WorldWideScience

Sample records for butanols

  1. Butanol tolerance in microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramucci, Michael G.; Nagarajan, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of fermentation products from a pyruvate utilizing pathway. Yeast host cells provided herein comprise reduced pyruvate decarboxylase activity and modified adenylate cyclase activity. In embodiments, yeast host cells provided herein comprise resistance to butanol and increased biomass production.

  2. Butanol / Honda CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    the manufacturer for the outboard engines used on the RB-S, entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to study the use of...as a restrictive factor. Item Horsepower output characterfsti<:s Exhaust gas Allowable mixing ratio of butanol 0"-’ SO vol % Engine ...4 ~ 3 2 1 0 20 20 20 Engine o il Visoosity-Normal Use Engine 70 122 174 218 270 320 350 Engine Hours TBN- Normal Use Engine

  3. Butanol production by fermentation: efficient bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy security, environmental concerns, and business opportunities in the emerging bio-economy have generated strong interest in the production of n-butanol by fermentation. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE or solvent) batch fermentation process is product limiting because butanol even at low concentra...

  4. Adaptation of lactic acid bacteria to butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol can be produced biologically through fermentation of various substrates by Gram-positive Clostridium species. However, to profitably produce butanol at industrial scales, new microbial biocatalysts with increased tolerance to butanol are needed. In this study we report the isolation and se...

  5. Identification of butanol tolerant genes in Lactobacillus mucosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol, though in low concentrations, is produced biologically through fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass-derived substrates by Gram-positive Clostridium species. However, naturally available butanol fermenting microbes are sensitive to stress caused by increased production of butanol and the...

  6. Progress and perspectives on improving butanol tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermentative production of butanol for use as a biofuel or chemical feedstock is regarded as a promising renewable technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has the potential to become a substitute for non-sustainable chemical production route. However, butanol toxicity to the producing m...

  7. Butanol/Octanol Is in Short Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Capacity will increase rapidly Butanol/octanol is an important organic raw material mainly applied in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, plastics and dyeing and printing. China's production capacity for butanol and octanol reached 415 thousand t/a and514 thousand t/a, respectively, in 2006.

  8. Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production.

  9. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium of {l_brace}water + phenol + (1-butanol, or 2-butanol, or tert-butanol){r_brace} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlich de Oliveira, Leonardo [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aznar, Martin, E-mail: maznar@feq.unicamp.b [School of Chemical Engineering, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6066, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and binodal curve data were determined for the systems (water + phenol + tert-butanol) at T = 298.15 K, (water + phenol + 2-butanol) and (water + phenol + 1-butanol) at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K by the combined techniques of densimetry and refractometry. Type I curve (for tert-butanol) and Type II curves (for 1- and 2-butanol) were found. The data were correlated with the NRTL model and the parameters estimated present root mean square deviations below 2% for the system with tert-butanol and lower than 0.8% for the other systems.

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of i-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, V F; Wallington, T J; Nielsen, O J

    2010-12-02

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to determine rate constants of k(Cl + i-butanol) = (2.06 ± 0.40) × 10(-10), k(Cl + i-butyraldehyde) = (1.37 ± 0.08) × 10(-10), and k(OH + i-butanol) = (1.14 ± 0.17) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) in 700 Torr of N(2)/O(2) diluent at 296 ± 2K. The UV irradiation of i-butanol/Cl(2)/N(2) mixtures gave i-butyraldehyde in a molar yield of 53 ± 3%. The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of i-butanol in the absence of NO gave i-butyraldehyde in a molar yield of 48 ± 3%. The chlorine atom initiated oxidation of i-butanol in the presence of NO gave (molar yields): i-butyraldehyde (46 ± 3%), acetone (35 ± 3%), and formaldehyde (49 ± 3%). The OH radical initiated oxidation of i-butanol in the presence of NO gave acetone in a yield of 61 ± 4%. The reaction of chlorine atoms with i-butanol proceeds 51 ± 5% via attack on the α-position to give an α-hydroxy alkyl radical that reacts with O(2) to give i-butyraldehyde. The atmospheric fate of (CH(3))(2)C(O)CH(2)OH alkoxy radicals is decomposition to acetone and CH(2)OH radicals. The atmospheric fate of OCH(2)(CH(3))CHCH(2)OH alkoxy radicals is decomposition to formaldehyde and CH(3)CHCH(2)OH radicals. The results are consistent with, and serve to validate, the mechanism that has been assumed in the estimation of the photochemical ozone creation potential of i-butanol.

  11. Butanol production in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with in situ product recovery by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Zhao, Jingbo; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-11-01

    Activated carbon Norit ROW 0.8, zeolite CBV901, and polymeric resins Dowex Optipore L-493 and SD-2 with high specific loadings and partition coefficients were studied for n-butanol adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were found to follow Langmuir model, which can be used to estimate the amount of butanol adsorbed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In serum-bottle fermentation with in situ adsorption, activated carbon showed the best performance with 21.9g/L of butanol production. When operated in a fermentor, free- and immobilized-cell fermentations with adsorption produced 31.6g/L and 54.6g/L butanol with productivities of 0.30g/L·h and 0.45g/L·h, respectively. Thermal desorption produced a condensate containing ∼167g/L butanol, which resulted in a highly concentrated butanol solution of ∼640g/L after spontaneous phase separation. This in situ product recovery process with activated carbon is energy efficient and can be easily integrated with ABE fermentation for n-butanol production.

  12. Flame Propagation of Butanol Isomers/Air Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloo, Peter S.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted on the propagation of flames of saturated butanol isomers. The experiments were performed in the counterflow configuration under atmospheric pressure, unburned mixture temperature of 343 K, and for a wide range of equivalence ratios. The experiments were simulated using a recent kinetic model for the four isomers of butanol. Results indicate that n-butanol/air flames propagate somewhat faster than both sec-butanol/air and iso-butanol/air flames, and that tert-butanol/air flames propagate notably slower compared to the other three isomers. Reaction path analysis of tert-butanol/air flames revealed that iso-butene is a major intermediate, which subsequently reacts to form the resonantly stable iso-butenyl radical retarding thus the overall reactivity of tert-butanol/air flames relatively to the other three isomers. Through sensitivity analysis, it was determined that the mass burning rates of sec-butanol/air and iso-butanol/air flames are sensitive largely to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}–C{sub 2} hydrocarbon kinetics and not to fuel-specific reactions similarly to n-butanol/air flames. However, for tert-butanol/air flames notable sensitivity to fuel-specific reactions exists. While the numerical results predicted closely the experimental data for n-butanol/air and sec-butanol/air flames, they overpredicted and underpredicted the laminar flame speeds for iso-butanol/air and tert-butanol/air flames respectively. It was demonstrated further that the underprediction of the laminar flame speeds of tert-butanol/air flames by the model was most likely due to deficiencies of the C{sub 4}-alkene kinetics.

  13. Which is a better transportation fuel – butanol or ethanol ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines butanol and ethanol as transportation fuels for gasoline-powered engines. This paper examines two aspects. First, the fuel properties of butanol and ethanol are examined and compared to each other. Consequently, butanol overcomes three deficiencies of ethanol. Butanol has a higher energy content, butanol-gasoline blends do not separate in the presence of water, and butanol can be blended with gasoline in any percentage, all the way up to 100%. Second, a review of the fermentation technology is examined for both butanol and ethanol production. Both butanol and ethanol can be fermented from the same feedstocks, which include the sugar and starch crops and lignocellulosic fermentation from wood and crop residues, and fast-growing energy crops like hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and willow. Furthermore, the capital and facilities used to produce ethanol can be switched to butanol fermentation with minimal costs. Thus, society is able to transition away from ethanol and begin to produce butanol with minimal capital and infrastructure costs. Unfortunately, the main drawback to butanol fermentation is its low chemical yield. Until researchers discover or engineer new microorganisms that handle higher butanol concentrations, butanol may not be adapted as an alternative fuel.

  14. Process design and evaluation of butanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daza Montano, C.M. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The outline of this presentation on the title subject states: Why Butanol?; ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) fermentation background and state of the art; Developed conceptual process design; Economic evaluation; Environmental Impact assessment (LCA); and Conclusion.

  15. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from gelatinized cassava flour by a new isolates with high butanol tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-Guang; Ofosu, Fred Kwame; Li, Kun-Tai; Gu, Qiu-Ya; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Bin

    2014-11-01

    To obtain native strains resistant to butanol toxicity, a new isolating method and serial enrichment was used in this study. With this effort, mutant strain SE36 was obtained, which could withstand 35g/L (compared to 20g/L of the wild-type strain) butanol challenge. Based on 16s rDNA comparison, the mutant strain was identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum. Under the optimized condition, the phase shift was smoothly triggered and fermentation performances were consequently enhanced. The maximum total solvent and butanol concentration were 23.6% and 24.3%, respectively higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the correlation between butanol produced and the butanol tolerance was investigated, suggesting that enhancing butanol tolerance could improve butanol production. These results indicate that the simple but effective isolation method and acclimatization process are a promising technique for isolation and improvement of butanol tolerance and production.

  16. Comparative Autoignition Trends in Butanol Isomers at Elevated Pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Weber, Bryan W.

    2013-03-21

    Autoignition experiments of stoichiometric mixtures of s-, t-, and i-butanol in air have been performed using a heated rapid compression machine (RCM). At compressed pressures of 15 and 30 bar and for compressed temperatures in the range 715-910 K, no evidence of a negative temperature coefficient region in terms of ignition delay response is found. The present experimental results are also compared with previously reported RCM data of n-butanol in air. The order of reactivity of the butanols is n-butanol > s-butanol ≈ i-butanol > t-butanol at the lower pressure but changes to n-butanol > t-butanol > s-butanol > i-butanol at higher pressure. In addition, t-butanol shows preignition heat release behavior, which is especially evident at higher pressures. To help identify the controlling chemistry leading to this preignition heat release, off-stoichiometric experiments are further performed at 30 bar compressed pressure, for t-butanol at φ = 0.5 and φ = 2.0 in air. For these experiments, higher fuel loading (i.e., φ = 2.0) causes greater preignition heat release (as indicated by greater pressure rise) than the stoichiometric or φ = 0.5 cases. Comparison of the experimental ignition delays with the simulated results using two literature kinetic mechanisms shows generally good agreement, and one mechanism is further used to explore and compare the fuel decomposition pathways of butanol isomers. Using this mechanism, the importance of peroxy chemistry in the autoignition of the butanol isomers is highlighted and discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Engineering Escherichia coli Cell Factories for n-Butanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongjun; Zhao, Chunhua; Zhang, Tianrui; Lin, Zhao; Li, Yin; Zhang, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    The production of n-butanol, as a widely applied solvent and potential fuel, is attracting much attention. The fermentative production of butanol coupled with the production of acetone and ethanol by Clostridium (ABE fermentation) was once one of the oldest biotechnological processes, ranking second in scale behind ethanol fermentation. However, there remain problems with butanol production by Clostridium, especially the difficulty in genetically manipulating clostridial strains. In recent years, many efforts have been made to produce butanol using non-native strains. Until now, the most advanced effort was the engineering of the user-friendly and widely studied Escherichia coli for butanol production. This paper reviews the current progress and problems relating to butanol production by engineered E. coli in terms of prediction using mathematical models, pathway construction, novel enzyme replacement, butanol toxicity, and tolerance engineering strategies.

  18. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for 1-Butanol-Water-KF and 1-Butanol-Water-K2CO3 Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wen-you; JI Min

    2005-01-01

    KF or K2CO3 was added into the 1-butanol-water system and two phases were formed: water-rich phase (water phase) and 1-butanol-rich phase (1-butanol phase). The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for 1-butanol-water-KF and 1-butanol-water-K2 CO3 systems were measured at 25 C and showed that 1-butanol phase contained negligible salt and water phase contained negligible 1-butanol when the concentrations of KF and K2CO3 in the water phase were equal to or higher than 27. 11% and 31. 68%, respectively. Thus water could be separated efficiently from 1-butanol-water by adding KF or K2CO3 into the system. A theoretical calculation of LLE data was calculated by using the Pitzer theory to get water activity in the water phase, and by the models, such as the Wilson, NRTL or the UNIQUAC for the 1-butanol phase.For 1-butanol-water-KF system, the experimental data were found in good agreement with the calculated results by using Pitzer theory and Wilson equation, while for 1-butanol-water-K2CO3 system, the experimental data were found in good agreement with the calculated results by using Pitzer theory and UNIQUAC equation.

  19. Enhancement of n-butanol production by in situ butanol removal using permeating-heating-gas stripping in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Ren, Hengfei; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Ting; Shi, Xinchi; Cheng, Hao; Zhao, Nan; Li, Zhenjian; Li, Bingbing; Niu, Huanqing; Zhuang, Wei; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Wu, Jinglan; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-07-01

    Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and sugar utilization to below 20 g/L and 60 g/L, respectively. In batch fermentation (without permeating-heating-gas stripping), C. acetobutylicum B3 utilized 60 g/L glucose and produced 19.9 g/L ABE and 12 g/L butanol, while in the integrated process 290 g/L glucose was utilized and 106.27 g/L ABE and 66.09 g/L butanol were produced. The intermittent gas stripping process generated a highly concentrated condensate containing approximately 15% (w/v) butanol, 4% (w/v) acetone, a small amount of ethanol (production.

  20. Biodiesel by acid-catalyzed transesterification with butanol

    OpenAIRE

    Bynes, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha oil and Rapeseed oil was transesterified with n-butanol by the use of H2SO4. Before conducting the experiments a review of the effect of alcohol type was preformed. Alcohols from methanol to butanol, branched and straight, were reviewed for the effect on the acid catalyzed transesterification reaction. From the review it was found that propanol and butanol were the best for the acidic transesterification reaction. Variables such as time, temperature, alcohol amount and catalyst c...

  1. Binary total pressure measurements for methanol with 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol at 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, D.P.; Bhethanabotla, V.R.; Campbell, S.W. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Total pressure measurements at 313.15 K are reported for binary systems of methanol with each of seven pentanol isomers: 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-2-butanol. The results were obtained using a Van Ness apparatus and were fitted to the four-suffix Margules equation using Barker`s method. The four-suffix Margules equation represents the data to within an average of approximately 0.02 kPa.

  2. Direct in situ butanol recovery inside the packed bed during continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Rong; Chiang, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Po-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Li, Si-Yu

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process was coupled with continuous ABE fermentation using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. At the same time, oleyl alcohol was cocurrently flowed into the packed bed reactor with the fresh medium and then recycled back to the packed bed reactor after removing butanol in the stripper. A high glucose consumption of 52 g/L and a high butanol productivity of 11 g/L/h were achieved, resulting in a high butanol yield of 0.21 g-butanol/g-glucose. This can be attributed to both the high bacterial activity for solvent production as well as a threefold increase in the bacterial density inside the packed bed reactor. Also reported is that 64 % of the butanol produced can be recovered by the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process. A high butanol productivity and a high glucose consumption were simultaneously achieved.

  3. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improved fructose/xylose utilization and butanol production during acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You-Duo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass and dedicated energy crops such as Jerusalem artichoke are promising alternatives for biobutanol production by solventogenic clostridia. However, fermentable sugars such as fructose or xylose released from the hydrolysis of these feedstocks were subjected to the incomplete utilization by the strains, leading to relatively low butanol production and productivity. When 0.001 g/L ZnSO4·7H2O was supplemented into the medium containing fructose as sole carbon source, 12.8 g/L of butanol was achieved with butanol productivity of 0.089 g/L/h compared to only 4.5 g/L of butanol produced with butanol productivity of 0.028 g/L/h in the control without zinc supplementation. Micronutrient zinc also led to the improved butanol production up to 8.3 g/L derived from 45.2 g/L xylose as sole carbon source with increasing butanol productivity by 31.7%. Moreover, the decreased acids production was observed under the zinc supplementation condition, resulting in the increased butanol yields of 0.202 g/g-fructose and 0.184 g/g-xylose, respectively. Similar improvements were also observed with increasing butanol production by 130.2 % and 8.5 %, butanol productivity by 203.4% and 18.4%, respectively, in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations from sugar mixtures of fructose/glucose (4:1) and xylose/glucose (1:2) simulating the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and corn stover. The results obtained from transcriptional analysis revealed that zinc may have regulatory mechanisms for the sugar transport and metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum L7. Therefore, micronutrient zinc supplementation could be an effective way for economic development of butanol production derived from these low-cost agricultural feedstocks.

