these with those of the present study suggest that the maximum dose of allopurinol that can be safely administered to RTH is about half the dose given in the present study, but this needs verification.

  15. Advancement flap as a novel treatment for a pododermatitis lesion in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Sander, Samantha; Whittington, Julia K; Bennett, Avery; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Mitchell, Mark A


    Pododermatitis is a pathologic condition commonly reported in captive raptors and characterized by swelling, excoriation, ulceration, cellulitis, or abscessation of the plantar aspect of the foot. Its cause can be multifactorial, often involving abnormal weight bearing or poor sanitation, and medical and surgical techniques, in addition to environmental alterations, are hallmarks of treatment. In this case, a single pedicle advancement flap was used to treat chronic, nonresponsive grade V/VII pododermatitis of the right metatarsal pad in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The advancement flap was formed by using the interdigital skin between digits 3 and 4. The double layer of skin was incised and separated, and the leading edge of the flap was then advanced over the defect and secured with simple interrupted subcutaneous and skin sutures. The foot was bandaged after surgery to take pressure off the surgical site. At 58 days after the surgery, the hawk was deemed medically sound with no signs of pododermatitis and was released to a wildlife rehabilitator. The use of a single pedicle advancement flap has not previously been reported for the treatment of pododermatitis.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of piperacillan after intramuscular injection in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). (United States)

    Robbins, P K; Tell, L A; Needham, M L; Craigmill, A L


    This study characterized and compared the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin after single 100 mg/kg i.m. injections in nine red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) over 48 hr by a modified agar well diffusion microbial inhibition assay. The mean maximum plasma piperacillin concentrations were 204 microg/ml and 221 microg/ml for the hawks and owls, respectively, and times of maximum concentrations were 15 min and 30 min, respectively. The calculated mean terminal elimination half-lives were 77 min in the hawks and 118 min in the owls. Area-under-the-curve values were 218 +/- 52 microg x hr/ml in the hawks and 444 +/- 104 microg x hr/ml in the owls. On the basis of the most common minimal inhibitory concentration (90%) for various bacterial isolates from clinical samples of 8 microg/ml, analysis of the data suggests that the maximum dosing interval for piperacillin at 100 mg/kg in medium sized raptors should be 4-6 hr.

  17. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Guisla Boehs


    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  18. Vangueria madagascariensis J.F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae - an under-utilised African traditional medicinal food plant with potential applications

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    Fawzi Mahomoodally


    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis J.F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae is one of the most common species of the genus Vangueria which have received scientific attention for its extensive ethnomedicinal applications worldwide. Generally cultivated for its sweet-sour fruits, this plant has also brought significant contribution in the African materia medica for its antimicrobial and anthelmintic properties since time immemorial. In vitro data revealed the presence of a number of bio-constituents with pluripotential mechanism of action which might be responsible for its medicinal virtues. Recent findings also support its promising potential for use against inflammatory diseases and as functional food/dietary adjunct for the management of diabetes mellitus and related complications. The present monograph endeavours to highlight the botanical description, ethnopharmacological uses, and main therapeutic benefits of Vangueria madagascariensis. Special emphasis has been geared towards recent in vitro data which tend to support its ethnopharmacological use in the traditional medicine of many countries. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 45-48

  19. Solving the 170-Year-Old Mystery About Red-Violet and Blue Transient Intermediates in the Gmelin Reaction. (United States)

    Gao, Yin; Toubaei, Abouzar; Kong, Xianqi; Wu, Gang


    The Gmelin reaction between nitroprusside and sulfides in aqueous solution is known to produce two transient intermediates with distinct colors: an initial red-violet intermediate that subsequently converts into a blue intermediate. In this work, we use a combination of multinuclear ((17) O, (15) N, (13) C) NMR, UV/Vis, IR spectroscopic techniques and quantum chemical computation to show unequivocally that the red-violet intermediate is [Fe(CN)5 N(O)S](4-) and the blue intermediate is [Fe(CN)5 N(O)SS)](4-) . While the formation of [Fe(CN)5 N(O)S](4-) has long been postulated in the literature, this study provides the most direct proof of its structure. In contrast, [Fe(CN)5 N(O)SS)](4-) represents the first example of any metal coordination complex containing a perthionitro ligand. The new reaction pathways found in this study not only provide clues for the mode of action of nitroprusside for its pharmacological activity, but also have broader implications to the biological role of H2 S, potential reactions between H2 S and nitric oxide donor compounds, and the possible biological function of polysulfides.

  20. Stable occupancy by breeding hawks (Buteo spp.) over 25 years on a privately managed bunchgrass prairie in northeastern Oregon, USA (United States)

    Kennedy, Patricia L.; Bartuszevige, Anne M.; Houle, Marcy; Humphrey, Ann B.; Dugger, Katie M.; Williams, John


    Potential for large prairie remnants to provide habitat for grassland-obligate wildlife may be compromised by nonsustainable range-management practices. In 1979–1980, high nesting densities of 3 species of hawks in the genus Buteo—Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), and Swainson's Hawk (B. swainsoni)—were documented on the Zumwalt Prairie and surrounding agricultural areas (34,361 ha) in northeastern Oregon, USA. This area has been managed primarily as livestock summer range since it was homesteaded. Unlike in other prairie remnants, land management on the Zumwalt Prairie was consistent over the past several decades; thus, we predicted that territory occupancy of these 3 species would be stable. We also predicted that territory occupancy would be positively related to local availability of nesting structures within territories. We evaluated these hypotheses using a historical dataset, current survey and habitat data, and occupancy models. In support of our predictions, territory occupancy of all 3 species has not changed over the study period of ∼25 yr, which suggests that local range-management practices are not negatively affecting these taxa. Probability of Ferruginous Hawk occupancy increased with increasing area of aspen, an important nest structure for this species in grasslands. Probability of Swainson's Hawk occupancy increased with increasing area of large shrubs, and probability of Red-tailed Hawk occupancy was weakly associated with area of conifers. In the study area, large shrubs and conifers are commonly used as nesting structures by Swainson's Hawks and Red-tailed Hawks, respectively. Availability of these woody species is changing (increases in conifers and large shrubs, and decline in aspen) throughout the west, and these changes may result in declines in Ferruginous Hawk occupancy and increases in Swainson's Hawk and Red-tailed Hawk occupancy in the future.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of voriconazole administered orally with and without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus). (United States)

    Parsley, Ruth A; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette


    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates to inform dose adjustments. ANIMALS 7 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, hawks were randomly assigned to first receive voriconazole (15 mg/kg, PO) injected into a dead mouse (n = 3; fed birds) or without food (4; unfed birds). Sixteen days later, treatments were reversed. Blood samples were collected at various points to measure plasma voriconazole concentrations by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and fit to a compartmental model through nonlinear mixed-effects regression, with feeding status and body weight investigated as covariates. RESULTS Voriconazole was well absorbed, with quantifiable plasma concentrations up to 24 hours after administration. Mean plasma half-life was approximately 2 hours in fed and unfed birds. Administration of the voriconazole in food delayed absorption, resulting in a significant delay in time to maximum plasma concentration. The final compartmental model included a categorical covariate to account for this lag in absorption as well as body weight as a covariate of total body clearance (relative to unknown bioavailability). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A single dose of voriconazole (15 mg/kg) administered PO to red-tailed hawks resulted in mean plasma voriconazole concentrations greater than the targeted value (1 μg/mL). Additional studies with larger sample sizes and multidose regimens are required before the model developed here can be applied in clinical settings.

  2. A re-evaluation of evidence raises questions about the fasting migration hypothesis for Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)


    Bechard, Marc J.; Sarasola, José Hernán; Woodbridge, Brian


    We examined the fasting migration hypothesis for Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) by estimating the length, duration, and speed of the migration between North and South America and measuring changes in their body masses at various times throughout the year. We instrumented 34 adult Swainson’s Hawks with satellite radios on their breeding grounds in western North America to determine the duration, length, and speed of the migration. Migrating south at 188 km/day, it took Swainson’s Hawks 51 ...

  3. Voriconazole Disposition After Single and Multiple, Oral Doses in Healthy, Adult Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). (United States)

    Gentry, Jordan; Montgerard, Christy; Crandall, Elizabeth; Cruz-Espindola, Crisanta; Boothe, Dawn; Bellah, Jamie


    Voriconazole is effective for treatment of aspergillosis, a common disease in captive red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). To determine the disposition and safety of voriconazole after single and multiple, oral doses, 12 adult red-tailed hawks were studied in 2 phases. In phase 1, each bird received a single dose of voriconazole solution (10 mg/kg) by gavage. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 24, and 36 hours after treatment. In phase 2, each of 8 birds received voriconazole oral solution at 10 mg/kg PO q12h for 14 days. Plasma samples were collected on days 0, 5, and 10 and after the final dose and were processed as in phase 1. Plasma samples were submitted for analysis of voriconazole levels by high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry and for measurement of selected plasma biochemical parameters. After single dosing, voriconazole concentrations reached a (mean ± SD) peak (Cmax) of 4.7 ± 1.3 μg/mL at 2.0 ± 1.2 hours. The disappearance half-life (t1/2) was 2.8 ± 0.7 hours, and the mean residence time (MRT) was 4.6 ± 0.9 hours. After the last dose at 14 days, the mean Cmax of voriconazole was 4.5 ± 2.7 μg/mL at 2.4 ± 1.1 hours. The t1/2 was 2.1 ± 0.8 hours, and the MRT was 3.5 ± 1.1 hours. Although concentrations of several plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different at study end compared with prestudy concentrations, only plasma creatine kinase activity was outside the reference range. No adverse reactions were observed in any of the birds. After both single and multiple dosing at 10 mg/kg, voriconazole concentrations exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration to inhibit 90% (MIC90) of Aspergillus species (1 μg/mL) by at least fourfold and remained above the MIC90 for 8.8 ± 1.1 hours after single dosing versus 6.5 ± 1.5 hours after multiple dosing (P = .003). This difference suggests that more frequent dosing (eg, up to q8h) may be necessary to maintain target

  4. Distribuzione e consistenza della popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 nel levante genovese

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    Martina Venturini


    Full Text Available Abstract Distribution and population size of the Grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788 in Province of Genova (NW Italy In Liguria, the Grey squirrel population originated from an introduction of five pairs in an urban park (Genoa Nervi in 1966. A first study, carried out in the 1996 by interviews, located a second group 3 km far, in Bogliasco locality. In this study, conducted in 2001-04, the population size of Genoa Nervi and the presence of the species in surrounding areas were investigated. In 2002 the population size was estimated in 115/286 individuals by distance sampling method, while, by direct observation, it varied from 80 individuals (2004 to 114 individuals (2003. The sampling by hair tubes in surrounding areas confirmed the presence of a group of grey squirrels in Bogliasco and excluded a further dispersal of the species. Riassunto In Liguria, la popolazione di Scoiattolo grigio Sciurus carolinensis ha avuto origine dall'introduzione di 5 coppie nei parchi urbani di Genova Nervi nel 1966. Un primo studio condotto nel 1996 ha localizzato, tramite interviste, un secondo nucleo a 3 km di distanza, in località Bogliasco. Il presente studio, condotto nel 2001-2004, è stato finalizzato alla valutazione della consistenza della popolazione nei parchi di Nervi, mediante il metodo distance sampling e osservazioni dirette, e all'accertamento della presenza della specie nelle aree circostanti mediante l'utilizzo di hair tube. La stima della popolazione con il metodo distance sampling è risultata di 115/286 individui nel 2002, mentre quella ottenuta mediante osservazioni dirette è variata da 80 individui nel 2004 a 114 individui nel 2003. Gli accertamenti compiuti nelle aree circostanti i parchi di Nervi hanno consentito di confermare la presenza di un nucleo di scoiattoli a Bogliasco e di escludere un'ulteriore espansione della specie.

  5. Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers

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    Wallace Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791, is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. It is also ecologically important because of the impact of its filter feeding behaviour on water quality. Populations of C. virginica have been threatened by overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases. Through genome research, strategies are being developed to reverse its population decline. However, large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST resources have been lacking for this species. Efficient generation of EST resources from this species has been hindered by a high redundancy of transcripts. The objectives of this study were to construct a normalized cDNA library for efficient EST analysis, to generate thousands of ESTs, and to analyze the ESTs for microsatellites and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Results A normalized and subtracted C. virginica cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA isolated from hemocytes, mantle, gill, gonad and digestive tract, muscle, and a whole juvenile oyster. A total of 6,528 clones were sequenced from this library generating 5,542 high-quality EST sequences. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 635 contigs and 4,053 singletons, generating a total of 4,688 unique sequences. About 46% (2,174 of the unique ESTs had significant hits (E-value ≤ 1e-05 to the non-redundant protein database; 1,104 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. A total of 35 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs, with 18 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. A total of 6,533 putative SNPs were also identified using all existing and the newly generated EST resources of the eastern oysters. Conclusion A high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed. A total of 5,542 ESTs were generated representing 4,688 unique sequences. Putative microsatellite and SNP markers were identified. These genome resources provide the

  6. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

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    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa


    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  7. Complexo Littorina ziczac (Gmelin (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda no litoral fluminense: análise morfométrica, distribuição vertical e bioquímica The Littorina ziczac (Gmelin complex (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda in the Rio de Janeiro coast: morphometric analysis, vertical distribution and biochemistry

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    Ricardo Silva Absalão


    Full Text Available The Littorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791 species complex was studied in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The occurrence of three species was confirmed, through the analysis of penis morphology: L. ziczac (Gmelin, 1791, L. lineata d'Orbigny, 1841 and L. lineolata d'Orbigny, 1840. There is a correlation between the morphology of the penis and shell shape, thus it was possible to make a discrimination model based in conchologic data, with an efficiency of 75%. However, this model cannot be applied to others samples that weren't included in its formulation, due to phenotypic plasticity of the shell caused by biotic and abiotic factors. In the 9 areas studied L. lineolata was always the most abundam species. No vertical stratification in the distribution of the species was verified. From the nine enzymatic systems examined, only Pgi, Pgm e Mpi, presented identifiable patterns and no diagnostic locus was identified in any species. Nevertheless, S and I suggest the individualization of L. ziczac and L. lineata,respectively.

  8. Anticoagulant rodenticides in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis, and great horned owls, Bubo virginianus, from New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010. (United States)

    Stansley, William; Cummings, Margaret; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa A


    Liver samples from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were analyzed for anticoagulant rodenticides. Residues of one or more second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) were detected in 81 % of red-tailed hawks and 82 % of great horned owls. The most frequently detected SGAR was brodifacoum, which was detected in 76 % of red-tailed hawks and 73 % of great horned owls. Bromadiolone was detected in 20 % of red-tailed hawks and 27 % of great horned owls. Difenacoum was detected in one great horned owl. No other ARs were detected. There were no significant differences between species in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum or bromadiolone. There was a marginally significant difference (p = 0.0497) between total SGAR residues in red-tailed hawks (0.117 mg/kg) and great horned owls (0.070 mg/kg). There were no seasonal differences in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum in red-tailed hawks. The data suggest that SGARs pose a significant risk of poisoning to predatory birds in New Jersey.

  9. Further studies on the use of allopurinol to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations in the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) hyperuricaemic model. (United States)

    Poffers, J; Lumeij, J T; Timmermans-Sprang, E P M; Redig, P T


    The present paper reports the effects of allopurinol in a raptor hyperuricaemic model. The study was performed as a follow-up to previous experiments wherein allopurinol was used in doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg, and was proved to be toxic at these higher dose rates. To investigate whether 25 mg/kg (semel in die) s.i.d. allopurinol is a safe and effective dose in Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations, experimental studies were performed using the physiologically occurring postprandial hyperuricaemia. Preprandial and postprandial plasma concentrations of xanthine, hypoxanthine, allopurinol, oxypurinol and uric acid were established by high-performance liquid chromatography at various time intervals after receiving allopurinol (25 mg/kg SID) or placebo. No significant differences were observed between the experimental and the control group. These results indicate that this dose is safe to administer; however, this dose failed to cause a significant effect on plasma uric acid concentrations. Because of the low therapeutic ratio of allopurinol in Red-tailed Hawks, follow-up studies have concentrated on an alternative for the treatment of hyperuricaemia, namely urate oxidase.

  10. A review of plant protection against the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin and molecular methods to monitor the insecticide resistance alleles

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    Matjaž Hladnik


    Full Text Available Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790 Gmelin is one of the most important olive pests worldwide. Most plant protection measures are based on insecticides, especially organophosphates, pyrethroids, and recently a spinosad. Insecticides are used as cover sprays or in more environmentally friendly methods in which insecticides are used in combination with attractants and pheromones as bait sprays or for mass trapping. However, due to negative impacts of insecticides to environment, new plant protection methods are constantly developing with the aim to lower the consumption of insecticides or even to eliminate them by biological control with entomopathogenic organisms, sterile insect technique (SIT, or transgenic method RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal. However, these methods need to be improved in order to guarantee adequate protection. Alternative methods than those traditionally used are required due to long term usage causing the development of resistance to the insecticides, ultimately lowering their effectiveness. Molecular methods for monitoring the frequencies of resistant alleles and the current status of resistance alleles in olive growing countries are reviewed here.

  11. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

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    Hichem Kacem


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males, collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E, (34°45' N, 11°17' E, (33°41' N, 11°48' E was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010 using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Haemogregarina sp. (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) from the blood of the Caspian freshwater turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) in Iran. (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Ahmadi, Amin


    To date, a number of species of Haemogregarina have been described from different turtle hosts, mainly based on the morphology of the developmental stages detected in the host erythrocytes. The diversity and overlapping morphological features in the old and recent descriptions has led to considerable complications in the taxonomy of Haemogregarina spp. In this study, different stages of maturity and developing gamonts of a putative new species of Haemogregarina were detected in erythrocytes of the Caspian turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) originating from a southern province in Iran. Although some of the morphological characteristics were consistent with Haemogregarina stepanowi Danilewsky, 1885, some new observations were made, particularly in the gamont stage. The phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the present isolate appears as basal to a large clade of Haemogregarina spp. with sequences available in the GenBank database. In accordance with the phylogenetic results, the present Iranian isolate showed a higher degree of interspecific divergence (up to 3.3%) compared to the data for the taxa available in the GenBank database. Thus, molecular data indicate that this isolate may represent a new species. However, further genetic analyses are needed as a complementary tool to the morphological characterisation in order to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Haemogregarina spp.

  13. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei:Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

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    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar


    Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males), collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E), (34°45' N, 11°17' E), (33°41' N, 11°48' E) was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010) using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K) indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  14. External morphology of immature stages of Zaretis strigosus (Gmelin and Siderone galanthis catarina Dottax and Pierre comb. nov., with taxonomic notes on Siderone (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae

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    Fernando Maia Silva Dias


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The external morphology of immature stages of Zaretis strigosus (Gmelin, [1790] and Siderone galanthis catarina Dottax and Pierre, 2009 comb. nov. from southern Brazil are described. Additionally, morphology of the adults and sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase, subunit I, were analyzed in order to evaluate the taxonomy of Siderone galanthis Hübner, [1823]. Immatures were collected on Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae in Curitiba, Paraná, and Balneário Barra do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and reared at the laboratory. Morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided, based on observations through stereoscopic and optic microscopes attached to camera lucida; results are compared and discussed and immature stages of some other species of Charaxinae. The results indicates that the morphology of the immature stages of the studied species differ greatly from other Anaeini, representing a distinct lineage of leafwings butterflies. Morphology and molecular evidence indicate that S. nemesis mexicana Dottax and Pierre, 2009 and S. nemesis catarina Dottax and Pierre, 2009 are conspecific with S. galanthis (Cramer, 1775; additionally, S. thebais C. Felder and R. Felder 1862, S. nemesis var. confluens Staudinger, 1887, S. nemesis f. leonora Bargmann, 1928 and S. nemesis f. exacta Bargmann, 1929 are synonymized with S. galanthis galanthis (Cramer, 1775.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of intravenous and oral meloxicam in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). (United States)

    Lacasse, Claude; Gamble, Kathryn C; Boothe, Dawn M


    Pharmacokinetic data were determined after a single dose of meloxicam in red-tailed hawks (RTH; Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (GHO; Bubo virginianus). In a nonrandomized crossover design, individual birds of each species received 1 dose of intravenous meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg i.v.; n = 7 for each species) followed by a 2-week washout period, and then each received 1 dose of oral meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg PO; n = 5 for each species). Blood samples were collected intermittently after administration, and meloxicam was detected in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time versus plasma concentration data were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. Red-tailed hawks were determined to have the shortest elimination half-life for meloxicam (0.49 +/- 0.5 hours) of any species documented. Great horned owls also eliminated meloxicam very rapidly (0.78 +/- 0.52 hours). Great horned owls achieved higher plasma concentrations (368 +/- 87 ng/mL) of meloxicam than RTH (182 +/- 167 ng/mL) after oral administration, although RTH had a markedly higher volume of distribution (832 +/- 711 mL/kg) than GHO (137.6 +/- 62.7 mL/kg). The differences in meloxicam pharmacokinetics between these 2 raptor species supports the need for species-dependent studies and underlines the challenges of extrapolating drug dosages between species. Results of this study suggest that the current recommended once-daily dosing interval of oral meloxicam is unlikely to maintain plasma concentrations anticipated to be therapeutic in either RTH or GHO, and practical dosing options are questionable for this nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug in these raptor species.

  16. Mechanical evaluation of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin tie-in configurations applied to cadaveral humeri from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Redig, Patrick T; Wallace, Larry J; Bourgeault, Craig A; Bechtold, Joan E


    Use of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin (ESF-IM) tie-in fixators is an adjustable and effective method of fracture fixation in birds. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of each of the following parameters to the compressive and torsional rigidity of an ESF-IM pin tie-in applied to avian bones with an osteotomy gap: (1) varying the fixation pin position in the proximal bone segment and (2) increasing the number of fixation pins in one or both bone segments. ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs were applied to humeri harvested from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n=24) that had been euthanatized for clinical reasons. Constructs with a variation in the placement of the proximal fixation pin and with 2, 3, or 4 fixation pins applied to avian bone with an osteotomy gap were loaded to a defined displacement in torque and axial compression. Response variables were determined from resulting load-displacement curves (construct stiffness, load at 1-mm displacement). Increasing the number of fixation pins from 1 to 2 per bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (110%) and compression (60%), and the safe load in torque (107%) and compression (50%). Adding a fixation pin to the distal bone segment to form a 3-pin fixator significantly increased the stiffness (27%) and safe load (20%) in torque but not in axial compression. In the configuration with 2 fixation pins, placing the proximal pin distally in the proximal bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (28%), and the safe load in torque (23%) and in axial compression (32%). Results quantified the relative importance of specific parameters affecting the rigidity of ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs as applied to unstable bone fracture models in birds.

  17. Lipid peroxidation and metallothionein induction by chromium and cadmium in Oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin from Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz Lipoperoxidación e inducción de metalotioneínas por cromo y cadmio en ostión Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin de la Laguna de Mandinga, Veracruz

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    Guadalupe Barrera-Escorcia


    Full Text Available Metallothionein and lipid peroxidation are associated to metals toxicity, it is possible that accumulation in tissue might as well be related to their increase. Both biomarkers under Cr and Cd exposure were evaluated in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin by Semi-static bioassays, 96 h long. Metallothionein content was determined by silver saturation, lipid peroxidation by reactive components to thiobarbituric acid, and metals concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Metallothioneins increased in digestive gland and abductor muscle under Cr exposure, after 6 h. Under Cd exposure, metallothioneins showed variations, with high values after 48 h in digestive gland, abductor muscle and gill, and important dispersion of data. Lipid peroxidation under Cr exposure reached after 48 h. In Cd, values higher than controls were observed after 6 h exposure. Metallothioneins in gill and digestive gland were positively correlated with the Cr concentration in water and in oysters. In contrast, these proteins correlation turned out to be negative to the Cr Bioconcentration Factor in digestive gland and muscle. The higher peroxidation in oysters which accumulated less, suggests deterioration and a metabolic effort to control the Cr internal concentration. Under Cd exposure, metallothioneins showed positive correlations between water and oysters metal content, and with the Bioconcentration Factor. The correlations, indicates incapability to control the Cd stored levels. The results indicate that the protective role of metallothioneins was limited in the case of this non esencial metal, in oyster originated in native populations from Mandinga Lagoon.Las metalotioneínas y la lipoperoxidación están asociadas a la toxicidad de los metales, su incremento posiblemente se relaciona también con su acumulación en tejido. Se evaluaron ambos biomarcadores en el ostión americano Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, bajo exposición a Cr y Cd con

  18. Numerical Response of the Common Buzzard Buteo Buteo to The Changes In Abundance Of Small Mammals

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    Tóth László


    Full Text Available I investigated the numerical response of the Common Buzzard to variations in density of small mammals. The study was carried out at the Hortobágy region in 2000-2001. During nest visiting periods clutch size, number of hatched and fledged young were recorded. Population of small mammals were also monitored by live-trapping. Effect of weather on the survival of overwintering rodents was also investigated. There was significant difference in clutch size between 2000 and 2001 (means 2.3 and 3.1. It can be explained by the remarkable differences in abundance of small mammal populations between the two years. The density of rodents was very low (9 specimen/ha in 2000. During 2001 the amount of small mammals has increased more than eightfold (76 specimen/ha. In February and March, 2000 there were 4 short mild periods alternating with 4 freezing periods, when distribution of significant precipitation (6-8 mm rainfall in each coincided with the mild periods. Thus the overwintering population almost extincted from the area because the tunnel complexes of voles are repeatedly flooded and huge part of the animals died, resulting very low density during the breeding season. In 2001 there was no such alternating periods, mild weather started 3 weeks earlier, thus voles overwintered successfully and their numbers increased rapidly producing a peak during the breeding season.

  19. Feather corticosterone levels and carotenoid-based coloration in common buzzard (Buteo buteo) nestlings


    Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Mougeot, François; Garcia, Jesus T.; Arroyo, Beatriz; Bortolotti, Gary R.


    [EN]: Most of our understanding of the function of colored traits displayed by birds and the mechanisms that produce or maintain them comes from studies on adults. However, colored traits are often displayed by nestlings from a young age, and these traits may influence parent-offspring interactions or sibling competition. The mechanisms that may mediate the expression of those traits during growth are still fairly unknown in raptors. In this study, we examined a possible mediating effect of c...

  20. Spermatogenesis in the rock oyster, Saccostrea forskali (Gmelin, 1791). (United States)

    Nuurai, Parinyaporn; Panasophonkul, Sasiporn; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Sobhon, Prasert; Wanichanon, Ratanasate


    Morphology of the differentiating spermatogenic cells of the rock oyster Saccostrea forskali (Bivalve: Ostreidae) was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. The testis is formed by several branching acini containing developing spermatogenic cells, classified into 7 stages based on nuclear characteristics, patterns of chromatin condensation and cytoplasmic contents. The spermatogonium is characterized by a euchromatic nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. The cytoplasm contains several round granulo-fibrillar dense bodies surrounded by numerous mitochondria. The round nucleus of the primary spermatocyte contains patches of electron-dense heterochromatin, numerous proacrosomal vesicles, ribosomes and mitochondria. The secondary spermatocytes contain a reticulated chromatin pattern and reduced number of proacrosomal vesicles. The early spermatids contain a small amount of euchromatin among dense patches of heterochromatin. A large single acrosomal vesicle is located in the posterior part of the cell. The middle spermatid is characterized by the migration of an acrosomal vesicle to the anterior part of the nucleus. The late spermatids contain highly condensed heterochromatin blocks and the acrosomal vesicle becomes cup-shaped and invaginated at the basal part. The spermatozoon contains a barrel-shaped head covered with the cup-like acrosome. At this stage, the subacrosomal space contains an axial rod in subacrosomal materials. Three to four transverse bands appear at the anterior region of the acrosome. The middle piece consists of spherical mitochondria surrounding the proximal and distal centrioles. The flagellum consists of 9+2 axonemal microtubule doublets surrounded by the plasma membrane. Our electron microscopic study of spermatogenesis in the S. forskali provides important new information on the mechanism of development of spermatogenesis of this species.

  1. Muflón – Ovis orientalis Gmelin, 1774


    Cassinello, Jorge; Nyman, M.; Salvador Milla, Alfredo


    Mamíferos - Orden Artiodactyla - Familia Bovidae en la Enciclopedia Virtual de Vertebrados Españoles, Versiones anteriores: 11-11-2003; 26-01-2005; 5-06-2008; 26-08-2008

  2. Poliginia em Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Passeriformes, Emberizidae)


    Luiz Octavio Marcondes Machado


    During observations that took place at the Sítio Monte Mor, Municipality of Limeira, São Paulo, two cases of bigamy among Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis were studied. The females occupied the same territory and built the nests close to one another. No aggression was observed between them, when one would enter each others' nest. The male fed the nestling of both females, even when the brood occurred simultaneously.

  3. Poliginia em Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789 (Passeriformes, Emberizidae

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    Luiz Octavio Marcondes Machado


    Full Text Available During observations that took place at the Sítio Monte Mor, Municipality of Limeira, São Paulo, two cases of bigamy among Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis were studied. The females occupied the same territory and built the nests close to one another. No aggression was observed between them, when one would enter each others' nest. The male fed the nestling of both females, even when the brood occurred simultaneously.

  4. First detection of Bacillus anthracis in feces of free-ranging raptors from central Argentina. (United States)

    Saggese, Miguel D; Noseda, Ramón P; Uhart, Marcela M; Deem, Sharon L; Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo C; Ferreyra-Armas, María C; Hugh-Jones, Martin


    Prevalence of anthrax spores in feces of raptors was determined from samples collected in November-December 2000 and April-May 2001 in an agricultural region of Santa Fé province, Argentina. Feces were tested from 48 birds of six raptor species. One of 14 chimango caracaras (Milvago chimango) and one of eight road-side hawks (Buteo magnirostris) tested positive. The prevalence of Bacillus anthracis spores in feces for the six species was 4% (n=48). The prevalence was 7% (n=14) for chimango caracaras, 13% for road-side hawks (n=8), and 0% for the remaining species (Burrowing owl [Speotyto cunicularia] [n=17], Swainson's hawk [Buteo swainsoni] [n=3], Aplomado falcon [Falco femoralis] [n=2], and American kestrel [Falco sparverius] [n=4]). Grouped by their feeding habits, prevalence for scavenger species was not significantly different than for predators (7% vs. 3%, P>0.999). This study provides evidence that in central Argentina scavenger and non-scavenger raptors may have a role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Long-term studies to determine the extent of this potential involvement in the epidemiology of anthrax in central Argentina are required.

  5. Space Use by Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni in the Natomas Basin, California

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    E. Fleishman


    Full Text Available We used satellite-based remote sensing to estimate home ranges for Swainson’s Hawk, a species listed as threatened in California (USA, on its breeding grounds in the Natomas Basin (northern Central Valley, California and to evaluate whether the species’ space-use intensity (statistically derived density of telemetry locations was associated with land cover, sex, reproductive success, or life stage of offspring. We differentiated seven classes of land cover—alfalfa, annually rotated irrigated crops, developed, grassland, orchard / vineyard, rice, and water. From 2011–2013, we fitted transmitters with global positioning systems to 23 adult Swainson’s Hawks. We recorded a minimum of six locations per day per bird from spring through early autumn of each year. We used a fixed, bivariate-normal kernel estimator to calculate a utilization distribution at 30-m resolution for each life stage of each individual within each year. We used a linear mixed model to estimate the associations between intensity of space use and land cover, sex, and reproductive status. The majority of adult Swainson’s Hawks traveled distances up to 8–10 km from the nest throughout the breeding season. Median seasonal home-range sizes in a given year ranged from 87–172 km2. The association between intensity of space use and grassland was 50–139% stronger, and the association between intensity of space use and alfalfa 23–59% stronger, than the associations between intensity of space use and any other land-cover type. Intensity of space use did not vary as a function of sex, reproductive status, or life stage. Given our results and additional knowledge of the species’ ecology, we suggest that reproductive success and, in turn, population-level recruitment may be associated equally if not more closely with availability of nesting sites than with the current distribution of land cover.

  6. Ocular Lesions in Red-Tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) With Naturally Acquired West Nile Disease. (United States)

    Wünschmann, A; Armién, A G; Khatri, M; Martinez, L C; Willette, M; Glaser, A; Alvarez, J; Redig, P


    Ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with West Nile (WN) disease. These lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. Postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired WN disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without WN disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for West Nile virus (WNV) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspase-3, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. Retinal lesions were classified as type I or type II lesions. Type I lesions were characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates in the subjacent choroid with degeneration limited to the outer retina (type Ia lesion) or with degeneration and necrosis of the outer retina or outer and inner retina (type Ib lesion) while retinal collapse, atrophy, and scarring were hallmarks of type II lesions. Type II retinal lesions were associated with a more pronounced choroiditis. Although not statistically significant, WNV antigen tended to be present in larger quantity in type Ib lesions. Type I lesions are considered acute while type II lesions are chronic. The development of retinal lesions was associated with the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate in the choroid. A breakdown of the blood-retina barrier is suspected to be the main route of infection of the retina. Within the retina, virus appeared to spread via both neuronal and Müller cell processes.

  7. Pain-Suppressed Behaviors in the Red-tailed Hawk 1 (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Mazor-Thomas, Jana E; Mann, Phyllis E; Karas, Alicia Z; Tseng, Flo


    Our ability to provide analgesia in wild and exotic patients is hampered by a lack of species-specific information on effective drugs and protocols. One contributing factor is the difficulty of applying data from traditional laboratory tests of nociception to clinical conditions frequently involving combinations of inflammatory, mechanical, and neuropathic pain. Pain-suppressed behaviors have become a valuable predictor of clinical utility in other species; in this study we extend this framework to red -tailed hawks in a wildlife hospital, in an attempt to develop a new, humane testing method for birds of prey. We scored six behaviors in hawks hospitalized either for orthopedic trauma or for non-painful conditions. These behaviors included: movement about the cage, grooming, head motions, foot shifts, beak clacks, and rouse. Movement, head motions, and beak clacks were all significantly reduced in hawks with recent orthopedic injury, but not in hawks with healed or minor injuries (Pred -tailed hawks with recent orthopedic trauma show consistent and marked red uctions in several normal maintenance behaviors. Head movements, reported for the first time in this study as a potential marker of pain in birds, in particular seem to be insensitive to sedative side effects of buprenorphine, while being a sensitive measu re of affective state in hawks with painful injuries. These behaviors can be scored humanely and with minimal expense, and should be considered for further research on pain and analgesia in avian species.