  4. Interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of normal rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiuting; Wei, Benxi; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between amylose and 1-butanol during the 1-butanol-hydrochloric acid (1-butanol-HCl) hydrolysis of normal rice starch. The interaction model between amylose and 1-butanol was proposed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), (13)C cross polarization and magic angle spinning NMR analysis ((13)C CP/MAS NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA). GC-MS data showed that another form of 1-butanol existed in 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed normal rice starch, except in the form of free molecules absorbed on the starch granules. The signal of 1-butanol-HCl-hydrolyzed starch at 100.1 ppm appeared in the (13)C CP/MAS NMR spectrum, indicating that the amylose-1-butanol complex was formed. DSC and TGA data also demonstrated the formation of the complex, which significantly affected the thermal properties of normal rice starch. These findings revealed that less dextrin with low molecular weight formed might be attributed to resistance of this complex to acid during 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis.

  5. The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44 g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85 g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295 g/L h in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185 g/L h for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production.

  6. Olive black water as raw material for butanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waehner, R.S.; Giulietti, A.M.; Mendez, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Solventogenic Clostridium spp. were used for butanol production from olive black water considering also the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Butanol yields ranging from 0.09 to 0.29 g per g of sugar content and COD removals as high as 85% were achieved in small-scale experiments.

  7. Recovery of butanol from fermentation broth by pervaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol can be produced by fermentation from corn, molasses or lignocellulosic biomass for use as a chemical or superior biofuel. However, butanol’s production is hampered by its toxicity to the microbial culture that produces it. In fermentation broths, final butanol concentrations typically range ...

  8. Butanol Production from Leftover Beverages and Sport Drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raganati, Francesca; Procentese, Alessandra; Montagnaro, Fabio; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to identify an alternative disposal process for the industry of high-sugar-content beverages (HSCBs) and (2) to contribute to the study of butanol production from non-edible feedstocks. HSCBs were used as a renewable feedstock to produce butanol by Clostridiu

  9. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of butanol isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Schadeweg, Virginia; Oreb, Mislav; Boles, Eckhard

    2015-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has decisive advantages in industrial processes due to its tolerance to alcohols and fermentation conditions. Butanol isomers are considered as suitable fuel substitutes and valuable biomass-derived chemical building blocks. Whereas high production was achieved with bacterial systems, metabolic engineering of yeast for butanol production is in the beginning. For isobutanol synthesis, combination of valine biosynthesis and degradation, and complete pathway re-localisation into cytosol or mitochondria gave promising results. However, competing pathways, co-factor imbalances and FeS cluster assembly are still major issues. 1-Butanol production via the Clostridium pathway seems to be limited by cytosolic acetyl-CoA, its central precursor. Endogenous 1-butanol pathways have been discovered via threonine or glycine catabolism. 2-Butanol production was established but was limited by B12-dependence.

  10. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, David E. [Environmental Energy Inc., Blacklick, OH (United States); Yang, Shang-Tian [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2005-08-25

    Butanol replaced gasoline gallon for gallon in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States without the need to highly modify a ’92 Buick (your existing car today). Butanol can now be made for less than ethanol and yields more Btu’s from the same corn, making the plow to tire equation positive – more energy out than it takes to make it and Butanol is much safer. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as tested in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as ethanol in U.S. legislation “ethanol/butanol”. There is abundant plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry, which processes more than 13% of the ~9.5 billion bushels (~240 million metric tons) of corn annually produced in the U.S. to produce high-fructose-corn-syrup, dextrose, starch, and fuel alcohol, and generates more than 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that are currently of limited use and pose significant environmental problems. The abundant inexpensive renewable resources as feedstock for fermentation, and recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and bioprocessing have resulted in a renewed interest in the fermentation production of chemicals and fuels, including n-butanol. The historic acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum is one of the oldest known industrial fermentations. It was ranked second only to ethanol fermentation by yeast in its scale of production, and is one of the largest biotechnological processes ever known. However, since the 1950's industrial ABE fermentation has declined continuously, and almost all butanol is now produced via petrochemical routes (Chemical Marketing Reporter, 1993). Butanol is an important industrial solvent and is a better fuel for replacing gasoline – gallon for gallon than ethanol. Current butanol

  11. Evaluation of substrates for butanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The production was evaluated of ethanol, acetone, and butanol from several different carbohydrate materials by five strains of Clostridia and two mixed cultures. The substrates, which were tested at concn ranging between 2.5 and 10% w/v, included pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. The organisms used were Clostridium acetobutylicum strains NRRL B527 and NRRL B3179; Clostridium butylicum strains NRRL B592 and NRRL B593; and Clostridium pasteurianum strain NRRL B598. The mixed cultures contained all of these organisms. Mixed culture 1 contained in addition to the Clostridia, Klebsiella pneumoniae strain NRRL B427. Mixed culture 2 contained mixed culture 1 plus a yeast isolated from kefir culture. Where possible, maxima were found for the conversion of different substrates. 7 tables.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingrui; Zhang, Yali; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2011-07-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755, a butyric acid producing bacterium, has been engineered to overexpress aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (adhE2, Genebank no. AF321779) from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, which converts butyryl-CoA to butanol, under the control of native thiolase (thl) promoter. Butanol titer of 1.1g/L was obtained in C. tyrobutyricum overexpressing adhE2. The effects of inactivating acetate kinase (ack) and phosphotransbutyrylase (ptb) genes in the host on butanol production were then studied. A high C4/C2 product ratio of 10.6 (mol/mol) was obtained in ack knockout mutant, whereas a low C4/C2 product ratio of 1.4 (mol/mol) was obtained in ptb knockout mutant, confirming that ack and ptb genes play important roles in controlling metabolic flux distribution in C. tyrobutyricum. The highest butanol titer of 10.0g/L and butanol yield of 27.0% (w/w, 66% of theoretical yield) were achieved from glucose in the ack knockout mutant overexpressing adhE2. When a more reduced substrate mannitol was used, the butanol titer reached 16.0 g/L with 30.6% (w/w) yield (75% theoretical yield). Moreover, C. tyrobutyricum showed good butanol tolerance, with >80% and ∼60% relative growth rate at 1.0% and 1.5% (v/v) butanol. These results suggest that C. tyrobutyricum is a promising heterologous host for n-butanol production from renewable biomass.

  13. Prospective and development of butanol as an advanced biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Liu, Chen-Guang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2013-12-01

    Butanol has been acknowledged as an advanced biofuel, but its production through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by clostridia is still not economically competitive, due to low butanol yield and titer. In this article, update progress in butanol production is reviewed. Low price and sustainable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic residues and dedicated energy crops are needed for butanol production at large scale to save feedstock cost, but processes are more complicated, compared to those established for ABE fermentation from sugar- and starch-based feedstocks. While rational designs targeting individual genes, enzymes or pathways are effective for improving butanol yield, global and systems strategies are more reasonable for engineering strains with stress tolerance controlled by multigenes. Compared to solvent-producing clostridia, engineering heterologous species such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with butanol pathway might be a solution for eliminating the formation of major byproducts acetone and ethanol so that butanol yield can be improved significantly. Although batch fermentation has been practiced for butanol production in industry, continuous operation is more productive for large scale production of butanol as a biofuel, but a single chemostat bioreactor cannot achieve this goal for the biphasic ABE fermentation, and tanks-in-series systems should be optimized for alternative feedstocks and new strains. Moreover, energy saving is limited for the distillation system, even total solvents in the fermentation broth are increased significantly, since solvents are distilled to ~40% by the beer stripper, and more than 95% water is removed with the stillage without phase change, even with conventional distillation systems, needless to say that advanced chemical engineering technologies can distil solvents up to ~90% with the beer stripper, and the multistage pressure columns can well balance energy consumption for solvent fraction

  14. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  15. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni;

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding...... crosses with different microspore embryogenesis capacities were selected for n-butanol application in anther and isolated microspore cultures. Application of 0.1 % n-butanol after a mannitol stress treatment in anther culture significantly increased the number of embryos (up to almost twice) and green...... plants (from 1.7 to 3 times) in three low-responding cultivars: Albacete, Astoria and Majestic. No significant differences on microspore embryogenesis efficiency were observed in medium and high responding cultivars. The application of n-butanol treatment to isolated microspores from cold treated spikes...

  16. Compressed liquid densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Moreno, Abel [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galicia-Luna, Luis A. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: lgalicial@ipn.mx; Camacho-Camacho, Luis E. [Laboratorio de Termodinamica, ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edif. Z, Secc. 6, 1ER Piso, UPALM, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-02-15

    (p, {rho}, T) properties were determined in liquid phase for 1-butanol and 2-butanol at temperatures from 313 K to 363 K and pressures up to 25 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. The uncertainty is estimated to be lower than {+-}0.2 kg . m{sup -3} for the experimental densities. Nitrogen and water were used as reference fluids for the calibration of the vibrating tube densimeter. Experimental densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol were correlated with a short empirical equation and the 11-parameter Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling equation of state (BWRS EoS) using a least square optimization. Statistical values to evaluate the different correlations were reported. Published densities of 1-butanol and 2-butanol are compared with values calculated with the BWRS EoS using the parameters obtained in this work. The experimental data determined here are also compared with available correlations for 1-butanol and 2-butanol.

  17. Recovery of Butanol by Counter-Current Carbon Dioxide Fractionation with its Potential Application to Butanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A counter-current CO2 fractionation method was applied as a mean to recover n-butanol and other compounds that are typically obtained from biobutanol fermentation broth from aqueous solutions. The influence of operating variables, such as solvent-to-feed ratio, temperature, pressure and feed solution composition was experimentally studied in terms of separation efficiency, butanol removal rate, total removal and butanol concentration in the extract at the end of the continuous cycle. With respect to the temperature and pressure conditions investigated, results show that the highest separation efficiency was obtained at 35 °C and 10.34 MPa. At these operating conditions, 92.3% of the butanol present in the feed solution was extracted, and a concentration of 787.5 g·L−1 of butanol in the extract was obtained, starting from a feed solution of 20 g·L−1. Selectivity was calculated from experimental data, concluding that our column performs much better than a single equilibrium stage. When adding ethanol and acetone to the feed solution, ethanol was detected in the water-rich fraction (raffinate, whereas the highest concentration of acetone was found in the butanol rich fraction (extract.

  18. Energy-efficient recovery of butanol from model solutions and fermentation broth by adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N; Hughes, S; Maddox, I S; Cotta, M A

    2005-07-01

    This article discusses the separation of butanol from aqueous solutions and/or fermentation broth by adsorption. Butanol fermentation is also known as acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) or solvent fermentation. Adsorbents such as silicalite, resins (XAD-2, XAD-4, XAD-7, XAD-8, XAD-16), bone charcoal, activated charcoal, bonopore, and polyvinylpyridine have been studied. Use of silicalite appears to be the more attractive as it can be used to concentrate butanol from dilute solutions (5 to 790-810 g L(-1)) and results in complete desorption of butanol (or ABE). In addition, silicalite can be regenerated by heat treatment. The energy requirement for butanol recovery by adsorption-desorption processes has been calculated to be 1,948 kcal kg(-1) butanol as compared to 5,789 kcal kg(-1) butanol by steam stripping distillation. Other techniques such as gas stripping and pervaporation require 5,220 and 3,295 kcal kg(-1) butanol, respectively.

  19. Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, Yoshimori [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, 2640 Nishinoura, Tsurajimacho, Kurashiki 712-8505 (Japan)]. E-mail: miyano@chem.kusa.ac.jp; Kobashi, Takahiro [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, 2640 Nishinoura, Tsurajimacho, Kurashiki 712-8505 (Japan); Shinjo, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, 2640 Nishinoura, Tsurajimacho, Kurashiki 712-8505 (Japan); Kumada, Shinya [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, 2640 Nishinoura, Tsurajimacho, Kurashiki 712-8505 (Japan); Watanabe, Yusuke [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, 2640 Nishinoura, Tsurajimacho, Kurashiki 712-8505 (Japan); Niya, Wataru [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, 2640 Nishinoura, Tsurajimacho, Kurashiki 712-8505 (Japan); Tateishi, Yoko [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Kurashiki University of Science and the Arts, 2640 Nishinoura, Tsurajimacho, Kurashiki 712-8505 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Henry's law constants and infinite dilution activity coefficients of cis-2-butene, dimethylether, chloroethane, and 1,1-difluoroethane in methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, 1-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-butanol in the temperature range of 250 K to 330 K were measured by a gas stripping method and partial molar excess enthalpies were calculated from the activity coefficients. A rigorous formula for evaluating the Henry's law constants from the gas stripping measurements was used for the data reduction of these highly volatile mixtures. The uncertainty is about 2% for the Henry's law constants and 3% for the estimated infinite dilution activity coefficients. In the evaluation of the infinite dilution activity coefficients, the nonideality of the solute such as the fugacity coefficient and Poynting correction factor cannot be neglected, especially at higher temperatures. The estimated uncertainty of the infinite dilution activity coefficients includes 1% for nonideality.

  20. Crystallization of Esomeprazole Magnesium Water/Butanol Solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Skieneh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structure of esomeprazole magnesium derivative in the solid-state is reported for the first time, along with a simplified crystallization pathway. The structure was determined using the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique to reveal the bonding relationships between esomeprazole heteroatoms and magnesium. The esomeprazole crystallization process was carried out in 1-butanol and water was utilized as anti-solvent. The product proved to be esomeprazole magnesium tetrahydrate with two 1-butanol molecules that crystallized in P63 space group, in a hexagonal unit cell. Complete characterization of a sample after drying was conducted by the use of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS. Investigation by 1H-NMR and TGA has shown that the solvent content in the dried sample consists of two water molecules and 0.3 butanol molecules per esomeprazole magnesium molecule. This is different from the single crystal X-ray diffraction results and can be attributed to the loss of some water and 1-butanol molecules stabilized by intermolecular interactions. The title compound, after drying, is a true solvate in terms of water; conversely, 1-butanol fills the voids of the crystal lattice in non-stoichiometric amounts.

  1. Nonpremixed ignition, laminar flame propagation, and mechanism reduction of n-butanol, iso-butanol, and methyl butanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei; Kelley, A. P.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    The non-premixed ignition temperature of n-butanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), iso-butanol ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}OH) and methyl butanoate (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}) was measured in a liquid pool assembly by heated oxidizer in a stagnation flow for system pressures of 1 and 3 atm. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of air–n-butanol/iso-butanol/methyl butanoate were determined from the outwardly propagating spherical flame at initial pressures of up to 2 atm, for an extensive range of equivalence ratio. The ignition temperature and laminar flame speeds of n-butanol and methyl butanoate were computationally simulated with three recently developed kinetic mechanisms in the literature. Dominant reaction pathways to ignition and flame propagation were identified and discussed through a chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and sensitivity analysis. The detailed models were further reduced through a series of systematic strategies. The reduced mechanisms provided excellent agreement in both homogeneous and diffusive combustion environments and greatly improved the computation efficiency.

  2. Effects of butanol isomers on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Megan D; Schawel, Adam K; Wang, Weidong; Dea, Phoebe

    2007-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and (31)P-NMR were used to study the effects of butanol isomers on the thermotropic phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. The threshold concentration for the onset of interdigitation for each isomer was determined by the disappearance of the pretransition and the onset of a large hysteresis between the heating and cooling scans of the gel-to-liquid main transition. The threshold concentration was found to correlate with increased solubility of the isomers in the aqueous phase, led by tert-butanol. However, as the solution concentration of tert-butanol increased, there was an abrupt shrinking of the hysteresis, initially with well-resolved shoulder peaks indicating mixed phases. The eventual disappearance of the shoulder peaks was correlated with a breakdown of the multilamellar structure identified using (31)P-NMR.

  3. Development of a high temperature microbial fermentation process for butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. St. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daubaras, Dayna L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost-competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to the U.S. future energy and chemical needs. Butanol production by microbial fermentation for chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process could decrease energy costs, capital cost, give higher butanol production, and allow for continuous fermentation. In this paper, we describe our approach to genetically transform Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus, using a pUCG18 plasmid, for potential insertion of a butanol production pathway. Transformation methods tested were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli donor and helper strains, and protoplast fusion. These methods have not been successful using the current plasmid. Growth controls show cells survive the various methods tested, suggesting the possibility of transformation inhibition from a DNA restriction modification system in G. caldoxylosiliticus, as reported in the literature.

  4. Continuous butanol fermentation and feed starch retrogradation: butanol fermentation sustainability using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N; Blaschek, H P

    2005-01-26

    Use of starch solution as feed for butanol bioconversion processes employing Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 may have added economic advantage over the use of glucose. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced from 30 gL(-1) starch solution using a continuous process. The bioreactor was fed at a dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1) and starch solution/feed volume (3 L) was replaced every 72 h. The continuous reactor fed with cornstarch solution (feed temperature 19 degrees C) produced approximately 6.0 gL(-1) total ABE. Increasing the feed storage temperature to 37 degrees C improved ABE production to 7.2 gL(-1) suggesting that retrogradation was occurring more rapidly at 19 degrees C. In both these cases the fermentation drifted toward acid production after approximately 260 h, consistent with the retrogradation of starch overtime. The use of soluble starch, which is less prone to retrogradation, resulted in the production of 9.9 gL(-1) ABE at 37 degrees C feed storage temperature, as compared to 7.2 gL(-1) ABE when cornstarch was used. It should be noted that gelatinized starch retrogradation takes place after sterilization and prior to use of the feed medium, and does not occur during long-term storage of the raw corn material in the months leading up to processing. The degree of hydrolysis of gelatinized starch decreased from 68.8 to 56.2% in 3 days when stored at 37 degrees C. Soluble starch which does not retrograde demonstrated no change in the degree of hydrolysis.

  5. An experimental and kinetic modelling study of the oxidation of the four isomers of butanol

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, J T; Oehlschlaeger, M A; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valérie; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; 10.1021/jp806464p

    2008-01-01

    Butanol, an alcohol which can be produced from biomass sources, has received recent interest as an alternative to gasoline for use in spark ignition engines and as a possible blending compound with fossil diesel or biodiesel. Therefore, the autoignition of the four isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol) has been experimentally studied at high temperatures in a shock tube and a kinetic mechanism for description of their high-temperature oxidation has been developed. Ignition delay times for butanol/oxygen/argon mixtures have been measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures and pressures ranging from approximately 1200 to 1800 K and 1 to 4 bar. Electronically excited OH emission and pressure measurements were used to determine ignition delay times. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the oxidation of the butanol isomers and validated by comparison to the shock tube measurements. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis indicate that the consumpti...

  6. Frontiers in microbial 1-butanol and isobutanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Ting; Liao, James C

    2016-03-01

    The heavy dependence on petroleum-derived fuel has raised concerns about energy sustainability and climate change, which have prompted researchers to explore fuel production from renewable sources. 1-Butanol and isobutanol are promising biofuels that have favorable properties and can also serve as solvents or chemical feedstocks. Microbial production of these alcohols provides great opportunities to access a wide spectrum of renewable resources. In recent years, research has improved the native 1-butanol production and has engineered isobutanol production in various organisms to explore metabolic diversity and a broad range of substrates. This review focuses on progress in metabolic engineering for the production of these two compounds using various resources.

  7. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of the oxidation of the four isomers of butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jeffrey T; Berkowitz, Andrew M; Oehlschlaeger, Matthew A; Biet, Joffrey; Warth, Valérie; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2008-10-30

    Butanol, an alcohol which can be produced from biomass sources, has received recent interest as an alternative to gasoline for use in spark ignition engines and as a possible blending compound with fossil diesel or biodiesel. Therefore, the autoignition of the four isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol) has been experimentally studied at high temperatures in a shock tube, and a kinetic mechanism for description of their high-temperature oxidation has been developed. Ignition delay times for butanol/oxygen/argon mixtures have been measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures and pressures ranging from approximately 1200 to 1800 K and 1 to 4 bar. Electronically excited OH emission and pressure measurements were used to determine ignition-delay times. The influence of temperature, pressure, and mixture composition on ignition delay has been characterized. A detailed kinetic mechanism has been developed to describe the oxidation of the butanol isomers and validated by comparison to the shock-tube measurements. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis illustrates the relative importance of the three competing classes of consumption reactions during the oxidation of the four butanol isomers: dehydration, unimolecular decomposition, and H-atom abstraction. Kinetic modeling indicates that the consumption of 1-butanol and iso-butanol, the most reactive isomers, takes place primarily by H-atom abstraction resulting in the formation of radicals, the decomposition of which yields highly reactive branching agents, H atoms and OH radicals. Conversely, the consumption of tert-butanol and 2-butanol, the least reactive isomers, takes place primarily via dehydration, resulting in the formation of alkenes, which lead to resonance stabilized radicals with very low reactivity. To our knowledge, the ignition-delay measurements and oxidation mechanism presented here for 2-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol are the first of their kind.

  8. LYOPHILIZATION EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BUTANOL-PRODUCING STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tigunova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of lyophilization effect on the productivity of butanol-producing strains was the aim of our research. For this purpose we used butanol-producing strains; technical glycerol; biomass of switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. Lyophilization was performed using a lyophilization-drying. The effect of the protective medium on residual moisture of freezedrying cultures suspensions depending on the concentration of glucose and sucrose was studed. It was shown that the lowest residual moisture was attained by using glucose and sucrose in amount of 10% and if the samples of freeze-drying bacteria had been saved for one month at 4 οC the productivity did not decrease. As temperature preservation was increased the productivity of the cultures was gradually decreased and it was greatly reduced at 30 οC. So the protective medium composition was optimized for lyophilization of butanol-producing strains as follows: sucrose 10.0%; gelatin 10.0%; agar 0.02%. It was shown that the preservation of samples of freeze-drying bacteria for six months at a temperature of 4 οC did not affect the productivity of strains. It was found that cultures could use glycerol as a carbon source for butanol accumulation before lyophilization.

  9. Metabolic engineering toward 1-butanol derivatives in solvent producing clostridia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, M.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this thesis gives an overview about the history of the acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The responsible solventogenic clostridia with their central metabolism are briefly discussed. Despite the fact that scientific research on the key organisms of the ABE process has con

  10. Intermediate species measurement during iso-butanol auto-ignition

    KAUST Repository

    Ji, Weiqi

    2015-10-01

    © 2015 The Combustion Institute.Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This work presents the time histories of intermediate species during the auto-ignition of iso-butanol at high pressure and intermediate temperature conditions obtained using a rapid compression machine and recently developed fast sampling system. Iso-butanol ignition delays were acquired for iso-butanol/O2 mixture with an inert/O2 ratio of 7.26, equivalence ratio of 0.4, in the temperature range of 840-950 K and at pressure of 25 bar. Fast sampling and gas chromatography were used to acquire and quantify the intermediate species during the ignition delay of the same mixture at P = 25.3 bar and T = 905 K. The ignition delay times and quantitative measurements of the mole fraction time histories of methane, ethene, propene, iso-butene, iso-butyraldehyde, iso-butanol, and carbon monoxide were compared with predictions from the detailed mechanisms developed by Sarathy et al., Merchant et al., and Cai et al. It is shown that while the Sarathy mechanism well predicts the overall ignition delay time, it overpredicts ethene by a factor of 6-10, underpredicts iso-butene by a factor of 2, and overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde by a factor of 2. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the reactions responsible for the observed inadequacy. The rates of iso-butanol hydrogen atom abstraction by OH radical and the beta-scission reactions of hydroxybutyl radicals were updated based on recently published quantum calculation results. Significant improvements were achieved in predicting ignition delay at high pressures (25 and 30 bar) and the species concentrations of ethene and iso-butene. However, the updated mechanism still overpredicts iso-butyraldehyde concentrations. Also, the updated mechanism degrades the prediction in ignition delay at lower pressure (15 bar) compared to the original mechanism developed by Sarathy et al.

  11. Quantitative proteomics reveals dynamic responses of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to next-generation biofuel butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxu; Chen, Lei; Wang, Jiangxin; Qiao, Jianjun; Zhang, Weiwen

    2013-01-14

    Butanol is a promising biofuel, and recent metabolic engineering efforts have demonstrated the use of photosynthetic cyanobacterial hosts for its production. However, cyanobacteria have very low tolerance to butanol, limiting the economic viability of butanol production from these renewable producing systems. The existing knowledge of molecular mechanism involved in butanol tolerance in cyanobacteria is very limited. To build a foundation necessary to engineer robust butanol-producing cyanobacterial hosts, in this study, the responses of Synechocystis PCC 6803 to butanol were investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach with iTRAQ - LC-MS/MS technologies. The resulting high-quality dataset consisted of 25,347 peptides corresponding to 1452 unique proteins, a coverage of approximately 40% of the predicted proteins in Synechocystis. Comparative quantification of protein abundances led to the identification of 303 differentially regulated proteins by butanol. Annotation and GO term enrichment analysis showed that multiple biological processes were regulated, suggesting that Synechocystis probably employed multiple and synergistic resistance mechanisms in dealing with butanol stress. Notably, the analysis revealed the induction of heat-shock protein and transporters, along with modification of cell membrane and envelope were the major protection mechanisms against butanol. A conceptual cellular model of Synechocystis PCC 6803 responses to butanol stress was constructed to illustrate the putative molecular mechanisms employed to defend against butanol stress.

  12. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  13. A novel in situ gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation for hyper n-butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Lijie; Ren, Jiangang; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Butanol is considered as an advanced biofuel, the development of which is restricted by the intensive energy consumption of product recovery. A novel two-stage gas stripping-pervaporation process integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was developed for butanol recovery, with gas stripping as the first-stage and pervaporation as the second-stage using the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Compared to batch fermentation without butanol recovery, more ABE (27.5 g/L acetone, 75.5 g/L butanol, 7.0 g/L ethanol vs. 7.9 g/L acetone, 16.2 g/L butanol, 1.4 g/L ethanol) were produced in the fed-batch fermentation, with a higher butanol productivity (0.34 g/L · h vs. 0.30 g/L · h) due to reduced butanol inhibition by butanol recovery. The first-stage gas stripping produced a condensate containing 155.6 g/L butanol (199.9 g/L ABE), which after phase separation formed an organic phase containing 610.8 g/L butanol (656.1 g/L ABE) and an aqueous phase containing 85.6 g/L butanol (129.7 g/L ABE). Fed with the aqueous phase of the condensate from first-stage gas stripping, the second-stage pervaporation using the CNTs-PDMS MMM produced a condensate containing 441.7 g/L butanol (593.2 g/L ABE), which after mixing with the organic phase from gas stripping gave a highly concentrated product containing 521.3 g/L butanol (622.9 g/L ABE). The outstanding performance of CNTs-PDMS MMM can be attributed to the hydrophobic CNTs giving an alternative route for mass transport through the inner tubes or along the smooth surface of CNTs. This gas stripping-pervaporation process with less contaminated risk is thus effective in increasing butanol production and reducing energy consumption.

  14. Biofuel Production Using Butanol and Used Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Antony Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand of the world increases tremendously. The use of fossil fuels to this extent makes it limited and it is an important cause for global warming. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel usage, many developments were made using renewable energy. Ethanol was used as a substitute for gasoline lately but it is highly corrosive and need separate tankers for transportation. Instead of using ethanol, butanol will give high mileage, less corrosive and has higher flash and boiling point than ethanol. In this project, biofuel is produced by transesterification of butanol and used transformer oil with KOH as catalyst. Glycerol is a by-product in this process. It can be used as a substrate for the microbial production of plastics and in anaerobic digestion.

  15. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikhosro Karim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  16. Lack of selective developmental toxicity of three butanol isomers administered by inhalation to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B K; Brightwell, W S; Khan, A; Burg, J R; Goad, P T

    1989-04-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the developmental toxicology of industrial alcohols, this report presents the results of the teratology assessments of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and t-butanol administered by inhalation to rats. Groups of approximately 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed at 8000, 6000, 3500, or 0 ppm 1-butanol, 7000, 5000, 3500, or 0 ppm 2-butanol, or 5000, 3500, 2000, or 0 ppm t-butanol for 7 hr/day on Gestation Days 1-19 (sperm = 0). In each case, the highest concentration was selected to produce maternal toxicity. Dams were sacrificed on Gestation Day 20, and fetuses were individually weighed, tagged, and examined for external malformations. One-half of the fetuses were stained and examined for skeletal abnormalities, and the other half were examined for visceral defects using the Wilson technique. For each butanol isomer examined, the highest concentration (and the intermediate in some cases) was maternally toxic, as manifest by reduced weight gain and feed intake. Even at a maternally toxic dose, and in spite of a dose-dependent reduction in fetal weights for each isomer, the only teratogenicity observed was a slight increase in skeletal malformations (primarily rudimentary cervical ribs), seen with the highest concentration of 1-butanol. Thus, although teratogenicity was observed at 8000 ppm 1-butanol, and developmental toxicity was observed with each of the butyl alcohol isomers studied, concentrations 50 times the current permissible exposure limits for these three butanol isomers do not produce teratogenicity in rats.

  17. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

  18. Revealing structural effects: electrochemical reactions of butanols on platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José L; Souto, Ricardo M; Fernández-Mérida, Luis; Pastor, Elena

    2002-05-01

    Spectroelectrochemical studies on the reactivity of butanol isomers on Pt electrodes in perchloric acid medium led to the observation of structural effects that result from the different arrangements of atoms in the organic molecules. The use of differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) to detect volatile products showed that all four isomers react on the electrode, though different product yields were observed for each compound. In spite of the differences in the electrochemical behaviour of the butanol isomers, a series of general processes accounts for the results obtained. The formation of strongly adsorbed residues by a dehydration process leading to the formation of a C=C bond was proposed for all isomers. Electroreduction of the adsorbates produces C(4) and C(3) alkanes, and the latter reveal the existence of a fragmentation process. The C(4) hydrocarbons can be formed by hydrogenation of these residues and by hydrogenolysis of alcohol molecules in the bulk solution which react at the electrode with adsorbed hydrogen. On the other hand, CO(2) is formed during electrooxidation of the adsorbed species. Partial-oxidation products containing a carbonyl group were detected from 0.2 M solutions of 1-butanol, isobutyl alcohol and sec-butyl alcohol. The tertiary alcohol tert-butyl alcohol only reacts in its adsorbed state.

  19. Production of butanol and isopropanol with an immobilized Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Hoogewind, Adam; Moon, Young Hwan; Day, Donal

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium beijerinckii optinoii is a Clostridium species that produces butanol, isopropanol and small amounts of ethanol. This study compared the performances of batch and continuous immobilized cell fermentations, investigating how media flow rates and nutritional modification affected solvent yields and productivity. In 96-h batch cultures, with 80 % of the 30 g L(-1) glucose consumed in synthetic media, solvent concentration was 9.45 g L(-1) with 66.0 % as butanol. In a continuous fermentation using immobilized C. beijerinckii optinoii cells, also with 80 % of 30 g L(-1) glucose utilization, solvent productivity increased to 1.03 g L(-1) h(-1). Solvent concentration reached 12.14 g L(-1) with 63.0 % as butanol. Adjusting the dilution rate from 0.085 to 0.050 h(-1) to allow extended residence time in column was required when glucose concentration in fresh media was increased from 30 to 50 g L(-1). When acetate was used to improve the buffer capacity in media, the solvent concentration reached 12.70 on 50 g L(-1) glucose. This continuous fermentation using immobilized cells showed technical feasibility for solvent production.

  20. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  1. Fermentation and genomic analysis of acetone-uncoupled butanol production by Clostridium tetanomorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fuyu; Bao, Guanhui; Zhao, Chunhua; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Dong, Hongjun

    2016-02-01

    In typical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, acetone is the main by-product (50 % of butanol mass) of butanol production, resulting in a low yield of butanol. It is known that some Clostridium tetanomorphum strains are able to produce butanol without acetone in nature. Here, we described that C. tetanomorphum strain DSM665 can produce 4.16 g/L butanol and 4.98 g/L ethanol at pH 6.0, and 9.81 g/L butanol and 1.01 g/L ethanol when adding 1 mM methyl viologen. Butyrate and acetate could be reassimilated and no acetone was produced. Further analysis indicated that the activity of the acetate/butyrate:acetoacetyl-CoA transferase responsible for acetone production is lost in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. The genome of C. tetanomorphum DSM665 was sequenced and deposited in DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank under the accession no. APJS00000000. Sequence analysis indicated that there are no typical genes (ctfA/B and adc) that are typically parts of an acetone synthesis pathway in C. tetanomorphum DSM665. This work provides new insights in the mechanism of clostridial butanol production and should prove useful for the design of a high-butanol-producing strain.