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    Conde-Tinco, M.A.


    Full Text Available Throughout South America there are several species of cormorants, phalacrocoracids, within which is Phalacrocorax brasilianus. The level of bioecology of P. brasilianus was studied in South America where this species is least concern at the moment. However, the fragmentation of their habitat could change this situation, threatening the survival of this species. This paper summarizes the main aspects of the biology, behavior, feeding ecology, morphology, aquatic habits, distribution, status, management and conservation of P. brasilianus in South America. According to all the data obtained, Argentina is the country with more studies on this species, followed by Brazil and Chile.

  9. Determination of lipase activity in the larval midgut of Bacterocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    S Delkash-Roudsari


    Full Text Available In the current study, digestive lipase activity was determined and characterized in the third larval instars of olive fly, Bactericera oleae as the first time in dipteran order. By using two sample fractions, it was found that the enzyme had higher activity in membrane-bound fraction than that of soluble fraction. Optimal pH of soluble lipase was found to be 4 and 6 but membrane-bound lipase showed pH 4 as optimal value. Optimal temperatures for soluble and membrane-bound lipase were obtained to be 35 and 50 °C, respectively. Activities of digestive soluble and membrane-bound lipases decreased by using various mono- and di-valent ions. Since, fruits of olive are full of various oils, digestive lipases of B. oleae larvae have critical role in their digestion. So, these enzymes might be a good target for developing inhibitors and resistant varieties.

  10. A revision of Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) cingulata (Gmelin) and some related species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.


    INTRODUCTION Engaged in the study of fossil shells belonging to Thiele's sectio Cerithideopsilla of the genus Cerithidea Swainson and deriving from plio-pleistocene beds in East Java, I failed to find a satisfying account on the recent species of this group. Therefore I resolved to examine as large

  11. Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791): A bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion (United States)


    Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe) and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe). Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted. PMID:21637701

  12. Studies on bioprospecting potential of a gastropod mollusc Cantharus tranquebaricus(Gmelin,1791)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G; Sarumathi; M; Arumugam; S; Kumaresan; T; Balasubramanian


    Objective:To study the biological activities of the tissue extract of Cantharus tranquebaricus(C.tranquebaricus).Methods:Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial growth.Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and the activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract.Molecular weight of the extract was determined by using SDS-PAGE.Plasma coagulation,Fibrin plate assay and substrate SDS-PAGE were used to determine the effect of sample on plasma coagulation,fibrin(ogen)olytic and proteolytic;activity.Results:The maximum inhibition zone(10 mm)was observed against Vibrio cholera(V.cholera)and minimum inhibition zone(2 mm)was noticed against Proteus mirablis(P.mirablis).The molecular weight was determined as 47-106kDa.The tissue extract shows proteolytic activity above 48 kDa.SDS-PAGE analysis of fibrinogen after incubation with the tissue extract showed fibrinogenolytic activity.In plasma coagulation assay C.tranquebaricus tissue extract showed procoagulant property and it coagulated chicken plasma within 150 s,while control took 5 min to clot.The 9 HU hemolytic units were found against chicken blood and also exhibit high level of brine shrimp lethality.Conclusions:This study suggests that C.tranquebaricus could be used as potential source for isolating bioactive compounds,since it is explored first time and found with promising results.

  13. 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). (United States)

    Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo


    The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'.

  14. Notas sobre o comportamento alimentar do Anu branco, Guira Guira (GMELIN, 1788 (Cuculiformes, Aves

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    José Hernán Fandiño Mariño


    Full Text Available O comportamento aumentar de um grupo de anus brancos, Guira guira, foi observado em condições naturais, no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, no Paraná. Foram totalizadas vinte horas diurnas de observação direta em várias sessões, no período pôs-reprodutivo. A alimentação ocorre ao longo do dia com intervalos nos quais atividades de manutenção como tomar o sol e o contato de limpeza mú tua, são freqüentes. As áreas de alimentação são abertas, apresentando baixa densidade em árvores. O tipo de alimento está baseado principalmente em insetos saltadores, mas pequenos vertebrados são também aproveitados. O comportamento alimentar é uma atividade de grupo cujo processo inclui aparentemente as seguintes etapas: lo. - Permanência prévia num ponto alto e próximo ao terreno alimentar. 2o. - Descida progressão no terreno, emitindo freqüentemente um chamado característico dos deslocamentos. 3o. — Em terra a técnica de captura consiste em "caminhar perturbando ". A atividade é realizada em grupo o que facilita e aumenta a captura das presas em fuga. O avanço do grupo no campo não tem formação fixa, mas urna tendência a formar linhas paralelas ao sentido da progressão. Uma característica ressaltante do comportamento alimentar, foi a presença quase invariável de um sentinela num ponto alto que teria como função denunciar a presença de predadores terrestres. Diversos mecanismos de coesão do grupo parecem ter evoluído, como possíveis evidências do valor adaptativo desta estrutura social. Entre esses mecanismos, alguns padrões visuais conspícuos, uma ampla gama de vocalizações e certos padrões de comportamento social nos quais se estabelece um contato íntimo entre os indivíduos, pareceram-me de maior importância.


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    G. Kurinenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the results of rearing and provide aquaculture-biological characteristic of peled reared in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids based on pond technology. Methodology. The material for the studies were fry, young-of-the-year, yearlings and age-1+ peled produced from eggs exported in March 2009 from Russian Federation. Rearing of peled was carried out based on the technology developed by the All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of Pond Fish Culture for coregonids with the use of methodical recommendations on the biotechnology of industrial rearing of seed coregonids. Studies were carried out at the pond fish farm “Korop” of Lviv region. Water supply of rearing ponds was done by self-flow. The investigation of fish diet and hydrobiological studies were carried out using conventional methods. Findings. We performed a study of fish egg incubation and produced larvae with their further rearing in floating cages to the fingerling stage. Rearing of peled in polyculture allows increasing the fish productivity parameters at the first year of rearing by 1.3%, at the second year by 0.9%. Average weights of age-1 and age-1+ peled were 185.3 g and 450 g, respectively. In these rearing conditions, daily growth of the young-of-the-year was within 0.1-1.5 g, age-1+ – 1.1-3.3 g. As a positive result of rearing, we should note high weight gain during winter period that was more than 50%. We also investigated qualitative and quantitative composition of zooplankton and peled juvenile diet. Originality. The works of peled rearing based on pond technology in polyculture with sturgeons and cyprinids were carried out in the conditions of Ukraine for the first time. Practical value. The results of the performed works along with similar previous works on peled rearing in ponds will be used for the creation of methodical recommendations on rearing of peled seeds, which will be used by Ukrainian fish farms in future.

  16. The status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum (Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Passeriformes: Sturnidae in Southeast Asia

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    Soe Naing


    Full Text Available To date, the status of the Brahminy Starling Sturnia pagodarum, in Southeast Asia has been unclear.  The origins of the few reported sightings, where commented upon, have often been listed as ‘uncertain’ or ‘unknown’ with the implication that some, maybe all, are escaped captivity birds.  The current paper brings together data on distribution, date of observation, and number of individuals to illustrate a pattern that clearly supports the view that records from Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore should be treated as ‘winter vagrants’.  With one exception, they are all of five birds or less and have been observed from October to March.  The paper includes the first authenticate record from Myanmar, which is the 1115th wild bird species listed for the country.  However, the status of a single record from Cambodia is treated with caution since it represents a considerable range extension and was observed on 01 April, which is relatively late in the season.  For these reasons, it is here listed as ‘origin uncertain’ until further data are available.  

  17. [Morphobiochemical adaptations of Mediterranean Littorina punctata (Gmelin, 1790) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to survival under supralittoral conditions]. (United States)

    Aliakrinskaia, I O


    Behavioral and morphobiochemical adaptations of Littorina punctata to dwelling under supralittoral condi- tions are analyzed. A quantitative estimation of the hemoglobin content in the radular tissues of the mollusk is given.

  18. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761). (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal


    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola.


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    O. Nazarov


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate peled as a food product, raw material for processing and analyze traditional methods of its technological processing. Findings. The paper contains an analysis of the chemical composition of peled meat and its difference compared to other fish of pond aquaculture of Ukraine. According to the parameters of the biochemical composition of the meat of peled reared in the conditions of pond aquaculture, including: contents of fats, proteins, and moisture, belongs to the category of fish from medium to high fat content with medium protein content as well as to fish of increased nutritional value and assimilability based on water-protein, fat-protein, and water-fat balance, and based on amino-acid composition in percent, according to Score standard. Unlike cyprinids — objects of pond aquaculture, general indices of the biochemical composition and peculiarities of anatomical structure of peled as a coregonid representative, contribute to the formation of organoleptic features of native origin that are inherent to gourmet types of the products of traditional processing. It was found that unlike other coregonids, the biochemical indices of peled meat, which define the type and directions of its processing and its regime, first of all, the content of fat, protein, and moisture аre relatively stable for different age groups under conditions of pond aquaculture and they change less during the biological cycle. Main product requirements to the methods of technological processing of peled are summarized, namely: drying, smoking, salting. Full technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods taking into account biochemical peculiarities of raw material and requirements for the finished product are presented and analyzed. Practical value. The summarized information is useful for further development of domestic aquaculture and processing. Different indices of biochemical composition and high output indices of peled meat compared to main objects of pond aquaculture of Ukraine as well as with other fish species are shown. Special attention is given to the analysis of technological schemes of peled processing by traditional methods, first of all, using traditional equipment taking into account rational regimes of the processing of raw materials and semi-products, which contribute to the formation of trade features of the finished gourmet product. The detailed analysis will contribute to the awareness of the importance of the formation of high quality properties of fish raw material for its further processing by the manufacturers of aquaculture products.

  20. Studies on bioprospecting potential of a gastropod mollusc Cantharus tranquebaricus (Gmelin, 1791)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Sarumathi; M Arumugam; S Kumaresan; T Balasubramanian


    To study the biological activities of the tissue extract of Cantharus tranquebaricus (C. tranquebaricus). Methods: Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and the activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular weight of the extract was determined by using SDS-PAGE. Plasma coagulation, Fibrin plate assay and substrate SDS-PAGE were used to determine the effect of sample on plasma coagulation, fibrin (ogen) olytic and proteolytic activity. Results: The maximum inhibition zone (10 mm) was observed against Vibrio cholera (V. cholera) and minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Proteus mirablis (P. mirablis). The molecular weight was determined as 47-106 kDa. The tissue extract shows proteolytic activity above 48 kDa. SDS-PAGE analysis of fibrinogen after incubation with the tissue extract showed fibrinogenolytic activity. In plasma coagulation assay C. tranquebaricus tissue extract showed procoagulant property and it coagulated chicken plasma within 150 s, while control took 5 min to clot. The 9 HU hemolytic units were found against chicken blood and also exhibit high level of brine shrimp lethality. Conclusions: This study suggests that C. tranquebaricus could be used as potential source for isolating bioactive compounds, since it is explored first time and found with promising results.

  1. Effect of tidal regime on the thermal tolerance of the marine gastropod Lunella smaragda (Gmelin 1791). (United States)

    Mortensen, B J D; Dunphy, B J


    The tidal cycle around New Zealand results in spring low tides consistently occurring during the hottest part of the day (mid-afternoon) in north-eastern New Zealand, and during the cooler dawn/dusk periods in the north-west of the country. We hypothesised that due to mid-afternoon spring low tides, intertidal populations residing at north-eastern sites would show greater thermotolerance than their north-west conspecifics. To test this we used the marine gastropod, Lunella smaragda, which were collected from sites on both the East and West coasts of the Auckland region and exposed to an acute heat shock. Thermotolerance was measured as survivorship (LT50), drop down time (time to heat coma) and thermal stability of the anaerobic energy producing enzyme Tauropine dehydrogenase. Furthermore, temperature loggers were deployed at each site so as to record and compare thermal regimes among sites. A strong temperature spike associated with spring low tide was found at all sites, and maximal temperatures of all East coast sites were higher than West coast sites (in some case by up to 10°C). In terms of thermotolerance, mortality of L. smaragda occurred at 42°C leading to 100% mortality at 45°C. However, comparison of LT50 showed snails were equally thermotolerant regardless of site of collection. Similar results were found in TDH thermal stability with animals from all sites showing an approximately 80% decrease in enzyme activity after 10min exposure to 42°C. Whilst drop down times were different among sites these were correlated with animal size as opposed to site of collection. Thus, East coast populations of L. smaragda appear no more thermotolerant than their West coast counterparts. Such a result is concerning as maximal temperatures at East coast sites already exceed the LT50 values of L. smaragda recorded in the lab suggesting these populations have less of a thermal safety margin.

  2. Aves de fragmentos florestais em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar no sudeste do Brasil Birds of forest fragments in area of sugar-cane crops in southeastern Brazil

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    Augusto Piratelli

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a avifauna de quatro fragmentos florestais em uma área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A dieta básica e a estrutura das guildas tróficas foi determinada. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 2000 a julho de 2001, utilizando-se capturas com redes ornitológicas, registros visuais e auditivos e análise de fezes. Quarenta e quatro espécies foram registradas e agrupadas em oito guildas tróficas (insetívoros, granívoros, carnívoros, frugívoros, piscívoros, nectarívoros, onívoros e detritívoros. Estas espécies foram também subdivididas em guildas mais específicas, associadas a seus hábitats. Algumas espécies apenas sobrevoaram os fragmentos, como Egretta thula (Molina, 1782, enquanto outras foram consideradas residentes, como Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766. Algumas, como Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766, somente utilizaram os fragmentos para repouso noturno. Espécies pequenas de sub-bosque provavelmente não se deslocaram entre fragmentos, dada a relativa grande distância entre eles. Predadores como Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1789 utilizaram tanto os fragmentos quando as áreas abertas e canaviais em seu entorno. Estes fragmentos estão em situação crítica, abrigando principalmente espécies generalistas e/ou especialistas de bordas; porém ainda são utilizados de alguma forma por espécies de interesse ecológico, como Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820 e A. amazonica.Birds of four forest fragments in areas of extensive sugar-cane plantation were studied in Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from October 2000 to July 2001. The basic diet of sampled species and their trophic guild allocation were determined. The study was carried out by means of capture with mist nets, visual and auditive records and analysis of faeces. Forty-four species were recorded and grouped in eight trophic guilds (insectivores

  3. Procyrnea chabaud, 1958 (Nematoda: Habronematoidea: Habronematidae) in birds from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, including descriptions of 3 new species. (United States)

    Zhang, Luping; Brooks, Daniel R; Causey, Douglas


    Four species of Procyrnea were collected in birds from the Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Procyrnea brevicaudata n. sp. in Crypturellus cinnamomeus resembles P. ficheuri, P. murrayi, P. ameerae, P. dollfusi, and P. aptera in lacking lateral alae but differs from all these species in having 2 longitudinal ridges on the left side of the body, in having a sinistral rather than ventral vulvar opening, and in having dorsally bent rather than straight female tails. Procyrnea mawsonae n. sp., in Buteo magnirostris, is similar to P. strialata in body size and in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but differs by having longer and differently shaped spicules, and by lacking a single preanal sessile papilla. Procyrnea mclennanae n. sp., in Heliomaster constantii, is similar to P. strialata (Zhang, 1991) and P. mawsonae n. sp. in having 2 transverse striated lateral alae, but it can be distinguished from P. strialata and P. mawsonae in having 4 rather than 3 small teeth on the interior border of the pseudolabia, in having unequal rather than equal lateral alae, and in having longer spicules. Procyrnea sp., on the basis of a single adult male in Campephilus guatemalensis, resembles P. suraiyae, P. tulostoma, and P. unilateralis in possessing a single and long lateral ala, but can be distinguished from P. suraiyae and P. tulostoma in the length of the left spicule, in the left spicule having a bifid distal end, the right spicule having a rounded distal end rather than both spicules having pointed distal ends, and in having the lateral ala beginning at the lip region instead of posterior to the cervical papillae. It differs from P. uncinipenis in having a spicule ratio of 1:3.5 rather than 1:2.5, in the left spicule having a bifid rather than alate distal end, and in the absence of a single preanal papilla.

  4. Pathologic findings in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooper) naturally infected with West Nile virus. (United States)

    Wünschmann, Arno; Shivers, Jan; Bender, Jeff; Carroll, Larry; Fuller, Susan; Saggese, Miguel; van Wettere, Arnaud; Redig, Pat


    Carcasses of 13 red-tailed hawks (RTHAs) and 11 Cooper's hawks (COHAs) were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using WNV-specific reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on fresh brain tissue and WNV-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) on various organs. Ten COHAs (91%) and 11 RTHAs (85%) were positive for WNV RNA by RT-PCR. All 11 COHAs (100%) and 10 RTHAs (77%) were positive for WNV antigen by IHC. A triad of inflammatory lesions, including chronic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic encephalitis, endophthalmitis, and myocarditis, was common in both species. In COHAs, the heart (54%), cerebrum (50%), and eye (45%) were the organs that most commonly contained WNV antigen. The amount of WNV antigen was usually small. In RTHAs, the kidney (38%), cerebrum (38%), cerebellum (38%), and eye (36%) were the organs most commonly containing WNV antigen. Unlike COHAs, larger amounts of WNV antigen were present in the cerebrum of RTHAs. WNV antigen was detected in similar cell populations in both species, including neurons of brain, spinal cord, and retina, pigmented epithelial cells of the retina, epithelial cells of renal medullary tubules, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells of arteries, dendritic cells of splenic lymph follicles, exocrine pancreatic cells, adrenal cells, and keratinocytes of the skin. The study presents strong evidence that WNV can cause a chronic fatal disease in RTHAs and COHAs. The lesion distribution of WNV infection in both species is variable, but inflammatory lesions are common, and a triad of lesions including encephalitis, myocarditis, and endophthalmitis is indicative of WNV infection in both species.

  5. Valvular endocarditis and septic thrombosis associated with a radial fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Lemon, Matthew J; Pack, LeeAnn; Forzán, María J


    A free-ranging adult female red-tailed hawk died suddenly after 3 weeks in rehabilitation for a radial fracture. Cause of death was septic thrombosis from a chronic bacterial valvular endocarditis, probably associated with injury at the fracture site. The challenge of clinical diagnosis of sepsis in wild birds is emphasized.

  6. Valvular endocarditis and septic thrombosis associated with a radial fracture in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)



    A free-ranging adult female red-tailed hawk died suddenly after 3 weeks in rehabilitation for a radial fracture. Cause of death was septic thrombosis from a chronic bacterial valvular endocarditis, probably associated with injury at the fracture site. The challenge of clinical diagnosis of sepsis in wild birds is emphasized.

  7. Composición química y actividad antioxidante del alga marina roja Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the red marine algae Bryothamnion triquetrum (S.G.Gmelin Howe

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    Alexis Vidal


    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe un marcado interés por la búsqueda de antioxidantes de fuentes naturales, incluidas las algas marinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la composición química y propiedades antioxidantes del alga Bryothamnion triquetrum. Se estudió la composición centesimal y de minerales, identificación de ácidos grasos y sustancias antioxidantes. La composición centesimal es la siguiente: Proteínas (9,5%, Lípidos (1,3%, Carbohidratos (5,9%, Fibras (10,2% y Cenizas (43%. Los resultados de la actividad antioxidante para las diferentes metodologías empleadas fueron: atrapamiento de radicales DPPH• (38%, 4 mg de liofilizado, beta-Caroteno-Linoleico (12%, 4 mg de liofilizado, actividad atrapadora de radicales O2•- (CI50 0,36 mg/mL, de radicales OH• (CI50 2,11 mg/mL y unión al Fe (CI50 0,37 mg/mL. Las propiedades antioxidantes de esta alga parecen explicarse por la capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, particularmente relacionada con mecanismos de dismutación de radicales O2•-, inactivación de radicales OH• y quelación de Fe. En trabajos previos se identificaron ácidos cinámicos y fenólicos como moléculas que pudieran explicar la actividad antioxidante, sin embargo adicionalmente se debe considerar un efecto sumatorio y/o sinérgico de otros componentes antioxidantes del extracto, como los descritos en este trabajo, incluidos minerales, carotenoides y vitamina C.An increasing interest has been growing during the past years for the search of natural origin antioxidants, particularly those from marine algae. In this context, the main objective of current research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of the seaweed Bryothamnion triquetrum. The extracts contains: Proteins (9.5%, Lipids (1.3%, Carbohydrates (5.9%, Fibers (10.2% and Ashes (43%. In current approach, the following results were obtained for the different procedures assessed: DPPH• radicals scavenging (38% for 4 mg of lyophilized; beta-Carotene-Linoleic assay (12% for 4 mg of lyophilized; O2•- radicals scavenging (IC50 0.36 mg/mL; OH• radicals scavenging (IC50 2.11 mg/mL and iron quelation ability (IC50 0.37 mg/mL. Thus, antioxidant properties of this natural product seem to be related to its ability to scavenge free species. In previous reports of our group, cinnamic and phenolic acids were proposed as at least partially responsible for the antioxidant properties of the extract, but the necessity for the presence of other components was also shown. Then, the antioxidant properties of the extract could be envisioned as the result of the additive and/or synergic effect between phenolic constituents and the other antioxidant components, such as minerals, carotenes and ascorbic acid.

  8. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae: An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

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    Nelvana Ramalingum


    Full Text Available Vangueria madagascariensis (VM, consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r=0.88 with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research.

  9. Temporal variation of the cestode, Cotugnia cuneata (Meggit, 1924) in their host, domestic pigeons, Columba livia domestica (Gmelin, 1789). (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath


    A study of the temporal variation of Cotugnia cuneata, on a monthly basis, was carried out from January 2008 to December 2010. The study revealed a similarity in the percentage prevalence and mean intensity of infection with higher values in the beginning of the year that gradually declined towards the middle and rose to moderate values towards the end of the year. The periodicity clearly shows a correlation with the seasonal changes throughout the year and provides important insights to the survival strategies of the parasite as well as its life-cycle.

  10. Tissue-specific accumulation of cadmium in subcellular compartments of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

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    Sokolova, I.M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)]. E-mail:; Ringwood, A.H. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Johnson, C. [Johnson C. Smith University, 100 Beatties Ford Road, Charlotte, NC 28216 (United States)


    Cadmium distribution was studied in different subcellular fractions of gill and hepatopancreas tissues of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Oysters were exposed for up to 21 days to low sublethal Cd concentrations (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Gill and hepatopancreas tissues were sampled and divided into organelle fractions and cytosol by differential centrifugation. Organelle content of different fractions was verified by activities of marker enzymes, citrate synthase and acid phosphatase for mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively. In both tissue types, there was a significant accumulation of cadmium in cytosol reaching 230-350 ng mg{sup -1} protein. Among organelles, mitochondria were the main target for Cd bioaccumulation in gills (250-300 ng mg{sup -1} protein), whereas in hepatopancreas tissues, the highest cadmium accumulation occurred in lysosomes (90-94 ng mg{sup -1} protein). Although 75-83% of total cadmium burden was associated with the cytosol reflecting high volume fraction of this compartment, Cd concentrations in organelle fractions reached levels that could cause dysfunction of mitochondria and lysosomes. Organ- and organelle-specific patterns of cadmium bioaccumulation support our previous in vivo studies, which showed adverse effects of cadmium exposures on mitochondrial oxidation in gills and on the lysosomal system of hepatopancreas. This may have important implications for the development of biomarkers of effect for heavy metals and for understanding the mechanisms of toxic effects of metals.

  11. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

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    Puig-Pujol Anna


    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  12. Numerical Quantification of Perkinsus Marinus in the American Oyster Crassostrea virginicata (Gmelin 1791) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) by Modern Stereology (United States)

    Species of Perkinsus are responsible for high mortalities of bivalve molluscs world-wide. Techniques to accurately estimate parasites in tissues are required to improve understanding of perkinsosis. This study quantifies the number and tissue distribution of Perkinsus marinus in ...

  13. Cypermethrin-Induced Toxic Effect on Glycogen Metabolism in Estuarine Clam, Marcia Opima (Gmelin, 1791 of Ratnagiri Coast, Maharashtra

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    Medha Tendulkar


    Full Text Available Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid class of insecticide. Toxic effects of cypermethrin were studied by selecting Marcia opima as an animal model. Cypermethrins effect on the total glycogen content of mantle, gill, foot, hepatopancreas, male gonad and a female gonad of an estuarine clam, Marcia opima was examined. The clams were exposed to 1.58 ppm cypermethrin for acute and 1/th of that concentration for chronic treatment. It was found that there was a decrease in glycogen content in various tissues as compared to control. In LC0 and LC50 groups, glycogen was decreased in all tissues except in hepatopancreas compared to control. This decrease is greater in mantle, gill, and foot in LC50 group than the decrease in those tissues of LC0 group. In chronic exposure it was found that glycogen was decreased in mantle, foot, male gonad, and female gonad when compared to the control group except in gill and hepatopancreas. Decrease in glycogen content indicates greater utilization of glycogen for metabolic purposes and too combat with cypermethrin stress. The significant increase in glycogen content in gill and hepatopancreas may be a reaction to the increase in energy demand.


    Histological examination of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from a study in Pensacola Bay, Florida, revealed two cases of abnormally large, basophilic ova that resemble ovacystis disease previously reported in oysters from Maine and Long Island. The hypertrophied gamet...

  15. Effects of cadmium exposure on expression and activity of P-glycoprotein in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

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    Ivanina, Anna V. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Sokolova, Inna M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)], E-mail:


    Heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem, and cadmium (Cd) is one of the most noxious pollutants in aquatic environments. We studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function in control and Cd exposed (50 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cd, 30-40 days) oysters Crassostrea virginica as a possible mechanism of cell protection against Cd. Our data show that P-gp is expressed on cell membrane and in mitochondria of oyster gills and hepatopancreas. Inhibitor studies with verapamil, cyclosporine A and JS-2190 suggest that in the gills, mitochondrial P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol into the mitochondria, while cell membrane P-gp pumps substrates from cytosol out of the cell. Cd exposure resulted in a 2-2.5-fold increase in P-gp protein expression in cell membranes and a 3.5-7-fold increase in transport activity measured as the inhibitor-sensitive rhodamine B extrusion rate. In contrast, p-gp mRNA levels were similar in control and Cd-exposed oysters. No difference in P-gp protein expression was observed between mitochondria of control and Cd-exposed oysters but the apparent transport activity was higher in mitochondria from Cd-exposed oysters. Overall, a stronger increase in substrate transport activity in Cd-exposed oysters compared to a relatively weaker change in P-gp protein levels suggests that P-gp activity is post-translationally regulated. Our data show that direct determination of P-gp transport activity may be the best measure of the xenobiotic-resistant phenotype, whereas p-gp mRNA levels are not a good marker due to the likely involvement of multiple post-transcriptional regulatory steps. Cd exposure resulted in a significantly elevated rate of oxygen consumption of isolated oyster gills by 46%. Specific inhibitors of ATPase function of P-gp (cyclosporine A and JS-2190) had no significant effect on tissue oxygen consumption indicating that P-gp contribution to energy budget is negligible and supporting indirect estimates based on the ATP stoichiometry of substrate transport that also suggest low energy demand for P-gp function.

  16. A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). (United States)

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T


    Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals.

  17. Tolerancia aL NaCI de plantas andaluzas de vid silvestre (Vitis vinifera L., ssp sylvestris (sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi)


    Rivasplata, Paula E.


    68 páginas, 10 fotos, 18 tablas, 96 referencias.-- Memoria final presentada al XLII Curso Internacional de Edafología y Biología Vegetal, patrocinado por UNESCO-AECI y CSIC que desde 1963 hasta 2009 se ha impartido en el Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Cuarto (CEBAC) y a partir de 1987 pasó a denominarse Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC).-- Existe un ejemplar de la publicación en la Biblioteca del Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología...

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia. (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una


    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like.

  19. Ecological characteristics of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 in the eastern Mediterranean Sea – a case study from Rhodes

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    Full Text Available In this study, the ecological and societal impact of the invasive pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus on coastal habitats of an area of the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Rhodes Island was investigated. Seasonal quantitative samplings in two common coastal habitats were used to investigate habitat use of different life-stages. Sandy areas were found to be highly important for the early life stages of L. sceleratus. In contrast, Posidonia oceanica habitats were mainly preferred by larger (> 29 cm reproductive adults, not exceeding 64 cm. Lagocephalus sceleratus was found to feed on invertebrates and fish while size classification revealed a tendency for a diet shift with increased size. During early life stages, L. sceleratus inhabits sandy bottoms where it feeds on various invertebrates. The predominant molluscan species found in the diet of larger (> 20 cm L. sceleratus individuals were the economically important Sepia officinalis and Octopus vulgaris. The size at which 50% of individuals reach maturity was estimated to 19 cm. With increased size, habitat shift to seagrass meadows most possibly occurs to meet both the increased demand in prey availability and requirement of appropriate spawning ground. Condition factor of L. sceleratus showed significantly higher values during summer than all other seasons and this was attributed to spawning season and increase in feeding. Societal impacts were alarming due to increased public attention concerning its lethal effects (presence of tetrodotoxin, if consumed. Its high abundance in the coastal fish communities of the studied area combined with ecological and societal impacts, clearly classify L. sceleratus a pest for fisheries and potential threat for biodiversity.

  20. Cadmium exposure affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin (Bivalvia: Ostreidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolova, Inna M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)]. E-mail:; Sokolov, Eugene P. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Ponnappa, Kavita M. [Biology Department, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)


    Cadmium is a ubiquitous and extremely toxic metal, which strongly affects mitochondrial function of aquatic organisms in vitro; however, nothing is known about the in vivo effects of sublethal concentrations of this metal on mitochondrial bioenergetics. We have studied the effects of exposure to 0 (control) or 25 {mu}g L{sup -1} (Cd-exposed) Cd{sup 2+} on mitochondrial function and gene expression of key mitochondrial proteins in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Cadmium exposure in vivo resulted in considerable accumulation of cadmium in oyster mitochondria and in a significant decrease of ADP-stimulated respiration (state 3) by 30% indicating impaired capacity for ATP production. The decrease in state 3 respiration was similar to the level of inhibition expected from the direct effects of cadmium accumulated in oyster mitochondria. On the other hand, while no effect on proton leak was expected based on the mitochondrial accumulation of cadmium, Cd-exposed oysters in fact showed a significant decline of the proton leak rate (state 4 + respiration) by 40%. This suggested a downregulation of proton leak, which correlated with a decrease in mRNA expression of a mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP6 and two other potential uncouplers, mitochondrial substrate carriers MSC-1 and MSC-2. Expression of other key mitochondrial proteins including cytochrome c oxidase, adenine nucleotide transporter and voltage dependent anion channel was not affected by cadmium exposure. Adenylate energy charge (AEC) was significantly lower in Cd-exposed oysters; however, this was due to higher steady state ADP levels and not to the decrease in tissue ATP levels. Our data show that adjustment of the proton leak in cadmium-exposed oysters may be a compensatory mechanism, which allows them to maintain normal mitochondrial coupling and ATP levels despite the cadmium-induced inhibition of capacity for ATP production.

  1. Filaria martis Gmelin 1790 (Spirurida, Filariidae) affecting beech marten (Martes foina): morphological description and molecular characterisation of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Giannetto, Salvatore


    Filaria martis causes a poorly known subcutaneous filariosis in mustelids. Few information is available about lesions that F. martis causes in beech martens, on its morphology, biology and the occurrence of the infection. From 1997 to 2006, 29 beech martens from two sites of southern Italy (Sites A and B) have been necropsied. Ectoparasites and nematodes were collected and morphologically identified. A variable region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of F. martis has been characterised to compare females presenting caudal tips smooth without spines (i.e. Morphotype 1-Mrph. 1) and with spines (i.e. Mrph. 2). All ticks collected were identified as Haemaphysalis erinacei. Eleven animals from Site A were found infected by F. martis nematodes in subcutaneous tissue in both membranous capsules or free under the inner skin surface. The most important morphological characters of F. martis have been reported and discussed. The molecular analysis showed 100% homology among cox1 sequences from Mrph. 1 and 2 thus indicating that the shape of female posterior edge may vary among specimens of F. martis. The results here presented provide new insights into the biology, ecology and morphological characteristics of this scantly known nematode.

  2. Human dietary exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus Gmelin 1791) from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyte, Adele L.H., E-mail: [Centre for Biodiscovery, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Centre for Marine Environmental and Economic Research, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Raumati Hook, G. [Institute for Maeori Research and Development, Whangaparaoa (New Zealand); Greening, Gail E. [ESR Kenepuru Science Centre, PO Box 50-348, Porirua (New Zealand); Gibbs-Smith, Emma [Te Tii (Waitangi) Marae, Te Karuwha Parade, Pahia (New Zealand); Gardner, Jonathan P.A. [Centre for Marine Environmental and Economic Research, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)


    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) concentrations were determined using ICP-MS in soft tissues (wet wt.) from whole greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) collected from Urapukapuka-Rawhiti Island, Opua Marina, Waitangi Bridge and Opua Wharf from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand (NZ). All samples had metal concentrations well below the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) maximum limits and were comparable to, or less than, concentrations observed in previous NZ studies. Based on the average values detected in the current study, the concentrations of heavy metals ingested in a 'typical diet' containing greenshell mussels are below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). However, Maori (indigenous people of New Zealand), Pacific Islanders and Asians consume a far greater quantity of seafood (and therefore heavy metals) than the general public of New Zealand and could potentially consume enough shellfish to exceed the PTWI for Cd (but not for Hg, As, Pb or Sn). Although our results, based on the current PTWIs, indicate no significant health risk to greenshell mussel consumers in this region, PTWIs change over time; concentrations which were thought to be safe are later found to be harmful. Additionally, differences in individual human susceptibilities to various toxins could increase the risk of harm for consumers with low tolerance to heavy metals. We suggest that a survey of the frequency, amount and species consumed by groups whose diet may be largely shellfish-based is required to enable a more comprehensive risk assessment to be made.