  2. Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers-air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Xiaolei; Huang, Zuohua; Wu, Si; Li, Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Laminar burning velocities and flame instabilities of the butanol-air premixed flames and its isomers are investigated using the spherically expanding flame with central ignition at initial temperature of 428 K and initial pressures of 0.10 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 0.75 MPa. Laminar burning velocities and sensitivity factor of n-butanol-air mixtures are computed using a newly developed kinetic mechanism. Unstretched laminar burning velocity, adiabatic temperature, Lewis number, Markstein length, critical flame radius and Peclet number are obtained over a wide range of equivalence ratios. Effect of molecular structure on laminar burning velocity of the isomers of butanol is analyzed from the aspect of C-H bond dissociation energy. Study indicates that although adiabatic flame temperatures of the isomers of butanol are the same, laminar burning velocities give an obvious difference among the isomers of butanol. This indicates that molecular structure has a large influence on laminar burning velocities of the isomers of butanol. Branching (-CH3) will decrease laminar burning velocity. Hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atoms gives higher laminar burning velocity compared to that attaching to the inner carbon atoms. Calculated dissociation bond energies show that terminal C-H bonds have larger bond energies than that of inner C-H bonds. n-Butanol, no branching and with hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the terminal carbon atom, gives the largest laminar burning velocity. tert-Butanol, with highly branching and hydroxyl functional group (-OH) attaching to the inner carbon atom, gives the lowest laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocities of iso-butanol and sec-butanol are between those of n-butanol and tert-butanol. The instant of transition to cellularity is experimentally determined for the isomers of butanol and subsequently interpreted on the basis of hydrodynamic and diffusion-thermal instabilities. Little effect

  3. Shock tube studies on the decomposition of 2-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Reyes, Claudette M; Tsang, Wing

    2012-10-04

    The thermal decomposition of 2-butanol have been studied at temperatures of 1045-1221 K and pressures of 1.5-6 bar using the single pulse shock tube technique. Dilute concentrations of 2-butanol have been decomposed in the presence of large quantities of a radical inhibitor. The mechanism for decomposition involves direct elimination of water producing cis- and trans-2-butene, and 1-butene, and C-C bond fission producing ethylene. Acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and propene were also observed in much smaller yields from C-C bond fission. The respective unimolecular rate expressions are as follows: k(C(3)H(6)(OH)CH(3) → cis-CH(3)CH═CHCH(3) + H(2)O) = 10(13.1 ± 0.3) exp(-33414 ± 755 K/T) s(-1); k(C(3)H(6)(OH)CH(3) → trans-CH(3)CH═CHCH(3) + H(2)O) = 10(13.5 ± 0.3) exp(-33820 ± 755 K/T) s(-1); k(C(3)H(6)(OH)CH(3) → CH(3)CH(2)CH═CH(2) + H(2)O) = 10(13.6 ± 0.3) exp(-33002 ± 755 K/T) s(-1); k(C(3)H(6)(OH)CH(3) → C(2)H(5)(•) + (•)CH(OH)CH(3)) = 10(15.9 ± 0.3) exp(-39252 ± 755 K/T) s(-1). These rate expressions are compared with analogous reactions for primary and tertiary butanols. They form a basis for the prediction of those for related systems. Comparison with estimated values used in the simulation of butanol combustion is indicative of the uncertainties in the rate constants that are used in such models. The activation energy of 326 kJ/mol leads to a bond dissociation energy of the CH(OH)CH(3) radical (H-CH(OH)CH(3)) of 400 kJ/mol, in excellent agreement with earlier calculated results from theory and disagreement with the experimental results from iodination studies in the expected range.

  4. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 1. Process Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Fermentative production of butanol is limited to low concentrations, typically less than 2 wt% solvent, due to product inhibition. The result is high separation energy demand by conventional distillation approaches, despite favorable vapor-liquid equilibrium and parti...

  5. Inhalation of butanols: changes in the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarstad, K; Zahlsen, K; Nilsen, O G

    1985-01-01

    After inhalation of different butanol isomers for 3 days (2000 ppm) and 5 days (500 ppm), liver and kidney parameters of the microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzyme system were increased. sec-Butanol caused the highest increase in cytochrome P-450 concentration with a 47% rise in the kidneys (500 ppm for 5 days) and 33% in the liver (2000 ppm for 3 days). A concomitant increase of the in vitro n-hexane metabolism in liver microsomes was observed with a 77% increased formation of the preneurotoxic metabolite 2-hexanol compared with control. iso-Butanol did not alter total cytochrome P-450 concentration but caused a significant 30% decrease in the formation of 2-hexanol. Inhalation of all butanols slightly decreased the enzyme levels in the lung. Changes in microsomal enzymes did not correlate with measured serum concentrations of the different butanols showing different inducing capacities among the butanol isomers themselves or the participation of metabolites in the inducing process. As a conclusion sec-butanol, probably through its metabolite methyl-ethyl-ketone, is the most potent inducer of microsomal cytochrome P-450 in liver and kidney while iso-butanol does not alter total cytochrome P-450.

  6. Biooxidation of n-butane to 1-butanol by engineered P450 monooxygenase under increased pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Bernd A; Scheps, Daniel; Honda Malca, Sumire; Nestl, Bettina M; Breuer, Michael; Wagner, Hans-Günter; Breitscheidel, Boris; Kratz, Detlef; Hauer, Bernhard

    2014-12-10

    In addition to the traditional 1-butanol production by hydroformylation of gaseous propene and by fermentation of biomass, the cytochrome P450-catalyzed direct terminal oxidation of n-butane into the primary alcohol 1-butanol constitutes an alternative route to provide the high demand of this basic chemical. Moreover the use of n-butane offers an unexploited ubiquitous feed stock available in large quantities. Based on protein engineering of CYP153A from Polaromonas sp. JS666 and the improvement of the native redox system, a highly ω-regioselective (>96%) fusion protein variant (CYP153AP.sp.(G254A)-CPRBM3) for the conversion of n-butane into 1-butanol was developed. Maximum yield of 3.12g/L butanol, of which 2.99g/L comprise for 1-butanol, has been obtained after 20h reaction time. Due to the poor solubility of n-butane in an aqueous system, a high pressure reaction assembly was applied to increase the conversion. After optimization a maximum product content of 4.35g/L 1-butanol from a total amount of 4.53g/L butanol catalyzed by the self-sufficient fusion monooxygenase has been obtained at 15bar pressure. In comparison to the CYP153A wild type the 1-butanol concentration was enhanced fivefold using the engineered monooxygenase whole cell system by using the high-pressure reaction assembly.

  7. Biomass, strain engineering, and fermentation processes for butanol production by solventogenic clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Jungyeon; Lee, Sang Jun; Um, Youngsoon; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-10-01

    Butanol is considered an attractive biofuel and a commercially important bulk chemical. However, economical production of butanol by solventogenic clostridia, e.g., via fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), is hampered by low fermentation performance, mainly as a result of toxicity of butanol to microorganisms and high substrate costs. Recently, sugars from marine macroalgae and syngas were recognized as potent carbon sources in biomass feedstocks that are abundant and do not compete for arable land with edible crops. With the aid of systems metabolic engineering, many researchers have developed clostridial strains with improved performance on fermentation of these substrates. Alternatively, fermentation strategies integrated with butanol recovery processes such as adsorption, gas stripping, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation have been designed to increase the overall titer of butanol and volumetric productivity. Nevertheless, for economically feasible production of butanol, innovative strategies based on recent research should be implemented. This review describes and discusses recent advances in the development of biomass feedstocks, microbial strains, and fermentation processes for butanol production.

  8. Butanol productivity enhancers in wheat straw hydrolyzate: employing potential of enhanced reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butanol production by fermentation is gaining momentum due to increased prices of fossil fuels. This biofuel is a major product of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation that can be produced from hydrolyzed agricultural residues and/or corn. A control glucose (60 g/L) based batch fermentation us...

  9. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium and excess Gibbs functions of ternary mixtures containing 1-butanol or 2-butanol, n-hexane, and 1-chlorobutane at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Bandres, I.; Ballesteros, L.M.; Lafuente, C. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Gascon, I. [Departamento de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: igascon@unizar.es

    2009-09-15

    Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary mixtures 1-butanol + n-hexane + 1-chlorobutane and 2-butanol + n-hexane + 1-chlorobutane have been studied with a recirculating still at T = 298.15 K. The experimental data were satisfactorily checked for thermodynamic consistency using the method of van Ness. Activity coefficients and excess Gibbs function have been correlated with the Wilson equation. The G{sup E} values obtained for the two ternary systems are very similar.

  10. Production of 2-butanol from crude glycerol by a genetically-engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Baek-Rock; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Mok; Hong, Won-Kyung; Park, Jang Min; Jung, You Ree; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae was engineered to produce 2-butanol from crude glycerol as a sole carbon source by expressing acetolactate synthase (ilvIH), keto-acid reducto-isomerase (ilvC) and dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (ilvD) from K. pneumoniae, and α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase (kivd) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA) from Lactococcus lactis. Engineered K. pneumonia, ∆ldhA/pBR-iBO (ilvIH–ilvC–ilvD–kivd–adhA), produced 2-butanol (160 mg l−1) from crude glycerol. To increase the yield of 2-butanol, we eliminated the 2,3-butanediol pathway from the recombinant strain by inactivating α-acetolactate decarboxylase (adc). This further engineering step improved the yield of 2-butanol from 160 to 320 mg l−1. This represents the first successful attempt to produce 2-butanol from crude glycerol.

  11. Enhanced butanol production by immobilized Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR 1461 using zeolite 13X as a carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichuviwat, Rapeephat; Boonsombuti, Akarin; Luengnaruemitchai, Apanee; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    2014-11-01

    Butanol production by cell immobilization onto porous materials-brick and zeolite 13X-was investigated using Clostridium beijerinckii TISTR 1461. Characterization results of two materials were completed to evaluate their potential as an immobilization carrier. Although zeolite has greater porosity than brick, it cannot be used for cell aggregation without treating with chemical. After immobilization, both materials can enhance butanol titers from 5.29 to 5.80g/L and 8.58g/L using brick and zeolite, respectively. Butanol to glucose yield also improved from 0.14 to 0.16g/g after immobilization. It was found that butanol production significantly increased due to an increase in buffering capacity, strong bonding between the zeolite surface and cell, and butanol tolerance. In addition, repeated batch fermentation was performed, demonstrating that cells immobilized onto zeolite 13X have high stability and potential for long-term use in continuous fermentation.

  12. Butanol fermentation from microalgae-derived carbohydrates after ionic liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Orr, Valerie; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Lipid extracted algae (LEA) is an attractive feedstock for alcohol fuel production as it is a non-food crop which is largely composed of readily fermented carbohydrates like starch rather than the more recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials currently under intense development. This study compares the suitability of ionic liquid extracted algae (ILEA) and hexane extracted algae (HEA) for acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The highest butanol titers (8.05 g L(-1)) were achieved with the fermentation of the acid hydrolysates of HEA, however, they required detoxification to support product formation after acid hydrolysis while ILEA did not. Direct ABE fermentation of ILEA and HEA (without detoxification) starches resulted in a butanol titer of 4.99 and 6.63 g L(-1), respectively, which significantly simplified the LEA to butanol process. The study demonstrated the compatibility of producing biodiesel and butanol from a single feedstock which may help reduce the feedstock costs of each individual process.

  13. Puffing and micro-explosion behavior in combustion of butanol/Jet A-1 and acetone-butanol-ethanol (A-B-E)/Jet A-1 fuel droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, D Chaitanya Kumar; Som, S K

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the puffing and micro-explosion characteristics in the combustion of a single droplet comprising butanol/Jet A-1, acetone-butanol-ethanol (A-B-E)/Jet A-1 blends, and A-B-E. The onset of nucleation, growth of vapor bubble and subsequent breakup of droplet for various fuel blends have been analyzed from the high-speed images. Puffing was observed to be the dominant phenomenon in 30% butanol blend, while micro-explosion was found to be the dominant one in other fuel blends (blend with 50% butanol or 30% A-B-E or 50% A-B-E). It was observed that puffing always preceded the micro-explosion. The probability of micro-explosion in droplets with A-B-E blends was found to be higher than that of butanol blends. Although the rate of bubble growth was almost similar for all butanol and A-B-E blends, the final bubble diameter before the droplet breakup was found to be higher for 50/50 blends than that of 30/70 blends. The occurrence of micro-explosion shortened the droplet lifetime, and...

  14. Production of butanol by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 from palm kernel cake in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using an empirical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Hafiza; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Anuar, Nurina; Rahman, Norliza Abd; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2014-10-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC) was used for biobutanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. PKC was subjected to acid hydrolysis pretreatment and hydrolysates released were detoxified by XAD-4 resin. The effect of pH, temperature and inoculum size on butanol production was evaluated using an empirical model. Twenty ABE fermentations were run according to an experimental design. Experimental results revealed that XAD-4 resin removed 50% furfural and 77.42% hydroxymethyl furfural. The analysis of the empirical model showed that linear effect of inoculums size with quadratic effect of pH and inoculum size influenced butanol production at 99% probability level (Pproduction were pH 6.28, temperature of 28°C and inoculum size of 15.9%. ABE fermentation was carried out under optimum conditions which 0.1g/L butanol was obtained. Butanol production was enhanced by diluting PKC hydrolysate up to 70% in which 3.59g/L butanol was produced.

  15. Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities for Binary Mixtures of 1-Alkoxypropan-2-ols with 1-Butanol,and 2-Butanol at 298.15 K and Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAL Amalendu; GABA Rekha

    2007-01-01

    Excess molar volumes VEm and kinematic viscosities v have been measured as a function of composition for binary mixtures of propylene glycol monomethyl ether (1-methoxy-2-propanol),MeOCH2CH(OH)Me,propylene glycol monoethyl ether (1-ethoxy-2-propanol), EtOCH2CH(OH)Me,propylene glycol monopropyl ether (1-propoxy-2-propanol), PrOCH2CH(OH)Me, propylene glycol monobutyl ether (1-butoxy-2-propanol),BuOCH2CH(OH)Me,and propylene glycol tert-butyl ether (1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol),t-BuOCH2CH(OH)Me with 1-butanol,and 2-butanol,at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure.The excess molar volumes are negative across the entire range of composition for all the systems with 1-butanol,and positive for the systems 2-butanol+1-methoxy-2-propanol,and +1-propoxy-2-propanol,negative for the systems 2-butanol+1-butoxy-2-propanol,and change sign for the systems 2-butanol+1-ethoxy-2-propanol,and +1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol.From the experimental data,the deviation in dynamic viscosity η from Σxiηi has been calculated.Both excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations have been correlated using a Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation by the method of least-squares for the estimation of the binary coefficients and the standard errors.

  16. Genome-scale analyses of butanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal an essential role of protein degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Ramos, D.; Van den Broek, M.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background n-Butanol and isobutanol produced from biomass-derived sugars are promising renewable transport fuels and solvents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been engineered for butanol production, but its high butanol sensitivity poses an upper limit to product titers that can be reached by further p

  17. Mobilities of Li(+)-attached butanol isomers in He gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Saito, K; Koizumi, T; Matoba, S; Kojima, T M; Tanuma, H; Shiromaru, H

    2013-08-28

    Mobilities of Li(+)-attached butanol isomers, (n-BuOH)Li(+), (s-BuOH)Li(+), (i-BuOH)Li(+), and (t-BuOH)Li(+), in helium gas were measured over a range of reduced electric fields (E/N = 25-96 Td) at room temperature. Arrival time measurements accurately identified small differences in the measured mobilities of the isomer ions. At low E/N (≤30 Td, corresponding to a mean collision energy ε≤0.05 eV), (n-BuOH)Li(+) showed a mobility about 1.5% greater than that of the other ions, but at high E/N (≥75 Td, ε≥0.1 eV) its mobility was about 1.1% less.