  3. Physiological responses of two seaweed biofilter candidates, Gracilariopsis bailiniae Zhang et Xia and Hydropuntia edulis (S Gmelin, to nutrient source and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Joy Carton


    Full Text Available Two gracilarioid species, Gracilariopsis bailiniae and Hydropuntia edulis, were comparedbased on their growth under different temperature and salinity levels and nitrogen source and on theirphotosynthetic responses under different irradiance levels. Results show that growth of Gp. bailiniaewas significantly higher than that of H. edulis. Both species were euryhaline and had optimum growthrates at 27˚C (16.06 % d-1 ± 0.10 for Gp. bailiniae and 9.53 % d-1 ± 0.62 for H. edulis under bothammonium and nitrate enrichment. Gracilariopsis bailiniae was able to use both N-forms as a nitrogensource in all temperature and salinity levels tested. Meanwhile, the interactive effect of nitrogensource with temperature was observed for H. edulis with plants grown in nitrate enrichment showingsignificantly higher growth rates than those in ammonium. Nitrate enrichment also resulted to highergrowth rates for H. edulis in all salinity levels tested. Photosynthetic rates of Gp. bailiniae were higherthan H. edulis. We also found a two-fold difference between the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmaxof Gp. bailiniae (12.41 ± 1.81 and that of H. edulis (6.44 ± 0.62. However, photosynthetic efficiency(α was significantly higher in H. edulis than in Gp. bailiniae while compensation and saturation pointirradiance levels were similar in both species.

  4. Análise populacional de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, na Praia do Saco da Ribeira, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo

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    Y Schaeffer-Novelli


    Full Text Available Monthly quantitative sampling of the beach benthic macro fauna was made from June 1972 through December 1974. Determinations of the distribution index, length |dry weight correlation and vertical distribution pattern was also made.

  5. Effects of clam size, food type, sediment characteristic, and seawater carbonate chemistry on grazing capacity of Venus clam Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin, 1791) (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Xin; Lai, Qifang; Zhang, Dong; Shi, Liyan


    Aquaculture in saline-alkaline water has a major problem: microalgal blooming causes the pH of water to increase dramatically, thereby causing damage to the reared organisms. To solve this problem, we set out to find a candidate filter-feeding bivalve species suitable for saline-alkaline water to graze on microalgae and to control the pH. In the current study, we investigated the effect of carbonate alkalinity (CA, 2.5, 10.0, and 20.0 meq/L) and pH (8.0, 8.5, and 9.0) on the grazing capacity (GC) of the clam Cyclina sinensis. Additionally, the effect of clam size (small, medium, and large) and microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Chaetoceros müelleri, and Isochrysis galbana), and the effect of bottom sediment characteristic (mud, sandy mud, and muddy sand) and thickness (3 and 6 cm) were analyzed as well. The results show that the GC on I. galbana was the highest and small size had the maximum GC/W (W: wet weight including body and shells). No significant differences were observed between sediment type and thickness. Regarding CA and pH, a significant decrease in GC by the pH or by their interaction was found. The GC of C. sinensis was not greatly reduced in the treatments of pH≤8.5 and CA≤20.0, and also not affected by bottom sediment type, indicating that this clam is capable to manage microalgal concentrations and might be a candidate species for pH reduction in saline-alkaline water ponds.

  6. Experiência de repovoamento com Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789 (Passeriformes, Emberizidae em área destinada à pecuária leiteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado


    Full Text Available Relatam-se experiências feitas com exemplares de Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, reintroduzidos, a partir de aves criadas em cativeiro e também recentemente capturadas, para repovoar a fazenda Jatibaia, em Campinas, Estado de São Paulo.Experiments made with Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis are related. Specimens both bred in captivity and recently captured were realeased to recolonize the farm Jatibaia, at Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  7. Experiência de repovoamento com Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Passeriformes, Emberizidae) em área destinada à pecuária leiteira


    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado


    Relatam-se experiências feitas com exemplares de Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis, reintroduzidos, a partir de aves criadas em cativeiro e também recentemente capturadas, para repovoar a fazenda Jatibaia, em Campinas, Estado de São Paulo.Experiments made with Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis are related. Specimens both bred in captivity and recently captured were realeased to recolonize the farm Jatibaia, at Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  8. Cytogenetic and viability effects of petroleum aromatic and PCB hydrocarbons, temperature and salinity, on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiles-Jewell, S.


    Fertilized eggs were exposed to 0.1, 10 and 100 mg/l of benzene, naphthalene and Aroclor 1254 individually and in combination in seawater at temperatures and salinities of 20 and 25. Toxicity was measured as frequencies of: (1) meiotic and mitotic abnormalities in 3-hour embryos; (2) total development to the 48-hour straight-hinge larval stage; (3) mortality and abnormality at the 48-hour larval stage; (4) mean size of larvae at 48 hours; and (5) cytogenetic and cytological abnormalities in 48-hour larvae. Dose-dependent responses were observed. Overall, naphthalene and aroclor at 100 mg/l had few embryos that survived to the stage where they could be examined and scored for cytogenetic and cytological abnormality even by 3-hours post-fertilization. Abnormality of the few embryos available for examination was somewhat higher for aroclor but was significantly higher for naphthalene than for control embryos and those exposed to 0.1 mg/l. At the highest concentration of 100 mg/l, mortality was 100% by the larval stage for naphthalene and aroclor. Though total development and survival of embryos to the larval stage at the 10 mg/l dose were high, many of the larvae were dead or abnormal in the aroclor-exposed cultures. This mean incidence was significantly higher than for all other groups. Larvae developing in these cultures with 10 mg/l were also significantly smaller and cytological condition of the larvae was significantly worse. Higher temperature appeared to increase the frequency of deleterious effects, particularly for naphthalene and aroclor. Results with salinity were more variable. Overall, results showed that petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs can have toxic effects on the development and survival of early life stages of oysters, as well as sublethal effects on growth and cytological condition, depending on dose and interactions with other compound and with environmental variables.

  9. 78 FR 66058 - Habitat Conservation Plan for South Sacramento County, California (United States)


    ...) Pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus) Western red bat (Lasiurus blossevillii) Yuma myotis bat (Myotis yumanensis) White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus) Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) Ferruginous hawk (Buteo...) ] Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus) Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni) Tricolored blackbird (Agelaius...

  10. Divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes, Emberizidae), em cativeiro


    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado


    São relatadas observações relativas à divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin) e S. f. pelzelni (Sclater), em condições de cativeiro.Observations relating to the division of labour for young care in Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin) and S. f. pelzelni (Sclater), in captivity, are presented.

  11. 78 FR 75939 - Bay Delta Habitat Conservation Plan and Natural Community Conservation Plan, Sacramento, CA... (United States)


    ... canadensis tabida); Suisun song sparrow (Melospiza melodia maxillaries); Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni... billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis); white-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus); yellow-...

  12. South West Georgia: an important bottleneck for raptor migration during autumn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhelst, B.; Jansen, J.; Vansteelant, W.


    Counts of migrating raptors at Batumi, Georgia, revealed the eastern Black Sea coast to form one of the most important bottlenecks for raptor migration during autumn in the Eurasian-African migration system. Totals for 10 species (European Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus, Steppe Buzzard Buteo buteo vu

  13. Vibrio Bacteria Counts from Hatcheries and Shellfish Beds (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1996 to the present samples of water, sediment and macerated oyster set (Crassostrea virginica, Gmelin) taken at low tide at a Long Island oyster hatchery were...

  14. 海水比重对青蛤受精、胚胎发育及淡水对D型幼体生存的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘渝仙; 王慧; 于业绍; 顾善邦; 彭张纪


    Based on the anatomic method for the samples of sperms and eggs of Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin),the requirement of density of sea water in the fertilization,and the preembryonic development of egg cell of Cyclina sinensis (Gmelin) was 1. 101--1.020, while the density lower or higher than this range, the impact on the normal development or oven death of the embryo and larvae occurred.

  15. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon


    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  16. Divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766 (Passeriformes, Emberizidae, em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado


    Full Text Available São relatadas observações relativas à divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin e S. f. pelzelni (Sclater, em condições de cativeiro.Observations relating to the division of labour for young care in Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin and S. f. pelzelni (Sclater, in captivity, are presented.

  17. Report on Red-shouldered Hawk nesting within the Milan Bottoms and Pools 9-16 of the Upper Mississippi River Valley during 1999 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During our investigations along the Upper Mississippi River during 1999 we located Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in a total of 32 of the 51 areas searched....

  18. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.


    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  19. AVALIAÇÃO SOROLÓGICA DE Parainfluenzavirus Tipo 1, Salmonella spp., Mycoplasma spp. E Toxoplasma gondii EM AVES SILVESTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Marietto Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Newcastle disease, salmonellosis and mycoplamosis are the most important infectious diseases in poultry. Toxoplamosis is a common disease in urban environment. The present study investigated serologic evidence of these diseases in captive and wildlife birds, with rapid plate agglutination test, haemagglutination inhibition test, and modified agglutination test. In a total of 117 blood serum samples, 20 showed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Salmonella spp. antibodies. Amazona aestiva was the specie with the highest number of positive individuals (13/20. We also verified the first detection of T. gondii antibodies in birds of prey from Mivalgo chimachima and Rupornis magnirostris species.

  20. Trident Biological Surveys: SUBASE Bangor (July 1977 and June 1978) and Indian Island Annex (January, May 1974 and June 1978). Supplement 2. (United States)


    virginica (Gmelin). U.S. Fish. Bull. No. 64, 480 pp. Glaus, K. J. 1968. Factors influencing the production of byssus threads in Mytilus edulis. Bio...chlorinity concentrations and byssus thread formation. Veliger 10: 384-388. Salazar, M. H. 1974. Byssal thread production as a toxicity test, in

  1. Primer registro del ibis verde mesembrinibis cayennensis (aves: threskiornithidae) para el pacífico colombiano




    La distribución de Mesenbrinibis cayennensis(Gmelin, 1789) abarca desde la costa caribeñade Costa Rica hasta el norte de Argentina yParaguay, y es común en zonas de tierras bajas, particularmente en bosques o llanuras deinundación (Hancock et al. 1992, Stotz et al.1996, del Hoyo et al. 1994).

  2. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala (United States)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  3. An Application-Oriented Periodic Table of the Elements. (United States)

    Bouma, J.


    A brief history of several of the early forms of the periodic table of the elements are discussed including those of Mendeleev, Meyer, Hubbard, Gmelin, Von Antropoff, and Strong. A more every-day-life form of the table is presented. (CW)

  4. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.


    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  5. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2012 - 31 March 2012. (United States)

    Andris, Malvina; Arias, M C; Barthel, Brandon L; Bluhm, Burton H; Bried, Joël; Canal, D; Chen, X M; Cheng, P; Chiappero, Marina B; Coelho, Manuela M; Collins, Angela B; Dash, M; Davis, Michelle C; Duarte, Margarida; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Françoso, E; Galmes, M A; Gopal, Keshni; Jarne, Philippe; Kalbe, Martin; Karczmarski, Leszek; Kim, Hun; Martella, Mónica B; McBride, Richard S; Negri, Valeria; Negro, J J; Newell, Annakay D; Piedade, Ana F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Raggi, Lorenzo; Samonte, Irene E; Sarasola, J H; See, D R; Seyoum, Seifu; Silva, Mónica C; Solaro, C; Tolley, Krystal A; Tringali, Michael D; Vasemägi, A; Xu, L S; Zanón-Martínez, J I


    This article documents the addition of 171 microsatellite marker loci and 27 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Bombus pauloensis, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii, Cercospora sojina, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, Hordeum vulgare, Lachnolaimus maximus, Oceanodroma monteiroi, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Rhea americana, Salmo salar, Salmo trutta, Schistocephalus solidus, Sousa plumbea and Tursiops aduncus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aquila heliaca, Bulweria bulwerii, Buteo buteo, Buteo swainsoni, Falco rusticolus, Haliaeetus albicilla, Halobaena caerulea, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Oceanodroma castro, Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, Puccinia triticina, Rhea pennata and Schistocephalus pungitii. This article also documents the addition of 27 sequencing primer pairs for Puffinus baroli and Bulweria bulwerii and cross-testing of these loci in Oceanodroma castro, Pelagodroma marina, Pelecanoides georgicus, Pelecanoides urinatrix, Thalassarche chrysostoma and Thalassarche melanophrys.

  6. Evolución de marcadores microsatélites en aves rapaces diurnas (accipitridae)


    Gómez Ahumada, María Fernanda


    Se analizaron representantes de subfamilias deaccipítidos neotropicales disponibles en los zoológicos colombianos, incluyendo en su gran mayoría especies pertenecientes al grupo de los "buteoninos" y los "sub-buteos" (especies que no pertenecen al género Buteo) con ocho marcadores microsatélites heterólogos y se documentaron características de la evolución de dichos marcadores, con el fin de proveer entendimiento sobre sus tasas de mutación, posibles constricciones o sesgos y modelos evolutiv...

  7. Environmental Assessment, Change in C-17 Flight Training Operations at Grant County International Airport, Washington by Joint Base Lewis-McChord (United States)


    No. of Incidents No. of Incidents by Unknown Bird or Bat Bird Species 2010 1 1 -- 2006 13 7 American robin (Turdus migratorius) Song sparrow...urophasianus Threatened Candidate 5 Yellow-billed cuckoo Coccyzus americanus Candidate Candidate 6 Ferruginous hawk Buteo regalis Threatened

  8. Opmerkelijke Ruigpootbuizerdinvasie in de winter 2010-2011: oorzaken in een historische en Europese context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vansteelant, W.; Faveyts, W.; Buckens, J.


    Notable invasion of Rough Legged-buzzards in winter 2010-2011: circumstances in an historical and European context In the winter 2010 - 2011, never before seen numbers of Rough-legged Buzzards Buteo lagopus were observed in Flanders. A strong invasion of this normally scarce over-wintering species o

  9. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado. (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H


    Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1∶25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk.

  10. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.


    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  11. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

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    Diego L. Carpintero


    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  12. A new genus of syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) from cuculiform birds (Aves: Cuculiformes). (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej


    Cuculisyringophilus crotophaginus gen. n. et sp. n. is described from the guira cuckoo Guira guira (Gmelin) from Paraguay and also was collected from the groove-billed ani Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson from Colombia and Mexico. This new genus is closely related to Neoaulobia Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000 but is distinguished by the following characters: propodosomal setae sce are situated distinctly anterior to level of setae d1, leg setae vs'II are absent, apodemes I are divergent.

  13. Host Selection of the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus)


    Aradottir, G; Karp, A.; Hanley, SJ; Woodcock, C; Dewhirst, S.; Collins, CM; Leather, SR; Harrington, R.


    The giant willow aphid [Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin)] has recently become noteworthy as a potential pest species due to the increased uptake of willow, its host-plant, for use in growing biomass for energy production. In this paper we describe host selection studies of T. salignus on short rotation coppice (SRC) willow varieties in laboratory bioassays and field experiments. In laboratory olfactometry tests, T. salignus was significantly attracted to certain SRC willow varieties, but not t...

  14. Reproductive phenology, pollination, and fructification of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. (Heliconiaceae in an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City

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    Caio César Corrêa Missagia


    Full Text Available Aspects of phenology and reproductive biology of Heliconia spathocircinata Aristeg. in border and interior areas of an Atlantic Rain Forest fragment in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, are apresented. Four plots of 10x10m were delineated, two on the edge and two inside the forest, and individuals of H. spathocircinata were monitored from June 2009 to June 2010. The observations were carried out from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. once a week on December and January, and fortnightly the rest of flowering. Heliconia spathocircinata bloomeds between November and March and the fruits were ripe two months after pollination, and there was no significant difference between edge and interior with regard to the period of flowering and fruiting. The fruit-flower ratio averaged 66.6% in the interior and 27% within the forestedge, a considerable difference. The male hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis Gmelin, and to a lesser extent, female birds of this species, were the most frequent pollinators in the area evaluated, both edge and interior. Other species were identified as pollinators: Phaethornis ruber L., Ramphodon naevius Dumont, Eupetomena macroura Gmelin, and Amazilia fimbriata Gmelin. Of these, only P. ruber was found in both environments.

  15. Absence of humoral response in flamingos and red-tailed hawks to experimental vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine. (United States)

    Nusbaum, Kenneth E; Wright, James C; Johnston, William B; Allison, Andrew B; Hilton, Clayton D; Staggs, Lydia A; Stallknecht, David E; Shelnutt, Joseph L


    Sixteen Chilean flamingos, Phoenicopterus chiles, and 10 red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamacensis, were vaccinated in the pectoral muscle with 0.2 ml of a commercially produced killed West Nile virus vaccine intended for use in horses. Half the birds of each species received a booster vaccination 3 weeks after the first injection. Three weeks after the booster vaccination, none of 13 birds surveyed had detectable antibody to West Nile virus.

  16. Synovial chondromatosis in raptors. (United States)

    Stone, E G; Walser, M M; Redig, P T; Rings, B; Howard, D J


    Fourteen raptors, consisting of 13 great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and one red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), from central and north central Minnesota, western Wisconsin, and eastern South Dakota (USA) were admitted to a raptor rehabilitation center between June 1992 and June 1995, with perisynovial and synovial chondromatosis affecting multiple joints. Birds were severely debilitated primarily due to loss of shoulder motion. The etiology of these lesions in raptors is unknown.

  17. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.


    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  18. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain). (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito


    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.

  19. Shell growth of unfed oysters in the laboratory: a sublethal bioassay system for pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, K.A.; Swift, M.L.; Reeves, J.B. III; Lakshmanan, S.


    Unfed oysters, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, in 12 g/l commercial grade artificial sea-water supplemented with calcium bicarbonate (approximately 7 mM Ca/sup 2 +/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/) deposit shell for four to six weeks. A no-growth critical calcium ion concentration of 1.5 mM was determined in this study. A simple sublethal bioassay system can be developed utilizing the observed shell growth. Significant (p < 0.001) inhibition of shell deposition in oysters subjected to an initial concentration of 0.25 mg Cd/sup 2 +//l demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed method.

  20. The parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Southern Portugal (Algarve)


    Gonçalves, Maria Albertina; Andrade, Laura,


    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), is the most destructive pest of the olive trees in the Mediterranean Basin. Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the beneficial insect species of the Hymenoptera order that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem in Algarve. For that purpose samples of infested olive fruits were collected during the autumn season from several olive trees at Loulé and S. Brás de Alportel regions. The collected fruits were placed in labor...

  1. New feather mites of the genera Aniacarus and Aniibius (Acariformes: Pterolichidae) from two cuckoo species (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil. (United States)

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A


    Five new species of the family Pterolichidae are described from two common non-parasitic cuckoo species of the subfamily Crotophaginae (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: Aniacarus ani sp. n. from the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, A. simplex sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. coronatus sp. n. and Aniibius guirae sp. n. from the Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira (Gmelin). A key to all known species of Aniacarus is provided. All four pterolichid species associated with the G. guira can occur simultaneously on one host individual. A brief review of studies of feather mites associated with Cuculidae is given.

  2. New records of petiolate potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae from Bhutan

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    Tshering Nidup


    Full Text Available A total of seven species from five genera, Delta de Saussure, 1855, Eumenes Latreille, 1802, Pareumenes (de Saussure, 1855, Labus de Saussure, 1867, and Zethus Fabricius, 1804, belonging to the subfamily Eumeninae of the family Vespidae are documented. Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941, Delta esuriens (Fabricius, 1787, D. conoideum (Gmelin, 1790, E. gibbosus Nguyen, 2015, Labus pusillus van der Vecht, 1963 and Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897, including the subspecies P. q. acutus Liu, 1941, are new records for Bhutan. 

  3. Natural hosts of Notocotylus breviserialis (Digenea, Notocotylidae parasite of brazilian waterfowl

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    Luís Cláudio Muniz-Pereira


    Full Text Available Notocotylus breviserialis has been collected from Anas bahamenis L. and Amazonetta brasiliensis (Gmelin, in Maricá, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is the first time that this digenean is collected as adult in its natural hosts, and this is its first record for the neotropical region. The prevalence of N. breviserialis was 5.56% and 18.18% in A. bahamensis and in A. brasiliensis, respectively. New morphological data about the location of the vitelline glands and previtellinic space measurements are presented.

  4. Isognomon bicolor (C.B. Adams (Bivalvia, Isognomonidae: primeiro registro para o Brasil, redescrição da espécie e considerações sobre a ocorrência e distribuição de Isognomon na costa brasileira Isognomon bicolor (C.B. Adams (Bivalvia, Isognomonidae: first record to the Brazilian littoral, redescription of the species and comments on the occurrence and distribution of Isognomon in the Brazilian coast

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    Osmar Domaneschi


    Full Text Available The bivalve family Isognomonidae is represented in the Western Atlantic by the living genera Crenatula Lamarck, 1804 and Isognomon Solander, 1786. I. alatus (Gmelin, 1791 and I. radiatus (Anton, 1839 are the only Isognomonidae referred to the Brazilian malacofauna. The present work refers to the first record and geographic distribution of I. bicolor along the Brazilian littoral, and presents a re-description of the species based on shell characters, which include those of the prodissoconch. The occurrence of I. alatus and I. radiatus along the Brazilian littoral could not be confirmed, despite the intensive search for these Isognomonidae from Rio Grande do Norte through Rio Grande do Sul.

  5. Studies on Cercariae from Kuwait Bay. XI. Description and surface topography of Cercaria kuwaitae XI sp.n. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae

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    Abdul-Salam J


    Full Text Available A new echinostome cercaria, Cercaria kuwaitae XI sp.n., from the prosobranch gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (Gmelin from Kuwait Bay is described. The new cercaria is characterized by 23 collar spines and primary excretory tubules with distinct diverticula. The cercaria encysts in the snail host and is similar to those of Acanthoparyphium sp. The surface topography of the redia, cercaria and metacercarial cyst wall is studied by scanning electron microscopy. This is the first echinostome cercaria to be recorded in a gastropod from the Arabian Gulf region.

  6. Evolution in Australasian mangrove forests: multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the Gerygone warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae.

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    Árpád S Nyári

    Full Text Available The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae. The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci. Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster.

  7. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos. (United States)

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E


    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance.

  8. Morphoanatomical studies of Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis bark and leaves. (United States)

    Gattuso, M; Di Sapio, O; Gattuso, S; Pereyra, E Li


    The genus Uncaria Schreber (Rubiaceae) includes species that are widely distributed in tropical areas. The inner bark of the stems and leaves of two native species of South America, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC., and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin, "cat's claw" are used in either folk medicine or in procuring phytotherapeutic drugs. These species contain about sixty active substances which are being tested widely for possible medicinal value. The following applications are considered: peptic ulcer, rheumatism, tumours, antiinflammatory effect, inflammation, diabetes and as general tonic. Currently, Uncaria tomentosa is in demand as tea, tablets or capsules in more than 30 countries outside Perú, as well as inside the country. Pharmacognosy studies are required to determine the comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features for identification and quality control purposes. Several microscopic parameters, including phloem fibers, calcium oxalate crystals, starch granules, trichomes, and foliar architecture should be considered. The aim of our work is to analyse comparative morphoanatomical and micrographic features which might provide assistance in the identification, analysis and standardization of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. and Uncaria guianensis (Aublet) J. F. Gmelin stem bark and leaves in order to obtain phytotherapeutic drugs, and of the crude drug as well.

  9. 18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda). (United States)

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won


    To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda.

  10. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences. (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G


    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically.

  11. Antibody Prevalence and Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Raptors in the Southeastern USA. (United States)

    Love, David; Kwok, Oliver C; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, Jitender P; Bellah, Jamie


    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in domestic cats ( Felis catus ), which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically available raptors at a rehabilitation facility between 2012 and 2014. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by a modified agglutination test (cutoff 1:25) and found in serum of 22/71 Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ), 25/54 Barred Owls ( Strix varia ), 9/41 Red-shouldered Hawks ( Buteo lineatus ), 13/28 Great Horned Owls ( Bubo virginianus ), 6/20 Broad-winged Hawks ( Buteo platypterus ), 2/16 Eastern Screech Owls (Megascops asio), 12/13 Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ), 6/12 Cooper's Hawks ( Accipiter cooperii ), 1/8 Black Vultures ( Coragyps atratus ), and 1/1 Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ). Antibodies were not detected in 5 Barn Owls ( Tyto alba ), 3 American Kestrels ( Falco sparverius ), 1 Mississippi Kite ( Ictinia mississippiensis ), and 1 Osprey ( Pandion haliaetus ). Viable T. gondii was isolated from the tissues of 1 antibody-positive Barred Owl and identified as a strain having type II alleles at all 10 loci tested, except one (ToxoDB polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotype 3). Type II strain is the most common strain in the US. Results of this study indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii in some raptor species and the first reported genotyping from a Barred Owl.

  12. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae: multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

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    Bermingham Eldredge


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Results Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved

  13. Incidence and risk factors for bumblefoot (pododermatitis) in rehabilitated raptors. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lainz, A J; Hird, D W; Kass, P H; Brooks, D L


    A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 821 raptors of 12 representative species, admitted to the California Raptor Center (CRC), during 1980-1990. The incidence rate for bumblefoot was 52 cases per 100 bird-years at risk. Eagles and hawks (buteos) were more likely to develop bumblefoot, and did so earlier during their captivity than other species. Also, raptors admitted with a limb fracture had the greatest risk (OR = 4.2) of developing bumblefoot than any other condition on entry. Median time from admission to development of bumblefoot was 52 days, and median duration of bumblefoot was 23 days.

  14. Observations on the Reproductive Habits of Three Species of Birds%三种鸟的繁殖习性初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玮; 杨志杰; 罗为东


    @@ 灰山椒鸟(Pericrocotus divaricatus Rffles)、大留得青(狂鸟)(Buteo hemilasius Tem minck et Schlegel)和中杜鹃(Cuculus saturatus Blyth),三种鸟都在东北繁殖,有关其繁殖习性的研究,国内尚未见到.我们于1987年5-7月在黑龙江省依兰县先锋林场山地次生林中进行鸟类调查期间,对三种鸟的繁殖习性作了观察.

  15. Frenkelia sp.-like infection in the small intestine of a red-tailed hawk. (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Ambrus, S I; Blagburn, B L


    Developmental stages of a Frenkelia sp.-like coccidium were observed in tissue sections of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of a naturally infected red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis borealis) that died and was examined at necropsy. Developmental stages were located in the lamina propria of these tissues. Thirty sporulated sporocysts measured 11.1 X 8.1 microns in tissue sections. Four sporozoites were present in each sporulated sporocyst. The coccidial infection was not a contributing factor in the death of this red-tailed hawk.

  16. Chlamydiosis in captive raptors. (United States)

    Fowler, M E; Schulz, T; Ardans, A; Reynolds, B; Behymer, D


    Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from four red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) that died suddenly and from seven birds that survived at a raptor rehabilitation center in California in 1983. One hundred captive raptors representing 14 species in five families were subsequently tested serologically and by direct cloacal culture. C. psittaci was isolated from seven clinically normal birds. Forty-four percent of the raptors were considered positive using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and 19% were suspects. The ELISA was repeated on 54 raptors in 1986. Forty-one percent of the birds were considered positive, and 35% were suspect, indicating that C. psittaci is endemic in the population.

  17. First detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-antibodies in free-living birds of prey from Eastern Westphalia, Germany. (United States)

    Büker, M; Picozzi, K; Kolb, S; Hatt, J-M


    Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is the most important arthropod-borne zoonosis-pathogen in the Northern hemisphere. Besides small mammals, birds, primarily Passeriformes and sea birds, play an important role in the transmission, distribution and maintenance of this disease. Previous studies on birds have focused mainly on the detection of Borrelia-infected ticks. However, the presence or absence of an infected tick cannot be taken as an indicator of the infective status of the avian host; to date this area of research has not been explored. In this study, serological analyses of blood collected from free-living birds of prey (n = 29) at the rehabilitation centre in Eastern Westphalia, Germany, highlights that birds of prey are also susceptible to B. burgdorferi and react immunologically to an infection. Increased antibody-levels could be found by using a modified Indirect Immunofluorescent-testing in two common buzzards, Buteo buteo, and two eagle owls, Bubo bubo. Further research regarding the serological diagnostics of B. burgdorferi within the avian host is required. In the future, it should be taken into account that birds of prey can be reservoirs for B. burgdorferi, as well as carriers of infected ticks; although at present their epidemiological importance is still to be confirmed.

  18. Ultraviolet sensitivity and colour vision in raptor foraging. (United States)

    Lind, Olle; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut


    Raptors have excellent vision, yet it is unclear how they use colour information. It has been suggested that raptors use ultraviolet (UV) reflections from vole urine to find good hunting grounds. In contrast, UV plumage colours in songbirds such as blue tits are assumed to be 'hidden' communication signals, inconspicuous to raptors. This ambiguity results from a lack of knowledge about raptor ocular media transmittance, which sets the limit for UV sensitivity. We measured ocular media transmittance in common buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), red kites (Milvus milvus) and kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) so that, for the first time, raptor UV sensitivity can be fully described. With this information, and new measurements of vole urine reflectance, we show that (i) vole urine is unlikely to provide a reliable visual signal to hunting raptors and (ii) blue tit plumage colours are more contrasting to blue tits than to sparrowhawks because of UV reflectance. However, as the difference between blue tit and sparrowhawk vision is subtle, we suggest that behavioural data are needed to fully resolve this issue. UV cues are of little or no importance to raptors in both vole and songbird interactions and the role of colour vision in raptor foraging remains unclear.

  19. Assessment of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in six raptor species from the Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Valerón, Pilar F; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P


    Anticoagulant rodenticides are highly toxic compounds that are widely used for pest control of rodents, but that also may threaten the wildlife's health. This work aimed to assess the exposure to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) in six birds of prey species from the Canary Islands (Spain). The concentrations of seven widely used ARs were determined by LC-MS/MS in 104 liver samples of six species of birds of prey (Buteo buteo, Accipiter nisus, Falco pelegrinoides, Falco tinnunculus, Asio otus, and Tyto alba). We determined that 61% of the livers had detectable residues of at least one AR. The most frequently detected AR was bromadiolone, which was detected in 60.3% of the positive cases. The detection frequencies of these compounds varied widely, depending on the species. More than 75% of the A. nisus, T. alba, and A. otus individuals had detectable rodenticide residues in the liver. However, F. tinnunculus exhibited the highest concentrations of AR, with median values above 100 ng/g w.w. We did not detect first-generation ARs in any of the samples. When grouped, nocturnal species exhibited higher AR concentrations than diurnal species (Praptors on the Canary Islands. Our findings require authorities to ban or strictly control the use of these rodenticides in the natural environment for the conservation of raptors and other predatory species.

  20. Association of wintering raptors with Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program grasslands in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Brittingham, M.; Grove, G.


    Conservation grasslands can provide valuable habitat resource for breeding songbirds, but their value for wintering raptors has received little attention. We hypothesized that increased availability of grassland habitat through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has resulted in an increase or redistribution in numbers of four species of raptors in Pennsylvania since 2001. We tested this by analyzing winter raptor counts from volunteer surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2008, for Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). During that period, numbers of wintering Northern Harriers increased by more than 20% per year. Log-linear Poisson regression models show that all four species increased in the region of Pennsylvania that had the most and longest-established conservation grasslands. At the county scale (N= 67), Bayesian spatial models showed that spatial and temporal population trends of all four species were positively correlated with the amount of conservation grassland. This relationship was particularly strong for Northern Harriers, with numbers predicted to increase by 35.7% per year for each additional 1% of farmland enrolled in CREP. Our results suggest that conservation grasslands are likely the primary cause of the increase in numbers of wintering Northern Harriers in Pennsylvania since 2001. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2010 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  1. Hematologic parameters in raptor species in a rehabilitation setting before release. (United States)

    Black, Peter A; McRuer, David L; Horne, Leigh-Ann


    To be considered for release, raptors undergoing rehabilitation must have recovered from their initial injury in addition to being clinically healthy. For that purpose, a good understanding of reference hematologic values is important in determining release criteria for raptors in a rehabilitation setting. In this study, retrospective data were tabulated from clinically normal birds within 10 days of release from a rehabilitation facility. Hematologic values were compiled from 71 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 54 Eastern screech owls (Megascops asio), 31 Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), 30 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 28 barred owls (Strix varia), 16 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and 12 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus). Parameters collected included a white blood cell count and differential, hematocrit, and total protein concentration. Comparisons were made among species and among previously published reports of reference hematologic values in free-ranging birds or permanently captive birds. This is the first published report of reference values for Eastern screech owls, barred owls, and broad-winged hawks; and the first prerelease reference values for all species undergoing rehabilitation. These data can be used as a reference when developing release criteria for rehabilitated raptors.

  2. Embryonic and neonatal mortality from salmonellosis in captive bred raptors. (United States)

    Battisti, A; Di Guardo, G; Agrimi, U; Bozzano, A I


    In a captive breeding center near Rome (Italy), cases of embryonic and neonatal death were recorded during the breeding seasons in the European eagle owl (Bubo bubo), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), buzzard (Buteo buteo), and lanner falcon. (Falco biarmicus). Salmonella havana and S. virchow were isolated. Three pulli, clinically infected with S. havana, were successfully treated with enrofloxacin. From two groups of healthy 3- to 4-wk-old eagle owls, Salmonella sp. group 61 (61:r:-) and S. havana were collected. A strain of S. paratyphi B was detected in a pharyngeal swab and a fecal sample from an adult female goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), affected with pharyngeal trichomoniasis. A S. hadar strain was collected from a healthy 1-yr-old female eagle owl and S. livingstone was isolated from a 1-mo-old female peregrine, dead of an acute respiratory syndrome. Lesions of fibrinous polyserositis and multivisceral congestion were observed. From frozen 1-day-old chicks, on which adult and young raptors were fed, S. havana and S. livingstone isolates with similar biochemical and drug susceptibility patterns to those isolated from raptors were identified. A surveillance program on infectious diseases reduced embryonic and neonatal death rates in the following breeding seasons.

  3. Heptachlor seed treatment contaminates hawks, owls, and eagles of Columbia Basin, Oregon (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Kaiser, T.E.


    We evaluated organochlorine residues in 12 species of hawks. owls, and eagles from the Columbia Basin of Oregon between 1978 and 1981. Companion studies showed that heptachlor epoxide (HE) induced adult mortality and reduced productivity of the Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) and American Kestrel (Falco sparverius).ln this study, brain tissue from raptors found dead and sample eggs from 90 nests were analyzed for organochlorines. The primary concern was HE that entered raptor food chains through the ingestion of heptachlor-treated seed by their prey. HE residues were detected in eggs from 9 of 10 species and ranged as high as 4.75 ppm (wet wt), but no definite effects of HE on productivity were readily apparent from the limited series of nests. However, the hazard of heptachlor seed treatments to birds of prey was demonstrated by the occurrence of lethal residues of HE in brain tissue of 3 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) and 1 Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus). Other organochlorine pesticides were present in the eggs and significant relationships were found between DDE and eggshell thickness for the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) and Western Screech-Owl (Otus kennicotti), although shell thinning (9.6% and 7.4%) was below the generally accepted range where reproductive problems have been known to occur.

  4. Assessment of Trace Element Concentrations in Birds of Prey in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min


    This study presents liver concentrations of trace elements of cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), common buzzards (Buteo buteo), common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) collected in Korea from 2007 to 2008. Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in common kestrel juveniles were greater than in other juveniles of birds of prey. Adult cinereous vultures had greater Fe, Pb, and Cd concentrations than in those of other species, but common kestrels had greater Mn and Cu concentrations than in those of other birds of prey. Zinc concentrations in Eurasian eagle owl juveniles and adults were greater than in juveniles and adults of other species, respectively. In common kestrels, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Cd concentrations were significantly greater in adults than in juveniles. In Eurasian eagle owls, only Pb concentrations were greater in adults than in juveniles. Essential elements, such as Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu concentrations, were within the range of other birds of prey studies. Seventeen individual birds of prey (30 %) were at a level considered Pb exposed (6-30 µg/g dw). This is a greater proportion than reported earlier in herons, egrets, and other birds from Korea. Elevated Pb concentration might be attributed to ingestion of Pb shot and bullet fragments for cinereous vultures and common buzzards, and urbanization for common kestrels. Cadmium concentrations in birds of prey were within the background concentrations (birds.

  5. Anatomical study of the musculus deltoideus and musculus flexor carpi ulnaris in 3 species of wild birds. (United States)

    Canova, Marco; Bedoni, Carla; Harper, Valeria; Rambaldi, Anna Maria; Bombardi, Cristiano; Grandis, Annamaria


    Given the limited information regarding the anatomy of the thoracic limb in European avian species, we decided to investigate the related muscles in the grey heron (Ardea cinerea), in the eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and in the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Therefore we performed a stratigraphic dissection of the wing in 3 subjects. The pars major and minor of the musculus deltoideus, despite being roughly in line with those reported by other authors in other species, displayed unique features. Concerning the pars propatagialis of the musculus deltoideus, from what was observed in the grey heron, we believe this structure can contribute to maintain the propatagial tension. In this way vibrations of this structure, which could cause diminished lift, are avoided. Moreover the peculiarity evidenced in the distal insertion of the common kestrel could influence the control of the pronation-supination of the wing during hovering. With respect to the musculus flexor carpi ulnaris, we believe the presence of a sesamoid-like structure at the base tendon, found in the grey heron and in the eurasian buzzard, may help complete the articular surfaces of the elbow. This study shows interesting data on species not previously examined and provides a possible functional correlation between the peculiarity observed and the kind of flight of each species.

  6. Temporal trends in mercury concentrations in raptor flight feathers stored in an environmental specimen bank in Galicia (NW Spain) between 2000 and 2013. (United States)

    García-Seoane, Rita; Varela, Zulema; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R; Fernández, J Ángel


    Temporal trends in Hg concentrations were investigated in primary flight feathers from 319 specimens of three birds of prey: P7 in the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), P6 in the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and P5 in the tawny owl (Strix aluco). The samples were stored in a regional environmental specimen bank and belonged to specimens which died between 2000 and 2013 in Galicia (NW Spain). We would expect to see a decline in Hg concentrations across the study period, as data of atmospheric emissions show a gradual reduction of this pollutant in Europe in the last two decades. The study did not reveal any temporal pattern in Hg concentrations of feathers in any of the three species for the study period, may be due to the persistence of Hg in the environment, but showed a low level of contamination by this metal in the study area. In addition, the results show high intra-specific, as well as, inter-annual and inter-specific variability in data, mainly attributed to the level of exposure of the raptors to this pollutant and to the biomagnification process of Hg through food chains. These findings indicate that the high variability can be a limiting factor in the use of raptors for biomonitoring temporal patterns of Hg, but nevertheless, the technique provides qualitative information about the amount of Hg that reach the top of the terrestrial food chains.

  7. Nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in the province of Vojvodina (Serbia

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    Puzović S.


    Full Text Available Research on nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in Vojvodina (Serbia was done in the period from 1986 to 2004. During three specially analyzed periods, saker falcon took the nests of raven (Corvus corax in 91% of a total of 22 cases of nest occupation, and those of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in only 9%. Saker falcon regularly grabs prey from different birds that occasionally or constantly spend time around power lines [Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, hobby (Falco subbuteo, hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix, jack-daw (Corvus monedula, marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus, hen harrier (Circus cyaneus, buzzard (Buteo buteo, and raven (Corvus corax]. One year a studied pair of saker falcons on a power line in Donji Srem, Serbia grabbed prey from five different species of birds. Out of a total of 40 cases of prey grabbing in the period from January to December, as much 70% of the grabbed prey was taken from kestrel (Falco tinnunculus. During the winter and early spring, prey was grabbed predominantly by males; after May, prey was sometimes grabbed by females as well. Most of the grabbed prey was common vole (Microtus arvalis.

  8. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas (United States)

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.


    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  9. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks. (United States)

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni


    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  10. Should we terminate an 'artificial,' tree-nesting raptor population in Arizona? (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; Trahan, F.B.P.


    The Altar Valley in southcentral Arizona was once a iallgrass prairie. Overgrazing prevented fire and spread mesquite, allowing the area, now a savanna, to be heavily used by tree-nesting raptors in summer and heavily hunted by perch-hunting raptors in winter. The breeding raptor community (over 150 pairs) consists primarily of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), and Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni). Common ravens (Corvus corax) are also common and there is a recently discovered small population of black-shouldered kites (Elanus caeruleus). Recent efforts to restore the endangered masked bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) to the area clash with habitat needs of the raptors. This conflict focuses attention on the 'multiple use' concept and calls for implementation of a 'prime use' or 'highest and best use' management strategy. Prime use (this is the only area in the United States managed for the masked bobwhite) 'will likely call for the removal of trees over much of the Altar Valley. This removal will likely result in the nearly total loss of nesting and perching sites for breeding, migrating, and wintering raptors.

  11. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.


    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. Competitive interactions among raptors in boreal forests. (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Harri; Mykrä, Sakari; Kurki, Sami; Tornberg, Risto; Jungell, Sven


    We examined inter-specific interactions among goshawks ( Accipiter gentilis), common buzzards (Buteo buteo) and honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus) in western Finland in 1983-1996. Because goshawks are among the largest birds of prey species in boreal forests they may take over the nest of smaller and less-competitive forest-dwelling raptors when searching for suitable places for breeding. Accordingly, more than half of newly established goshawk territories were found on the territories previously occupied by the common buzzard and the honey buzzard. Otherwise, territory sharing between these species was rare. Fledgling production of honey buzzards was not associated with the presence of goshawks, probably owing to the almost 2 months later onset of breeding. This probably decreases competitive interactions between these two species. An intensive interference competition, instead, seemed to be evident between common buzzards and goshawks, because the fledgling production of common buzzards was decreased by 20% as a result of failures during incubation and nestling period in the vicinity (raptors, imposing upon the original owners of the nest, because building a large stick nest is probably energetically costly. As a large raptor, the goshawk apparently has a competitive advantage over smaller ones, and may have an ever-increasing impact on smaller birds of prey, if there is a lack of sheltered forests inducing competition for the available nest sites.

  13. Sisyphean evolution in Darwin's finches. (United States)

    McKay, Bailey D; Zink, Robert M


    The trajectory of speciation involves geographic isolation of ancestral populations followed by divergence by natural selection, genetic drift or sexual selection. Once started, the process may experience fits and starts, as sometimes diverging populations intermittently reconnect. In theory populations might cycle between stages of differentiation and never attain species status, a process we refer to as Sisyphean evolution. We argue that the six putative ground finch species (genus Geospiza) of the Galápagos Islands represent a dramatic example of Sisyphean evolution that has been confused with the standard model of speciation. The dynamic environment of the Galápagos, closely spaced islands, and frequent dispersal and introgression have prevented the completion of the speciation process. We suggest that morphological clusters represent locally adapted ecomorphs, which might mimic, and have been confused with, species, but these ecomorphs do not form separate gene pools and are ephemeral in space and time. Thus the pattern of morphological, behavioural and genetic variation supports recognition of a single species of Geospiza, which we suggest should be recognized as Darwin's ground finch (Geospiza magnirostris). We argue that instead of providing an icon of insular speciation and adaptive radiation, which is featured in nearly every textbook on evolutionary biology, Darwin's ground finch represents a potentially more interesting phenomenon, one of transient morphs trapped in an unpredictable cycle of Sisyphean evolution. Instead of revealing details of the origin of species, the mechanisms underlying the transient occurrence of ecomorphs provide one of the best illustrations of the antagonistic effects of natural selection and introgression.

  14. The birds of Sehlabathebe National Park, Lesotho

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    G. Kopij


    Full Text Available A total of 117 bird species has been recorded in Sehlabathebe National Park, south-east Lesotho, consisting of 29 vagrants, 18 visitors and 70 breeding and probable breeding residents. For each species status was determined and abundance roughly estimated. Quantitative studies on breeding bird communities were carried out by means of the line transect method on four transects with the total length ca 30 km in the park and on two transects with the total length of ca 20 km outside the park. In the park, dominant species were represented by the Stonechat Saxicola torquata, Ayres’ Cisticola Cisticola ayresii, Yellow-rumped Widow Euplectes capensis and Wailing Cisticola Cisticola lais. Outside the park dominants were represented by Cape Weaver Ploceus capensis, Cape Sparrow Passer melanurus, Cape Canary Serinus canicollis, Common Quail Coturnix coturnix, Stonechat, Cape Bunting Emberiza capensis and Drakensberg Siskin Pseudochloroptila symonsi. Characteristic, high-altitude species in the park included Drakensberg Siskin, Mountain Pipit Anthus hoeschi, Orange-breasted Rockjumper Chaetops auriantius, Banded Martin Riparia cincta and Sentinel Rock Thrush Monticola explorator. Species such as the Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis, Sicklewinged Chat Cercomela sinuata, Mountain Chat Oenanthe monticola, Thick-billed Lark Galerida magnirostris, Red-winged Starling Onychognathus morio, Alpine Swift Apus melba Cape Sparrow, Grey-headed Sparrow Passer diffusus, Red Bishop Euplectes orix and Golden Bishop Euplectes afer were absent or occurred in very low densities in the park, although they are widespread and common in the Maluti/Drakensberg grasslands (including areas neighbouring to the park. The lack of trees and shrubs for nesting, the lack of cultivated fields as feeding places and competition with related species both for food and nesting sites, may partly play a role in this regard.

  15. Further investigations of the mite genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) from North American passerines. (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Skoracki, Maciej; Hendricks, Sarah A; Spicer, Greg S


    Four new syringophilid species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 are described from North American passerines: S. zonotrichia n. sp. from Zonotrichia albicolis (Gmelin) (Emberizidae) on Texas; S. jackowiaki n. sp. from Poecile carolinensis (Auduborn) (Paridae) in Texas; and S. xanthocephalus n. sp. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte) (Icteridae) and S. agelaius n. sp. from Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus (Icteridae), both from Arizona. Spizella breweri (Cassin) (Emberizidae) from California is a new host for Syringophiloidus sialius Skoracki, Flannery & Spicer, 2009; and Melospiza lincolnii (Auduborn) (Emberizidae) from Texas and Vermivora ruficapilla (Wilson) (Parulidae) from California are new hosts for S. seiuri (Ckark, 1964). S. daberti Bochkov, Fain & Skoracki, 2004 from Passerina ciris Linnaeus (Cardinalidae) is recorded in the USA for the first time. A table with the host associations and distribution of all of the North American species of Syringophiloidus is given.

  16. New species of parasitic quill mites of the genus Picobia (Acari: Syringophilidae: Picobiinae) from North American birds. (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hendricks, Sarah A; Spicer, Greg S


    Five new species of the genus Picobia are described and illustrated: (1) P. leucophaeus sp. nov. from the Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla L. (Charadriiformes: Laridae) from Texas; (2) P. troglodytes sp. nov. from the House Wren Troglodytes aedon Vieillot (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from California; (3) P. cardinalis sp. nov. from the Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (Passeriformes: Cardinalidae) from Texas; (4) P. carpodacus sp. nov. from the Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) from California; and (5) P. psaltriparus sp. nov. from the Bushtit Psaltriparus minimus (Townsend) (Passeriformes: Aegithalidae) from Texas. Two avian species from the family Picidae (Piciformes) are recorded as new hosts for P. dryobatis (Fritsch, 1958): the Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens (L.) from Texas and the Ladder-backed Woodpecker Picoides scalaris (Wagler) from California. Additionally, all named species of the genus Picobia with their host associations and distributions are summarized in tabular form.

  17. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ana C. Tomazzoni


    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  18. Metacercariae of Galactosomum lacteum (Jägerskiöld, 1896) Looss, 1899 (Heterophyidae) from marine teleosts in the Gulf of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy). (United States)

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; D'Amico, Valeria; Figus, Vincenza


    Galactosomum lacteum (Jägerskiöld, 1896) Looss, 1899 metacercariae, encysted on the optic nerve, on the brain and/or on the muscle and the connective of the pharynx and oesophagus, were found in Spicara maena L., S. flexuosa Rafinesque, 1810, S. smaris L. (Centracanthidae), Gobius cruentatus Gmelin, 1789 (Gobiidae), Symphodus tinca L., S. mediterraneus L. (Labridae), Serranus cabrilla L. (Serranidae), Diplodus sargus L. and D. annularis L. (Sparidae) caught in the Gulf of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy). Excysted specimens were identified by some distinctive morphological features: more or less expanded forebody, depending on whether the specimens were living or fixed; tubular excretory bladder extending to the posterior border of the ovary; two-chambered seminal vesicle; asymmetrical and parenchymatous ventral sucker with lines of spines within its cavity; and unarmed gonotyle. Comparison has been made with the congeneric species metacercaria, G. timondavidi Pearson & Prévot, 1971, also registered in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. The birds of Araku, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    T.S. Kumar


    Full Text Available Avifaunal survey carried out from December 2006 to September 2007 in Araku Valley, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, revealed the presence of a total of 147 species of birds belonging to 43 families. One-hundred-twelve species of birds in Araku Valley were resident breeders, 23 species winter visitors, nine species local migrants, two species passage migrants and one species summer visitor. Many bird species were seen in more than one habitat for nesting, roosting and foraging. The dominant feeding guild of birds was insectivorous. Four globally threatened species, namely, the Purple Wood-Pigeon Columba punicea Blyth, 1842, the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga Pallas, 1811, the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni Fleischer, 1818 and the Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus (S.G. Gmelin, 1770, were recorded during the survey from the area

  20. Decouverte de deux nouveaux gisements de poissons fossiles messiniens dans le bassin de Nijar-Carboneras (Andalousie Orientale: Signification paleoecologique et implications paleogeographiques

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    Gaudant, J.


    Full Text Available Two new fossil fish-Iocalities are reported from the Messinian of the Nijar-Carboneras basin (South Spain. That of Cortijo Ruil, South-West of Nijar, seems to take part in the evaporitic Messinian. It yields a marine, poorly diversified, fish-fauna which characterizes a shallow deposit sedimented relatively near the sea-shore. However, the occurrence of a Myctophid: Lampanyctus licatae (Sauvage and of a Gonostomatid: Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin demonstrates that the Nijar-Carboneras basin was widely open to the sea, the depth of which probably sensibly exceeded 2.000 m. The post-evaporitic locality of Rambla de las Colmenas, westward of Gafares, has provided the species Aphanius crassicaudus (Agassiz, which characterizes the lagoonal Messinian environments of the Mediterranean area.Se han encontrado dos nuevos yacimientos de peces fósiles en el Mesiniense de la cuenca de Nijar-Carboneras (España meridional. El yacimiento del Cortijo Ruil, al Oeste de Nijar, parece pertenecer al Mesiniense evaporítico. Contiene una ictiofauna marina relativamente poco diversificada que caracteriza un depósito poco profundo, próximo a la orilla. De todos modos, la presencia de un Myctophidae: Lampanyctus licatae (Sauvage y de un Gonostomatidae: Maurolicus muelleri (Gmelin indica que la cuenca de Nijar se abria ampliamente a un mar cuya profundidad debía superar considerablemente los 2.000 m. El yacimiento postevaporítico de la Rambla de las Colmenas, al Oeste de Gafares, ha suministrado la especie Aphanius crassicaudus (Agassiz que caracteriza los ambientes lagunares del Mesiniense del área mediterránea.

  1. Spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone of sheltered beaches in southeastern of Brazil

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    Eliane P. de Arruda


    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of mollusks in the intertidal zone was examined monthly from August 1995 through July 1997, in Enseada, Barra Velha and Araçá beaches in southeastern of Brazil. One study sector was selected in Enseada and Barra Velha, and two sectors in Araçá (Araçá I and Araçá II. The sectors were 10 m wide and equivalent in length to the width of the intertidal zone. Each sector was divided into three horizontal levels: lower, middle and upper, where the samples were taken with a cylinder corer with a base area of 0.16 m². In order to characterize the intertidal environment in these areas, some environmental variables were analyzed. In general, the mollusks were distributed in the sectors as follows: Enseada - Olivella minuta (Link, 1807 in the lower level and Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 in the upper level; Araçá I - O. minuta in the lower level, Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791 in the middle levels; Araçá II - Cerithium atratum (Born, 1778 in the lower level, O. minuta in the lower and middle levels, and A. brasiliana and Corbula caribaea Orbigny, 1842 in the middle level; Barra Velha - Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794, Lucina pectinata (Gmelin, 1791 and Tellina versicolor De Kay, 1843 in the lower level, and A. brasiliana and Macoma constricta (Brugüìere, 1792 in the upper level. The intertidal zone of the study sectors could be divided into two biological zones: the upper zone, where T. plebeius, A. brasiliana and M. constricta were more abundant; and the lower zone, where O. minuta, C. atratum, T. lineata, T. versicolor, C. caribaea, T. divisus and L. pectinata were abundant.

  2. Predation on dormice in Italy

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    Dino Scaravelli


    Full Text Available Abstract The authors analyse available data on the impact of predators on Dormouse populations in Italy. Dormice are found in the diet of 2 snakes (Vipera berus and V. aspis, 2 diurnal birds of prey (Buteo buteo and Aquila chrysaetos, 6 owls (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo and Glaucidium passerinum and 9 mammals (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M. foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris and Sus scrofa in a variable percentage of the prey taken. Only Dryomys nitedula was never encountered as a prey item. The most common prey is Muscardinus avellanarius. There are significative regional differences in predation between bioclimatic areas of the Italian peninsula. The contribution of studies on predation to knowledge of Myoxid distribution is discussed. Riassunto Predazione di Mioxidi in Italia - Sono analizzati i dati pubblicati sull'impatto dei predatori sulle popolazioni di Myoxidae in Italia. Myoxidae sono stati riscontrati nelle diete di 2 serpenti (Vipera berus e V. aspis, 2 rapaci diurni (Buteo buteo e Aquila chrysaetos, 6 notturni (Tyto alba, Strix aluco, Asio otus, Athene noctua, Bubo bubo e Glaucidium passerinum e 9 mammiferi (Rattus rattus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Martes martes, M foina, Meles meles, Felis silvestris e Sus scrofa in percentuale variabile nella comunità di prede. Solo Dryomys nitedula non è mai stato incontrato come preda. La specie piu comunemente predata risulta Muscardinus avellanarius. Sono discusse le

  3. Successful management of simple fractures of the femoral neck with femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in two free-living avian species. (United States)

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Whittington, Julia K; Bennett, R Avery; McFadden, Mike; Mitchell, Mark; O'Brien, Robert


    A red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and a Canada goose (Branta canadensis) were evaluated for unilateral pelvic limb lameness. Physical examination findings and results of diagnostic imaging revealed femoral neck fractures in both birds. Both birds were treated with a femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty. The affected legs were not immobilized, and the birds were encouraged to use the legs immediately after surgery to encourage formation of a pseudoarthrosis. Within 2 weeks, both birds were using the affected limb well enough to be either successfully released or transferred to a wildlife rehabilitation facility. Femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty without immobilization of the limb is recommended for managing avian femoral neck fractures, especially in free-ranging species in which a rapid and complete or near complete return to function is vital for survival in the wild.

  4. Unusual raptor nests around the world (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Craig, T.; Craig, E.; Postupalsky, S.; LaRue, C.T.; Nelson, R.W.; Anderson, D.W.; Henny, C.J.; Watson, J.; Millsap, B.A.; Dawson, J.W.; Cole, K.L.; Martin, E.M.; Margalida, A.; Kung, P.


    From surveys in many countries, we report raptors using unusual nesting materials (e.g., paper money, rags, metal, antlers, and large bones) and unusual nesting situations. For example, we documented nests of Steppe Eagles Aquila nipalensis and Upland Buzzards Buteo hemilasius on the ground beside well-traveled roads, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug eyries in attics and a cistern, and Osprey Pandion haliaetus nests on the masts of boats and on a suspended automobile. Other records include a Golden Eagle A. chrysaetos nest 7.0 m in height, believed to be the tallest nest ever described, and, for the same species, we report nesting in rudimentary nests. Some nest sites are within a few meters of known predators or competitors. These unusual observations may be important in revealing the plasticity of a species' behavioral repertoire. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Cloacal Prolapse in Raptors: Review of 16 Cases. (United States)

    Dutton, Thomas A G; Forbes, Neil A; Carrasco, Daniel Calvo


    Sixteen cases of cloacal prolapse in raptors were reviewed in this study. Colonic prolapse was the most common presentation (56% of cases). Red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were overrepresented, comprising 66% of colonic prolapse cases. In cases of colonic prolapse, postsurgical stricture formation was a commonly identified complication after resection and anastomosis of the colon. A novel technique was used in 2 cases of colonic prolapse, in which sterile, semirigid rubber tubing was placed in the distal colon and removed per-cloaca at the end of the procedure; this facilitated a secure, fluid-tight anastomosis while maintaining sufficient intestinal lumen. Oviductal prolapse (31% of cases) was associated with the most guarded prognosis (40% treatment success). Cloacoliths were treated successfully in 2 birds (13% of cases) by minimally invasive per-cloacal manual removal.

  6. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.


    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  7. Interactions between a group of Golden Eagles and a herd of North American elk (United States)

    O'Connell, Matt P.; Kochert, Michael N.


    Raptors are generally considered solitary predators (Schoener 1969), but occasionally they interact socially (Brown and Amadon 1968). Certain raptor species (e.g., Swallow-tailed Kites [Elanoides forficatus] and Swainson's Hawks [Buteo swainsoni]) concentrate in aggregations in response to localized, abundant food sources (Ellis et al. 1993). Many raptor species engage in group hunting (Ellis et al. 1993), and social foraging is a routine strategy for some species (e.g., Harris's Hawks [Parabuteo unicinctus]; Bednarz 1988, Ellis et al. 1993]. Raptors generally engage in group hunting to pursue elusive or large prey (Ellis et al. 1993). Occasionally individuals of conspecific raptors engage in play as a group sometimes involving chases of prey species (Palmer 1988). In this letter, we report interactions between a large group of Golden Eagles and a herd of adult and juvenile Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) in late autumn.

  8. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock. (United States)

    Henny, C J; Kolbe, E J; Hill, E F; Blus, L J


    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  9. New Records of Raptors in Eastern Kazakhstan

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    Anna N. Barashkova


    Full Text Available In this article we describe our data on observations of birds of prey in Eastern-Kazakhstan Upland and Northern Balkhash Lake area collected mostly in 2013, May–June and September, and also in 2012, March and May. In total we have recorded 15 species of birds of prey: Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis, Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca, Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Black-Eared Kite (Milvus migrans lineatus, Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus, Montagu’s Harrier (Circus pygargus, Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug, Steppe Merlin (Falco columbarius pallidus, Lesser and Common Kestrels (Falco naumanni, F. tinnunculus, and also 4 owl species: Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo, Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus, Little Owl (Athene noctua, and Scops Owl (Otus scops. Nesting peculiarities (data on nests' locations and breeding are described for some species.

  10. Habitat use by Swainson's Hawks on their austral winter grounds in Argentina (United States)

    Canavelli, Sonia B.; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, B.; Kochert, Michael N.; Maceda, Juan J.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.


    We examined the use of agricultural habitats by Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni)in La Pampa and Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. We found an association of foraging Swainson's Hawks with permanent pastures such as fallow, natural, and alfalfa fields. The hawks also used plowed fields for sunning, resting, and preening. Fields planted with annual crops and pastures were used very little, except when they were cut for hay, plowed, and harvested, or when low crop height and cover allowed the hawks to land in fields. The availability of abundant, yet widely-spaced and transient food-sources, such as insect outbreaks, appeared to be the principal factor influencing habitat use by the hawks. Their reliance on agricultural habitats makes Swainson's Hawks highly vulnerable to pesticide contamination and has contributed to the occurrence of significant mortality events on their wintering grounds.

  11. Influence of poisoned prey on foraging behavior of ferruginous hawks (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Kuncir, Frank; Clinton, Criss C.


    We recorded 19 visits by ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) over 6 d at two black–tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) subcolonies poisoned with the rodenticide Rozol® Prairie Dog Bait (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) and at an adjacent untreated subcolony. Before Rozol® application ferruginous hawks foraged in the untreated and treated subcolonies but after Rozol® application predation by ferruginous hawks was only observed in the treated subcolonies. We suggest that ferruginous hawks' preference for hunting in the treated subcolonies after Rozol® application was influenced by the availability of easy-to-capture prey, presumably due to Rozol® poisoning. The energetically beneficial behavior of favoring substandard prey may increase raptor encounters with rodenticide exposed animals if prey vulnerability has resulted from poisoning.

  12. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America (United States)

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.


    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  13. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.


    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  14. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Langelier, K M; Mineau, P; Wilson, L K


    During the winter of 1990 in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. Immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. Chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another red-tailed hawk contained 30 micrograms/g fensulfothion. There was evidence that granular carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in the wet, low pH conditions of the Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors several months after application of the pesticides.

  15. Surveying woodland raptors by broadcast of conspecific vocalizations (United States)

    Mosher, J.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Kopeny, M.


    We surveyed for raptors in forests on study areas in five of the eastern United States. For Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperi), Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus), and Barred Owls (Strix varia) the contact rates obtained by broadcasting taped vocalizations of conspecifics along roads were significantly greater than contact rates obtained by only looking and listening from the roadside. Broad-winged Hawks (B. platypterus) were detected only after their calls were broadcast. Most raptors were detected within 10 min of the beginning of the broadcasts. Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) and Goshawks (A. gentilis) nested infrequently on our study areas, and we were unable to increase detections of these species. Generally, point count transects along woodland roads, from which conspecific vocalizations were broadcast, resulted in higher species specific detection rates than when walking, driving continuously, or only looking and listening for raptors at roadside stops.

  16. A retrospective study of postmortem findings in red-tailed hawks (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Smith, M.R.; Robbins, A.H.; Newman, S.; McCartin, P.C.


    We studied necropsy results from carcasses of 163 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975 through 1992. The most frequent postmortem finding was emaciation of unknown etiology, diagnosed in 33 (20%) carcasses. Proportionally more juveniles than adults were emaciated. Evidence of non-gunshot trauma, often suggestive of collision with vehicles or structures near roadways, was found in 29 (18%) birds. Of 25 (15%) toxicoses, 20 were attributed to agricultural pesticides, including famphur (4), fenthion (3), carbofuran (2), phosphamidon (2), endrin (1), and unidentified organophosphorus compounds (8). Lead and strychnine poisoning were diagnosed in two birds each, and selenium poisoning in one. Diseases, including aspergillosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis, and pox, were found in 21 (13%) hawks. Gunshot and electrocution were each diagnosed in six (4%) birds, one (0.6%) was trapped, miscellaneous conditions were found in 10 (6%), and no diagnosis could be determined for 32 (19%) of the carcasses.

  17. Variation in selected hematological parameters of captive red-tailed hawks. (United States)

    Rehder, N B; Bird, D M; Laguë, P C; Mackay, C


    Diurnal and winter variations of four hematological parameters were examined in 10 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). The mean values obtained were: 39.4% packed cell volume (PCV); 2.45 X 10(6) erythrocytes (RBC) per mm3 of blood; 5.73 mg of calcium and 1.44 mg of magnesium per 100 ml of plasma. Only the PCV and RBC count showed significant diurnal variation. When the birds were sampled at a set time of day, from November through to February, no significant changes were detected in any of the four parameters. Variation among the birds in RBC count, PCV and calcium concentration was significant on a diurnal basis but over the four month period only the PCV varied significantly.

  18. Case histories of organophosphate pesticides killing birds of prey in the United States (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.


    Since 1982 when secondary. poisoning of Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur on cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested for organophosphate (OP) poisoning in selected birds of prey found dead. This report documents the circumstances for a number of. cases where birds of prey were killed by OP pesticides in the United States. Many of the cases were brought to our attention by the U S. Fish and Wildlife Service Division of Law Enforcement The cases may be divided into three categories: misuse, approved use, and unknown. Now that we are looking for OP poisoning of birds of prey, we are finding it more frequently than previously suspected.

  19. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska (United States)

    Jorde, D.G.; Lingle, G.R.


    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  20. Surveys of distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hawk within the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station


    In 1993, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct specific biological surveys to identify potential impacts of proposed geothermal development on the biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the distribution, habitat use, and density of the Hawaiian hawk or `Io (Buteo solitarius). Data were collected by the USFWS to assess the potential impacts of geothermal development on `Io populations on the island of Hawaii. These impacts include degradation of potential nesting habitat and increased disturbance due to construction and operation activities. Data from these surveys were analyzed as part of an island wide population assessment conducted by the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology at the request of the USFWS.

  1. Lifespan analyses of forest raptor nests: patterns of creation, persistence and reuse. (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, María V; Martínez, José E; Calvo, José F


    Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively). Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species), to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding attempts.

  2. Specialized photoreceptor composition in the raptor fovea. (United States)

    Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Toomey, Matthew B; Corbo, Joseph C; Kelber, Almut


    The retinae of many bird species contain a depression with high photoreceptor density known as the fovea. Many species of raptors have two foveae, a deep central fovea and a shallower temporal fovea. Birds have six types of photoreceptors: rods, active in dim light, double cones that are thought to mediate achromatic discrimination, and four types of single cones mediating color vision. To maximize visual acuity, the fovea should only contain photoreceptors contributing to high-resolution vision. Interestingly, it has been suggested that raptors might lack double cones in the fovea. We used transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to evaluate this claim in five raptor species: the common buzzard (Buteo buteo), the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), the red kite (Milvus milvus) and the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). We found that all species, except the Eurasian sparrowhawk, lack double cones in the center of the central fovea. The size of the double cone-free zone differed between species. Only the common buzzard had a double cone-free zone in the temporal fovea. In three species, we examined opsin expression in the central fovea and found evidence that rod opsin positive cells were absent and violet-sensitive cone and green-sensitive cone opsin positive cells were present. We conclude that not only double cones, but also single cones may contribute to high-resolution vision in birds, and that raptors may in fact possess high-resolution tetrachromatic vision in the central fovea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Territory Quality and Plumage Morph Predict Offspring Sex Ratio Variation in a Raptor. (United States)

    Chakarov, Nayden; Pauli, Martina; Mueller, Anna-Katharina; Potiek, Astrid; Grünkorn, Thomas; Dijkstra, Cor; Krüger, Oliver


    Parents may adapt their offspring sex ratio in response to their own phenotype and environmental conditions. The most significant causes for adaptive sex-ratio variation might express themselves as different distributions of fitness components between sexes along a given variable. Several causes for differential sex allocation in raptors with reversed sexual size dimorphism have been suggested. We search for correlates of fledgling sex in an extensive dataset on common buzzards Buteo buteo, a long-lived bird of prey. Larger female offspring could be more resource-demanding and starvation-prone and thus the costly sex. Prominent factors such as brood size and laying date did not predict nestling sex. Nonetheless, lifetime sex ratio (LSR, potentially indicative of individual sex allocation constraints) and overall nestling sex were explained by territory quality with more females being produced in better territories. Additionally, parental plumage morphs and the interaction of morph and prey abundance tended to explain LSR and nestling sex, indicating local adaptation of sex allocation However, in a limited census of nestling mortality, not females but males tended to die more frequently in prey-rich years. Also, although females could have potentially longer reproductive careers, a subset of our data encompassing full individual life histories showed that longevity and lifetime reproductive success were similarly distributed between the sexes. Thus, a basis for adaptive sex allocation in this population remains elusive. Overall, in common buzzards most major determinants of reproductive success appeared to have no effect on sex ratio but sex allocation may be adapted to local conditions in morph-specific patterns.

  4. An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe. (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Shore, R F; van den Brink, N W; van Hattum, B; Bustnes, J O; Duke, G; Fritsch, C; García-Fernández, A J; Helander, B O; Jaspers, V; Krone, O; Martínez-López, E; Mateo, R; Movalli, P; Sonne, C


    Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for >20years; most monitoring was conducted for >5years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6-10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable

  5. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia. (United States)

    Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W


    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species.

  6. Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?

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    Carolyn B Meyer

    Full Text Available Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix, common buzzard (Buteo buteo, and red kite (Milvus milvus. We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4-16% of mortality, depending on species and poisons (4-46% of mortality reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe, stable for buzzard (in Germany, and increasing for red kite (in Wales. Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%. The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently

  7. Integrative taxonomy of European parasitic flatworms of the genus Metorchis Looss, 1899 (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae). (United States)

    Sitko, Jiljí; Bizos, Jiří; Sherrard-Smith, Eleanor; Stanton, David W G; Komorová, Petronela; Heneberg, Petr


    Metorchis spp. are flukes (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) that infect vertebrates, including humans, dogs, cats, poultry and wild game, with cyprinid freshwater fish serving as typical second intermediate hosts. In their definitive hosts, the Metorchis spp. are difficult to identify to species. We provide and analyze sequences of two nuclear (18S rDNA and ITS2) and two mitochondrial (CO1 and ND1) DNA loci of four morphologically identified European species of the Metorchis, namely Metorchis albidus, Metorchis bilis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Metorchis xanthosomus, and of another opisthorchiid, Euamphimerus pancreaticus. DNA analysis suggests that the Metorchis specimens identified morphologically as M. albidus (from Lutra lutra), M. bilis (from Phalacrocorax carbo) and M. crassiusculus (from Aquila heliaca and Buteo rufinus) represent a single species. Thus, M. albidus (Braun, 1893) Loos, 1899 and M. crassiusculus (Rudolphi, 1809) Looss, 1899 are recognized as junior subjective synonyms of M. bilis (Braun, 1790) Odening, 1962. We also provide comparative measurements of the Central European Metorchis spp., and address their tissue specificity and prevalence based on the examination of extensive bird cohort from 1962 to 2015. M. bilis and M. xanthosomus can be morphologically diagnosed by measuring the extent of genitalia relative to body length and by the size ratio of their suckers. They also differ in their core definitive hosts, with ducks (Anas, Aythya) and coots (Fulica) hosting M. xanthosomus, and cormorants (Phalacrocorax), the birds of prey (Buteo, Aquila, etc.), piscivorous mammals (Lutra, Vulpes, Ursus, etc.) and humans hosting M. bilis. Previous reports on the Metorchis spp. contain numerous suspected misidentifications.