  18. Reaction dynamics of Cl + butanol isomers by crossed-beam sliced ion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estillore, Armando D; Visger-Kiefer, Laura M; Suits, Arthur G

    2012-01-01

    Butanol is now prominent among the prototype renewable biofuels. We have studied oxidation of a variety of butanol isomers under single collision conditions using chlorine atom as the oxidizing agent to gain detailed insight into the energetics and dynamics of these reactions. The interaction of chlorine atom radicals with butanol isomers: n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol have been studied by crossed-beam dc slice ion imaging techniques. The hydroxybutyl radicals generated from the H-abstraction processes were probed by single photon ionization using an F2 excimer laser. After background subtraction and density-to-flux correction of the raw images, translational energy distribution and product angular distributions were generated. At low collision energy, the hydroxyalkyl products are backscattered with respect to the alcohol beam and the scattering shifts to the forward direction as the collision energy is increased. The translational energy distributions are reminiscent to that of Cl + pentane reactions we studied earlier, i.e. a sharp forward peak -80% of the collision energy appears at the high collision energy. Isomer-specific details of the reactions will be discussed.

  19. Process parameters for operating 1-butanol gas stripping in a fermentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Chen; Lu, Kuan-Ming; Li, Si-Yu

    2014-11-01

    In this study, effects of the agitation speed, the flow rate, and type of non-polar gases on the performance of gas stripping was systematically investigated. Macroscopically, the stripping rate of butanol is linearly proportional to the concentration of butanol in the feed solution. Nevertheless, a decrease in butanol selectivity was observed with the increasing butanol concentrations up to 0.01 g/cm(3). This can be attributed to the thermodynamics reason that with increasing butanol concentrations in the feed, more stripping gas will dissolve in the feed solution that decrease the activity of butanol for mass transfer from liquids to gas bubbles. This can be supported by the use of highly soluble gas of carbon dioxide as the stripping gas where the Ksa dropped 48% compared to the nitrogen stripping. By the parameter sensitivity analysis, it has been shown that the dominant variable is the flow rate. The best strategy of maximizing the performance of 1-butanol gas stripping at a given flow rate is to bubble the gases at a high superficial velocity, which leads to a less resistance on the liquid side for mass transfer.

  20. Evaluation of recent advances in butanol fermentation, upstream, and downstream processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, N.; Blaschek, H.P. [Biotechnology and Bioengineering Group, Univ. of Illinois, IL (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Four different processes for butanol production from corn, namely, batch fermentation and distillative recovery (BFDR), batch fermentation and pervaporative recovery (BFPR), fed-batch fermentation and pervaporative recovery (FBFPR), and immobilized cell continuous fermentation and pervaporative recovery (ICCFPR) were evaluated. Pervaporative recovery significantly reduces the cost of butanol production. Depending upon the byproduct credit, which is approximately 3.7 times that of the amount of butanol produced, BFDR, BFPR, FBFPR, and ICCFPR result in a butanol price of $0.55, $0.14-0.39, $0.12-0.37, and $0.11-0.36 x kg{sup -1}, respectively. The price of butanol was recently reported at $1.21 x kg{sup -1} by Chemical Marketing Reporter. It should be noted that all three components (acetone, butanol, and ethanol: ABE) diffuse through the pervaporation membrane. Further separation and purification of the solvents would require distillation, which has been considered in this exercise. This article also details the impact of byproduct credit, rate of return, and tax on butanol price. (orig.)

  1. Comparative proteomics analysis of high n-butanol producing metabolically engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Kojima, Kyoko; Xu, Ningning; Mobley, James; Zhou, Lufang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Liu, Xiaoguang Margaret

    2015-01-10

    The acidogenic Clostridium tyrobutyricum has recently been metabolically engineered to produce n-butanol. The objective of this study was to obtain a comprehensive understanding as to how butanol production was regulated in C. tyrobutyricum to guide the engineering of next-generation strains. We performed a comparative proteomics analysis, covering 78.1% of open reading frames and 95% of core enzymes, using wild type, ACKKO mutant (Δack) producing 37.30 g/L of butyrate and ACKKO-adhE2 mutant (Δack-adhE2) producing 16.68 g/L of butanol. In ACKKO-adhE2, the expression of most glycolytic enzymes was decreased, the thiolase (thl), acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ato), 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (hbd) and crotonase (crt) that convert acetyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA were increased, and the heterologous bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) catalyzing butanol formation was highly expressed. The apparent imbalance of energy and redox was observed due to the downregulation of acids production and the addition of butanol synthesis pathway, which also resulted in increased expression of chaperone proteins and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpA) and the silence of sporulation transcription factor Spo0A (spo0A) as the cellular responses to butanol production. This study revealed the mechanism of carbon redistribution, and limiting factors and rational metabolic cell and process engineering strategies to achieve high butanol production in C. tyrobutyricum.

  2. Enhanced butanol production from cassava with Clostridium acetobutylicum by genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Bo; Qian, Yi; Liang, Zheng-Wu; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Mou-Ming; Pang, Zong-Wen

    2016-04-01

    To obtain strains exhibiting high levels of solvent tolerance and butanol production, wild type strains of Clostridium acetobutylicum butanol-producing strain GX01 and Lactobacillus mucosae butanol-tolerant strain M26 were subjected to mutagenesis combining N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction with genome shuffling. After four successive rounds of genome shuffling, the C. acetobutylicum shuffled strain GS4-3 showing greater levels of fermentation performances (such as secreting a higher level of amylase, improving the thermal stability, and possessing greater environmental robustness) compared to the wild type strains was isolated. As a result, after optimization of culture conditions, mutant GS4-3 produced 32.6 g/L of total solvent, 20.1 g/L of butanol production, and 0.35 g/L/h of butanol productivity, which were, respectively, increased by 23.5, 23.3, and 40.0 % than the wild-type strain GX01, in a 10 L bioreactor. The enhanced production of butanol and tolerance of solvent of mutant associated with GS4-3 make it promising for acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation from cassava (Manihot esculenta).

  3. Butanol production from wheat straw hydrolysate using Clostridium beijerinckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C; Cotta, Michael A

    2007-11-01

    In these studies, butanol (acetone butanol ethanol or ABE) was produced from wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) in batch cultures using Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation 48.9 g L(-1) glucose (initial sugar 62.0 g L(-1)) was used to produce 20.1 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.28 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.41, respectively. In a similar experiment where WSH (60.2 g L(-1) total sugars obtained from hydrolysis of 86 g L(-1) wheat straw) was used, the culture produced 25.0 g L(-1) ABE with a productivity and yield of 0.60 g L(-1 )h(-1) and 0.42, respectively. These results are superior to the control experiment and productivity was improved by 214%. When WSH was supplemented with 35 g L(-1) glucose, a reactor productivity was improved to 0.63 g L(-1 )h(-1) with a yield of 0.42. In this case, ABE concentration in the broth was 28.2 g L(-1). When WSH was supplemented with 60 g L(-1) glucose, the resultant medium containing 128.3 g L(-1) sugars was successfully fermented (due to product removal) to produce 47.6 g L(-1) ABE, and the culture utilized all the sugars (glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose). These results demonstrate that C. beijerinckii P260 has excellent capacity to convert biomass derived sugars to solvents and can produce over 28 g L(-1) (in one case 41.7 g L(-1) from glucose) ABE from WSH. Medium containing 250 g L(-1) glucose resulted in no growth and no ABE production. Mixtures containing WSH + 140 g L(-1) glucose (total sugar approximately 200 g L(-1)) showed poor growth and poor ABE production.

  4. Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

    2010-12-12

    Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

  5. Reaction Mechanisms and HCCI Combustion Processes of Mixtures of n-Heptane and the Butanols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A reduced primary reference fuel (PRF-Alcohol-Di-tert-butyl Peroxide (DTBP mechanism with 108 species and 435 reactions, including sub-mechanisms of PRF, methanol, ethanol, DTBP and the four butanol isomers, is proposed for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine combustion simulations of butanol isomers/n-heptane mixtures. HCCI experiments fuelled with butanol isomer/n-heptane mixtures on two different engines are conducted for the validation of proposed mechanism. The mechanism has been validated against shock tube ignition delays, laminar flame speeds, species profiles in premixed flames and engine HCCI combustion data, and good agreements with experimental results are demonstrated under various validation conditions. It is found that although the reactivity of neat tert-butanol is the lowest, mixtures of tert-butanol/n-heptane exhibit the highest reactivity among the butanol isomer/n-heptane mixtures if the n-heptane blending ratio exceeds 20% (mole. Kinetic analysis shows that the highest C-H bond energy in the tert-butanol molecule is partially responsible for this phenomenon. It is also found that the reaction tC4H9OH+CH3O2 =tC4H9O+CH3O2H plays important role and eventually produces the OH radical to promote the ignition and combustion. The proposed mechanism is able to capture HCCI combustion processes of the butanol/n-heptane mixtures under different operating conditions. In addition, the trend that tert-butanol /n-heptane has the highest reactivity is also captured in HCCI combustion simulations. The results indicate that the current mechanism can be used for HCCI engine predictions of PRF and alcohol fuels.

  6. Biosynthesis of Unsaturated Fatty Acids via Mortierella Isabellina Cultivated in a Medium Containing Butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mortierella isabellina was found to accumulate large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids when it was grown in a medium containing butanol(5 g/L) and yeast extract(10 g/L) and cultivated at 25 ℃ for 5 d during which additional feeding butanol of 2 g/L was fed after being cultivated for 48 h. The resultant mycelial lipids accounted for 40.1% of the dry mycelia, while about 34% of butanol in the medium was converted. The mycelial lipids contained four kinds of unsaturated fatty acids, i.e., palmitoleic(4.9%), oleic(54.1%), linoleic(10.4%) and linolenic(5.4%) acids. Those accounted for 74.8% of the total fatty acids. The effects of the culture conditions, such as cultivation temperature, initial pH of the medium and additional feeding butanol in the course of cultivation, on the production of mycelial lipids by M. isabellina were studied.

  7. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to 2-butanol, olefins and fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Lee, Guo-Shuh; Lee, Suh-Jane

    2016-12-13

    Embodiments of an integrated method for step-wise conversion of 2,3-butanediol to 2-butanol, and optionally to hydrocarbons, are disclosed. The method includes providing an acidic catalyst, exposing a composition comprising aqueous 2,3-butanediol to the acidic catalyst to produce an intermediate composition comprising methyl ethyl ketone, providing a hydrogenation catalyst that is spatially separated from the acidic catalyst, and subsequently exposing the intermediate composition to the hydrogenation catalyst to produce a composition comprising 2-butanol. The method may further include subsequently exposing the composition comprising 2-butanol to a deoxygenation catalyst, and deoxygenating the 2-butanol to form hydrocarbons. In some embodiments, the hydrocarbons comprise olefins, such as butenes, and the method may further include subsequently exposing the hydrocarbons to a hydrogenation catalyst to form saturated hydrocarbons.

  8. Techno-economics of carbon preserving butanol production using a combined fermentative and catalytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Robert; Bauer, Fredric; Mesfun, Sennai; Hulteberg, Christian; Lundgren, Joakim; Wännström, Sune; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris Arvid

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a novel process for n-butanol production which combines a fermentation consuming carbon dioxide (succinic acid fermentation) with subsequent catalytic reduction steps to add hydrogen to form butanol. Process simulations in Aspen Plus have been the basis for the techno-economic analyses performed. The overall economy for the novel process cannot be justified, as production of succinic acid by fermentation is too costly. Though, succinic acid price is expected to drop drastically in a near future. By fully integrating the succinic acid fermentation with the catalytic conversion the need for costly recovery operations could be reduced. The hybrid process would need 22% less raw material than the butanol fermentation at a succinic acid fermentation yield of 0.7g/g substrate. Additionally, a carbon dioxide fixation of up to 13ktonnes could be achieved at a plant with an annual butanol production of 10ktonnes.

  9. Schisandra N-butanol extract improves synaptic morphology and plasticity in ovarectomized mice★

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Meiyan; Cai, Zhaolin; Xiao, Peng; Li, Chuhua

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary work by our research team revealed that Schisandra, a renowned traditional Chinese medicine, causes learning and memory improvements in ovariectomized mice. This activity was attributed to active ingredients extracted with N-butyl alcohol, named Schisandra N-butanol extract. In this study, ovariectomized mice were pretreated with Schisandra N-butanol extract given by intragastric administration. This treatment led to the enhancement of learning, and an increase in hippocampal CA1 ...

  10. Elucidating and reprogramming Escherichia coli metabolisms for obligate anaerobic n-butanol and isobutanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Cong T

    2012-08-01

    Elementary mode (EM) analysis based on the constraint-based metabolic network modeling was applied to elucidate and compare complex fermentative metabolisms of Escherichia coli for obligate anaerobic production of n-butanol and isobutanol. The result shows that the n-butanol fermentative metabolism was NADH-deficient, while the isobutanol fermentative metabolism was NADH redundant. E. coli could grow and produce n-butanol anaerobically as the sole fermentative product but not achieve the maximum theoretical n-butanol yield. In contrast, for the isobutanol fermentative metabolism, E. coli was required to couple with either ethanol- or succinate-producing pathway to recycle NADH. To overcome these "defective" metabolisms, EM analysis was implemented to reprogram the native fermentative metabolism of E. coli for optimized anaerobic production of n-butanol and isobutanol through multiple gene deletion (~8-9 genes), addition (~6-7 genes), up- and downexpression (~6-7 genes), and cofactor engineering (e.g., NADH, NADPH). The designed strains were forced to couple both growth and anaerobic production of n-butanol and isobutanol, which is a useful characteristic to enhance biofuel production and tolerance through metabolic pathway evolution. Even though the n-butanol and isobutanol fermentative metabolisms were quite different, the designed strains could be engineered to have identical metabolic flux distribution in "core" metabolic pathways mainly supporting cell growth and maintenance. Finally, the model prediction in elucidating and reprogramming the native fermentative metabolism of E. coli for obligate anaerobic production of n-butanol and isobutanol was validated with published experimental data.

  11. Optimization of Wastewater Microalgae Pretreatment for Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Yessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from wastewater microalgae by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 is a novel bioprocess that utilizes waste substrate to generate valuable solvents. Butanol, the most abundant product resulting from ABE fermentation, is an environmentally safe and high performing fuel that can be utilized as a drop-in-fuel; however, high operational costs and low ABE yield present challenge in scale-up of the process. The utilization of algae as a substrate r...

  12. Intermolecular chiral assemblies in R(-) and S(+) 2-butanol detected by microcalorimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Uri; Shpigelman, Avi; Portnaya, Irina; Rutenberg, Abraham; Scolnik, Yosef; Shinitzky, Meir

    2012-07-01

    Supramolecular chiral assemblies of R(-) and S(+) 2-butanol, in their neat form or when dissolved in their nonchiral isomer isobutanol, were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) ensuing mixing. Dilution of 0.5 M solution of R(-) 2-butanol in isobutanol into the latter liberated heat of several calories per mole, which was approximately double than that obtained in parallel dilutions of S(+) 2-butanol in isobutanol. The ITC dilution profiles indicated an estimate of about 100 isobutanol solvent molecules surrounding each of the 2-butanol enantiomers, presumably arranged in chiral configurations, with different adopted order between the isomers. Mixings of neat R and S 2-butanol were followed by endothermic ITC profiles, indicating that, in racemic 2-butanol, both the supramolecular order and the intermolecular binding energies are lower than in each of the neat chiral isomers. The diversion from symmetrical ITC patterns in these mixings indicated again a subtle difference in molecular organization between the neat enantiomers. It should be noted that the presence of impurities, α-pinene and teterhydrofuran, at a level totaling 0.5%, did not influence the ITC heat flow profiles. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that chiral solutes in organic solvents are expected to acquire asymmetric solvent envelopes that may be different between the enantiomers, thus broadening this phenomenon beyond the previously demonstrated cases in aqueous solutions.

  13. Ex situ product recovery for enhanced butanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Eom, Moon-Ho; Choi, Jin-Dal-Rae; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-05-01

    In situ butanol recovery fermentation has been intensively studied as an effective alternative to conventional butanol production, which is limited due to the cellular toxicity of butanol. However, the low biocompatibility of adsorbents often leads to failure of in situ recovery fermentations. In this study, Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 was cultured in flasks without shaking and in situ recovery fermentation was performed by using an adsorbent L493. The amounts of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) increased by 34.4 % in the presence of the adsorbent. In contrast, cell growth and production of organic acids and ABE were retarded in the 7-L batch fermentations with in situ butanol recovery. Cell damage occurred in the fermentor upon agitation in the presence of the adsorbent, unlike in static flask cultures with in situ recovery. Ex situ recovery fermentation using circulation of fermentation broth after mid-exponential phase of cell growth was developed to avoid adsorbent-cell incompatibility. No apparent cell damage was observed and 25.7 g/L of ABE was produced from 86.2 g/L glucose in the fed-batch mode using 7 L fermentors. Thus, ex situ recovery fermentation with C. beijerinckii is effective for enhancing butanol fermentation.