  8. Vacant Nests and Other Factors Influencing Nest Site Selection of Birds of Prey Based on Case Studies in Forest Habitats in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of Eastern Ukraine

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    Stanislav G. Viter


    Full Text Available Our study was conducted in 2003–2012 in Eastern Ukraine, in the basin of the Seversky Donets river. The total surveyed area was ca. 900 km2 of nesting habitats suitable for raptors. A total of 69 vacant nests were found, i.e. 33.2 % of the total number of nests (208. Nests occupied by recipient species, i.e. the so-called ‘effective nest pool’, were 23–24, i.e. 33.3–34.7 % of the pool of available nests. Up to 25 % of all pairs of raptors depend on the availability of vacant nests of heterospecifics. Ravens (Corvus corax are the most significant donors of nests: 42.5 % of the pool of available nests is built by this species, and more than 60 % of them are occupied by recipient species. Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo comes second with 26.09 and 58.3 %, respectively. The most common recipients of nests are Hobbies (Falco subbuteo, Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus and Booted Eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus. The most significant factors that govern occupation of vacant nests by recipient species are: availability of nests in the marginal zone of forest plots, i.e. within 500 m from the forest edge, large distance from human settlements (>1500 m, presence of nests located on trees in the canopy storey, and mature and submature age of forest stands. For seven species considered in our research (n=227, the most important factors were position of nests, in the forest canopy layer, no logging activity within300 m of the nest, no regular human disturbance, and presence of “windows” in the canopy made by fallen trees.

  9. Study on HPLC fingerprint characteristic of the ox bile powder%牛胆粉高效液相色谱法特征图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢海燕; 邹纯才


    OBJECTIVE To investigate HPLC fingerprint characteristic for the bile powder of Bos Taurus domesticus Gmelin and the Bubalus Linnaeus,and provide basis for the establishment of chromatographic fingerprint of ox bile powder. METHODS The HPLC was run on Lichrospher C18 (4. 6 mmX 250 mm,5 jum) column with acetonitrile-water (0. 1 % potassium dihydro-gen phosphate) as mobile phase in gradient elution (0-20 min acetonitrile 30%→30/"o ,20-40 min acetonitrile 30%→40%, 40 - 70 min acetonitrile 40%-→50% ;70 - 80 min,acetonitrile 50%→50% at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min-1. The temperature of column was 30 °C. The detection wavelength and reference wavelength were 210 nm with DAD detector. The information of 22 fingerprint peaks compared with cholic acid was treated by cluster analysis. RESULTS Through the analysis of 10 batches samples of the bile powder of Bos Taurus domesticus Gmelin and the Bubalus Linnaeus,22 peaks were identified,and the HPLC fingerprint of the ox bile powder was established. CONCLUSION HPLC fingerprint characteristic for the bile powder of Bos Taurus domesticus Gmelin and the Bubalus Linnaeus are similarity, but there is a certain difference in content among the characteristic ingredients.%目的:探求比较黄牛胆粉和水牛胆粉的HPLC特征图谱,为建立牛胆粉的特征图谱提供依据.方法:采用梯度洗脱技术进行HPLC分离分析.色谱柱为Lichrospher C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5n),以乙腈-0.001 mol·L-1 KH2PO4溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱(0~20 min,乙腈30%→30%;20~40 min,乙腈30%→40%;40~70 min,乙腈40%→50%;70~80 min,乙腈50%→50%),流速1.0mL·min-1;柱温30℃;DAD检测器,检测波长210 nm.用聚类分析方法处理色谱特征信息,比较色谱以胆酸为参照色谱峰的22个特征峰的信息.结果:通过分析10批黄牛胆粉和水牛胆粉样品,确定了22个共有峰,建立了牛胆粉的HPLC特征图谱.结论:黄牛胆粉和水牛胆粉的色谱指纹特征比

  10. Comparison of CO2 fluxes in a larch forest on permafrost and a pine forest on non-permafrost soils in Central Siberia (United States)

    Zyryanov, V.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Nakai, Y.; Zyryanova, O.; Parfenova, E. I.; Matsuura, Y.; Vygodskaya, N.


    Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy, water and carbon fluxes and associated climate variables in a middle taiga pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest on warm sandy soils and a northern taiga larch (Larix gmelini) forest on permafrost in Central Siberia were studied from eddy covariance measurements obtained during growing seasons of 1998-2000 and 2004-2008 (except 2006) respectively. Both naturally regenerated after fire forests grew in different environments and differed by their tree stand characteristics. The pure Gmelin larch stand was 105 yr old, stem density of living trees was about 5480 trees/ha, LAI was 0.6 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 0.0044 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 7.1 cm and mean tree height 6.8 m. The pure Scots pine stand was 215 yr old, stand structure was relatively homogenous with a stem density of 468 living trees/ha, LAI was 1.5 m2/m2, biomass (dry weight) was 10.7 kg/m2, with average diameter of the trees at breast height 28 cm and mean tree height 23 m. The climatic and soil conditions of these ecosystems were very distinctive. The habitat of the larch forest was much colder and dryer than that of the pine forest: the growing season was 1 month shorter and growing-degree days 200°C less and winters were about one month longer and colder with January temperature -37°C versus -23°C; annual precipitation was 400 mm in the larch versus 650 mm in the pine forest and maximal snow pack was 40 cm vs 70 cm. The soils were Gelisols with permafrost table within the upper 1 m in the larch stand and Pergelic Cryochrept, alluvial sandy soil with no underlying permafrost. Average daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was significantly smaller in the larch ecosystem - (-3-6) μmol/m2s compared to that in the pine forest (-7-8) μmol/m2s, however daily maximal NEE was about the same. Seasonal NEE in the larch forest on continuous permafrost varied from -53 to -107 and in the pine forest on non-permafrost from -180 to

  11. Riqueza e composição de vertebrados em latrinas ativas e inativas de Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora, Mustelidae na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

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    Cintia M. Togura


    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a riqueza e composição de vertebrados de médio e grande porte em latrinas ativas e inativas de ariranhas [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788], em uma Unidade de Conservação de Uso Sustentável na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira. O estudo foi realizado em 45 latrinas ao longo de 230 km nos rios Falsino e Araguari (0°55'N, 51°35'W, sendo que desse total, 24 apresentaram fezes frescas e 21 fezes velhas de ariranhas. De julho a novembro de 2012, cada latrina foi monitorada com uma armadilha fotográfica programada para operar por 24 horas. O esforço de campo resultou em 458,8 armadilhas/dia, sendo 247,5 armadilhas/dia em latrinas com fezes frescas e 211,3 armadilhas/dia com fezes velhas. Foram obtidos registros de 22 espécies de vertebrados. A maior parte das espécies registradas foram mamíferos (n = 13, seguida por aves (n = 6, e répteis (n = 3. As espécies mais frequentemente fotografadas foram paca [Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766; n = 21], jaguatirica [Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758; n =11], juriti-pupu (Leptotila verreauxi Bonaparte, 1855; n = 8, ariranha [Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788; n = 7], e anta [Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758; n = 6], que foram responsáveis por 55,8% de todos os registros. A maior parte dos registros (69,5% foram obtidos em latrinas com fezes frescas e o número de espécies foi maior (n = 19 do que os registrados em latrinas com fezes velhas (n = 15. No entanto, a dissimilaridade entre a comunidade de vertebrados entre latrinas com fezes frescas e velhas não diferiu. A média de visitação em latrinas com fezes frescas foi ligeiramente superior do que em latrinas com fezes velhas, embora essa diferença tenha sido apenas marginalmente significativa. Entretanto, houve uma diminuição no número de registros de felinos [Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821 e Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758], marginalmente significativo em latrinas com fezes frescas

  12. Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi (Digenea, Prosthogonimidae em três espécies de aves aquáticas da Região Sul do Brasil Prosthogonimus ovatus (Digenea, Prosthogonimidae in three species of aquatic birds of southern Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro


    Full Text Available Três espécies de aves, dois anatídeos, Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (marreca-caneleira e Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816 (marrecão e um phalacrocoracídeo, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 (biguá foram coletados em vários locais na Província da Planície Costeira e no Lago Guaíba, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O número de aves examinadas de cada espécie de hospedeiro, assim como os valores de prevalência e intensidade média de infecção foram: 33 D. bicolor, 3%, 1 helminto/hospedeiro; 20 N. peposaca 15%, 4,3 helmintos/hospedeiro e 47 P. brasilianus 2,1%, 1 helminto/hospedeiro. O espécime coletado no biguá e um dos espécimes, entre aqueles, coletados nos marrecões estavam na cloaca. Os outros espécimes coletados nos marrecões e o único espécime coletado nas marrecas-caneleiras, respectivamente, estavam na bolsa de Fabricius. Este é o primeiro registro de P. ovatus em biguás e em marrecões. A distribuição geográfica conhecida de P. ovatus é estendida para o sul do Brasil e para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Three species of birds, two anatids, Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (Fulvous Whistling Duck and Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816 (Rosy-billed Pochard, and one phalacrocoracid, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 (Neotropical Cormorant were collected from several localities in the Coastal Plain Province and in Lago Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The number of birds examined of each host species with the respective values of prevalence and mean intensity of infection of P. ovatus were: 33 D. bicolor, 3%, 1 helminth/host; 20 N. peposaca 15%, 4.3 helminths/host, and 47 P. brasilianus 2.1%, 1 helminth/host. The single specimen collected from the Neotropical cormorants and one of the specimens collected from the rosy-billed pochards, were in the cloaca. The remaining specimens from the rosy-billed pochards and the single specimen from the fulvous whistling ducks were in the bursa of Fabricius. This

  13. Patterns of spatial genetic structuring in the endangered limpet Patella ferruginea: implications for the conservation of a Mediterranean endemic. (United States)

    Casu, Marco; Rivera-Ingraham, Georgina A; Cossu, Piero; Lai, Tiziana; Sanna, Daria; Dedola, Gian Luca; Sussarellu, Rossana; Sella, Gabriella; Cristo, Benedetto; Curini-Galletti, Marco; García-Gómez, José Carlos; Espinosa, Free


    Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is an endangered marine gastropod endemic to the Western Mediterranean. Its range is restricted to the Sardinian-Corsican region (SCR), North Africa, a few scattered sites in Southern Spain, and Sicily. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and three different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I, 12S (small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene) and 16S (large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene), were used to investigate the presence of genetic population structuring. The mtDNA sequences showed very low levels of genetic differentiation. Conversely, ISSRs showed the presence of two main genetic groups, corresponding to Spain, North Africa and Sicily and the SCR. The SCR was further split into two subgroups. The ISSR results suggest that, on a regional scale, the genetic structure of P. ferruginea is mainly determined by the restriction of gene flow by dispersal barriers. On a more local scale human harvesting may play a crucial role in population structuring by increasing the effect of genetic drift.

  14. Replacement and growth of primary feathers in captive rock pigeons, Columba livia (Aves: Columbidae

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    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The replacement and growth of 311 primary feathers of eight captive male rock pigeons, Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 were monitored daily. Feather replacement was recorded in all months, but the primaries 1 to 5 (innermost primaries were replaced mostly from September to December, whereas the primaries 6 to 10 (outermost primaries were more frequently replaced from January to August. Each primary was held in plumage from six to fifteen months, but the lifetime of the outer feathers was longer than that of the inner feathers. A new primary emerges two or three days after its predecessor has been dropped, but the primaries replacing the feathers accidentally lost during bird handling emerge only after about eight days. The average growth period of a primary ranged from 21 to 37 days, with the larger and outermost feathers exhibiting a longer growth period. A constant average growth rate of 4 to 5 mm/day was found for all primaries until the last two days of growth, when the growth rate of the feathers became progressively slower. Bilateral symmetry in the primary replacement, when the same feather is replaced simultaneously in both wings, was not significant (22.2% in the birds monitored in this study.

  15. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.


    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  16. Return to Glacier Bay (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.


    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  17. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus). (United States)

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.


    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification.

  18. A review of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae). (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Sikora, Bozena; Spicer, Greg S


    The fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) is comprehensively revised. All of 78 known species, which are grouped into 11 genera, are examined and diagnosed or redescribed. Data on picobiine hosts and distribution are summarized, including new host and locality records. The following new species are described: Charadriineopicobia apricaria sp. nov. ex Pluvialis apricaria (Linnaeus) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from France, Neopicobia pari sp. nov. ex Periparus venustulus Swinhoe (type host) (Passeriformes: Paridae) from China, Parus major Linnaeus (Paridae) from Macedonia and Finland, and Poecile varius Temminck and Schlegel (Paridae) from Japan, Picobia magellani sp. nov. ex Scytalopus magellanicus (Gmelin) (Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae) from Colombia, Picobia lonchura sp. nov. ex Lonchura leucogastra (Blyth) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) from Indonesia, Picobia makoli sp. nov. ex Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus (Lesson) (Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from Colombia. The species Picobia polonica Skoracki, Magowski and Dabert, 2001 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of C. khulkhaskhani Kivganov and Sharafat, 1995. The following new combinations are proposed: Neopicobia ictericus (Skoracki and Glowska, 2010) comb. nov., Rafapicobia brotogeris (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov., and Rafapicobia ramphastos (Fain, Bochkov and Mironov, 2000) comb. nov. Keys to the all picobiine genera and species are presented, along with a check-list of picobiine species and their hosts.

  19. New records, distribution and status of six seabird species in Brazil

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    Rafael Antunes Dias


    Full Text Available Distribution records of poorly-known species are currently the most explored theme in the Brazilian seabird literature. If properly evaluated, this kind of information can improve our knowledge on distribution, migration and status of occurrence of these species. In this note we present new records for six species of poorly-known seabirds in the Brazilian coast, reviewing distribution records and defining their status of occurrence in the country. We consider Chionis albus (Gmelin, 1789 a pseudo-vagrant in Brazil and define its status as a scarce seasonal visitor from southern South America. We present the first records of Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758 for Trindade Island, and of Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler, 1831 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and determined that the former is a vagrant in eastern Brazil and the latter a vagrant across the country. Anous stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a vagrant in southernmost Brazil. We were unable to determine if records of Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758 for Brazil and southern South America refer to vagrancy or pseudo-vagrancy. Additionally, we verified the occurrence of breeding individuals of Anous minutus Boie, 1844 on Martin Vaz Island and confirmed that there is no evidence of breeding on neighboring Trindade Island.

  20. RPB2 gene reveals a phylodemographic signal in wild and domesticated grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni ZECCA; Fabrizio GRASSI


    Polymorphism at the single copy RPB2 locus was investigated to define the relationship between wild and domesticated grapevines.Two different forms still coexist in Eurasia,the cultivated (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.vinifera) and the wild (Vitis vinifera L.ssp.sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi),referred to as separate subspecies.Using the observed number of mutations at the RPB2 locus,as well as archaeological data,to define an approximate age of domestication,we have estimated a high nucleotide substitution rate (4.25 × 10-7) in the domesticated group.Moreover,the dynamics of population size in the RPB2 gene were estimated using Bayesian coalescent inference.The Bayesian skyline plot offered interesting information on the past dynamics of RPB2 for both wild and domesticated groups.The signal of exponential growth observed in grapevine accessions can be viewed as a consequence of human breeding activity during the domestication of the species.However,a recent and drastic decline of population size has been observed in the Mediterranean wild lineages.This event mirrors the demographic decline of wild grape,probably explained by anthropogenic pressure on its natural habitats and by the introduction of pathogens from North America in recent centuries.

  1. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

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    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.


    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  2. Lung parasites of the genus Metastrongylus Molin, 1861 (Nematoda: Metastrongilidae) in wild boar (Sus scrofa L., 1758) in Central-Italy: An eco-epidemiological study. (United States)

    Poglayen, Giovanni; Marchesi, Barbara; Dall'Oglio, Giulia; Barlozzari, Giulia; Galuppi, Roberta; Morandi, Benedetto


    The respiratory tracts of 57 wild boars (Sus scrofa L. 1758) hunted in central Italy during the 2011/2012 hunting season were examined to detect the presence of lung worms. Fifty-five out of 57 animals (96,5%) were positive. Five species of Metastrongylus were detected and their prevalence was as follows: Metastrongylus asymmetricus Noda, 1973 (91.2%), Metastrongylus confusus Jansen, 1964 and Metastrongylus salmi Gedoelst, 1923 (87.7%), Metastrongylus apri Gmelin, 1790 (80.7%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus Vostokov, 1905 (70.2%). In most cases multi-species infection was observed. The highest parasite load was found in young animals (<1 year old). The Metastrongylus genus sex ratio (M/F) had a range from 1:4.8 to 1:1.5 in favor of females. The Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indices showed a moderate uniformity in parasite community composition. The Fager index highlighted a high degree of affinity among all pairs of selected parasites. The whole parasite population showed an aggregate distribution. Our findings confirm that these parasites are widespread in the wild boar population. The establishment of outdoor domestic pig farming in the same area of the game preserve could pose the risk of infection to domestic animals. Further studies will be needed to understand the factors involved in the presence and prevalence of the intermediate host as well as the population dynamics of Metastrongylus spp.

  3. Biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, parasitoid longevity in presence of the host, and host status of Walnut Husk Fly

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    Yokoyama, Victoria Y., E-mail: vyokoyama@fresno.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SJVASC), Parlier, CA (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station; Rendon, Pedro A., E-mail: [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/APHIS), Guatemala City (Guatemala). Center for Plant Health Science and Technology. Animal and Plant Health Inspection.; Sivinski, John, E-mail: jsivinski@gainesville.usda.ufl.ed [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/CMAVE), Gainesville, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology


    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea. Free releases of the parasitoids were made in olive trees infested with olive fruit fly at a coastal and inland valley location during the fall and early winter of 2005. The relative humidity during the releases was significantly higher at the coastal location. Mean percentage parasitism ranged from 0.5 to 4 and 1.5 to 30 at the coastal and inland valley locations respectively, based on same season recovery of the F1 generation. One parasitoid was found in infested olives in the next crop of the following year in San Jose. Survival of the parasitoid in the greenhouse in the presence of olive fruit fly infested olives was not significantly different than in the presence of non-infested olives. The greatest number of progeny was produced from female parasitoids that were 12-16 d old. In laboratory tests, a few individuals of the parasitoid successfully completed one life cycle in walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, infested English walnuts, Juglans regia L. (author)

  4. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A


    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard.

  5. Alien molluscan species established along the Italian shores: an update, with discussions on some Mediterranean “alien species” categories

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    Fabio Crocetta


    Full Text Available The state of knowledge of the alien marine Mollusca in Italy is reviewed and updated. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792, Polycera hedgpethi Er. Marcus, 1964 and Haminoea japonica Pilsbry, 1895 are here considered as established on the basis of published and unpublished data, and recent records of the latter considerably expand its known Mediterranean range to the Tyrrhenian Sea. COI sequences obtained indicate that a comprehensive survey of additional European localities is needed to elucidate the dispersal pathways of H. japonica. Recent records and interpretation of several molluscan taxa as alien are discussed both in light of new Mediterranean (published and unpublished records and of four categories previously excluded from alien species lists. Within this framework, ten taxa are no longer considered as alien species, or their records from Italy are refuted. Furthermore, Trochocochlea castriotae Bellini, 1903 is considered a new synonym for Gibbula albida (Gmelin, 1791. Data provided here leave unchanged as 35 the number of alien molluscan taxa recorded from Italy as well as the percentage of the most plausible vectors of introduction, but raise to 22 the number of established species along the Italian shores during the 2005–2010 period, and backdate to 1792 the first introduction of an alien molluscan species (L. saxatilis to the Italian shores.

  6. Reconstruction of the charophyte community of Lake Shinji by oospore collection

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    Komuro T.


    Full Text Available Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV aids in maintaining a clear stable state in shallow lakes. However, charophytes are more effective in increasing transparency compared to angiosperms. Lake Shinji was more transparent prior to the beginning of herbicide use for rice weed control in the mid-1950s, because its bottom was covered by SAV up to 3 m depth. Although Chara braunii C.C. Gmelin and Nitella hyaline (De Candolle C. Agardh were recorded in the 1960s, there are no reports on SAV in the 1950s. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to show that the SAV of Lake Shinji was mostly composed of charophytes prior to the 1950s, by conducting a seed analysis. We obtained charophyte oospores from the sediment, but seeds of angiosperms were not identified. In addition to C. braunii that was previously recorded in Lake Shinji, we also found two newly identified species, Chara corallina Willdenow  and Chara fibrosa C. Agardh ex Bruzelius. Overall, this study indicates that seed analysis is helpful in reconstructing the former flora of Lake Shinji.

  7. Carcinopodacarus polymorphus gen. n. et sp. n. from Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: a first example of male polymorphism in the family Dermationidae (Acariformes: Analgoidea). (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Bochkov, Andre V


    Carcinopodacarus polymorphus gen. n. et sp. n. (Acariformes: Dermationidae: Dermationinae) is described from the guira cuckoo Guira guira (Gmelin) (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil. The new genus differs from the closest genus, Psittophagoides Fain, 1964, by the following features: in both sexes, the anterior spines of trochanters I and II are absent (vs present in Psittophagoides), setae d2 are distinctly developed (vs only alveoli), and genual setae mGI are absent (vs present); in males, the hysteronotal shield is split transversally at the level of trochanters III (vs hysteronotal shield entire); in females, the platelets situated posterior to the propodonotal shield are absent (vs present), the metapodosomal sclerites are present (vs absent), and the adanal shields are fused anteriorly to each other (vs separated from each other). In this species, andropolymorphism is detected for the first time for the family. It involves various characters but the most impressive feature is the structure of legs III. In hetero- and mesomorphic males, these legs are strongly hypertrophied and have a distinct ventral spur on femora III; in homeomorphic males, legs III are not modified and subequal to legs IV.

  8. The feather mites of nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae), with descriptions of two new species from Brazil (Acari: Xolalgidae, Gabuciniidae). (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi


    Two new species of feather mites are described from nightjars (Caprimulgiformes: Caprimulgidae) of Brazil: Hartingiella neotropica sp. n. (Xolalgidae) described from Hydropsalis parvula (Gould) and Paragabucinia brasiliensis sp. n. (Gabuciniidae) from H. albicollis (Gmelin). The former differs from the type species by having, in males, the anterior projections on epimerites III towards setae 3b and the adanal shield bearing setae ps3 present; in both sexes, a pair of small sclerites situated posterior to setae se have flat suprategumental processes. Paragabucinia brasiliensis sp. n. differs from P. petitoti (Gaud et Mouchet, 1959) by the smaller size of the incisions in the internal margins of opisthosomal lobes of males. These mites are the first representatives of corresponding genera described from the Neotropical region. The genus Hartingiella Gaud, 1980 was previously known solely from its type species. Keys to males and females of the genus Paragabucinia Gaud et Atyeo, 1975 are presented. In addition, all previous records of feather mites associated with birds of the order Caprimulgiformes of the world are summarised.

  9. Prevalence of Candidatus Erwinia dacicola in wild and laboratory olive fruit fly populations and across developmental stages. (United States)

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Burrack, Hannah J; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Pierson, Elizabeth A


    The microbiome of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), a worldwide pest of olives (Olea europaea L.), has been examined for >100 yr as part of efforts to identify bacteria that are plant pathogens vectored by the fly or are beneficial endosymbionts essential for the fly's survival and thus targets for possible biological control. Because tephritid fruit flies feed on free-living bacteria in their environment, distinguishing between the transient, acquired bacteria of their diet and persistent, resident bacteria that are vertically transmitted endosymbionts is difficult. Several culture-dependent and -independent studies have identified a diversity of species in the olive fruit fly microbiome, but they have not distinguished the roles of the microbes. Candidatus Erwinia dacicola, has been proposed to be a coevolved endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly; however, this was based on limited samples from two Italian populations. Our study shows that C. Erwinia dacicola was present in all New and Old World populations and in the majority of individuals of all life stages sampled in 2 yr. Olive fruit flies reared on olives in the laboratory had frequencies of C. Erwinia dacicola similar to that of wild populations; however, flies reared on artificial diets containing antibiotics in the laboratory rarely had the endosymbiont. The relative abundance of C. Erwinia dacicola varied across development stages, being most abundant in ovipositing females and larvae. This uniform presence of C. Erwini dacicola suggests that it is a persistent, resident endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gulf of Mexico American Oyster (United States)

    Cake, Edwin W.


    The American or eastern oyster (Crassostrea virrinica [Gmelin]), a bivalve in the family Ostreidae, is an important commercia and recreational species along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America and other areas (U.S. Pacific coast and Hawaii) where it has been introduced (Galtsoff 1964). It evolved over the last 25 million years (Miocene and Pliocene epochs) from an ancestral, Atlantic-Pacific species that also gave rise to the Central American oyster of the Pacific coast, Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein) (Stenzel 1971). It evolved to fill a eurytopic niche in coastal estuaries where it forms massive reefs in nearshore bays, sounds, lagoons, and river mouths. Its existence depends on suitable substratum (cultch and firm bottom sediments) and acceptable sal-inity conditions. The location and distribution of oyster reefs in a salt marsh-estuari ne ecosystem are not acci denta 1; rather, they result from the interacti on of many bi 01 ogi ca 1, chemica1, geo1ogi ca1, and phys i ca 1 processes (Butler 1954a; Marshall 1954; Bahr and Lanier 1981).


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    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  12. Parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lassad Neifar


    Objective:To investigate the parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) (B. capriscus) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods:A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from May 2007 to April 2009. A total of 480 fishes were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, the size, the sex, the date and the area of capture of each specimen were recorded. B. capriscus were then examined to search for ectoparasites and endoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results:Five species of parasites were identified, among which a new species of Digenea Hypocreadium caputvadum was discovered and two species of parasites were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean. Conclusions:It is the first inventory of the ecto and endoparasites of grey triggerfish collected from the Gulf of Gabès Mediterranean Sea.

  13. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

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    Caio C.C. Missagia


    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  14. Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in Europe. (United States)

    Brabbs, Thomas; Collins, Debbie; Hérard, Franck; Maspero, Matteo; Eyre, Dominic


    This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Japan, and fungal infection results in high mortality rates. Parasitic nematodes: Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser have potential for use as biopesticides as an alternative to chemical treatments. Parasitoids: a parasitoid of Anoplophora chinensis Forster, Aprostocetus anoplophorae Delvare (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was discovered in Italy in 2002 and has been shown to be capable of parasitising up to 72% of A. chinensis eggs; some native European parasitoid species (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) also have potential to be used as biological control agents. Predators: two woodpecker (Piciformis: Picidae) species that are native to Europe, Dendrocopos major Beicki and Picus canus Gmelin, have been shown to be effective at controlling Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky in Chinese forests. The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for Anoplophora spp. in Europe, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible.

  15. Molecular taxonomy of cupped oysters (Crassostrea, Saccostrea, and Striostrea) in Thailand based on COI, 16S, and 18S rDNA polymorphism. (United States)

    Klinbunga, S; Khamnamtong, B; Puanglarp, N; Jarayabhand, P; Yoosukh, W; Menasveta, P


    Genetic diversity of oysters Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby, 1871), C. iredalei (Faustino, 1932), Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778), S. forskali (Gmelin, 1791), and Striostrea (Parastriostrea) mytiloides (Lamarck, 1819) (Ostreoida, Mollusca) was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of 16S ribosomal DNA with AcsI, AluI, DdeI, DraI, RsaI, and TaqI, 18S ribosomal DNA with HinfI, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I with AcsI, DdeI and MboI. A total of 54 composite haplotypes were observed. Species-diagnostic markers were specifically found in C. belcheri, C. iredalei, and S. cucullata, but not in S. forskali and Striostrea mytiloides, which shared common composite haplotypes. Neighbor-joining trees constructed from genetic distances between pairs of composite haplotypes and species indicated large genetic differences between Crassostrea and Saccostrea (including Striostrea mytiloides), but closer relationships were observed within each genus. Four groups of unidentified oysters (Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. groups 1, 2, and 3) were also genetically analyzed. Fixed RFLP markers were found in Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2, but not in Saccostrea sp. groups 1 and 3. Phylogenetic and genetic heterogeneity analyses indicated that Crassostrea sp. and Saccostrea sp. group 2 should be considered as newly unidentified oyster species in Thailand.

  16. Reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure. (United States)

    Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna


    Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid

  17. Il ruolo dell'Arvicola delle nevi Chionomys nivalis come specie-preda: un'analisi della situazione italiana

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    Armando Nappi


    Full Text Available L?Arvicola delle nevi Chionomys nivalis, a causa della sua particolare nicchia ecologica costituita, nella sua componente spaziale, dai suoli pietrosi nei cui interstizi vive, viene di norma considerata una preda poco rappresentata nelle catene trofiche. In Italia, eccettuato un dato incerto di cattura da Buteo buteo, è risultata predata da cinque specie di serpenti (Coronella austriaca, Elaphe longissima, Vipera aspis, V. berus, V. ursinii, sei di uccelli (Aquila chrysaetos, Strix aluco, Bubo bubo, Aegolius funereus, Asio otus e cinque di mammiferi (Vulpes vulpes, Mustela nivalis, M. erminea, Martes sp., Felis catus. In alcuni casi, come in Vipera berus a Passo Fedaia (BL, Asio otus a S. Valentino alla Muta (BZ, Mustela erminea nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (TN con percentuali piuttosto consistenti, rispettivamente del 69.6%, 60.71% e 35.89%. In uno studio su Vulpes vulpes nel Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso (TO-AO è risultata essere la preda dominante tra i roditori. Sempre nella stessa area, è interessante la predazione da Aegolius funereus per la quale risulta, dopo Clethrionomys glareolus, la preda più rappresentata (27.97% malgrado, da uno studio di trappolamento di micromammiferi effettuato intorno all?area di nidificazione, risulti assente rivelando così un comportamento esplorativo del rapace diretto proprio alla ricerca dell?arvicola delle nevi. Da una prima analisi sembrerebbe dunque da rivalutare il ruolo di questo roditore come preda, anche considerando il contributo in biomassa che può rappresentare. Su un totale di 184 dati reperiti sulla presenza della specie in Italia, 28 (15.2% derivano da residui di predazione. Benché non risulti un quantitativo alto comparato ad altri micromammiferi è comunque significativo

  18. Health of an ex situ population of raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) in Mexico: diagnosis of internal parasites. (United States)

    Santos, Tiziano; de Oliveira, Jaqueline B; Vaughan, Christopher; Santiago, Heber


    Successful programs for ex situ and in situ conservation and management of raptors require detailed knowledge about their pathogens. The purpose of this study was to identify the internal parasites of some captive raptors in Mexico, as well as to verify their impact in the health status of infected birds. Birds of prey were confiscated and kept in captivity at the Centro de Investigación y Conservación de Vida Silvestre (CIVS) in Los Reyes La Paz, Mexico State. For this, fecal and blood samples from 74 birds of prey (66 Falconiformes and eight Strigiformes) of 15 species, juveniles and adults from both sexes (39 males and 35 female), were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Besides, the oropharyngeal cavity was macroscopically examined for the presence of lesions compatible with trichomoniasis. Among our results we found that lesions compatible with Trichomonas gallinae infection were detected only in two Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (2.7%); nevertheless, infected birds were in good physical condition. Overall, gastrointestinal parasites were found in 10 (13.5%) raptors: nine falconiforms (13.6%) and one strigiform (12.5%), which mainly presented a single type of gastrointestinal parasite (90%). Eimeria spp. was detected in Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni), Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis) and Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus); whereas trematodes eggs were found in Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni). Furthermore, eggs of Capillaria spp. were found in one Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni), which was also infected by trematodes. Hemoprotozoarian were detected in five (6.7%) falconiforms: Haemoproteus spp. in American kestrel (F. sparverius) and Leucocytozoon spp. in Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicencis). Despite this, no clinical signs referable to gastrointestinal or blood parasite infection were observed in any birds. All parasites identified were recorded

  19. The Peculiarities of Territorial Distribution and Abundance of Birds of Prey in Kharkiv Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav G. Viter


    (Accipiter gentilis – 214–224, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Ac. nisus – 336–365, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo – 1000–1050, Long-Legged Buzzard (B. rufinus – 185–190, Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus – no more than 6 pairs, Booted Eagle – 119–124, Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca – 56–60, Greater Spotted Eagle (A. clanga – 3–4, Lesser Spotted Eagle (A. pomarina – 10–11, Hobby (Falco subbuteo – 160–175, Common Kestrel (F. tinnunculus – 297–320 pairs.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of avian poxviruses among free-ranging birds of Virginia. (United States)

    Adams, Cary J; Feldman, Sanford H; Sleeman, Jonathan M


    Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a portion of the avian poxvirus core 4b gene of infected free-ranging birds that presented at the Wildlife Center of Virginia during the 2003 and early 2004 years. The species of bird infected were a great blue heron (Ardea herodias), two American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos), two American robins (Turdus migratorius), two mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), a blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), a northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos), a house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), and a northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the consensus sequences determined for each avian case in Virginia in combination with avian poxvirus core 4b gene sequence from isolates previously described in Europe and that of vaccinia virus. Alignment of DNA sequences identified areas of point mutations and, in the case of a single mourning dove, the incorporation of a triplet of nucleotides. Maximum-likelihood analysis grouped the 2003-2004 Virginia avian poxviruses into a clade distinct from those reported in European free-ranging birds, with the exception of a single case in a mourning dove that clustered within one European clade. The cladogram that resulted from our analysis of the European isolates is in agreement with those previously published. This study identified a distinct clade of avian poxvirus unique from four clades previously described and associated with epornitics in free-ranging birds, where the core 4b gene DNA sequence has been the basis of comparison.

  1. Raptor mortality due to West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. (United States)

    Saito, Emi K; Sileo, Louis; Green, D Earl; Meteyer, Carol U; McLaughlin, Grace S; Converse, Kathryn A; Docherty, Douglas E


    West Nile virus (WNV) has affected many thousands of birds since it was first detected in North America in 1999, but the overall impact on wild bird populations is unknown. In mid-August 2002, wildlife rehabilitators and local wildlife officials from multiple states began reporting increasing numbers of sick and dying raptors, mostly red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Commonly reported clinical signs were nonspecific and included emaciation, lethargy, weakness, inability to perch, fly or stand, and nonresponse to danger. Raptor carcasses from 12 states were received, and diagnostic evaluation of 56 raptors implicated WNV infection in 40 (71%) of these cases. Histologically, nonsuppurative encephalitis and myocarditis were the salient lesions (79% and 61%, respectively). Other causes of death included lead poisoning, trauma, aspergillosis, and Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. infections. The reason(s) for the reported increase in raptor mortality due to WNV in 2002 compared with the previous WNV seasons is unclear, and a better understanding of the epizootiology and pathogenesis of the virus in raptor populations is needed.

  2. Natural and experimental West Nile virus infection in five raptor species. (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole; Gould, Daniel; Bowen, Richard; Komar, Nicholas


    We studied the effects of natural and/or experimental infections of West Nile virus (WNV) in five raptor species from July 2002 to March 2004, including American kestrels (Falco sparverius), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owls (Tyto alba), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Birds were infected per mosquito bite, per os, or percutaneously by needle. Many experimentally infected birds developed mosquito-infectious levels of viremia (>10(5) WNV plaque forming units per ml serum) within 5 days postinoculation (DPI), and/ or shed virus per os or per cloaca. Infection of organs 15-27 days postinoculation was infrequently detected by virus isolation from spleen, kidney, skin, heart, brain, and eye in convalescent birds. Histopathologic findings varied among species and by method of infection. The most common histopathologic lesions were subacute myocarditis and encephalitis. Several birds had a more acute, severe disease condition represented by arteritis and associated with tissue degeneration and necrosis. This study demonstrates that raptor species vary in their response to WNV infection and that several modes of exposure (e.g., oral) may result in infection. Wildlife managers should recognize that, although many WNV infections are sublethal to raptors, subacute lesions could potentially reduce viability of populations. We recommend that raptor handlers consider raptors as a potential source of WNV contamination due to oral and cloacal shedding.

  3. Raptor community composition in the Texas Southern High Plains lesser prairie-chicken range (United States)

    Behney, A.C.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lucia, D.R.


    Predation can be a factor in preventing prey population growth and sustainability when prey populations are small and fragmented, and when predator density is unrelated to the density of the single prey species. We conducted monthly raptor surveys from February 2007 to May 2009 in adjacent areas of the Texas Southern High Plains (USA) that do and do not support lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), a candidate for protection under the Endangered Species Act. During the summer period corresponding to prairie-chicken nesting and brood-rearing, Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) were the most abundant raptor. During the lekking and overwintering period, the raptor community was diverse, with northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) being the most abundant species. Raptor abundance peaked during the early autumn and was lowest during the spring. Utility poles were a significant predictor of raptor density at survey points and Swainson's hawks and all raptors, pooled, were found in greater densities in non-prairie-chicken habitat dominated by mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). Avian predation risk on prairie-chickens, based on presence and abundance of raptors, appears to be greatest during winter when there is a more abundant and diverse raptor community, and in areas with utility poles.

  4. Respiratory nematodiases in raptors in Quebec. (United States)

    Lavoie, M; Mikaelian, I; Sterner, M; Villeneuve, A; Fitzgerald, G; McLaughlin, J D; Lair, S; Martineau, D


    This is a retrospective study on wild raptors submitted to the Université de Montréal (Quebec, Canada) from 1989 to 1996. Cyathostoma spp. (Nematoda: Syngamidae) adults and/or eggs were found in air sacs, lungs, bronchi, and trachea of 12 raptors (Falconiformes and Strigiformes) from Quebec, Canada, belonging to eight different species, five of which are first host records for this parasite: barred owl (Strix varia), snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), and broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus). The infection was considered fatal in four birds, while no significant clinical signs were observed in the other cases. Major pathologic changes included diffuse pyogranulomatous air sacculitis, pneumonia, and bronchitis. A few unidentified larval nematodes embedded in a granuloma were found in the lungs of an additional Coopers' hawk (Accipiter cooperii); they were not considered clinically significant. A dead nematode, surrounded by necrotic inflammatory cells, was found in the air sac of a northern goshawk. The presence of nematodes in air sacs or lungs should be considered in wild raptors demonstrating respiratory problems.

  5. Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: Probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in Canada. (United States)

    Thomas, Philippe J; Mineau, Pierre; Shore, Richard F; Champoux, Louise; Martin, Pamela A; Wilson, Laurie K; Fitzgerald, Guy; Elliott, John E


    Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey. Liver residues are often analysed to detect exposure in birds found dead but their use to assess toxicity of SGARs is problematic. We analysed published data on hepatic rodenticide residues and associated symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning from 270 birds of prey using logistic regression to estimate the probability of toxicosis associated with different liver SGAR residues. We also evaluated exposure to SGARs on a national level in Canada by analysing 196 livers from great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found dead at locations across the country. Analysis of a broader sample of raptor species from Quebec also helped define the taxonomic breadth of contamination. Calculated probability curves suggest significant species differences in sensitivity to SGARs and significant likelihood of toxicosis below previously suggested concentrations of concern (owls are exposed to SGARs to a greater extent than red-tailed hawks and the liver residue levels were also higher. Using our probability estimates of effect, we estimate that a minimum of 11% of the sampled great horned owl population is at risk of being directly killed by SGARs. This is the first time the potential mortality impact of SGARs on a raptor population has been estimated.

  6. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona (United States)

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.


    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  7. Red-tailed Hawk movements and use of habitat in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Vilella, Francisco; Nimitz, Wyatt F.


    The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a top predator of upland ecosystems in the Greater Antilles. Little information exists on the ecology of the insular forms of this widely distributed species. We studied movements and resource use of the Red-tailed Hawk from 2000 to 2002 in the montane forests of northeastern Puerto Rico. We captured 32 and used 21 radio-marked Red-tailed Hawks to delineate home range, core area shifts, and macrohabitat use in the Luquillo Mountains. Red-tailed Hawks in the Luquillo Mountains frequently perched near the top of canopy emergent trees and were characterized by wide-ranging capabilities and extensive spatial overlap. Home range size averaged 5,022.6 6 832.1 ha (305–11,288 ha) and core areas averaged 564.8 6 90.7 ha (150–1,230 ha). This species had large mean weekly movements (3,286.2 6 348.5 m) and a preference for roadside habitats. Our findings suggest fragmentation of contiguous forest outside protected areas in Puerto Rico may benefit the Red-tailed Hawk

  8. Characterization of Sarcocystis from four species of hawks from Georgia, USA. (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W


    During 2001 to 2004, 4 species of hawks (Buteo and Accipiter spp.) from Georgia were surveyed for Sarcocystis spp. infections by examining intestinal sections. In total, 159 of 238 (66.8%) hawks examined were infected with Sarcocystis spp. Samples from 10 birds were characterized by sequence analysis of a portion of the 18S rRNA gene (783 base pairs). Only 3 of the 10 sequences from the hawks were identical; the remainder differed by at least 1 nucleotide. Phylogenetic analysis failed to resolve the position of the hawk Sarcocystis species, but they were closely related several Sarcocystis species from raptors, rodents, and Sarcocystis neurona. The high genetic diversity of Sarcocystis suggests that more than 1 species infects these 4 hawk species; however, additional molecular or experimental work will be required to determine the speciation and diversity of parasites infecting these avian hosts. In addition to assisting with determining species richness of Sarcocystis in raptors, molecular analysis should be useful in the identification of potential intermediate hosts.

  9. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas (United States)

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.


    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  10. Abundance of diurnal raptors on open space grasslands in an urbanized landscape (United States)

    Berry, M.E.; Bock, C.E.; Haire, S.L.


    We conducted point counts of diurnal raptors on Boulder, Colorado, grasslands for three winters and summers, and compared results to landscape features of the count areas. Four wintering species were scarce on plots that included significant amounts of urban habitat, with a critical landscape threshold at about 5-7% urbanization: Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). Counts of the first three species also were positively correlated with proximity of the count plots to the nearest colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Two breeding species, the Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis) and Swainson's Hawk (B. swainsoni), were more abundant on plots dominated by lowland hayfields and tallgrass prairies, as opposed to upland mixed and shortgrass prairies. They, along with the ubiquitous American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), were not sensitive to the amounts of urbanization (up to 30%) that occurred in the landscapes sampled. Results of this study suggest that urban open space grasslands can support sizable populations of most diurnal raptors, as long as prey populations persist, but that some species are highly sensitive to landscape urbanization.

  11. Experimental vacuolar myelinopathy in red-tailed hawks. (United States)

    Fischer, John R; Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Tate, Cynthia M


    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was recognized in 1994 as a cause of wild bird mortality when 29 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) succumbed to the disease at DeGray Lake, Arkansas (USA). The cause of AVM and its source remain undetermined despite extensive diagnostic and research investigations. Two years later, when AVM killed 26 eagles in the same area in Arkansas, it became apparent that American coots (Fulica americana) had identical neurologic signs and lesions, and it was hypothesized that eagles acquired AVM via ingestion of affected coots. In order to test this hypothesis, we fed coot tissues (brain, liver, kidney, muscle, fat, and intestinal tract) to rehabilitated, non-releasable red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Five hawks received tissues from coots with AVM lesions, and one hawk received tissues from coots without brain lesions that had been collected at a site where AVM never has been documented. All hawks received 12-70 g/day (mean = 38 g) of coot tissues for 28 days. All six hawks remained clinically normal during the study. The birds were euthanatized on day 29 and microscopic lesions of AVM were found in all hawks that received tissues from affected coots, but not in the hawk that received tissues from unaffected coots. This marks the first time that AVM has been produced in birds under laboratory conditions and proves that birds of prey can acquire AVM via ingestion of tissues from affected coots.

  12. Hawk calls elicit alarm and defensive reactions in captive Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi). (United States)

    Searcy, Yvonne M; Caine, Nancy G


    Most descriptions of callitrichid antipredator behavior have come from observations of visual encounters with predators, but there is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that callitrichids may use auditory cues associated with raptors for the early detection of potential danger. In the present study, Geoffroy's marmosets consistently reacted to the tape-recorded calls of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with high-intensity antipredator behaviors. Compared to the taped calls of a raven (Corvus corax) and the taped sound of a power drill, the hawk calls elicited more startle reactions, more alarm calls, longer freeze times, increased use of safe areas of their enclosure and greater disruption in ongoing behavior. Once in a relatively safe location in the enclosure, the marmosets visually monitored the site of origin of the calls for 10 min and minimized locomotion for 30 min, but resumed baseline levels of other activities that had been disrupted by the hawk calls. Marmosets may use the auditory cues associated with predators for early detection, and subsequent avoidance, of a potential predator in the vicinity.

  13. Retinal pigment epithelial fine structure in the red-tailed hawk (Buto jamaicensis). (United States)

    Braekevelt, C R


    As part of a comparative morphological study, the fine structure of the retinal epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris and Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) has been studied by electron microscopy in the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). In this species the RPE consists of a single layer of low cuboidal cells which display numerous basal (scleral) infoldings and extensive apical (vitreal) processes which interdigitate with photoreceptor outer segments. These epithelial cells are joined laterally by a series of basally located tight junctions. Internally SER is the most abundant cell organelle while only small amounts of RER are present. Polysomes are however abundant as are mitochondria. The RPE cell nucleus is large and vesicular. Melanosomes are mainly located in the apical processes of the RPE cells in light-adaptation. Myeloid bodies are large and numerous in light-adaptation and often show ribosomes on their outer border. Bruch's membrane (complexus basalis) shows the typical pentalaminate structure noted in most vertebrates but with only a poorly defined central elastic layer. The endothelium of the choriocapillaris is very thin facing the RPE but is only moderately fenestrated. The choriocapillaris in this species is unusual however in that many of the fenestrae show a double-layered diaphragm.

  14. Use of whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls. (United States)

    Redig, P T; Dunnette, J L; Sivanandan, V


    Mitogen-induced whole blood lymphocyte stimulation tests for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were developed. Combinations of incubation times, blood dilutions, concentrations of [3H]thymidine and [125I]2-deoxyuridine, antibiotics, phytohemagglutinin-P, and concanavalin A were tested for their effects on the stimulation index (SI). An antibiotic combination of gentamicin plus amphotericin B yielded low SI with lymphocytes from bald eagles, but not with lymphocytes from great horned owls or red-tailed hawks. Penicillin plus streptomycin caused no such depression of SI. Lymphocytes from all 3 species yielded maximum responses with a 48-hour prelabel and 12- to- 16 hour postlabel incubation period at 41 C and 1:20 blood dilution. Optimal mitogen concentrations for lymphocytes from bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls were 25 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of phytohemagglutinin-P/well, respectively, and 2.5 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of concanavalin A/well, respectively. Differences in SI were not seen between the 2 radioactive labels. The optimal concentration of the [3H]thymidine label ranged from 0.06 to 0.125 microCi/well.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii infections in red-tailed hawks inoculated orally with tissue cysts. (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L


    The response to inoculation of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was examined in 3 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). One hawk (hawk 1) was inoculated orally with 3.000 tissue cysts of the GT-1 isolate of T. gondii and 2 hawks (hawks 2 and 3) each were inoculated orally with 12,000 tissue cysts of a mixture of 8 isolates of T. gondii. None of the hawks developed clinical signs of toxoplasmosis. Serum antibodies were measured with the modified direct agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites. Hawk 1 had a titer of 1:40 prior to inoculation and did not have an increase in titer during the study. Hawks 2 and 3 had titers of 1:5 and 1:10, respectively, prior to inoculation, and both had increased titers (titers greater than or equal to 1:60) by 1 wk postinoculation and remained T. gondii antibody positive throughout the 10 wk of the study. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the heart and breast muscle of hawk 1. The biologic behavior of this T. gondii isolate was different from the 1 inoculated, and it probably represents a prior natural infection. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from the brain, heart, breast muscle, and a mixture of gizzard and proventriculus from hawk 2 and from breast muscle of hawk 3. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the eye, lung, liver, kidney, or spleen of any red-tailed hawk.

  16. Breeding biology and nest-site selection of red-tailed hawks in an altered desert grassland (United States)

    Hobbs, R.J.; DeStefano, S.; Halvorson, W.L.


    Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) have expanded their range as trees have invaded formerly-open grasslands. Desert grasslands of southern Arizona have been invaded by mesquite trees (Prosopis velutina) since Anglo-American settlement and now support a large population of Red-tailed Hawks. We studied a population of Red-tailed Hawks in an altered desert grassland in southern Arizona. Our objectives were to determine what environmental characteristics influence Red-tailed Hawk habitat selection in mesquite-invaded desert grasslands and to evaluate the habitat quality of these grasslands for Red-tailed Hawks based on nesting density, nest success, and productivity. Red-tailed Hawks had 86% (95% C.I. = 73-99) nest success and 1.82 young per breeding pair (95% C.I. = 1.41-2.23). Nesting density was 0.15 (95% CI = 0.08-0.21) breeding pairs/km2 and the mean nearest-neighbor distance was 1.95 km (95% C.I. = 1.74-2.16). Red-tailed Hawks selected nest-sites with taller nest-trees and greater tree height and cover than were available at random. Mesquite trees in desert grasslands provide abundant potential nesting structures for Red-tailed Hawks. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  17. Winter raptor use of the Platte and North Platte River Valleys in south central Nebraska (United States)

    Lingle, G.R.


    Winter distribution and abundance of raptors were monitored within the Platte and North Platte river valleys. Data were collected along 265 km of census routes along the Platte and North Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1979 and 1979-1980. Observations recorded during the second winter involved less observation time and were at somewhat different periods. There were 1574 sightings of 15 species representing 3 raptor families. Number of raptors observed on 54 days from 15 November to 13 February 1978-1979 was 48.3 per 100 km. In 20 days of observation from 5 December to 6 March 1979-1980, 39.7 raptors were observed per 100 km. Small mammal indices were 21 and 12 captures per 1000 trap nights during November 1978 and 1979, respectively. Raptors were sighted most frequently in riverine habitat and least in pasture and tilled fields. American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (11.1 individuals/100 km), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (9.9), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (9.6) were the most frequently sighted raptors. Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), rough-legged hawk (B. lagopus), and prairie falcon (P. mexicanus) sightings were 3.4, 3.4, and 1.7, respectively. Nine species were seen at a frequency of less than 1.0 individuals/100 km. Improved foraging conditions throughout the region resulted in fewer raptors sighted in 1979-1980.

  18. Abundance of diurnal raptors in relation to prairie dog colonies: Implications for bird-aircraft strike hazard (United States)

    Merriman, J.W.; Boal, C.W.; Bashore, T.L.; Zwank, P.J.; Wester, D.B.


    Some diurnal raptors are frequently observed at prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) colonies. As a result, some military installations have conducted prairie dog control activities to reduce the bird-aircraft strike hazard (BASH) potential of low-flying aircraft. To evaluate the validity of this management strategy, we assessed raptor associations with prairie dog colonies at 2 short-grass prairie study areas: southern Lubbock County, Texas, USA, and Melrose Bombing and Gunnery Range in east-central New Mexico, USA. We quantified diurnal raptors (i.e., Falconiformes) at plots occupied (colony plots) and unoccupied (noncolony plots) by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) at both sites throughout 2002. We compared the number of individual birds of a given species at colony and noncolony plots within each study area by season. Ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) and northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) were more abundant at colony plots, whereas Swainson's hawks (B. swainsoni) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were more abundant at noncolony plots. Red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis) abundance did not differ between the 2 plot types. Our results suggest prairie dog control as a method of reducing BASH potential may be effective at some sites but may be ineffective or even increase the BASH potential at others. Thus, bird-avoidance models assessing the BASH potential should be conducted on a site-specific basis using information on relative and seasonal abundances of individual raptor species and the relative strike risks they pose to aircraft.

  19. Temporal and spatial stability of red-tailed hawk territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Snyder, H.A.; Bibles, B.D.; Estabrook, T.S.


    We mapped Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) territories in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) of Puerto Rico in 1998. We combined our 1998 data with that collected during previous studies of Red-tailed Hawks in the LEF to examine population numbers and spatial stability of territorial boundaries over a 26-yr period. We also investigated potential relationships between Red-tailed Hawk territory sizes and topographic and climatic factors. Mean size of 16 defended territories during 1998 was 124.3 ?? 12.0 ha, which was not significantly different from our calculations of mean territory sizes derived from data collected in 1974 and 1984. Aspect and slope influenced territory size with the smallest territories having high slope and easterly aspects. Territory size was small compared to that reported for other parts of the species' range. In addition, there was remarkably little temporal change in the spatial distribution, area, and boundaries of Red-tailed Hawk territories among the study periods. Further, there was substantial boundary overlap (21-27%) between defended territories among the different study periods. The temporal stability of the spatial distribution of Red-tailed Hawk territories in the study area leads us to believe the area might be at or near saturation.

  20. Ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in red-tailed hawks with antagonism by yohimbine. (United States)

    Degernes, L A; Kreeger, T J; Mandsager, R; Redig, P T


    Five red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) were anesthetized at weekly intervals with intravenous ketamine hydrochloride (KET, 4.4 mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (XYL, 2.2 mg/kg). Twenty min after anesthesia, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 mg/kg) or a control was administered. All doses of YOH significantly reduced the head-up times (F = 20.84, df = 1,24, P less than 0.0001) and the standing times (F = 12.30, df = 1,24, P less than 0.0001), compared to the control group. The heart and respiratory rates following YOH (all doses) were significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than the anesthetized rates, but were comparable to the rates observed in restrained, unanesthetized hawks. Yohimbine did not appear to have any significant effect on body temperature. Based upon administration of 4.4 mg/kg KET and 2.2 mg/kg XYL, a dose of 0.10 mg/kg YOH was recommended to achieve antagonism without causing profound cardiovascular or respiratory changes.

  1. What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk. (United States)

    Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L


    An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils.

  2. Parathion poisoning of Mississippi kites in Oklahoma (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian


    Parathion(phosphorothioic acid O, O-diethyl O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, used on a variety of crops and occasionally for mosquito control, and is highly toxic to birds (Smith 1987). Intentional poisoning with parathion is reported to have killed more than 8000 red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in two separate instances (Stone et al. 1984). Use of parathion on wheat fields has resulted in the mortality of about 1600 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and other waterfowl in one instance (White et al. 1982) and about 200 Canada geese in another (Flickinger et al. 1991). More than 200 laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) died near cotton fields treated with parathion (White et al. 1979). Secondary poisoning of raptors resulting from the consumption of prey exposed to parathion, has been reported experimentally and in the field. Stone et al. (1984) found two dead red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and an American kestrel (Falco sparverius) that had fed on blackbirds killed by parathion. One of four American kestrels died after being fed cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) that had been exposed to 10ppm parathion for 96 hr (Fleming et al. 1982). The Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippensis) is highly insectivorous (Brown and Amadon 1968) and is thus subject to secondary poisoning resulting from consumption of insects exposed to pesticides. I report here an instance of secondary parathion poisoning in wild Mississippi kites.

  3. Predatory bird populations in the east Mojave Desert, California (United States)

    Knight, R.L.; Camp, R.J.; Boarman, W.I.; Knight, H.A.L.


    We surveyed 7 species of predatory birds weekly during a 12-month period (December 1992 through November 1993) in the east Mojave Desert, California. The Common Raven (Corvus corax) was the most frequently observed species with an average of 6.9 sightings per 100 km. Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) were seen in decreasing order of frequency of observation through the study period. Ravens, Red-tailed Hawks, Loggerhead Shrikes, American Kestrels, and Prairie Falcons were seen throughout the year. Turkey Vultures were not present during winter months, while Golden Eagles were seen only during November and December. Turkey Vultures, Red-tailed Hawks, and ravens were most numerous on agricultural lands, while Loggerhead Shrikes were most Common at urban areas. Raven numbers increased with increasing number of linear rights-of-way parallel to the survey route. Perching was the most common behavior type, although Turkey Vultures and ravens were often observed soaring, flying, or standing on the ground near highways. Transmission powerline towers and telephone poles were used as perch sites disproportionately to availability.

  4. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs. (United States)

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J


    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430].

  5. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations. (United States)

    Stout, William E; Cassini, Andrew G; Meece, Jennifer K; Papp, Joseph M; Rosenfield, Robert N; Reed, Kurt D


    We assayed for West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of WNV infection in three raptor populations in southeast Wisconsin during 2003-04. This study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before WNV was introduced to the study area. For 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling Cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) tested positive for WNV antibodies by the constant virus-serum dilution neutralization test. Samples that tested positive for WNV antibodies were collected across a wide variety of habitat types, including urban habitats (both high and low density), roads, parking areas, recreational areas, croplands, pastures, grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands. Based on the increased prevalence and significantly higher WNV antibody titers in adults compared with nestlings, we suggest that nestlings with detectable antibody levels acquired these antibodies through passive transmission from the mother during egg production. Low levels of WNV antibodies in nestlings could serve as a surrogate marker of exposure in adult raptor populations. Based on breeding population densities and reproductive success over the past 15 yr, we found no apparent adverse effects of WNV infections on these wild raptor populations.

  6. A technique for evisceration as an alternative to enucleation in birds of prey: 19 cases. (United States)

    Murray, Maureen; Pizzirani, Stefano; Tseng, Florina


    Ocular trauma is common in birds of prey presented to wildlife clinics and rehabilitation centers. Enucleation is the procedure most commonly described for treatment of end-stage ocular disease or chronically painful eyes in birds; however, there are several disadvantages and risks to this procedure. While evisceration has been suggested as an alternative, it has not been described for multiple cases or with long-term follow-up data in birds of prey. This report details an evisceration technique performed in 5 captive birds of prey of 4 different species (1 eastern screech owl [Megascops asio], 1 great horned owl [Bubo virginianus], 2 red-tailed hawks [Buteo jamaicensis], and 1 bald eagle [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) with long-term follow-up information. In addition, this report describes 14 cases of free-living owls of 3 different species (1 great horned owl, 4 barred owls [Strix varia], and 9 eastern screech owls) on which this technique was performed from 2004 to 2011 and which were subsequently released to the wild. Because of the limited risk of complications and the less-severe disruption of facial symmetry, which may be particularly important in owls that are candidates for release to the wild, evisceration should be considered over enucleation in birds of prey that require surgical intervention for the management of severe sequelae to ocular trauma.

  7. Theoretical and Practical Approach of Connecting the Ecotourist Offer of the Special Nature Reserve of Zasavica (Serbia with the Tourist Offer of the Surrounding Village Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Dolinaj


    Full Text Available Pannonian basin was once covered by vast alluvial plains with patches of marsh, swamp, pan and prairie. With Holocene changes in climate, marshes have withdrawn and in the last couple hundreds of years they were pushed out by developing agricultural areas. The Nature Reserve Zasavica keeps the remains of former marshes and swamps on the territory of Vojvodina. One of the ways for providing necessary financial support for the reserve protection is development of ecotourist activities in the Zasavica region. Its biodiversity and numerous endangered species (Umbra krameri, Nymphaca alba, Numphar luteum, Stratiotes aloides, Acorus calamus, Buteo butes, Haliateetus albicilla, Lutra lutra, Castor fiber... could be the basis for tourist valorization of the Reserve. It is also necessary to conduct analyses of the impact of tourism on endangered species and confirm sustainability of those activities. The lack of accommodation capacities could be supplemented by the development of the tourist offer of the nearby countryside. This way the village tourism would enrich its offer with visits to the nature reserve. Such tourism activities would contribute towards the development of local communities and the improvement of the standard of living. Since the villages and the reserve are already territorially intertwined, their further tourist cooperation would lead to knowledge transfer and local people would have a better understanding of the protection of the Special Nature Reserve Zasavica.

  8. Are red-tailed hawks and great horned owls diurnal-nocturnal dietary counterparts? (United States)

    Marti, C.D.; Kochert, Michael N.


    Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Great Homed Owls (Bubo virginianus)are common in North America where they occupy a wide range of habitats, often sympatrically. The two species are similar in size and have been portrayed as ecological counterparts, eating the same prey by day and night. We tested the trophic similarity of the two species by comparing published dietary data from across the United States. Both species ate primarily mammals and birds, and mean proportions of those two prey types did not differ significantly between diets of the two raptors. Red-tailed Hawks ate significantly more reptiles, and Great Homed Owls significantly more invertebrates. Dietary diversity was not significantly different at the level of prey taxonomic class, and diet overlap between the two species averaged 91%. At the prey species level, dietary overlap averaged only 50%, and at that level Red-tailed Hawk dietary diversity was significantly greater than that of Great Horned Owls. Mean prey mass of Red-tailed Hawks was significantly greater than that of Great Homed Owls. Populations of the two species in the western United States differed trophically more than did eastern populations. We conclude that, although the two species are generalist predators, they take largely different prey species in the same localities resulting in distinctive trophic characteristics.

  9. The occurrence of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine area in southern Brazil Ocorrência de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae em uma região estuarina no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer


    Full Text Available The toninha, or franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, is an endemic species of cetacean of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There is little information on the occurrence of this species in its natural environment due to the great difficulty in sighting it. Systematized and non-systematized observations of franciscanas were made from December 1996 through November 2001 at Babitonga Bay, on the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The observations were made from small motorboats. A total of 79 observations were made, totaling 561 individuals. Up to 59.5% of the groups consisted of over four individuals and the average group size was seven. Calves were present in 30.4% of the observations. The species was found throughout the year within the bay and preferential areas were identified. Calves were registered during all seasons. Data are presented on the behavior (feeding, traveling, aerial behavior and behavior relating to the boats and on inter-specific interactions with terns, cormorants [Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789] and brown boobies [Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783]. The species is sympatric with the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864 in the bay, but there was no record of interaction between them. The area of the bay represents an important refuge for the franciscana species.A toninha, ou franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, é uma espécie endêmica de cetáceos que ocorre no Oceano Atlântico sul ocidental. Existem poucas informações sobre a ocorrência da espécie em seu ambiente natural em função da grande dificuldade em avistá-la. Observações sistematizadas e não-sistematizadas de franciscanas foram realizadas no período entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2001 na Baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte do estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As observações foram realizadas a partir de pequenas embarcações a

  10. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem


    Brusina, Pisidium amnicum (Müller), species have been determined from the mudstone, claystone, carbonated sandstone lithologies. These fauna are characteristic for the Dasic basin in Late Pliocene (Romanian). Also, Avimactra karabugasica (Andrussow), Avimactra ososkovi (Andrussow), Avimactra subcaspia (Andrussow), Avimactra venjukovi (Andrussow). Dreissena (Dreissena) polymorpha (Pallas), Dreissena rostriformis Deshayes species have been determined from the upper level of the section composed of carbonated sandstone lithology. These fauna are characteristic for the Caspic basin in the Late Pliocene (Aktschaglian). In the Treenean and Monastrian times, the marine fauna (Gibbula (Adriaria) albida (Gmelin), Gibbula (Tunulus) umblicaris (Linneaus), Hydrobia (Hydrobia) acuta (Draparnaud), Alvania (Alvania) reticulata (Montagu), Turritella (Turritella) tricarinata (Brocchi), Pirenella conica (Blainville), Bittium (Bittium) reticulatum (Da Costa), Thericium (Thericium) vulgatum (Brugiere), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller) are belonging to the Gastropoda and Mytilaster lineatus (Gmelin in Linneaus), Ostrea edulis Linneaus, Ostrea lamellosa Linneaus, Paphia (Polititapes) senescens (Coc.), Timoclea ovata (Pennant), Corbula (Varicorbula) gibba (Olivi)) have been observed. In the Pontian, the Basin has been low salinity and semi-marine conditions. In the Lower Romanian, the Basin was developed as brackish water character feeding by fresh water. Late Lower Romanian=Lower Kujalnikien, Basin was became more brackish character by increasing salinity. During the Upper Kujalnikien=Upper Romanian, feeding by freshwater was increased. The youngest sequence of the basin is Treenean-Monastrian terraces sedimented by increasing sea level. These marine fauna indicate that there was a connection between Black Sea and Mediterranean in that time. Key words: Neogene, Gastropoda-Bivalvia, Romanian, Dasic, Caspic.

  11. New circumscription of freshwater fish parasites Monobothrium diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) using morphological and molecular evidence. (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea


    Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further

  12. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes) in Tenerife (Canary Islands) and their role in the conservation biology of the laurel pigeons. (United States)

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Rivera-Medina, J A; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Casanova, J C


    The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia) from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago), were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (%) and mean intensities with their standard deviations): the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (6, 241.0 +/- 138.9) and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10%, 218.3 +/- 117.3); the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100%, 111.4 +/- 76.8) and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94%, 48.4 +/- 26.6); and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36%, 6.2 +/- 1.6). The endoparasites we found were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82%, 14.8 +/- 10.3 per 1000); coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50%, 0.2 x 10(3) +/- 1.7 x 10(3) per gr); a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909) López Neyra, 1947 (44%, 12.3 +/- 9.4); and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres) fissispina (Diesing, 1861) Travassos, 1915 (4%, 99.5 +/- 34.1), Synhimantus (Dispharynx) spiralis (Molin, 1858) (8%, 46.8 +/- 11.6), Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790) Travassos, 1913 (40%, 8.4 +/- 8.8) and Aonchotheca sp. (18%, 6.0 +/- 3.1). Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths) of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  13. An annotated list of species of the Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 aggregate sensu de Chambrier et al. (2004) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), parasites of fishes in the Palaearctic Region, their phylogenetic relationships and a key to their identification. (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Skeríková, Andrea; Shimazu, Takeshi; Rolbiecki, Leszek


    A list and key to the identification of valid species of tapeworms of the Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 aggregate sensu de Chambrier et al. (2004), i.e. species of the genus occurring in fresh- and brackish-water fishes in the Palaearctic Region, are provided, with data on their hosts and geographical distribution. Instead of 32 taxa listed by Schmidt (1986) and subsequent authors, only the following 14 species are considered to be valid: P. ambiguus (Dujardin, 1845) (type-species); P. cernuae (Gmelin, 1790); P. filicollis (Rudolphi, 1802); P. fluviatilis Bangham, 1925; P. gobiorum Dogiel & Bychowsky, 1939; P. longicollis (Zeder, 1800); P. macrocephalus (Creplin, 1825); P. midoriensis Shimazu, 1990; P. percae (Müller, 1780); P. plecoglossi Yamaguti, 1934; P. sagittus (Grimm, 1872); P. tetrastomus (Rudolphi, 1810); P. thymalli (Annenkova-Chlopina, 1923); and P. torulosus (Batsch, 1786). An analysis of sequences of the nuclear genes (ITS2 and V4 region of 18S rDNA) revealed the following phylogenetic relationships for these taxa: P. torulosus ((P. midoriensis, P. sagittus) (P. fluviatilis (P. filicollis, P. gobiorum, P. macrocephalus)) (P. cernuae, P. plecoglossi, P. tetrastomus ((P. longicollis, P. percae) (P. ambiguus, P. thymalli)))). P. pronini Rusinek, 2001 from grayling Thymallus arcticus nigrescens is synonymised with P. thymalli. P. esocis La Rue, 1911 is apparently invalid but its conspecificity with either P. percae or P. longicollis could not be confirmed due to the absence of the scolex in the holotype and the unavailability of other material for morphological and molecular studies. P. osculatus (Goeze, 1782) has recently been transferred to Glanitaenia de Chambrier, Mariaux, Vaucher & Zehnder, 2004. The validity of the genus is supported by the position of G. osculata within the Proteocephalidea, based on molecular data, as well as its morphology and nature of the definitive host (the European wels Silurus glanis). P. hemispherous Rahemo & Al

  14. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska. (United States)

    Tiekotter, K L


    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Standardization of a Patella spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryo-larval bioassay and advantages of its use in marine ecotoxicology. (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Fernández, Nuria; Ribeiro, Pedro A


    The use of three limpet species, Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 as model organisms in marine ecotoxicology has been evaluated. Initial laboratory experiments were aimed to standardize a biological test with embryos and larvae of Patella spp, establishing the percentage of normal trochophore larvae as endpoint. Before conducting in vitro fertilization, oocytes must be maturated artificially by incubation in an alkaline solution; therefore, alkalinizing agent, pH and time of eggs alkalinization were evaluated. Moreover, time of sperm activation, optimum sperm and oocytes concentration during fertilization, gamete contact time, use of stirring during the fertilization, egg concentration and incubation temperature were examined. Minimum sample size per treatment was also estimated. Exposure of oocytes for 10min to FSW alkalinized with NH4OH at pH 9.0, the use of undiluted sperm pre-activated during 45min and a concentration of 200 oocytesmL(-1), a gamete-contact time of 180min and egg incubation at 18°C during 24h at a concentration of 80 eggsmL(-1) were the conditions allowing maximal embryo-larval development success. With an error of 0.05, a sampling size ≥320 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate. This Patella spp. acute bioassay fulfills a number of important a priori requirements to be used in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, in vitro fertilization requires considerable handling, which may lead to failure in fecundation. Such difficulties are also addressed, in order to facilitate the routine use of this protocol by other laboratories.