  14. Enhanced butanol production in a microbial electrolysis cell by Clostridium beijerinckii IB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ai-Yong; Yin, Chun-Yan; Xu, Hao; Kong, Xiang-Ping; Xue, Jia-Wei; Zhu, Jing; Jiang, Min; Wu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Reducing power such as NADH is an essential factor for acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium spp. The objective of this study was to increase available NADH in Clostridium beijerinckii IB4 by a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with an electron carrier to enhance butanol production. First of all, a MEC was performed without electron carrier to study the function of cathodic potential applying. Then, various electron carriers were tested, and neutral red (NR)-amended cultures showed an increase of butanol concentration. Optimal NR concentration (0.1 mM) was used to add in a MEC. Electricity stimulated the cell growth obviously and dramatically diminished the fermentation time from 40 to 28 h. NR and electrically reduced NR improved the final butanol concentration and inhibited the acetone generation. In the MEC with NR, the butanol concentration, yield, proportion and productivity were increased by 12.2, 17.4, 7.2 and 60.3 %, respectively. To further understand the mechanisms of NR, cathodic potential applying and electrically reduced NR, NADH and NAD(+) levels, ATP levels and hydrogen production were determined. NR and electrically reduced NR also improved ATP levels and the ratio of NADH/NAD(+), whereas they decreased hydrogen production. Thus, the MEC is an efficient method for enhancing the butanol production.

  15. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkl, Michael; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek, Michal

    2016-03-01

    The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  16. Density, Viscosity and Water Phase Stability of 1-Butanol-Gasoline Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Mužíková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to describe the density and viscosity and water tolerance of 1-butanol-gasoline blends. Density and viscosity of 1-butanol are higher than that for gasoline and they can affect these parameters in the final gasoline blend. Density increases linearly and viscosity exponentially with the content of 1-butanol. Water solubility in 1-butanol-gasoline blend was determined as the temperature of a phase separation. The water was separated in the solid form at negative temperature and the phase separation point was determined as the temperature of crystallization. Influence of ethanol and ethers used for gasoline blending on water phase stability of 1-butanol-gasoline blend was studied. Ethers are slightly miscible with water and they improve the phase stability. While ethanol is completely miscible water and increases the water solubility in the blends. Finally, water extractions of both alcohols from gasoline were done. In contrast to the ethanol-gasoline blends, 1-butanol remained in the hydrocarbon phase.

  17. N-butanol and isobutanol as alternatives to gasoline: Comparison of port fuel injector characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on an experimental investigation of the relationship between the pulse width of a gasoline engine port fuel injector and the quantity of the fuel injected when butanol is used as a fuel. Two isomers of butanol, n-butanol and isobutanol, are considered as potential candidates for renewable, locally produced fuels capable of serving as a drop-in replacement fuel for gasoline, as an alternative to ethanol which poses material compatibility and other drawbacks. While the injected quantity of fuel is typically a linear function of the time the injector coil is energized, the flow through the port fuel injector is complex, non ideal, and not necessarily laminar, and considering that butanol has much higher viscosity than gasoline, an experimental investigation was conducted. A production injector, coupled to a production fueling system, and driven by a pulse width generator was operated at various pulse lengths and frequencies, covering the range of engine rpm and loads on a car engine. The results suggest that at least at room temperature, the fueling rate remains to be a linear function of the pulse width for both n-butanol and isobutanol, and the volumes of fuel injected are comparable for gasoline and both butanol isomers.

  18. Phase Transfer Catalysis:Oxidation of 2-Methyl-1-butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Sankarshana; E.Yadagiri; J.S.N.Murthy

    2014-01-01

    abstract In liquid-liquid systems, the substrates in the liquids are inaccessible to each other for the reaction. By adding a smal quantity of phase transfer catalyst, the reaction can be made accessible and accelerated. The present study involves the phase transfer catalyzed oxidation of 2-methyl-1-butanol by quaternary ammonium permanganate (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium permanganate). The attempt was to compare the kinetics under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor to determine the kinetics under homogeneous conditions. A baffled borosilicate agitated reactor was used to find the enhancement factor and the kinetics under heterogeneous conditions. The rate constants determined under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions agreed very well. The oxidation was found to be first order with respect to each of the reactants, quaternary ammonium permanganate and the alcohol, resulting in an overal second order rate expression. Aliquat336 (tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride) was found to be the best compared with the other catalysts tested (triethylbenzylammonium chloride, tetrabutylammonium bromide, tetrabutylammonium iodide and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate) and it gave an enhancement factor of 9.8.

  19. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from wastewater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua T; Hengge, Neal N; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2012-05-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using wastewater algae biomass as a carbon source was demonstrated. Algae from the Logan City Wastewater Lagoon system grow naturally at high rates providing an abundant source of renewable algal biomass. Batch fermentations were performed with 10% algae as feedstock. Fermentation of acid/base pretreated algae produced 2.74 g/L of total ABE, as compared with 7.27 g/L from pretreated algae supplemented with 1% glucose. Additionally, 9.74 g/L of total ABE was produced when xylanase and cellulase enzymes were supplemented to the pretreated algae media. The 1% glucose supplement increased total ABE production approximately 160%, while supplementing with enzymes resulted in a 250% increase in total ABE production when compared to production from pretreated algae with no supplementation of extraneous sugar and enzymes. Additionally, supplementation of enzymes produced the highest total ABE production yield of 0.311 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.102 g/Lh. The use of non-pretreated algae produced 0.73 g/L of total ABE. The ability to engineer novel methods to produce these high value products from an abundant and renewable feedstock such as algae could have significant implications in stimulating domestic energy economies.

  20. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of combustion of isomers of butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Roberto; Frassoldati, Alessio; Faravelli, Tiziano; Ranzi, Eliseo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Niemann, Ulrich; Seiser, Reinhard; Cattolica, Robert; Seshadri, Kalyanasundaram [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    A kinetic model is developed to describe combustion of isomers of butanol - n-butanol (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH), sec-butanol (sec-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH), iso-butanol (iso-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH), and tert-butanol (tert-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH). A hierarchical approach is employed here. This approach was previously found to be useful for developing detailed and semi-detailed mechanism of oxidation of various hydrocarbon fuels. This method starts from lower molecular weight compounds of a family of species and proceeds to higher molecular weight compounds. The pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms of butanol isomers are similar to those for hydrocarbon fuels. Here, the development of the complete set of the primary propagation reactions for butanol isomers proceeds from the extension of the kinetic parameters for similar reactions already studied and recently revised for ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol. A detailed description leading to evaluation of rate constants for initiation reactions, metathesis reactions, decomposition reactions of alkoxy radicals, isomerization reactions, and four-center molecular dehydration reactions are given. Decomposition and oxidation of primary intermediate products are described using a previously developed semi-detailed kinetic model for hydrocarbon fuels. The kinetic mechanism is made up of more than 7000 reactions among 300 species. The model is validated by comparing predictions made using this kinetic model with previous and new experimental data on counterflow non-premixed flames of n-butanol and iso-butanol. The structures of these flames were measured by removing gas samples from the flame and analyzing them using a gas chromatograph. Temperature profiles were measured using coated thermocouples. The flame structures were measured under similar conditions for both fuels to elucidate the similarities and differences in combustion characteristics of the two isomers. The profiles measured include those of butanol, oxygen, carbon dioxide

  1. Butanol/diesel blends as a CI engine fuel. Physico-chemical and engine performance characteristics evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, M.K.; Thakre, G.D.; Saxena, R.C.; Sharma, Y.K.; Jain, A.K.; Singal, S.K. [CSIR - Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, Uttrakhand (India)

    2013-06-01

    Recently, butanol produced by fermentation, known as bio-butanol has emerged as a new alternative fuel for CI engines. However, very little work has been carried out on its use in C.I. engine. In this context current paper deals with the characteristic properties and performance evaluation of butanol as a blending additive in diesel fuels. The butanol-diesel blends are prepared in varying concentrations of 5-l 0% and have been studied for their Corrosion, Tribology, distillation and Physico-chemical characteristics. These characteristics properties are then compared with those of diesel. The study reveals that the butanol-diesel blends offer better cetane number, improved corrosion behaviour and comparable distillation and tribological properties. The engine performance evaluation revealed comparable performance in terms of fuel economy as compared with diesel fuel. Hence, Butanol-diesel blends can be successfully used as an alternative fuel for CI engines. (orig.)

  2. Improvement of the butanol production selectivity and butanol to acetone ratio (B:A) by addition of electron carriers in the batch culture of a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Shukor, Hafiza; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Improvement in the butanol production selectivity or enhanced butanol:acetone ratio (B:A) is desirable in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium strains. In this study, artificial electron carriers were added to the fermentation medium of a new isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 in order to improve the butanol yield and B:A ratio. The results revealed that medium supplementation with electron carriers changed the metabolism flux of electron and carbon in ABE fermentation by YM1. A decrease in acetone production, which subsequently improved the B:A ratio, was observed. Further improvement in the butanol production and B:A ratios were obtained when the fermentation medium was supplemented with butyric acid. The maximum butanol production (18.20 ± 1.38 g/L) was gained when a combination of methyl red and butyric acid was added. Although the addition of benzyl viologen (0.1 mM) and butyric acid resulted in high a B:A ratio of 16:1 (800% increment compared with the conventional 2:1 ratio), the addition of benzyl viologen to the culture after 4 h resulted in the production of 18.05 g/L butanol. Manipulating the metabolic flux to butanol through the addition of electron carriers could become an alternative strategy to achieve higher butanol productivity and improve the B:A ratio.

  3. Viscosities and excess energy of activation for viscous flow for binary mixtures of tetrahydrofuran with 1-butanol, 2-butanol and 1-chlorobutane at 283.15, 298.15 and 313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinematic viscosities of binary mixtures composed of tetrahydrofuran with 1-butanol, 2-butanol and 1-chlorobutane have been measured at 283.15, 298.15 and 313.15 K and atmospheric pressure for the whole range of compositions. The dynamic viscosity, the excess viscosity and the excess energy of activation for viscous flow were also calculated. The excess viscosity shows negative deviations from ideal behavior for the mixtures tetrahydrofuran with 1-butanol and 2-butanol and a small positive deviation for the binary tetrahydrofuran + 1-chlorobutane system. The experimental results have also been used to test some empirical and semiempirical equations adopted previously to correlate viscosity - composition data.

  4. Combined Detoxification and In-situ Product Removal by a Single Resin During Lignocellulosic Butanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Phragmites australis (an invasive plant in North America) was used as feedstock for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum. Sulphuric acid pretreated phragmites hydrolysate (SAEH) without detoxification inhibited butanol production (0.73 g/L butanol from 30 g/L sugars). The treatment of SAEH with resin L-493 prior the fermentation resulted in no inhibitory effects and an ABE titer of 14.44 g/L, including 5.49 g/L butanol was obtained, corresponding to an ABE yield and productivity of 0.49 g/g and 0.60 g/L/h, respectively. Dual functionality of the resin was realized by also using it as an in-situ product removal agent. Integrating in-situ product removal allowed for the use of high substrate concentrations without the typical product inhibition. Resin-detoxified SAEH was supplemented with neat glucose and an effective ABE titer of 33 g/L (including 13.7 g/L acetone, 16.4 g/L butanol and 1.9 g/L ethanol) was achieved with resin-based in-situ product removal, corresponding to an ABE yield and productivity of 0.41 g/g and 0.69 g/L/h, respectively. Both detoxification of the substrate and the products was achieved by the same resin, which was added prior the fermentation. Integrating hydrolysate detoxification and in-situ butanol removal in a batch process through single resin can potentially simplify cellulosic butanol production.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae for the de novo production of 2-butanol as a potential biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Wu, Yao; Huang, Jinhai; Liu, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Butanol isomers are important bulk chemicals and promising fuel substitutes. The inevitable toxicity of n-butanol and isobutanol to microbial cells hinders their final titers. In this study, we attempt to engineer Klebsiella pneumoniae for the de novo production of 2-butanol, another butanol isomer which shows lower toxicity than n-butanol and isobutanol. 2-Butanol synthesis was realized by the extension of the native meso-2,3-butanediol synthesis pathway with the introduction of diol dehydratase and secondary alcohol dehydrogenase. By the screening of different secondary alcohol dehydrogenases and diol dehydratases, 320mg/L of 2-butanol was produced by the best engineered K. pneumoniae. The production was increased to 720mg/L by knocking out the ldhA gene and appropriate addition of coenzyme B12. Further improvement of 2-butanol to 1030mg/L was achieved by protein engineering of diol dehydratase. This work lays the basis for the metabolic engineering of microorganism for the production of 2-butanol as potential biofuel.

  6. Optical investigations of combustion process in SI and CI engines fuelled with butanol blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchitto, L.; Mazzei, A.; Merola, S.S.; Tornatore, C. [CNR Napoli, Naples (Italy). Istituto Motori; Valentino, G.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels, as biodiesel and ethanol, for light duty engines to approach the target of low exhaust emissions without fuel economy and performance penalty has been widely investigated. Recently it is growing the interest in the butanol and bio-butanol as viable alternatives either single or blended with conventional based fuels. In this paper, butanol effects on combustion processes were investigated through conventional methods and optical diagnostics applied in the combustion chamber of a compression ignition engine and of a spark ignition engine. Blends of diesel and n-butanol were used in a common rail DI diesel engine running at different operating conditions. Fuel injection timing and oxygen at the intake were changed in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with common rail multi-jets injection system. Spray combustion and pollutant formation were investigated though UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy. Flame emissions and spectroscopy were applied in an optically accessible cylinder of a port fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine with an external boosting device. The engine worked with a stoichiometric mixture at medium speed and boosting in wide open throttle condition. Normal and knocking combustion was tested. Experiments in both the engines demonstrated that butanol allowed to reduce carbonaceous compounds formation and soot emission and to decrease unpleasant effects related to the combustion process such as the fuel deposition burning. Moreover some emission bands of OH radicals could be used as feature of different phenomena related to the combustion process. (orig.)

  7. Ultrasonic Investigations of Molecular Interaction in Binary Mixtures of Cyclohexanone with Isomers of Butanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk. Md Nayeem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic speed, u, and density, ρ, have been measured in binary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with the isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol at 308.15 K over the entire range of composition. Molar volume (Vm, adiabatic compressibility (ks, intermolecular free length (Lf, acoustic impedance (z, and their excess/deviation along with Δu have been calculated from the experimental data. These values have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation. Positive values of VmE, Δks, LfE and negative values of zE, Δu have been observed for all the liquid mixtures indicating the existence of weak interactions between components. Rupture of H-bond or reduction in H-bond strength of isomers of butanol or breaking of the structure of one or both of the components in a solution causes the existence of dispersions in the present investigated binary mixtures. The data obtained from V-m,1, V-m,2, and excess partial molar volumes V-m, 1E, V-m, 2E, reflects the inferences drawn from VmE. Furthermore, FTIR spectra support the conclusions drawn from excess/deviation properties. The measured values of ultrasonic speed for all the investigated mixtures have been compared with the theoretically estimated values using empirical relations such as, Nomoto, Van Dael and Vangeels, Impedance and Rao specific sound speed.

  8. Accurate High-Temperature Reaction Networks for Alternative Fuels: Butanol Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geem, K. M.; Pyl, S. P.; Marin, G. B.; Harper, M. R.; Green, W. H.

    2010-11-03

    Oxygenated hydrocarbons, particularly alcohol compounds, are being studied extensively as alternatives and additives to conventional fuels due to their propensity of decreasing soot formation and improving the octane number of gasoline. However, oxygenated fuels also increase the production of toxic byproducts, such as formaldehyde. To gain a better understanding of the oxygenated functional group’s influence on combustion properties—e.g., ignition delay at temperatures above the negative temperature coefficient regime, and the rate of benzene production, which is the common precursor to soot formation—a detailed pressure-dependent reaction network for n-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol consisting of 281 species and 3608 reactions is presented. The reaction network is validated against shock tube ignition delays and doped methane flame concentration profiles reported previously in the literature, in addition to newly acquired pyrolysis data. Good agreement between simulated and experimental data is achieved in all cases. Flux and sensitivity analyses for each set of experiments have been performed, and high-pressure-limit reaction rate coefficients for important pathways, e.g., the dehydration reactions of the butanol isomers, have been computed using statistical mechanics and quantum chemistry. The different alcohol decomposition pathways, i.e., the pathways from primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, are discussed. Furthermore, comparisons between ethanol and n-butanol, two primary alcohols, are presented, as they relate to ignition delay.

  9. Genomic analysis of carbon monoxide utilization and butanol production by Clostridium carboxidivorans strain P7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bruant

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for the production of renewable fuels has recently generated a particular interest in microbial production of butanol. Anaerobic bacteria, such as Clostridium spp., can naturally convert carbohydrates into a variety of primary products, including alcohols like butanol. The genetics of microorganisms like Clostridium acetobutylicum have been well studied and their solvent-producing metabolic pathways characterized. In contrast, less is known about the genetics of Clostridium spp. capable of converting syngas or its individual components into solvents. In this study, the type of strain of a new solventogenic Clostridium species, C. carboxidivorans, was genetically characterized by genome sequencing. C. carboxidivorans strain P7(T possessed a complete Wood-Ljungdahl pathway gene cluster, involving CO and CO(2 fixation and conversion to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, with the exception of an acetone production pathway, all the genetic determinants of canonical ABE metabolic pathways for acetate, butyrate, ethanol and butanol production were present in the P7(T chromosome. The functionality of these pathways was also confirmed by growth of P7(T on CO and production of CO(2 as well as volatile fatty acids (acetate and butyrate and solvents (ethanol and butanol. P7(T was also found to harbour a 19 Kbp plasmid, which did not include essential or butanol production related genes. This study has generated in depth knowledge of the P7(T genome, which will be helpful in developing metabolic engineering strategies to improve C. carboxidivorans's natural capacity to produce potential biofuels from syngas.

  10. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples.

  11. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, EricJ.; Chan, Rossana; Prasad, Nilu; Myers, Samuel; Petzold, Christopher; Redding, Alyssa; Ouellet, Mario; Keasling, JayD.

    2008-11-25

    BackgroundIncreasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of ?second generation? biofuels that have better properties than ethanol.Results& ConclusionsSaccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha) were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB) did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  12. Perspective and prospective of pretreatment of corn straw for butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Nawa Raj; Li, Jiangzheng; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Corn straw, lignocellulosic biomass, is a potential substrate for microbial production of bio-butanol. Bio-butanol is a superior second generation biofuel among its kinds. Present researches are focused on the selection of butanol tolerant clostridium strain(s) to optimize butanol yield in the fermentation broth because of toxicity of bio-butanol to the clostridium strain(s) itself. However, whatever the type of the strain(s) used, pretreatment process always affects not only the total sugar yield before fermentation but also the performance and growth of microbes during fermentation due to the formation of hydroxyl-methyl furfural, furfural and phenolic compounds. In addition, the lignocellulosic biomasses also resist physical and biological attacks. Thus, selection of best pretreatment process and its parameters is crucial. In this context, worldwide research efforts are increased in past 12 years and researchers are tried to identify the best pretreatment method, pretreatment conditions for the actual biomass. In this review, effect of particle size, status of most common pretreatment method and enzymatic hydrolysis particularly for corn straw as a substrate is presented. This paper also highlights crucial parameters necessary to consider during most common pretreatment processes such as hydrothermal, steam explosion, ammonia explosion, sulfuric acid, and sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Moreover, the prospective of pretreatment methods and challenges is discussed.

  13. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of n-butanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Samuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have motivated engineering microbes for the production of "second generation" biofuels that have better properties than ethanol. Results and conclusion Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered with an n-butanol biosynthetic pathway, in which isozymes from a number of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Ralstonia eutropha were substituted for the Clostridial enzymes and their effect on n-butanol production was compared. By choosing the appropriate isozymes, we were able to improve production of n-butanol ten-fold to 2.5 mg/L. The most productive strains harbored the C. beijerinckii 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, which uses NADH as a co-factor, rather than the R. eutropha isozyme, which uses NADPH, and the acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from S. cerevisiae or E. coli rather than that from R. eutropha. Surprisingly, expression of the genes encoding the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii (bcd and etfAB did not improve butanol production significantly as previously reported in E. coli. Using metabolite analysis, we were able to determine which steps in the n-butanol biosynthetic pathway were the most problematic and ripe for future improvement.

  14. Utilization of pentoses from sugarcane biomass: techno-economics of biogas vs. butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cunha, Marcelo P; Bonomi, Antonio; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the techno-economics of greenfield projects of an integrated first and second-generation sugarcane biorefinery in which pentose sugars obtained from sugarcane biomass are used either for biogas (consumed internally in the power boiler) or n-butanol production via the ABE batch fermentation process. The complete sugarcane biorefinery was simulated using Aspen Plus®. Although the pentoses stream available in the sugarcane biorefinery gives room for a relatively small biobutanol plant (7.1-12 thousand tonnes per year), the introduction of butanol and acetone to the product portfolio of the biorefinery increased and diversified its revenues. Whereas the IRR of the investment on a biorefinery with biogas production is 11.3%, IRR varied between 13.1% and 15.2% in the butanol production option, depending on technology (regular or engineered microorganism with improved butanol yield and pentoses conversion) and target market (chemicals or automotive fuels). Additional discussions include the effects of energy-efficient technologies for butanol processing on the profitability of the biorefinery.

  15. Surface Transformations and Water Uptake on Liquid and Solid Butanol near the Melting Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Thomson, Erik S; Markovic, Nikola; Pettersson, Jan B C

    2013-01-01

    Water interactions with organic surfaces are of central importance in biological systems and many Earth system processes. Here we describe experimental studies of water collisions and uptake kinetics on liquid and solid butanol from 160 to 200 K. Hyperthermal D2O molecules (0.32 eV) undergo efficient trapping on both solid and liquid butanol, and only a minor fraction scatters inelastically after an 80% loss of kinetic energy to surface modes. Trapped molecules either desorb within a few ms, or are taken up by the butanol phase during longer times. The water uptake and surface residence time increase with temperature above 180 K indicating melting of the butanol surface 4.5 K below the bulk melting temperature. Water uptake changes gradually across the melting point and trapped molecules are rapidly lost by diffusion into the liquid above 190 K. This indicates that liquid butanol maintains a surface phase with limited water permeability up to 5.5 K above the melting point. These surface observations are indic...

  16. Acoustic and Volumetric Properties of Mixture of (N,N-Dimethylacetamide + Ethyl Acrylate with 1-Butanol or iso-Butanol or t-Butanol at 308.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kondaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Densities, ρ, and ultrasonic speeds, u of mixtures of 1-butanol or iso-butanol or t-butanol with equimolar mixture of (N,N-dimethylacetamide + Ethyl acrylate over the entire composition range have been measured at T=308.15 K. Using the experimental results, deviation in ultrasonic speed, Δu, deviation in isentropic compressibility, Δks, excess molar volume, VmE, excess intermolecular free length, LfE, and excess acoustic impedance, ZE, have been calculated. The variation of these properties with composition of the mixtures has been discussed in terms of molecular interactions in these mixtures. The deviation/excess properties have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial and the corresponding standard deviations have been calculated. Negative values of VmE, Δks, and LfE and positive values of Δu, and ZE are observed over the entire composition range. The observed negative and positive values of deviation/excess properties are attributed to the strong interactions between the unlike molecules of the mixtures. Further theoretical values of sound velocity in the mixtures have been evaluated using various theories and compared with experimental sound velocities to verify the applicability of such theories to the systems studied. Theoretical ultrasonic velocity data has been used to study molecular interactions in the systems investigated.

  17. Characterization of an Arxula adeninivorans alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the metabolism of ethanol and 1-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Jakub; Rauter, Marion; Riechen, Jan; Worch, Sebastian; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Schauer, Frieder; Kunze, Gotthard

    2016-05-01

    In this study, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 from Arxula adeninivorans (Aadh1p) was identified and characterized. Aadh1p showed activity with short and medium chain length primary alcohols in the forward reaction and their aldehydes in the reverse reaction. Aadh1p has 64% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adh1p, is localized in the cytoplasm and uses NAD(+) as cofactor. Gene expression analysis showed a low level increase in AADH1 gene expression with ethanol, pyruvate or xylose as the carbon source. Deletion of the AADH1 gene affects growth of the cells with 1-butanol, ethanol and glucose as the carbon source, and a strain which overexpressed the AADH1 gene metabolized 1-butanol more rapidly. An ADH activity assay indicated that Aadh1p is a major enzyme for the synthesis of ethanol and the degradation of 1-butanol in A. adeninivorans.

  18. Schisandra N-butanol extract improves synaptic morphology and plasticity in ovarectomized mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyan Yang; Zhaolin Cai; Peng Xiao; Chuhua Li

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary work by our research team revealed that Schisandra, a renowned traditional Chinese medicine, causes learning and memory improvements in ovariectomized mice. This activity was attributed to active ingredients extracted with N-butyl alcohol, named Schisandra N-butanol extract. In this study, ovariectomized mice were pretreated with Schisandra N-butanol extract given by intragastric administration. This treatment led to the enhancement of learning, and an increase in hippocampal CA1 synaptic, surface and postsynaptic density. A decrease in the average size of the synaptic active zone was also observed. These experimental findings showing that Schisandra N-butanol extract improved synaptic morphology indicate an underlying mechanism by which the ability of learning is enhanced in ovariectomized mice.

  19. Hydrophobic Hyflon® AD/PVDF membranes for butanol dehydration via pervaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Jalal, Taghreed

    2015-10-21

    Novel hydrophobic Hyflon® AD /PVDF membranes were developed and investigated for n-butanol dehydration via pervaporation. The coating protocols for thin defect-free Hyflon® AD selective layer on the PVDF support was optimized. Water and n-butanol transport was measured, analyzing the effect of operating conditions. The water flux through the newly developed membranes was higher than 150 g/m2.h with selectivity for water higher than 99 wt %. The focus was on the use of Hyflon® AD as the selective layer for n-butanol dehydration. The membrane application can be extended to other solvents, supporting an effective and simple method for dehydration with hydrophobic membranes.

  20. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-06-01

    Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5 g L(-1) of ABE (17.6 g L(-1) butanol, 10.5 g L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4 g L(-1) acetone) from 85.2 g L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0 g L(-1)  h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85 h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86 h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04 h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1 g L(-1)  h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34 g g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes.

  1. Immunomodulatory activity of butanol fraction of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. on Balb/C mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satnam Singh; Yadav CPS; Malleshappa N Noolvi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the immunomodulatory properties of 80%ethanol extract and butanol fraction of Gentiana olivieri (G. olivieri) Griseb on Balb/C mice. Methods: The study was performed with basic models of immunomodulation such as the humoral antibody response (hemoglutination antibody titres), cell mediated immune response (delayed type hypersensitivity and in vivo carbon clearance or phagocytosis). Ethanol (80%) extract of flowering aerial parts of G. olivieri and its butanol fraction were administered p.o. (orally) to the mice. Levamisole, 2.5 mg/kg was used as standard drug. Results:There was a potentiation of immune response to sheep red blood cells by cellular and humoral mediated mechanisms comparable to levamisole (2.5 mg/kg) by both 80%ethanol extract and the butanol fraction at doses of 50-200 mg/kg in male Balb/C mice. Both significantly (P<0.01) potentiated the humoral immune response in cyclophosphamide (250 mg/kg) immunosupressed mice at 100 and 200 mg/kg of each extract and fraction as compared to control. The potentiation of delayed type hypersensitivity response was statistically significant (P<0.01) at 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract and 100, 200 mg/kg of butanol fraction as compared to control. The phagocytosis was significant at 200 mg/kg with butanol fraction of G. olivieri. Conclusions:The results reveal the immunostimulant effects of plant G. olivieri in mice by acting through cellular and humoral immunity in experimental models of immunity in mice. Butanol fraction is the most effective at a dose level of 200 mg/kg.

  2. Genetic and nutrient modulation of acetyl-CoA levels in Synechocystis for n-butanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfelt, Josefine; Kaczmarzyk, Danuta; Shabestary, Kiyan

    2015-01-01

    . Introduction of a phosphoketolase increased acetyl-CoA levels sixfold at nitrogen replete conditions and increased butanol titers from 22 to 37 mg/L at day 8. Flux balance analysis of photoautotrophic metabolism showed that a Calvin-Benson-Bassham-Phosphoketolase pathway had higher theoretical butanol...... with complementary metabolic engineering strategies....

  3. Process integration for simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR): Production of butanol from corn stover using Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for production of acetone butanol ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86 gL^-1^ corn stover, over 97% of the sugars were r...

  4. Simultaneous production of isopropanol, butanol, ethanol and 2,3-butanediol by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 engineered strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collas, Florent; Kuit, Wouter; Clément, Benjamin; Marchal, Rémy; López-contreras, Ana M.; Monot, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Isopropanol represents a widely-used commercial alcohol which is currently produced from petroleum. In nature, isopropanol is excreted by some strains of Clostridium beijerinckii, simultaneously with butanol and ethanol during the isopropanol butanol ethanol (IBE) fermentation. In order to increase

  5. Butanol production from concentrated lactose/whey permeate: Use of pervaporation membrane to recover and concentrate product

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies butanol (acetone butanol ethanol, or ABE) was produced from concentrated lactose/whey permeate containing 211 gL-1 lactose. Fermentation of such a highly concentrated lactose solution was possible due to simultaneous product removal using a pervaporation membrane. In this system a p...

  6. Kinetic studies on the Rhizomucor miehei lipase catalyzed esterification reaction of oleic acid with 1-butanol in a biphasic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, G.N.; Winkelman, J.G.M.; de Vries, Johannes; Heeres, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of the esterification of oleic acid with 1 -butanol catalyzed by free Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic system was studied in a batch reactor. The reaction appeared to proceed via a Ping Pong bi-bi mechanism with I -butanol inhibition. The kinetic constants of the model were determ

  7. CATALYSIS OF POLYSTYRENE N-HYDROXYL SULFONAMIDE FOR ESTERIFICATION OF BUTANOL WITH ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shufeng; LI Qian; YANG Xinlin; HUANG Wenqiang

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin 1 was prepared and used to catalyze the esterification of n-butanol and acetic anhydride. The mechanism of catalytic esterification proved by IR spectra of the resins was found that O-H and N-H of the N-hydroxyl sulfonamide resin reacted with the acetic anhydride respectively to form the active intermediate polystyrene N,O-diacetyl sulfonamate which was cleaved by n-butanol to produce butyl acetate. The catalytic esterification by resin 1 was in good agreement with the kinetic model of "bi-bi-ping-pong" mechanism.

  8. Recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions via membrane distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banat, F.A.; Al-Shannag, M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-12-01

    The simultaneous recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions by air gap membrane distillation was theoretically assessed. A previously developed and validated Stefan-Maxwell based mathematical model was used for this purpose. It was found that membrane distillation could successfully be used for the recovery of these solvents. Interestingly it was found that butanol could be separated with the highest selectivity and flux though it has the highest boiling point. The effect of operating conditions such as feed and cooling surface temperatures, air gap width, and individual component concentration on the flux and selectivity of these solvents was examined and discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of Ethanol and n-Butanol Blends with Gasoline : A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank S N

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of blending ethanol and n-butanol with gasoline on performance and emissions of a four cylinder four stroke spark ignited MPI engine. AVL BOOST was used to simulate the combustion process for different blends of ethanol and n-butanol with gasoline (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by volume. The simulation results showed the unburned Hydrocarbon (HC and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions have reduced drastically and the oxides of Nitrogen (NOx emitted is reduced for higher concentration of alcohols when compared with gasoline.

  10. Design and Control of Self-Heat Recuperative Distillation Process for Separation of Close-Boiling Mixtures:n-Butanol and iso-Butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lumin; Liu Yuliang; Zhai Jian; Sun Lanyi; Tian Yuanyu

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the advantages of self-heat recuperative distillation (SHRD) process, the design and control of the SHRD process was studied for the separation ofn-butanol and iso-butanol mixtures. The economic superiority of SHRD process is presented when a comparison on the total annual cost (TAC) of the conventional distillation process, the vapor recompression distillation process and the SHRD process was made. For the SHRD process, 37.74% and 11.35% savings of TAC can be achieved as compared to the conventional distillation process and vapor recompression distillation process, respectively. The dynamic characteristics of this promising SHRD sequence had been studied, and the dynamic responses demonstrated that 10% changes in both feed lfow rate and feed composition can be well handled by the control strategy with dual-temperature control. It is proven that the SHRD system not only can provide economical savings but also can operate normally with good controllability.