  16. Kondoma Tatars and the Bloomery Process (source: the Great Northern Expedition

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    Evgeny V. Vodyasov


    Full Text Available The article presents for the first time the unique source for studying indigenous ironmaking in West Siberia. This is a copy of the illustration made by Johann Wilhelm Lursenius on 19 September 1734 during the Second Kamchatka Expedition (the copy is kept in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts. On that day, the artist together with German scientist Johann Georg Gmelin observed the iron melting process in a Tatar yurt in Gornaya Shoria, and they both documented these observations in detail, each in his own way. The synchronous description and sketching of a traditional trade technology is a most singular or even the unique phenomenon in Siberian ethnography of the early 18th century. The article features excerpts from Gmelin’s 1751 work devoted to iron ore smelting by Kondoma Tatars and provides an analysis of the illustration by Lursenius. Ferrous metallurgy of Kondoma Tatars in the 18th century involved using «small» iron-smelting furnaces (0.3 m high at the most placed at the hearths of yurts. Besides, Tatars decorated the upper part of the furnace with carving. As seen from the analysis of archaeological and ethnographic sources, the tradition of building such furnaces and smelting iron ore in dwellings existed in the Upper Parts of Ob River from the early 5th century AD to the ethnographic modernity. Ethnographic sources and archaeological experiments reveal that one small furnace could yield about 1 kg iron. According to historical sources, a few kilograms would make a year of trouble-free housekeeping for a Tatar family. This explains why «home production» of iron was so widespread, when a dwelling would be turned into a metallurgy shop to provide the family with all necessary tools and utensils.

  17. Propagation of Kiwi fruit with green cuttings under greenhouse conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi is one of the most ancient and disseminated species in the riverbanks, forests and villages of the Northern Albania. An ampelographic and ampelometric study of the mature leaf characters was carried out during 2009-2013 in three wild grapevines populations, located in three river basins. Individuals of the wild grapevines populations belongig to the Mati River Valley, the lower part of Drini Valley and Shkreli Valley, were compared by means of mature leaf characters, using IPGRI, OIV and UPOV ampelographic methods. There was found that from twentseven observed, measured and evaluated mature leaf characters, fifteen of them did not show any significant differences between three wild grapevine populations, while for twelve characters, such as size of blade (length of N1 and length of petiole, number of lobes, length of tooth N2, ratio length/width of tooth N2, and leaf angle between N1 and N3 showed significant differences. The highest value for the size of blade was measured in Drini Valley wild grapevine population, followed by Mati Valley population, while Shkreli Valley wild population showed the lowest size of blade. The same results were observed for length of tooth N2 and the ratio length/width of tooth N2. There was observed an inverse correlation between the size of blade and the angle between N1 and N3 measured at the first ramification. The highest value for angle ( +  was measured for Shkreli Valley, while the lowest value was measured for Drini Valley wild grapevine population.

  18. Parasites of Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes in Tenerife (Canary Islands and their role in the conservation biology of the Laurel pigeons

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    Foronda P.


    Full Text Available The prevalence and intensity of the parasites from 50 wild doves (Columba livia from the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, in the island of Tenerife (Canary Archipelago, were studied. The following ectoparasites were found in apparently healthy pigeons (prevalences are shown in percentage (% and mean intensities with their standard deviations: the acari Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778 (6 241 .0 ± 138.9 and Tinaminyssus melloi Fain, 1962 (10 %, 218.3 ± 117.3; the louses, Columbicola columbae Linnaeus, 1758 (100 %, 111.4 ± 76.8 and Campanulotes bidentatus Scopoli, 1763 (94 %, 48.4 ± 26.6; and the pigeon fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis Macquart, 1839 (36 %, 6.2 ± 1.6. The endoparasites we found, were: a haemoprotozoan species, Haemoproteus columbae Kruze, 1890 (82 %, 14.8 ± 10.3 per 1000; coccidian oocysts, Eimeria sp. (50 %, 0.2 x 103 ± 1.7 x 103 per gr; a cestode species Raillietina micracantha (Fuhrmann, 1909 López Neyra, 1947 (44 %, 12.3 ± 9.4; and four nematode species, Tetrameres (Tetrameres fissispina (Diesing, 1861 Travassos, 1915 (4 %, 99.5 ± 34,1, Synhimantus (Dispharynx spiralis (Molin, 1858 (8 %, 46. 8 ± 11.6, Ascaridia columbae (Gmelin, 1790 Travassos, 1913 (40 %, 8.4 ± 8.8 and Aonchotheca sp. (18 %, 6.0 ± 3.1. Several species detected in our study can be pathogens for C. bollii and C. junoniae, which are endemic pigeons of the Canary Islands, considered endangered species. Parasites (ectoparasites, protozoa and helminths of C. livia found in Tenerife and others from wild and farm birds in the island were considered as healthy controls.

  19. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John


    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  20. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps. (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos


    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  1. Influence of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar


    Objective: To investigate the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) (Teleostei: Balistidae) (B. capriscus) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from June 2011 to June 2012. A total of 1080 fish were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, size, sex, date and area of capture of each specimen were recorded. Then, B. capriscus was examined to search for ectoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results: The parasite species are indentified as two copepods: Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and a monogenean: Ancyrocephalus balisticus. The parasitological indices depend significantly on seasonality; the highest prevalence of Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and Ancyrocephalus balisticus (28.89%, 35.93% and 55.56%respectively) was recorded during summer season (June–August), while the lowest prevalence of each (6.3%, 4.44%, 8.15%) recorded during winter season (December–February). Furthermore the parasitological indices depend significantly on the host size but not on host sex. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus is a result of a complex of biotic and abiotic factors. It is the first study on the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  2. The vegetation and climate of a Neogene petrified wood forest of Mizoram, India (United States)

    Tiwari, R. P.; Mehrotra, R. C.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Shukla, Anumeha


    Eleven fossil woods belonging to seven families are described from a petrified wood forest of Mizoram. This fossil assemblage is derived from sediments belonging to the Tipam Group considered to be Late Miocene-Early Pliocene in age. The modern counterparts of the identified taxa are: Gluta L., Mangifera L. (Anacardiaceae), Bursera Jacq. ex L. (Burseraceae), Terminalia L. (Combretaceae), Shorea Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae), Cynometra Linn., Dalbergia L. f., Millettia Wight et Arn.-Pongamia Vent, Ormosia Jacks. (Fabaceae), Artocarpus Forst. (Moraceae) and Madhuca Gmelin. (Sapotaceae). The genus Dalbergia is described for the first time from India. The modern environmental tolerances of the above taxa indicate the existence of a tropical warm and humid climate in Mizoram during the depositional period. The reconstructed climate data using Coexistence Approach (CoA) based on palaeoflora database of Mosbrugger and Utescher, along with other published data sets indicates an MAT (mean annual temperature) of 26.1-27.7 °C, a mean temperature of the warmest month (WMT) of 25.4-28.1 °C, a mean temperature of the coldest month (CMT) of 25.6-26 °C, and a mean annual precipitation (MAP) of 3180-3263 mm. These climatic interpretations are congruent with the data obtained from the anatomical features of all the fossil taxa. As all the fossil taxa possess diffuse porous wood, they further indicate a tropical climate with little seasonality. The majority of the taxa in the fossil assemblage generally have large vessels and simple perforation plates which indicate high precipitation. The present study provides vital evidence of floral exchange or migration between India and southeast Asia.

  3. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    Full Text Available Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann, Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  4. Conhecimento tradicional das marisqueiras de Barra Grande, área de proteção ambiental do delta do Rio Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil

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    Simone Tupinambá Freitas


    Full Text Available Na comunidade de Barra Grande localizada no litoral do Piauí, as mulheres dos pescadores, conhecidas localmente como marisqueiras, extraem do manguezal vários tipos de moluscos para comercialização e em maior escala para a subsistência. Dados sobre a atividade de mariscagem, conceitos de conservação e aspectos socioeconômicos do contexto em que ocorre a atividade de cata dos moluscos, foram revelados após a aplicação de protocolos estruturados e semiestruturados. O molusco bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, popularmente denominado de marisco, é caracterizado por ser um importante recurso para a subsistência, sendo o mais coletado pela comunidade, seguido da Mytella charruana (d'Orbigny, 1842, o sururu, explorado para a comercialização por ter o maior valor de mercado. O conhecimento das marisqueiras sobre A. brasiliana foi comparado com literatura especializada, muitas vezes mostrando-se em harmonia com esta. Demonstra-se assim que o conhecimento tradicional deve ser valorizado para delineamento de programas de gestão de recursos pesqueiros da região. Quanto aos modos de pensar, foi revelado que 82,81% das marisqueiras praticam manejo para a conservação da A. brasiliana ao coletar apenas os indivíduos de maior tamanho, e 80,86% consideram que não existe poluição nos pontos de coletas. O surgimento de uma Associação exclusiva e cooperativa para as marisqueiras é necessário para a valorização do trabalho por elas desenvolvido, visto que há uma média estimada de 351 kg de carne sendo extraídos mensalmente.En la comunidad de Barra Grande, situada en la costa del estado de Piaui, las esposas de los pescadores, localmente llamadas de "marisqueiras", extraen de los manglares diversos tipos de moluscos para su comercialización, haciendo de esta actividad en una fuente de subsistencia. Informaciones detalladas y sistemáticas sobre la actividad de cosecha de mariscos, del contexto en el que se desarrolla la

  5. An annotated catalogue and bibliography of the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the Recent Vetigastropoda of South Africa (Mollusca). (United States)

    Herbert, David G


    A complete inventory of the known Recent vetigastropod fauna of South Africa is provided. Bibliographic citations to works discussing the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the species in a southern African or south-western Indian Ocean context are provided. Additional explanatory notes are given where pertinent. New genus records for South Africa: Acremodontina B.A. Marshall, 1995; Choristella Bush, 1879; Cocculinella Thiele, 1909; Conjectura Finlay, 1926; Crosseola Iredale, 1924; Falsimargarita Powell, 1951; Lepetella Verrill, 1880; Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998; Stomatella Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina Iredale, 1937; Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890; Tibatrochus Nomura, 1940; Visayaseguenzia Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Zetela Finlay, 1926. New species records for South Africa: Acremodontina aff. carinata Powell, 1940; Anatoma finlayi (Powell, 1937); Anatoma munieri (P. Fischer, 1862); Calliotropis acherontis B.A. Marshall, 1979; Calliotropis bucina Vilvens, 2006; Cocculinella minutissima (E.A. Smith, 1904); Diodora ruppellii (G.B. Sowerby (I), 1835); Emarginula costulata Deshayes, 1863; Emarginula decorata Deshayes, 1863; Jujubinus hubrechti Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Lepetella sp.; Seguenzia orientalis Thiele, 1925; Stomatella auricula Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia phymotis Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina angulata (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina cf. calliostoma (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina aff. danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999; Stomatolina cf. rubra (Lamarck, 1822); Stomatolina sp.; Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845); Tectus mauritianus (Gmelin, 1791); Tibatrochus cf. incertus (Schepman, 1908); Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791; Turbo tursicus Reeve, 1848; Visayaseguenzia compsa (Melvill, 1904).New species: Spectamen martensi, replacement name for Spectamen semisculptum sensu Herbert (1987) (non Martens, 1904). New name: Oxystele antoni is proposed as a new name for Trochus (Turbo) variegatus (non Gmelin, 1791 =Heliacus) Anton, 1838. Revised

  6. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.


    During 1983-88, the relative abundance of 18 species and species-groups of mammalian and avian predators affecting duck production in the prairie pothole region was determined in 33 widely scattered study areas ranging in size from 23-26 km2. Accounts of each studied species and species-group include habitat and history, population structure and reported densities, and information on distribution and abundance from the present study. Index values of undetected, scarce, uncommon, common, or numerous were used to rate abundance of nearly all species in each study area. Principal survey methods were livetrapping of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), systematic searches for carnivore tracks in quarter sections (0.65 km2), daily records of sightings of individual predator species, and systematic searches for occupied nests of tree-nesting avian predators. Abundances of predators in individual areas were studied 1-3 years.The distribution and abundance of predator species throughout the prairie pothole region have undergone continual change since settlement of the region by Europeans in the late 1800's. Predator populations in areas we studied differed markedly from those of pristine times. The changes occurred from habitat alterations, human-inflicted mortality of predators, and interspecific relations among predator species. Indices from surveys of tracks revealed a decline in the abundance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and an albeit less consistent decline in the abundance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with an increase in the abundance of coyotes (Canis latrans). Records of locations of occupied nests revealed great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) tended to nest 0.5 km apart, and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) tended to avoid nesting 0.5 km of nests of red-tailed hawks. Excluding large gulls, for which no measurements of abundance were obtained, the number of

  7. Plasma B-esterase activities in European raptors. (United States)

    Roy, Claudie; Grolleau, Gérard; Chamoulaud, Serge; Rivière, Jean-Louis


    B-esterases are serine hydrolases composed of cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and carboxylesterase (CbE). These esterases, found in blood plasma, are inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides and can be used as nondestructive biomarkers of exposure to anticholinesterase insecticides. Furthermore, B-esterases are involved in detoxification of these insecticides. In order to establish the level of these enzymes and to have reference values for their normal activities, total plasma cholinesterase (ChE), AChE and BChE activities, and plasma CbE activity were determined in 729 European raptors representing 20 species, four families, and two orders. The diurnal families of the Falconiforme order were represented by Accipitridae and Falconidae and the nocturnal families of the Strigiforme order by Tytonidae and Strigidae. Intraspecies differences in cholinesterase activities according to sex and/or age were investigated in buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), barn owls (Tyto alba), and tawny owls (Strix aluco). Sex-related differences affecting ChE and AChE activities were observed in young kestrels (2-3-mo-old) and age-related differences in kestrels (ChE and AChE), sparrowhawks (AChE), and tawny owls (ChE, AChE, and BChE). The interspecies analysis yielded a negative correlation between ChE activity and body mass taking into account the relative contribution of AChE and BChE to ChE activity, with the exception of the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). The lowest ChE activities were found in the two largest species, Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) belonging to the Accipitridae family. The highest ChE activities were found in the relatively small species belonging to the Tytonidae and Strigidae families and in honey buzzard of the Accipitridae family. Species of the Accipitridae, Tytonidae, and

  8. Detection probability of cliff-nesting raptors during helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft surveys in western Alaska (United States)

    Booms, T.L.; Schempf, P.F.; McCaffery, B.J.; Lindberg, M.S.; Fuller, M.R.


    We conducted repeated aerial surveys for breeding cliff-nesting raptors on the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge (YDNWR) in western Alaska to estimate detection probabilities of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), and also Common Ravens (Corvus corax). Using the program PRESENCE, we modeled detection histories of each species based on single species occupancy modeling. We used different observers during four helicopter replicate surveys in the Kilbuck Mountains and five fixed-wing replicate surveys in the Ingakslugwat Hills near Bethel, AK. During helicopter surveys, Gyrfalcons had the highest detection probability estimate (p^;p^ 0.79; SE 0.05), followed by Golden Eagles (p^=0.68; SE 0.05), Common Ravens (p^=0.45; SE 0.17), and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.10; SE 0.11). Detection probabilities from fixed-wing aircraft in the Ingakslugwat Hills were similar to those from the helicopter in the Kilbuck Mountains for Gyrfalcons and Golden Eagles, but were higher for Common Ravens (p^=0.85; SE 0.06) and Rough-legged Hawks (p^=0.42; SE 0.07). Fixed-wing aircraft provided detection probability estimates and SEs in the Ingakslugwat Hills similar to or better than those from helicopter surveys in the Kilbucks and should be considered for future cliff-nesting raptor surveys where safe, low-altitude flight is possible. Overall, detection probability varied by observer experience and in some cases, by study area/aircraft type.


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    Full Text Available We present a study of Late Pleistocene fossil bird remains from Ingarano (Apulia, SE Italy, based on the revision of previously published material and the study of unpublished fossils bones. New field observations make it possible to simplify the stratigraphy of the deposit compared to previous work. The systematic study of the fossil bird bones revealed the presence of 15 taxa, including two hypothetical ones: Circus aeruginosus, Buteo rufinus, Aquila chrysaëtos, Falco columbarius, Falco cherrug, Alectoris graeca, Perdix perdix, Columba livia, Otus scops, Nyctea scandiaca, Nyctea scandiaca vel Bubo bubo, Athene noctua, Pyrrhocorax graculus, Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, Corvus corone, Corvus corone vel Corvus frugilegus, Corvus corax. Our detailed study also helps improve the taphonomical interpretation of the deposit: the remains from the lower layers were accumulated after mammalian predator activity and were transported over short distances, while the ones from the upper layers show sings of intense transport, such as fractures and surface abrasion. Two different bird assemblages were recognized, respectively from the lowermost and the upper layers of the clastic succession exposed in the Ingarano deposit; this difference is also confirmed by the fossil mammal remains. The systematic study makes it possible to make palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic reconstructions: both assemblages indicate open environments, and the taxa of the lower layers indicate the presence of woods and wetlands with colder characteristics, while birds of the upper layers indicate drier and warmer conditions. This analysis, and the dating established through geochemical analyses and study of lithic artefacts, lead us to date the formation of the Ingarano deposit to the Late Pleistocene, in particular to the MIS 3. The presence of a layer dated to the MIS 2 at the base of the succession indicated in previous works cannot be confirmed. 

  10. Raptor abundance and northern bobwhite survival and habitat use (United States)

    Turner, J.; Hernandez, F.; Boal, Clint W.; Ballard, Bart M.; Bryant, Fred C.; Wester, D.B.


    Predation risk has a profound influence on prey behavior and habitat use. The Rio Grande Plains ecoregion of Texas, USA, provides a unique opportunity to investigate changes in prey behavior because the ecoregion experiences a high influx of raptors every year during autumn migration. We used an 8-year data set (2000–2008) of radiocollared northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and raptor abundance to test the hypothesis that bobwhites responded to increased raptor abundance via changes in woody-cover use at the home-range scale. Bobwhite survival was negatively correlated with raptor abundance, with red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) accounting for 51% of the variability in bobwhite survival (P raptor migration (6.6% ± 0.5%; n = 73 bobwhites) and non-migration periods (7.1% ± 0.4%; n = 105 bobwhites; P = 0.490). In addition, bobwhites that survived the raptor migration period used similar amounts of woody cover within their home range (6.3% ± 0.6%, n = 58 bobwhites) compared with those dying during the migration period (6.8% ± 0.4%, n = 100 bobwhites; P = 0.530). Our data suggest that bobwhites do not alter their use of woody cover at the home-range scale in response to increasing raptor abundance, but this does not preclude increased use of woody cover at the point-of-use scale.

  11. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends. (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J


    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  12. Raptor nesting near oil and gas development: an overview of key findings and implications for management based on four reports by HawkWatch International (United States)

    Fuller, Mark R.


    The project was undertaken because of a paucity of information about the possible effects of OG operations and resource management on nesting raptors. BLM raptor management has included stipulations that restricted human activity near raptor nests during the raptor nesting season. The BLM and the Department of Energy (DOE), which provided financial support for the study, seek information that will contribute to enhancing OG extraction operations while providing environmental protection, including raptor conservation. This project used historical data from Utah and Wyoming. The Price, Utah study area, as of 2006, contained more than 1,100 wells, in a nearly uniform distribution at a density of one per quarter section (160-acre spacing). Some development occurred closer to existing nests because the nest sites had not been discovered or because the land is administered by the State of Utah, without these stipulations. The Rawlins, Wyoming study area included more than 4,200 OG wells in 2006. Compared to the Price study area, wells at Rawlins were less regularly distributed; reaching densities of one well per quarter section (160-acre spacing) in some areas, but less dense elsewhere. HWI compiled information from federal bureaus, state agencies, and industry, and determined how to evaluate the effectiveness of spatial and temporal buffer restrictions that have been applied within areas of OG extraction. HWI used the historical data to describe patterns of OG development relative to raptor nests, and to document changes in the distribution and breeding status of raptor nests relative to OG activities. HWI evaluated how these historical datasets were useful for quantifying the relationship between OG development and other human activities and nesting raptors. HWI assessed changes in Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) nesting success and productivity, and in use of artificial nest structures (ANSs), which had been erected to reduce the use by raptors of OG structures as

  13. Clinical evaluation and outcomes of naturally acquired West Nile virus infection in raptors. (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Kratz, Gail E; Bates, Rebecca; Scherpelz, Judy A; Bowen, Richard A; Komar, Nicholas


    West Nile virus (WNV) infection and associated disease and mortality have been documented in numerous North American raptor species. Information regarding clinical presentations and long-term outcomes of WNV-infected raptors is important in the clinic for the diagnosis, treatment, and assessment of prognosis, as well as for understanding potential population level effects on raptor species. Raptors of 22 species admitted to a rehabilitation clinic were tested, from 2002 to 2005, for previous and acute WNV infection, while comparing clinical syndromes, trauma, and rehabilitation outcomes. Forty-two percent of admitted raptors (132/314) had been infected with WNV, and these presented with a WNV-attributed clinical disease rate of 67.4% (89/132). West Nile virus-infected raptors were less likely to be released (79/132 [59.8%]) than negative raptors (138/182 [75.8%]) and more likely to die or be euthanized (47/132 [35.6%] for WNV-infected vs. 32/182 [17.6%] for WNV-negative). However, WNV-infected raptors with neurologic disease were no less likely to be released (29/53 [54.7%]) than those without neurologic disease (50/79 [63.3%]). Clinical WNV-associated syndromes varied among species. Great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were more likely to have neurologic signs, whereas American kestrels (Falco sparverius) and Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsonii) were less likely to have neurologic signs. These results suggest that free-ranging raptors are frequently infected with WNV and that clinical syndromes differ among species. WNV has potentially devastating effects on raptors; however, rehabilitation of WNV-infected raptors can lead to positive outcomes, even for those having had severe neurologic disease.

  14. Comparison of metabolic substrates in alligators and several birds of prey. (United States)

    Sweazea, Karen L; McMurtry, John P; Elsey, Ruth M; Redig, Patrick; Braun, Eldon J


    On average, avian blood glucose concentrations are 1.5-2 times those of mammals of similar mass and high concentrations of insulin are required to lower blood glucose. Whereas considerable data exist for granivorous species, few data are available for plasma metabolic substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations for carnivorous birds and alligators. Birds and mammals with carnivorous diets have higher metabolic rates than animals consuming diets with less protein whereas alligators have low metabolic rates. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations in several birds of prey and a phylogenetically close relative of birds, the alligator. The hypothesis was that the combination of carnivorous diets and high metabolic rates favored the evolution of greater protein and fatty acid utilization leading to insulin resistance and high plasma glucose concentrations in carnivorous birds. In contrast, it was hypothesized that alligators would have low substrate utilization attributable to a low metabolic rate. Fasting plasma substrate and glucoregulatory hormone concentrations were compared for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Avian species had high circulating β-hydroxybutyrate (10-21 mg/dl) compared to alligators (2.81 ± 0.16 mg/dl). In mammals high concentrations of this byproduct of fatty acid utilization are correlated with insulin resistance. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were positively correlated in eagles whereas no relationship was found between these variables for owls, hawks or alligators. Additionally, β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were low in alligators. Similar to carnivorous mammals, ingestion of a high protein diet may have favored the utilization of fatty acids and protein for energy thereby promoting the development of insulin

  15. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.


    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  16. Productivity, mortality, and response to disturbance of nesting Swainson's hawks on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, L.D.; Marr, N.V.; McCorquodale, S.M.


    The objectives of this study were to characterize Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainson) use of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and to evaluate the potential for engineering and other human activities on the Hanford Site to negatively affect the nesting Swainson's hawk population. Activities associated with the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) were used as the primary external stimuli in studying hawk responses to potential human disturbance. Parked and moving vehicles were the most common disturbance sources observed in Swainson's hawk territories. Hawks appeared to be sensitive to disturbance from pedestrians and slow-moving vehicles near nests. Novel stimuli were much more likely to evoke strong responses than were recurring events. Adult hawks reacted more frequently and vigorously than did juveniles. When disturbed, adult hawks usually flew toward the location of the disturbance; juvenile hawks usually flew away from disturbances. Human activity associated with BWIP may have had negative on one pair of nesting Swainson's hawks and may have precluded the use of an additional traditional nesting territory. Negative impacts to nesting Swainson's hawks from human activity could be minimized by confining activities to the non-nesting period or to distances greater than 2.2 km from nest sites. Tree groves and elevated perches, including utility poles, across the Hanford Site are probably critical to the success of nesting Swainson's hawks. Potential mitigation strategies associated with energy research and development activities on the Hanford Site could include provisions for maintenance and establishment of drought-tolerant trees and native vegetation. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.


    Kochert, Michael N.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schueck, Linda S.; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula


    From 1995–1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson’s Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson’s Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 – 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson’s Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km2 austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson’s Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers. PMID:26380528

  18. Soaring Migratory Birds Avoid Wind Farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Southern Mexico (United States)

    Villegas-Patraca, Rafael; Cabrera-Cruz, Sergio A.; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel


    The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni). We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region. PMID:24647442


    Kochert, Michael N; Fuller, Mark R; Schueck, Linda S; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    From 1995-1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson's Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson's Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 - 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson's Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km(2) austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson's Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers.

  20. Vagrant western red-shouldered hawks: origins, natal dispersal patterns, and survival (United States)

    Bloom, Peter H.; Scott, J. Michael; Papp, Joseph M.; Thomas, Scott E.; Kidd, Jeff W.


    We report the results of a 40-year study of the western Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus elegans) involving the banding of 2742 nestlings in southern California from 1970 to 2009 (this study) plus 127 nestlings banded in other California studies (1956–2008) and the analyses of 119 records of subsequent recovery from the Bird Banding Laboratory (1957–2009). Of the Red-shouldered Hawks recovered, 109 (91.6%) moved 100 km (long-distance dispersers). Three (2.5%), all long-distance dispersers, were vagrants (recovered outside the species' range of residency), and were found 374 to 843 km northeast and south of their banding locations in the Mojave, Great Basin, and Vizcaino deserts. The distribution of directions of short-distance dispersal was bipolar, closely corresponding with the northwest—southeast orientation of the species' range in southern California, while that of long-distance dispersers was mainly to the north. One of 10 long-distance dispersers, a nonvagrant, survived well into the age of breeding (103.0 months), whereas eight of the other nine perished before 14.5 months. The implications of vagrancy for conservation of this resident subspecies are that a relatively small source area can contribute genetic material over a vastly larger receiving area but rarely does so because of high mortality rates. Nonetheless, the movements of vagrants we documented provide evidence for the species' potential to populate new landscapes in response to changing environmental conditions and to maintain genetic heterogeneity within existing populations.

  1. Soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Villegas-Patraca

    Full Text Available The number of wind farms operating in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, southern Mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura and Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni. We analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the La Venta II wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. We recorded three polar coordinates for the flight path of migrating soaring birds that were detected using marine radar, plotted the flight trajectories and estimated the number of trajectories that intersected the polygon defined by the wind turbines of La Venta II. Finally, we estimated the actual number of intersections per kilometer and compared this value with the null distributions obtained by running 10,000 simulations of our datasets. The observed number of intersections per kilometer fell within or beyond the lower end of the null distributions in the five models proposed for the fall season and in three of the four models proposed for the spring season. Flight trajectories had a non-random distribution around La Venta II, suggesting a strong avoidance pattern during fall and a possible avoidance pattern during spring. We suggest that a nearby ridgeline plays an important role in this pattern, an issue that may be incorporated into strategies to minimize the potential negative impacts of future wind farms on soaring birds. Studies evaluating these issues in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec have not been previously published; hence this work contributes important baseline information about the movement patterns of soaring birds and its relationship to wind farms in the region.

  2. A comparative study of the mechanics of the pectoralis muscle of the red-tailed hawk and the barred owl. (United States)

    Peters, Susan E; Dobbins, Charles S


    A comparison of the isometric forces and levers of the pectoralis muscle in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and barred owls (Strix varia) was done to identify differences that may correlate with their different flight styles. The pectoralis consists of two heads, the anterior m. sternobrachialis (SB) and the posterior m. thoracobrachialis (TB). These are joined at an intramuscular tendon and are supplied by separate primary nerve branches. As in other birds, the two heads have distinct fiber orientations in red-tailed hawks and barred owls. SB's fiber orientation (posterolateral and mediolateral from origin to insertion) provides pronation and protraction of the humerus during adduction. Electromyographic studies in pigeons show that it is active in early downstroke and during level flight. TB is more active during take-off and landing in pigeons. The anterolateral orientation (from origin to insertion) of its fibers provides a retractive component to humeral adduction used to control the wing during landing. In our study, the maximum isometric force produced by the combined pectoralis heads did not differ significantly between the hawk and owl, however, the forces were distributed differently between the two muscle heads. In the owl, SB and TB were capable of producing equal amounts of force, but in the hawk, SB produced significantly less force than did TB. This may reflect the need for a large TB to control landing in both birds during prey-strike, with the owl maintaining both protractive (using SB) and retractive (using TB) abilities. Pronation and protraction may be less important in the flight behavior of the hawk, but its prey-strike behavior may require the maintenance of a substantial TB for braking and controlled stalling, as it initiates strike behavior.

  3. West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings. (United States)

    Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A


    Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted.

  4. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans. (United States)

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah


    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages.

  5. Diadophis Puntatus Puntatus (Southern Ring-neck Snake) Predation (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.


    DIADOPHIS PUNCTATUS PUNCTATUS (Southern Ring-necked Snake). PREDATION. Here I present the first record of Buteo lineatus (Red-shouldered Hawk) predator on a Diadophis p. punctatus. At ca. 1100h on l2 February2 013,I observed a B. lineatus eating a katydid in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary (26.2730'N, 81.6079"W;WGS 84), Collier Co., Florida, USA. The hawk was in a Pond Cypress tree on the edge of a small prairie bordered on one side by a cypress swamp and by pine woodland on the other. Immediately upon consuming the katydid, the hawk flew to the ground ca. 1.5 m from an elevated boardwalk to grab an adult D. punctatus. It then flew with the snake in its talons to a branch 3 m high ca. l0 m from the boardwalk. The hawk stretched and otherwise manipulated the struggling snake (Fig.1) before consuming the still moving snake. Although snakes are a well-known component of B. lineatus diet (Clark1 987A. Field Guide to the Hawks of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, Massachusetts 198 pp.), I found only one literature reference to Red-shouldered Hawks eating Ring-neck Snakes (Fisher 1893.Hawks and Owls of the United States in their Relation to Agriculture. U.S. Dept. Agric., Div Ornith. Mamm. Bull. 3). That specimen was from Canton, New York (taken 26 Oct IBBB) and would be a D. p. edwardisii (Northern Ring-necked Snake), while the snake reported on here is a Diadophis p. punctatus (USNM Herp Image 2847a -c). Based on evidence presented by Fontanella et al. (2008. Mol. Phylogenet Evol.46:1049-1070), D. p. edwardisii and D. p. punctatus are likely different species.

  6. Red-shouldered hawk occupancy surveys in central Minnesota, USA (United States)

    Henneman, C.; McLeod, M.A.; Andersen, D.E.


    Forest-dwelling raptors are often difficult to detect because many species occur at low density or are secretive. Broadcasting conspecific vocalizations can increase the probability of detecting forest-dwelling raptors and has been shown to be an effective method for locating raptors and assessing their relative abundance. Recent advances in statistical techniques based on presence-absence data use probabilistic arguments to derive probability of detection when it is <1 and to provide a model and likelihood-based method for estimating proportion of sites occupied. We used these maximum-likelihood models with data from red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) call-broadcast surveys conducted in central Minnesota, USA, in 1994-1995 and 2004-2005. Our objectives were to obtain estimates of occupancy and detection probability 1) over multiple sampling seasons (yr), 2) incorporating within-season time-specific detection probabilities, 3) with call type and breeding stage included as covariates in models of probability of detection, and 4) with different sampling strategies. We visited individual survey locations 2-9 times per year, and estimates of both probability of detection (range = 0.28-0.54) and site occupancy (range = 0.81-0.97) varied among years. Detection probability was affected by inclusion of a within-season time-specific covariate, call type, and breeding stage. In 2004 and 2005 we used survey results to assess the effect that number of sample locations, double sampling, and discontinued sampling had on parameter estimates. We found that estimates of probability of detection and proportion of sites occupied were similar across different sampling strategies, and we suggest ways to reduce sampling effort in a monitoring program.

  7. Dinâmica da População de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae no Estuário do Rio Paciência, no Município da Raposa, Estado do Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jethro Silva Santos


    Full Text Available A presença de moluscos no litoral maranhense é significativa, servindo de fonte de renda e subsistência para muitas comunidades. Um exemplo de molusco relacionado com esse potencial é a espécie Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin 1791, que possui grande importância para a população do município da Raposa, na ilha do Maranhão. A presente pesquisa objetivou analisar a dinâmica dessa espécie em lotes naturais do próprio município, nos períodos locais caracterizados como seco e chuvoso. Coletas mensais foram realizadas no período de agosto a dezembro de 2010 e março a junho de 2011, onde foram efetuados levantamentos de informações importantes como variáveis biométricas, fator de condição e densidade. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que os organismos durante todo o período de coleta, exceto o mês de agosto, apresentaram tamanho satisfatório para o consumo, com média acima de 20 mm. Para outro caso, observou-se uma diminuição do fator de condição nos meses de agosto e dezembro, podendo estar relacionado com algum estresse no meio como: período de desova da espécie em questão ou pressão antrópica na região, tendo em vista que, esse organismo sofre forte extração local de forma não sustentável. A densidade dos organismos mostrou-se alta, em termos de biomassa, apresentando uma média de 3,16 toneladas em uma área de 6.007,5 m², que comparada com uma criação de gado extensiva, dependendo do manejo, torna-se mais produtiva, econômica e ecológica.

  8. Vector-host interactions and epizootiology of eastern equine encephalitis virus in Massachusetts. (United States)

    Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Thomas, Michael C; Deschamps, Timothy; Cuebas-Incle, Esteban; Montgomery, Walter; Osborne, Matthew; Smole, Sandra; Matton, Priscilla; Andrews, Wayne; Best, Curtis; Cornine, Frank; Bidlack, Ellen; Texeira, Tony


    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in humans and equines, resulting in high mortality or severe neurological impairment in most survivors. In the northeastern United States, EEE virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) and passerine birds in freshwater swamp habitats. To evaluate the role of Cs. melanura and Culiseta morsitans (Theobald) in recent episodes of EEE virus activity in Massachusetts, we collected blood-fed mosquitoes between June, 2007, and October, 2008, from virus foci in 6 counties, and identified the source of blood meals by PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and sequencing. Analysis of 529 Cs. melanura and 25 Cs. morsitans revealed that nearly 99% and 96% of mosquitoes, respectively, acquired blood meals solely from avian hosts. American Robin, Turdus migratorius Linnaeus was identified as the most common vertebrate host for Cs. melanura (21.7%, n=115), followed by Tufted Titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor (L.) (8.7%, n=46), Black-capped Chickadee, Poecile atricapillus (L.) (8.5%, n=45), Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) (6.8%, n=36), Field Sparrow, Spizella pusilla (Wilson) (6.2%, n=33), Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (L.) (5.7%, n=30), and other mostly Passeriformes birds. Mammalian-derived blood meals were identified as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, domestic cow, Bos taurus L., and human, Homo sapiens L. There were 4 isolations of EEE virus, West Nile virus, and Highland J virus from Cs. melanura. Our results in conjunction with other lines of evidence, including reservoir competency, prevalence of antibody, and infection in nature, suggest that the American Robin, Tufted Titmouse, Black-capped Chickadee, and a few other passerine birds may play key roles in supporting EEE virus transmission in Massachusetts. Infrequent

  9. A Study on the Heavy Metal Cu in the Seawater, Sediment a nd Organisms in the Intertidal Zone, Qingdao%青岛沿海潮间带海水、沉积物 和生物体内铜含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1988年5月在青岛沿海潮间带采集了海水、沉积物、海 藻和一些常见的底栖动物样品,用原子吸收分光光度法测定Cu含量。结果表明:海水中Cu含 量低于一类海水标准,说明该海域海水Cu污染不明显;与国内外一些海域比较,沉积物Cu含 量较低;海藻中海头红、鸭毛藻和异管藻Cu含量较高,Cu含量较低的是石花菜、裙带菜和海 膜;底栖动物Cu含量排序为:贻贝>褶牡蛎>短滨螺。底栖动物对Cu的富集能力远大于海藻, 两者富集系数相差近10倍。%In this study, the concentrations of Cu were determined in the seawater, sediment, seaweeds and some common benthic animals in the interti dal zone, Qingdao. The results show that the concentrations of Cu in the sea wat er were lower than the value set for seawater Grade I in China. Compared with s ome other coastal waters, the Cu concentrations in the sediments of Qingdao coas t were lower. Among the seaweeds, the concentrations of Cu in the Plocamium te lfairiae, Symphyocladia Iatiuscula and Heterosiphonia japonica Yendo w ere higher,and the concentrations of Cu in the Gelidium amansii Lamx, Undaria pinnatifida and Halymenia sinensis were lower.The increases of the concent rations of Cu in the benthic animals were as follows: Mytilus edulis Linnaeus> Crassostrea cf. Plicatula Gmelin> Littorina brevicula. The enrichment capabil ity of Cu in the benthic animals were much higher than in the seaweeds. The rela tive enrichment factor (REF) of the benthic animals were almost 10 times of the REF of the seaweeds.

  10. Parasitic helminths of small mammals in Elba Island

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    Alexis Ribas


    Full Text Available We investigated the helminth fauna of small mammals (Rodentia and Insectivora in the mediterranean island of Elba (Italy. We first performed a survey of the parasitic helminths of Rattus rattus (L., 1758, Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 (Rodentia, Murinae, Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811 (Insectivora, Soricidae and Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae. An expedition was undertaken in January 2002 making an helminth faunistic study of: 14 R. rattus; 11 M. domesticus; 2 C. suaveolens and 1 E. europaeus. A total of 28 animals were trapped at seven stations and nine helminth species were detected: Corrigia vitta Dujardin, 1845 (Dicrocoelidae, Brachylaima erinacei Blanchard, 1847 (Brachylaimidae [Digenea]; Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819; H. tiara (Dujardin, 1845 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae; Aonchotheca erinacei Rudolphi, 1819; Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1893 (Trichuridae; Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 (Spirocercidae; Paracrenosoma kontrimavinchusi Guenov, 1978 (Metastrongylidae; Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 (Oxyuridae [Nematoda]. The house mice were not infected by helminths. In the black rat, five species were detected: C. vitta, H. diminuta, C. hepaticum, M. muris and S. muris. Insectivores hosts were parasitised by B. erinacei, A. erinacei (E. europaeus, H. tiara and P. kontrimavinchusi (C. suaveolens. All species were identified by morphological characteristics and in the cases of H. diminuta and M. muris isozyme electrophoresis were used to compare with continental and insular samples. Helminths found in these hosts in Elba Island (apart of P. kontrimavinchusi are the best colonisers of mediterranean islands. These species were

  11. Effects of dreissenids on monitoring and management of fisheries in western Lake Erie (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.


    Water clarity increased in nearshore areas of western Lake Erie by the early-1990s mainly as a result of the filtering activities of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.), which invaded in the mid-1980s. We hypothesized that increased water clarity would result in greater trawl avoidance and thus reduced ability to capture fish in bottom trawls during daytime compared to nighttime. We examined this hypothesis by summarizing three analyses on fish data collected in western Lake Erie. First, we used a two-tiered modeling approach on the ration (R) of catch per hour (CPH) of age-0 yellow perch (Perca flavencens Mitchell) at night to CPH during daytime in 1961-2005. The best a priori and a posteriori models indicated a shift to higher CPH at night (R > 1) between 1990 and 1991, which corresponded to 3 years after the dreissenid invasion and when water clarity noticeably increased at nearshore sites. Secondly, we examined effects of nighttime sampling on estimates of abundance of age-2 and older yellow perch, which form the basis for recommended allowable harvest (RAH). When data from night sampling were included in models that predict abundance of age-2 yellow perch from indices of abundance of age-0 and age-1 yellow perch, predicted abundance was lower and model precision, as measured by r-squared, was higher compared to models that excluded data collected at night. Furthermore, the use of only CPH data collected at night typically resulted in lower estimates of abundance and more precise models compared to models that included CPH data collected during both daytime and nighttime. Thirdly, we used presence/absence data from paired bottom trawl samples to calculate an index of capture probability (or catchability) to determine if our ability to capture the four most common benthic species in western Lake Erie was affected by dreissenid-caused increased water clarity. Three species of fish(white perch, Morone americana Gmelin; yellow perch; and trout-perch, Percopsis

  12. Selective extraction of Bactrocera oleae sexual pheromone from olive oil by dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted nanocomposite. (United States)

    Del Carmen Alcudia-León, María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel


    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, also known as olive fruit fly, is the main olive tree pest. It produces a severe effect not only on the productivity but also on the quality of the olive-related products. In fact, the oil obtained from infected olives has a lower antioxidant power. In addition, an increase of the oil acidity, peroxide index and UV-absorbance can also be observed. 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5,5]-undecane (DSU), is the main component of the sexual pheromone of this pest and may be used as marker of the pest incidence. In this context, the development of new methods able to detect the pheromones in several samples, including agri-food or environmental ones, is interesting. In this work, we synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPS) layer over magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP) for the selective recognition of DSU. They were prepared using DSU as template and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to associate the target analyte on the surface of the magnetic substrate and the later polymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in presence of 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile (AIBN). The resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP composite was characterized by different techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of DSU on Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP in hexane was 32mg/g (5.3 times than that obtained for the non-imprinted composite). In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP showed a short equilibrium time (45min) and potential reusability. The combination of dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the determination of DSU in real samples at concentrations as low as 10μg/L with precision better than 7.5% (expressed as relative standard deviation). The relative recoveries are in the range between 95 and 99%, which indicates the potential of the methodology. Finally, it has been applied to real olive oil samples being the presence of the pest detected is some of them.

  13. Avifauna aquática do Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brasil: uma década de monitoramento Aquatic avifauna at Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil: one decade of monitoring

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    Joaquim O. Branco


    Full Text Available O monitoramento a longo prazo das comunidades de aves, disponibilizou dados fundamentais na formulação de modelos de populações, tornando-se uma ferramenta valiosa na conservação da biodiversidade. As aves aquáticas do Saco da Fazenda foram monitoradas mensalmente através de três censos, em um mesmo dia, durante o período de janeiro de 1996 a dezembro de 2005, sendo adotado o número médio de aves por mês, como uma medida padrão da abundância. Das 50 espécies registradas, 34,0% foi regular nos censos, 12,0% sazonalmente e 54,0% de ocorrência ocasional. As aves residentes representaram 72,0% das espécies, as visitante sazonal do hemisfério norte (22,0%, das visitantes do sul da América do Sul (4,0% e de uma espécie de ocorrência incerta no país. Dessas, sete são aves marinhas costeiras, 39 de hábitos limícolas e quatro espécies habitantes das bordas ou visitantes originários da Mata Atlântica. As famílias Ardeidae, Scolopacidae, Laridae e Charadriidae contribuíram com 64,0% das espécies, onde Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 e Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 foram dominantes nos censos. Apesar das flutuações sazonais, a abundância média mensal da avifauna não apresentou diferenças, mas quando confrontados os 10 anos de censos, esses foram significativamente diferentes. Enquanto que o índice de diversidade apresentou valores mensal e anual significativamente diferentes, a equitabilidade flutuou moderadamente entre os anos de coleta, mantendo-se estatisticamente semelhante, foram mensalmente diferente. Estudo como o presente, envolvendo comunidades de aves aquáticas em uma série temporal de 10 anos interruptos, são raros, mas reforçam a necessidade de considerar a época do ano, horário e o número de censos para determinar adequadamente o tamanho das populações. O contínuo monitoramento desses agrupamentos poderá contribuir na compreensão das interações entre as espécies e na avalia


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    Rafael A. Molina-Lopez


    Full Text Available Outcome research of rehabilitation of wild birds of prey and owls are scarcely reported. The aim of this study is to investigate specie-specific outcomes of the rehabilitation practice in wild raptor attended in a wildlife center. A total of 6221 hospitalized wild raptors (3241 Strigiformes; 2980 Falconiformes admitted at a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre (WRC of Catalonia from 1995 to 2007 were analysed. The outcomes indicators were based on ratios of Euthanasia (Er, Mortality (Mr, Release (Rr and Captivity (Cr. Stratified analyses by main causes of admission were performed for the different raptor species. Species from the Falconiformes order presented higher rates of euthanasia (33.9% compared to the Strigiformes (18.6%. Species like B. buteo (45.7% and M. migrans (47.6% in the Falconiformes and B. bubo (33.6% in the Strigiformes, presented the highest Er. Despite no differences between orders could be observed in the row mortality rates, data analysed by the causes of admission showed that the Mr of owls was significant higher than the Falconiformes for the trauma (13.2%; χ2 = 49.97; p<0.001, non trauma (12.7%; χ2 = 17.41; p<0.001 and orphaned young categories (4.9%; χ2 = 5.4; p = 0.02. The release rate was similar between orders. Based on species, G. fulvus (69.2%, C. aeruginosus (56.3% and A. gentillis (43.1% in the Falconiformes and O. scops (48.5% in the Strigiformes showed the highest Rr. In the orphaned young category owls had better Rr than the diurnal raptors, being S. aluco the specie with the best rates of release (84%, whereas B. bubo had the worst values (50%. Specie-specific differences were found in the rehabilitation outcomes according to the different causes of admission. The stratified analysis of outcomes can be useful in order to to

  15. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wagner, Mason T.


    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding’s ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson’s hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling’s mass, energy needs

  16. Nesting habitat relationships of sympatric Crested Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and White-tailed Hawks in South Texas (United States)

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.


    We quantified nesting-site habitats for sympatric White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus) (n = 40), Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) (n = 39), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) (n = 24) in the Coastal Sand Plain of south Texas. White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracara nest sites occurred in savannas, whereas Red-tailed Hawk nest sites occurred in woodlands on the edge of savannas. White-tailed Hawk nest sites were in shrubs and trees that were shorter (3.5 ?? 1.0 m) and had smaller canopy diameters (5.5 ?? 2.1 m) than those of Red-tailed Hawks (10.1 ?? 2.0 m, 13.7 ?? 5.8 m) and Crested Caracaras (5.6 ?? 1.7 m, 8.5 ?? 3.5 m). Red-tailed Hawk nest sites had higher woody densities (15.7 ?? 9.6 plants) and more woody cover (84 ?? 19%) than those of White-tailed Hawks (5.6 ?? 5.8 plants, 20 ?? 21%) and Crested Caracaras (9.9 ?? 6.7 plants, 55 ?? 34%). Crested Caracara nest sites were in dense, multi-branched shrubs composed of more living material (97 ?? 3%) than those of White-tailed (88 ?? 18%) and Red-tailed hawks (88 ?? 18%). Nest sites of White-tailed Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras were similar to random samples from the surrounding habitat indicating that preferred nesting habitat was available for each of these species at least within 60 m of active nest sites. Nest tree height, along with woody plant and native grass cover best discriminated nest sites among the three raptor species. There was no overlap at Red-tailed and White-tailed hawk nest sites in vegetation structure, while Crested Caracara nests were in habitat intermediate between the two other species. Partitioning of nesting habitat may be how these raptor species co-exist at the broader landscape scale of our study area in the Coastal Sand Plain of Texas.

  17. Gliding flight: drag and torque of a hawk and a falcon with straight and turned heads, and a lower value for the parasite drag coefficient. (United States)

    Tucker, V A


    Raptors - falcons, hawks and eagles in this study - such as peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) that attack distant prey from high-speed dives face a paradox. Anatomical and behavioral measurements show that raptors of many species must turn their heads approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey straight ahead with maximum visual acuity, yet turning the head would presumably slow their diving speed by increasing aerodynamic drag. This paper investigates the aerodynamic drag part of this paradox by measuring the drag and torque on wingless model bodies of a peregrine falcon and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with straight and turned heads in a wind tunnel at a speed of 11.7 m s(-)(1). With a turned head, drag increased more than 50 %, and torque developed that tended to yaw the model towards the direction in which the head pointed. Mathematical models for the drag required to prevent yawing showed that the total drag could plausibly more than double with head-turning. Thus, the presumption about increased drag in the paradox is correct. The relationships between drag, head angle and torque developed here are prerequisites to the explanation of how a raptor could avoid the paradox by holding its head straight and flying along a spiral path that keeps its line of sight for maximum acuity pointed sideways at the prey. Although the spiral path to the prey is longer than the straight path, the raptor's higher speed can theoretically compensate for the difference in distances; and wild peregrines do indeed approach prey by flying along curved paths that resemble spirals. In addition to providing data that explain the paradox, this paper reports the lowest drag coefficients yet measured for raptor bodies (0.11 for the peregrine and 0.12 for the red-tailed hawk) when the body models with straight heads were set to pitch and yaw angles for minimum drag. These values are markedly lower than value of the parasite drag coefficient (C(D,par)) of 0.18 previously

  18. Lead in hawks, falcons and owls downstream from a mining site on the Coeur D'Alene river, Idaho (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.


    Mining and smelting at Kellogg-Smelterville, Idaho, resulted in high concentrations of lead in Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River sediments and the floodplain downstream, where American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus), and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicotti) nested. Nestling American Kestrels contained significantly higher (P=0.0012) blood lead concentrations along the CDA River (0.24 ?g/g, wet wt) than the nearby reference area (0.087 ?g/g). A 35% inhibition of blood *-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in nestling Northern Harriers (P=0.0001), 55% in nestling American Kestrels (P=0.0001) and 81% in adult American Kestrels (P=0.0004) provided additional evidence of lead exposure in the CDA River population. In nestling American Kestrels and Northern Harriers, ALAD activity was negatively correlated with lead in blood. An earlier report on Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) showed slightly less inhibition of ALAD than in American Kestrels, but no significant reduction in hemoglobin or hematocrit and no negative influence on production rates. The adult and nestling American Kestrels along the CDA River contained about twice as much blood lead as Ospreys during the same years (adult 0.46 vs. 0.20 ?g/g, and nestling 0.24 vs. 0.09 ?g/g), but adults showed a 7.5% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0356) and nestlings an 8.2% reduction in hemoglobin (P=0.0353) and a 5.8% reduction in hematocrit (P=0.0482). We did not observe raptor deaths related to lead, and although the production rate for American Kestrels was slightly lower along the CDA River, we found no significant negative relation between productivity and lead. Limited data on the other raptors provide evidence of exposure to lead along the CDA River. Several traits of raptors apparently reduce their potential for accumulating critical levels of lead which is primarily stored in bones of prey species.

  19. Estación Biológica Senda Darwin: Investigación ecológica de largo plazo en la interfase ciencia-sociedad Senda Darwin Biological Station: Long-term ecological research at the interface between science and society

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    Full Text Available La Estación Biológica Senda Darwin (EBSD constituye un centro de investigación inmerso en el paisaje rural del norte de la Isla de Chiloé (42º S, donde fragmentos del bosque siempreverde original coexisten con praderas de uso ganadero, turberas de Sphagnum, matorrales sucesionales, plantaciones de Eucalyptus y otras formaciones de origen antropogénico. Desde 1994 hemos realizado estudios de largo plazo centrados en algunas especies de plantas (e.g., Pilgerodendron uviferum D. Don y animales (e.g., Aphrastura spinicauda Gmelin, Dromiciops gliroides [Thomas] catalogados como amenazados o escasamente conocidos y en ecosistemas nativos de importancia regional y global (e.g., turberas de Sphagnum, bosque Valdiviano y Nordpatagónico. Las investigaciones han considerado las respuestas de las especies y de los ecosistemas frente al cambio antropogénico del paisaje y cambio climático, así como los efectos de diferentes formas de manejo. Este escenario es semejante al de otras regiones de Chile y Latinoamérica lo que da generalidad a nuestros resultados y modelos. En este período, investigadores asociados a la EBSD han producido más de un centenar de publicaciones en revistas nacionales e internacionales y 30 tesis de pre y postgrado. Entendiendo el papel clave de los seres humanos en los procesos ecológicos de la zona rural, la EBSD ha desarrollado un programa de educación ecológica y vinculación del avance científico con la sociedad local y nacional. La integración de la EBSD a la naciente red de Sitios de Estudios Socio-Ecológicos de Largo Plazo en Chile consolidará y fortalecerá la investigación básica y aplicada que realizamos para proyectarla hacia la siguiente década.Senda Darwin Biological Station (SDBS is a field research center immersed in the rural landscape of northern Chiloé island (42º S, where remnant patches of the original evergreen forests coexist with open pastures, secondary successional shrublands, Sphagnum

  20. Osteologia craniana de Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, comparada com outras espécies de Threskiornithidae Skull osteology of Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus (Aves, Ciconiiformes, compared with others species of Threskiornithidae

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    Carolina D. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 pertence Threskiornithidae (curicacas e afins e colhereiros, Threskiornithoidea, Ciconiiformes. Threskiornithidae (colhereiros, curicacas e afins são subdivididos em dois grupos: Threskiornithinae que compreende curicacas e afins, caracteriza-se por seus representantes possuírem um bico longo, estreito e curvo, ao passo que Plataleinae inclui os colhereiros, que apresentam bico longo e achatado na ponta. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a osteologia craniana de P. ajaja (Plataleinae e comparar com outras espécies pertencentes à Threskiornithinae. As espécies utilizadas para tal comparação foram: Mesembrinibis cayennensis (Gmelin, 1789, Phimosus infuscatus (Lichteinstein, 1823, Theristicus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783 e Plegadis chivi (Vieillot, 1817. Outras espécies pertencentes a ordem Ciconiiformes também foram utilizadas para comparação. A partir do presente estudo, observou-se que P. ajaja (Plataleinae apresenta como características que a separa dos Threskiornithinae: 1 sutura frontonasal conspícua; 2 processo supra-orbital do osso lacrimal curto; 3 maxila superior achatada dorsoventralmente, sendo alargada na extremidade, tomando forma de uma colher; 4 narina curta e de forma oval; e 5 processo retroarticular curto. Entretanto, são necessários estudos osteológicos que contemplem as outras espécies da família, bem como um estudo filogenético do grupo para maior compreensão das relações existentes entre os Threskiornithidae.Platalea ajaja (Linnaeus, 1758 belongs to the Threskiornithidae (ibises and spoonbills, Threskiornitoidea, Ciconiiformes. The Threkiornithidae are currently divided into two groups: Threskiornithinae (ibises and allies, which have curved bills used to probe into the mud, and Plataleinae that have specialized flat bill shapes. The goal of the present work was to describe the cranial osteology of P. ajaja (Plataleinae and compare it with other species of the

  1. Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, with some Observations on Its Stratigraphy, Thickness, and Structure (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Allen, James R.; Holland, Peter J.


    central California through Oregon. Outcrops at Salmon Creek, northeast of Steinbeck Ranch and also in the central part of the outcrop area, contain Aulacofusus? recurva (Gabb) and Turcica brevis Stewart, which are both restricted to the Pliocene, as well as Lirabuccinum portolaensis (Arnold) known from the early Pliocene of central and northern California and into the late Pliocene in southern California. These data suggest an overall pattern of older rocks and deeper water to the south and west, and younger rocks and shallower water to the east and north. Outcrops to the southwest, south of the Bloomfield fault, are not well dated but presumably are older than the late Miocene Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992). Fossils in this part of the section are rare and are not useful in determining a precise age or environment of deposition for the lower part of the Wilson Grove Formation. However, sedimentary sequences and structures in the rocks here are useful and suggest probable outer shelf and slope water depths. Lituyapecten turneri (Arnold) which occurs in this part of the section has previously been restricted to the Pliocene, but its occurrence below the Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) indicates a revised late Miocene age for this taxon. Three possibly new gastropods (Mollusca) are reported here: Calyptraea (Trochita) n. sp. and Nucella sp., aff. N. lamellosa (Gmelin), both from the Bloomfield Quarry area, and Acanthinucella? n. sp. from the River Road area. These species are not described here because this venue is deemed insufficient for the description of new taxa.

  2. Addenda and Corrigenda to the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, volumes 7 and 8 (Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.


    Full Text Available Additions, corrections, comments and nomenclatural novelties for the volumes 7 and 8 of the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera are provided. For the exact authorship of these check the text. One new species is described: Mecinus tavaresi Caldara & Fogato, sp. nov. from Portugal and Spain. New synonymies are: Compsapoderus (Compsapoderus erythropterus (Gmelin, 1790 = Attelabus intermedius Hellwig, 1795, syn. nov.; Paroplapoderus (Erycapoderus angulipennis (Kolbe, 1886 = Paroplapoderus (Erycapoderus angulipennis shaanxinsis Legalov, 2004, syn. nov. (Attelabidae; Aspidapion (Koestlinia aeneum (Fabricius, 1775 = Aspidapion (Koestlinia motschulskyi (Hochhuth, 1847, syn. nov., Taeniapion rufescens (Gyllenhal, 1833 = Taeniapion notatum (Wagner, 1912, syn. nov. (Apionidae; Larinus (Larinomesius scolymi (Olivier, 1807 = Curculio teres Hellwig, 1795, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Lixus paraplecticus (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio phellandrii Linnaeus, 1764, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Curculio alternans Hellwig, 1795= Curculio alternans Herbst, 1795, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Sibinia lyrata Faust, 1889= Sibinia attalica var. judea Pic, 1901, syn. nov. (Curculionidae; Phyllobius (Metaphyllobius pomaceus Gyllenhal, 1834= Curculio prasinus Olivier, 1791, syn. nov. (Curculionidae. New homonymies are: Attelabus intermedius Hellwig, 1795 (non Attelabus intermedius Illiger, 1794; Baris marshalli Ramesha & Ramamurthy, 2011 (non Baris marshalli Hustache, 1938. New replacement names are: Baris ramamurthyi Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Baris bimaculata Pajni & Kohli, 1990 (non Hustache, 1932; Archarius (Archarius kwonleeanus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Archarius (Archarius parvus (Kwon & Lee, 1990 (non Archarius (Archarius parvus (Hong & Wang, 1987, a fossil species; Curculio (Curculio zhangianus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Curculio (Curculio helleri Pelsue & Zhang, 2002 (non Curculio (Curculio helleri (Voss, 1932; Lixus trichromus Alonso-Zarazaga nom. nov. for Lixus

  3. Saker Falcon on the Crimean Peninsula

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    Igor V. Karyakin


    Full Text Available In this article we made a revaluation of a number of the Saker (Falco cherrug on the Crimean Peninsula based on data obtained in an expedition conducted in May 9–26 of 2015. During this expedition Sakers were observed on 58 sites (31 times they were seen on pylons of power lines, 14 – on cliffs in the foothills of Crimean Mountains, 8 – on the coastal cliffs and 4 on the coastal precipices, and one adult male was seen in the forest shelter belt near Syvash lagoon. We revealed 49 breeding territories of Saker including 42 occupied nests with successful breeding. The estimation of the total number of breeding population on peninsula is 145–184 (mean 165 breeding pairs, including 125–159 (mean 142 pairs which breeding attempts were successful in 2015. The distance between the neighboring pairs is 1.95–15.21 km (mean 6.56±3.37 km, n=43. Pylons of power lines were used by 30 breeding pairs (61.22% out of 49, and 29 successful nests (69.05% out of 42 were built on pylons. Supposedly, 63.83% of all breeding pairs in Crimea are bred on pylons, and the percentage of successful nests out of the total number of nests in population is 71.89%. From the 34 nests that were built on pylons, 24 (70.59% were located on the concrete pylons and 10 (29.41% on the metal ones. On cliffs and precipices we found 24 nests in total. Eighteen (75% of them were built on a bare ground, while the others were found in the nests built by other bird species (most of them were made in the former nests of the Raven (Corvus corax, and one pair occupies a nest of the Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus located on cliff. The percentage of successful nests out of occupied ones was 85.71%. We found broods of 1–4 nestlings, which in average (n=23 makes 2.83±0.78 nestling per successful nest. The majority of broods (65.22% consisted of 3 nestlings. On 20 breeding territories (90.91% male birds were older then 2 years old, and two breeding territories (9.09% were occupied

  4. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens. (United States)

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R


    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in Arkansas (USA) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous American coot (Fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. The cause of AVM remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. Naturally occurring AVM has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). In this study, chickens and swine were evaluated for susceptibility to vacuolar myelinopathy with the intent of developing animal models for research and to identify specific tissues in affected coots that contain the causative agent. Additionally, submerged, aquatic vegetation, primarily hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and associated material collected from a reservoir during an AVM outbreak was fed to chickens in an effort to reproduce the disease. In two separate experiments, six 4-wk-old leghorn chickens and ten 5-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed coot tissues. In a third experiment, five 3-mo-old domestic swine and one red-tailed hawk, serving as a positive control, were fed coot tissues. In these experiments, treatment animals received tissues (brain, fat, intestinal tract, kidney, liver, and/or muscle) from coots with AVM lesions collected at a lake during an AVM outbreak. Negative control chickens and one pig received tissues from coots without AVM lesions that had been collected at a lake where AVM has never been documented. In a fourth experiment, eight 3-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed aquatic vegetation material. Four chickens received material from the same lake from which coots with AVM lesions were collected for the previous experiments, and four control chickens were fed material from the lake where AVM has never been documented. Blood was collected and physical and neurologic exams were conducted on animals before and once per week

  5. Research on Classifications,Actions and Usage Features of Mongolian Medicine Formulas Based on Drug Standards%基于药品标准的蒙药制剂品种、主治和用药特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙位军; 孙铭; 王张; 邝婷婷; 曾勇; 江道峰


    frequency and medicinal part as well as the characteristics of forms,name and usage of formulas,based on the number of formulas, pharmaceutical enterprises,approval numbers.Results Confirmed the total count of 164 formulas,including 12 recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia,125 received license number,39 hospital preparation or agreements prescription.The formulas are frequently named by "The name of main medicinal herb +number","The main function ingredients +number","Mongolian transliteration +number".Dosage forms have 6 types from high to low pill,powder,capsule,paste,tablet,and granule.The patients taking,carrying and storing are convenient for the steppe.The formula with 7 drugs is the most.The formulas ,having diversified characteristics of Mongolian Medicine which are used to the clinical treatment of gastrointestinal disease,respiratory disease,gynecologic diseases,Mon-golian medicine disease,infectious diseases,etc.Mongolian medicine should be developed in treatment dominant diseases.268 drugs have been used,including 210 herbal drugs,30 animal drugs,22 mineral drugs.It has a great relationship with the special geograph-ical position and natural condition of Inner Mongolia.The medicinal parts,such as seed fruits,root,flowers,mineral medicine,heart-wood,herb,gallbladder,resin,stool,stems,aerial part,etc.,are commonly used.Terminaliachebula Retz.,Carthamustinctorius L., Cardeniajasminoides Ellis., GypsumFibrosum, Myristicafragrans Houtt., Bostaurusdomesticus Gmelin, Piperlongum L., Ewgewiacaryophyllata Thunb.,Meliatoosendan Zucc.,Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb.completed the top 10 frequency of drug use.The traditional Chinese and Tibetan medicine take place in cross appearance in the use of drugs.Conclusion Mongolian medicine formulas,with rich in varieties,a reasonable amount of drugs,more solid preparations and widely clinic application,contain more herbal drugs.But the lack of well-known enterprise have been influenced by Tibetan medicine and Chinese medicine.

  6. Zoogeografia storica e attuale dei carnivori e degli ungulati italiani

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    Marco Masseti


    L., 1758 Dama dama (L., 1758 Cervus elaphus L., 1758 Capreolus capreolus (L., 1758 Rupicapra pyrenaica Bonaparte, 1845 Rupicapra rupicapra (L., 1758 Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Capra ibex L., 1758 Ovis orientalis Gmelin, 1774

  7. Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Hess, Steve; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina R.; Cole, Colleen; Deguzman, Veronica


    -enclosed units and unenclosed units where populations of introduced mouflon and feral pigs threatened sensitive native plants and forest bird habitats. Beginning in June 2014, twenty infrared camera traps were positioned in areas occupied by ungulates. The cameras were active for at most 198 days, and then half of the cameras were baited with oats and salt blocks for 126 days. There were a total of 1,496 observations of mouflon captured on camera, totaling 2,592 individuals: 1,020 ewes, 900 rams, 276 lambs, and 396 sheep of unknown sex. There were no detections of the illegally introduced axis deer (Axis axis). There were 11 observations of feral pigs and 109 observations of other animals (birds, rats, and other small mammals), including one detection of the federally endangered Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius). Mouflon detection rates did not increase near baited cameras until three months after the initial baiting. Ground-based surveys for ungulate presence were conducted along six transects in Kahuku in October 2014. Evidence of ungulates were detected in 27.5% of plots surveyed within an unenclosed unit, while an enclosed unit had sign in only 3.6% of plots surveyed. An aerial survey by helicopter was conducted in October 2014. A total of 378 mouflon were detected during the survey: 192 in the Kahuku Paddocks, 186 in the Kahuku East unit and no mouflon were detected in the actively controlled Mauka unit. Two baseline ungulate surveys have been completed at the Hō‘ili Wai study area in the highpriority watershed of Ka‘ū Forest Reserve adjacent to Kahuku prior to the completion of an exclusionary ungulate fence. Ground-based surveys were conducted on four transects within a 4.99 km2 area on 5 August and 5–6 November 2014. In August, 20.71% of 565 plots surveyed 2 had fresh or intermediate ungulate sign. In November, 17.41% of 557 plots surveyed had fresh or intermediate ungulate sign. These surveys represent baseline levels of ungulate activity prior to management

  8. Resumos dos Trabalhos Apresentados em Painéis no Workshop Baía de Guanabara, IGEO/UFRJ - 2002

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    26 / 2003 componentes biominerais tais como moluscos marinhos, foraminíferos e ostracodes e elementos continentais polínicos e da malacofauna dulçaqüícola. Tomando por base que bioclastos são partículas biominerais maiores que 2 mm foram efetuadas análises em sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara com a finalidade de verificar as variações quantitativas e as propriedades tafonômicas da malacofauna. O material estudado cedido pelo MicroCentro/ DEGEO/UFRJ compreende 2690 indivíduos. A malacofauna é composta pelas espécies Anomalocardia brasiliana Gmelin 1791 e Heleobia australis (d’Orbigny, 1835. A. brasiliana, um biválvio comum de praias e manguezais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, desenvolve populações numerosas em lagoas hipersalinas como a Lagoa de Araruama. O microgastrópode Heleobia australis atinge no máximo 7 mm, e apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica na faixa atlântica do Hemisfério Sul desde o Estado do Rio de Janeiro até a Argentina. A espécie domina habitats onde as condições físicas são variáveis, e caracteriza-se pelo endemismo em ecossistemas continentais aquáticos oligotróficos de todos os tamanhos, em lagoas costeiras e estuários, onde a densidade populacional alcança a média de 11 indivíduos por cm 2. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro registra-se a ocorrência da espécie na Lagoa Iriri e Lagoa Itapebussus, Município de Rio das Ostras em associação com fanerógamas aquáticas. Na Lagoa Salgada constitui níveis de biodetritos intercalados a esteiras algais e estromatólitos. Na Baía de Guanabara foram quantificados 2634 exemplares de H. australis que apresentou a maior freqüência no intervalo de 15 cm a 73 cm com 72%, predominam a 20 cm de profundidade com 31% dos espécimes e desaparecem totalmente aos 60 cm e 160 cm. As feições bioestratinômicas avaliadas nos bioclastos apontaram que 18% estão fragmentados, 15% evidenciam bioerosão e o índice de abrasão é 82%. Os maiores níveis de fragmentação ocorrem