  11. Age-dependent changes in the ratio of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol released by virgin females of Dasylepida ishigakiensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, N; Yasui, H; Wakamura, S; Mochizuki, F; Arakaki, N

    2012-12-01

    The females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release two enantiomers of 2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol. The ratio describing the relative proportions of these two enantiomers (R/S ratio) has not yet been investigated. (R)-2-Butanol has been shown to attract males in laboratory and field experiments, whereas (S)-2-butanol tends to inhibit them. To determine the R/S ratio of the 2-butanol emitted by virgin females, we collected 2-butanol from young (53 days old), mature (63 days old) and old females (73 days old) using water, extracted with an SPME fibre and subsequently injected into GC-MS. The major component of the 2-butanol emitted by the young females was (R)-2-butanol, but as the females aged, the component ratio favoured (S)-2-butanol. Young females released an 80:20 mixture of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol, whereas old females released a 45:55 mixture. The EAG response of male antennae to a 50:50 ratio (racemic mixture) showed a similar dose-response curve to that of (R)-2-butanol. The male orientation responses to (R)-2-butanol decreased when the relative proportion of (S)-2-butanol increased. An inhibitory and/or masking effect of (S)-2-butanol on male orientation behaviour was also observed in the flight tunnel assay. These results suggest that males are more strongly attracted to young females than to old females. We also discuss the possibility of using 2-butanol isomers as a control or monitoring agent for this insect.

  12. Cellulosic butanol biofuel production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB): Impact of hot water pretreatment and solid loadings on fermentation employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel butanol fermentation process was developed in which sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was pretreated using liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment technique followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and butanol (acetone butanol ethanol; ABE) fermentation. A pretreatment temperature of 200 deg C resulted in the...

  13. Measurement of Ring Strain Using Butanols: A Physical Chemistry Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William R.; Davidson, Ada S.; Ball, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a bomb calorimeter experiment and subsequent calculations aimed at determining the strain energy of the cyclobutane backbone are described. Students use several butanol isomers instead of the parent hydrocarbons, and they manipulate liquids instead of gases, which makes the experiment much easier to perform. Experiments show that…

  14. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from cotton seed oil using t-butanol as a solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royon, D.; Daz, M.; Ellenrieder, G.; Locatelli, S. [Universidad Nacional de Salta, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Instituto de Investigaciones para la Industria Quimica

    2007-02-15

    The enzymatic production of biodiesel by methanolysis of cottonseed oil was studied using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase as catalyst in t-butanol solvent. Methyl ester production and triacylglycerol disappearance were followed by HPLC chromatography. It was found, using a batch system, that enzyme inhibition caused by undissolved methanol was eliminated by adding t-butanol to the reaction medium, which also gave a noticeable increase of reaction rate and ester yield. The effect of t-butanol, methanol concentration and temperature on this system was determined. A methanolysis yield of 97% was observed after 24 h at 50 {sup o}C with a reaction mixture containing 32.5% t-butanol, 13.5% methanol, 54% oil and 0.017 g enzyme (g oil){sup -1}. With the same mixture, a 95% ester yield was obtained using a one step fixed bed continuous reactor with a flow rate of 9.6 ml h{sup -1} (g enzyme){sup -1}. Experiments with the continuous reactor over 500 h did not show any appreciable decrease in ester yields. (author)

  15. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  16. Chiral recognition in electron scattering by S- and R-2-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Field, David

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described involving the low energy scattering of electrons from the two optical enantiomers S- and R- 2-butanol. Using a synchrotron radiation photoionization source on the ASTRID storage ring, scattering spectra are reported between a few meV and 140 meV at an electron energy...

  17. Effect of butanolic fraction of Desmodium adscendens on the anococcygeus of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. BARRETO

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of plants can vary according to factors such as soil and time of collection. Desmodium adscendens (Sw. D.C. var. adscendens (Papillionaceae is a plant employed in the treatment of asthma in Ghana, Africa. Studies have shown that butanolic extract inhibits contraction of the ileum and trachea in guinea pigs. In Mato Grosso, this plant is used only in the treatment of ovarian inflammation.The objective of this work was to verify if the plant found in Mato Grosso also relaxes smooth muscle and to understand better its action.The cumulative application of the butanolic fraction relaxed the contraction maintained in the isolated anococcygeus of a rat, induced by high potassium, but not that induced by phenylephrine. Relaxation was not altered by methylene blue. The butanolic fraction reduced in a concentration-dependent way the maximum response of concentration-response curve to calcium in the anococcygeus muscle. The results suggest that the butanolic fraction acts, at least partly, through the blockade of voltage-sensitive Ca+2 channels.

  18. Effect of butanolic fraction of Desmodium adscendens on the anococcygeus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, G S

    2002-05-01

    The chemical composition of plants can vary according to factors such as soil and time of collection. Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) D.C. var. adscendens (Papillionaceae) is a plant employed in the treatment of asthma in Ghana, Africa. Studies have shown that butanolic extract inhibits contraction of the ileum and trachea in guinea pigs. In Mato Grosso, this plant is used only in the treatment of ovarian inflammation. The objective of this work was to verify if the plant found in Mato Grosso also relaxes smooth muscle and to understand better its action. The cumulative application of the butanolic fraction relaxed the contraction maintained in the isolated anococcygeus of a rat, induced by high potassium, but not that induced by phenylephrine. Relaxation was not altered by methylene blue. The butanolic fraction reduced in a concentration-dependent way the maximum response of concentration-response curve to calcium in the anococcygeus muscle. The results suggest that the butanolic fraction acts, at least partly, through the blockade of voltage-sensitive Ca+2 channels.

  19. Kinetic modeling and sensitivity analysis of acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Hideaki; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Genta; Sekiguchi, Tatsuya; Hanai, Taizo; Kuriya, Yuki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2007-08-01

    A kinetic simulation model of metabolic pathways that describes the dynamic behaviors of metabolites in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was proposed using a novel simulator WinBEST-KIT. This model was validated by comparing with experimental time-course data of metabolites in batch cultures over a wide range of initial glucose concentrations (36.1-295 mM). By introducing substrate inhibition, product inhibition of butanol, activation of butyrate and considering the cessation of metabolic reactions in the case of insufficiency of energy after glucose exhaustion, the revised model showed 0.901 of squared correlation coefficient (r(2)) between experimental time-course of metabolites and calculated ones. Thus, the final revised model is assumed to be one of the best candidates for kinetic simulation describing dynamic behavior of metabolites in ABE production. Sensitivity analysis revealed that 5% increase in reaction of reverse pathway of butyrate production (R(17)) and 5% decrease in reaction of CoA transferase for butyrate (R(15)) highly contribute to high production of butanol. These system analyses should be effective in the elucidation which pathway is metabolic bottleneck for high production of butanol.

  20. Fabrication of graphene oxide composite membranes and their application for pervaporation dehydration of butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianfu Chen; Gongping Liu; Hanyu Zhang; Yiqun Fan

    2015-01-01

    As a new kind of 2D nanomaterials, graphene oxide (GO) with 2–4 layers was fabricated via a modified Hummers method and used for the preparation of pervaporation (PV) membranes. Such GO membranes were prepared via a facile vacuum-assisted method on anodic aluminium oxide disks and applied for the dehydration of butanol. To obtain GO membranes with high performance, effects of pre-treatments, including high-speed centrifugal treat-ment of GO dispersion and thermal treatment of GO membranes, were investigated. In addition, effects of oper-ation conditions on the performance of GO membranes in the PV process and the stability of GO membranes were also studied. It is of benefit to improve the selectivity of GO membrane by pre-treatment that centrifuges the GO dispersion with 10000 r·min−1 for 40 min, which could purify the GO dispersion by removing the large size GO sheets. As prepared GO membrane showed high separation performance for the butanol/water system. The separation factor was 230, and the permeability was as high as 3.1 kg·m−2·h−1 when the PV temperature was 50 °C and the water content in feed was 10%(by mass). Meanwhile, the membrane still showed good stabil-ity for the dehydration of butanol after running for 1800 min in the PV process. GO membranes are suitable candidates for butanol dehydration via PV process.

  1. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  2. Enhanced butanol production by coculture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Ai, Hongxia; Zhang, Shexi; Li, Shuang; Liang, Zexin; Wu, Zhen-Qiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Ju-Fang

    2013-09-01

    Cocultures of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium tyrobutyricum in free-cell and immobilized-cell fermentation modes were investigated as a means of enhancing butanol production. The immobilized fermentation was performed in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB). The results demonstrated that two-strain coculture significantly enhanced butanol production, yield and volumetric productivity compared with those in pure culture with or without butyric acid. Further, continuous immobilized-cell cocultures in two FBBs using glucose, cassava starch, or cane molasses were conducted at a dilution rate of 0.144 h(-1). The butanol production (6.66 g/L), yield (0.18 g/g), and productivity (0.96 g/L/h) were obtained with cassava starch as the substrate. Meanwhile, the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) yield (0.36 g/g) was the highest among all processes investigated, suggesting that this continuous coculture mode may be suitable for industrial ABE production with no need for repeated sterilization and inoculation.

  3. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production: effects of CoA transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Zhao, Jingbo; Xu, Mengmeng; Dong, Jie; Varghese, Saju; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-06-01

    The overexpression of CoA transferase (ctfAB), which catalyzes the reaction: acetate/butyrate + acetoacetyl-CoA → acetyl/butyryl-CoA + acetoacetate, was studied for its effects on acid reassimilation and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2). The plasmid pMTL007 was used to co-express adhE2 and ctfAB from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. In addition, the sol operon containing ctfAB, adc (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and ald (aldehyde dehydrogenase) was also cloned from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and expressed in C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2). Mutants expressing these genes were evaluated for their ability to produce butanol from glucose in batch fermentations at pH 5.0 and 6.0. Compared to C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2) without expressing ctfAB, all mutants with ctfAB overexpression produced more butanol, with butanol yield increased to 0.22 - 0.26 g/g (vs. 0.10 - 0.13 g/g) and productivity to 0.35 g/l h (vs. 0.13 g/l h) because of the reduced acetate and butyrate production. The expression of ctfAB also resulted in acetone production from acetoacetate through a non-enzymatic decarboxylation.

  4. The Unimolecular Decomposition and H Abstraction Reactions by HO and HO2 from n-Butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moc, Jerzy; Black, Gráinne; Simmie, John M.; Curran, Henry J.

    2009-08-01

    By using correlated ab initio (MP2, CCSD(T)) and multi-level (G3, CBS-QB3) methods we have studied unimolecular and bimolecular reactions of n-butanol in the gas phase. The specific processes investigated include H2O elimination and hydrogen abstraction by the hydroxy (HO) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals from this alcohol.

  5. Effect of Butanol and Propylene Glycol in Amorphous MnO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson HENRY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous MnO2 are synthesized using KMnO4, butanol, and propylene glycol in an aqueous solution by using the precipitation method, under ambient conditions. The structure, molecular vibrations, surface morphological and optical properties of MnO2 powders are studied using XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. From the XRD patterns, it is clear that both butanol and propylene glycol assisted MnO2 particles are amorphous in nature. While the strong peak is noticed at 1384 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra, which is due to the characteristic peak of MnO2. SEM photographs show spherical shapes of MnO2 particles, and the average size of a particle is about 200 nm for butanol assisted samples and is around 500 nm for propylene glycol assisted samples. Butanol assisted MnO2 particles exhibit higher optical absorption in the visible region than propylene glycol. However, the estimated optical band gap of both the samples is found around 2.33 eV.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.22

  6. Reorientation of Isomeric Butanols: The Multiple Effects of Steric Bulk Arrangement on Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O; Vartia, Anthony A; Laage, Damien; Thompson, Ward H

    2016-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate OH reorientation in the four isomeric butanols in their bulk liquid state to examine the influence of the arrangement of the steric bulk on the alcohol reorientational and hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics. The results are interpreted within the extended jump model in which the OH reorientation is decomposed into contributions due to "jumps" between H-bond partners and "frame" reorientation of the intact H-bonded pair. Reorientation is fastest in iso-butanol and slowest in tert-butanol, while sec- and n-butanol have similar reorientation times. This latter result is a fortuitous cancellation between the jump and frame reorientation in the two alcohols. The extended jump model is shown to provide a quantitative description of the OH reorientation times. A detailed analysis of the jump times shows that a combination of entropic, enthalpic, and dynamical factors, including transition state recrossing effects, all play a role. A simple model based on the liquid structure is proposed to estimate the energetic and entropic contributions to the jump time. This represents the groundwork for a predictive model of OH reorientation in alcohols, but additional studies are required to better understand the frame reorientation and transition state recrossing effects.

  7. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover by Clostridium species: present status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzheng; Baral, Nawa Raj; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Sustainable vehicle fuel is indispensable in future due to worldwide depletion of fossil fuel reserve, oil price fluctuation and environmental degradation. Microbial production of butanol from renewable biomass could be one of the possible options. Renewable biomass such as corn stover has no food deficiency issues and is also cheaper in most of the agricultural based countries. Thus it can effectively solve the existing issue of substrate cost. In the last 30 years, a few of Clostridium strains have been successfully implemented for biobutanol fermentation. However, the commercial production is hindered due to their poor tolerance to butanol and inhibitors. Metabolic engineering of Clostridia strains is essential to solve above problems and ultimately enhance the solvent production. An effective and efficient pretreatment of raw material as well as optimization of fermentation condition could be another option. Furthermore, biological approaches may be useful to optimize both the host and pathways to maximize butanol production. In this context, this paper reviews the existing Clostridium strains and their ability to produce butanol particularly from corn stover. This study also highlights possible fermentation pathways and biological approaches that may be useful to optimize fermentation pathways. Moreover, challenges and future perspectives are also discussed.

  8. Chemical constituents in n-butanol fractions of Costus afer ker Gawl leaf and stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godswill Nduka Anyasor

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The bioactive compounds identified in the n-butanol fractions of C. afer leaves and stem may explain the folkloric use of C. afer plant in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress related diseases. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 78-84

  9. Combustion of butanol isomers - A detailed molecular beam mass spectrometry investigation of their flame chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osswald, Patrick; Gueldenberg, Hanna; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University (Germany); Yang, Bin [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yuan, Tao; Qi, Fei [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2011-01-15

    The combustion chemistry of the four butanol isomers, 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol was studied in flat, premixed, laminar low-pressure (40 mbar) flames of the respective alcohols. Fuel-rich ({phi} = 1.7) butanol-oxygen-(25%)argon flames were investigated using different molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques. Quantitative mole fraction profiles are reported as a function of burner distance. In total, 57 chemical compounds, including radical and isomeric species, have been unambiguously assigned and detected quantitatively in each flame using a combination of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization (PI) and electron ionization (EI) MBMS. Synchrotron-based PI-MBMS allowed to separate isomeric combustion intermediates according to their different ionization thresholds. Complementary measurements in the same flames with a high mass-resolution EI-MBMS system provided the exact elementary composition of the involved species. Resulting mole fraction profiles from both instruments are generally in good quantitative agreement. In these flames of the four butanol isomers, temperature, measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of seeded nitric oxide, and major species profiles are strikingly similar, indicating seemingly analog global combustion behavior. However, significant variations in the intermediate species pool are observed between the fuels and discussed with respect to fuel-specific destruction pathways. As a consequence, different, fuel-specific pollutant emissions may be expected, by both their chemical nature and concentrations. The results reported here are the first of their kind from premixed isomeric butanol flames and are thought to be valuable for improving existing kinetic combustion models. (author)

  10. The effects of the phospholipase D-antagonist 1-butanol on seedling development and microtubule organisation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John; Collings, David A; Harper, John D I; Marc, Jan

    2003-07-01

    The organisation of plant microtubules into distinct arrays during the cell cycle requires interactions with partner proteins. Having recently identified a 90-kDa phospholipase D (PLD) that associates with microtubules and the plasma membrane [Gardiner et al. (2001) Plant Cell 13: 2143], we exposed seeds and young seedlings of Arabidopsis to 1-butanol, a specific inhibitor of PLD-dependent production of the signalling molecule phosphatidic acid (PA). When added to agar growth media, 0.2% 1-butanol strongly inhibited the emergence of the radicle and cotyledons, while 0.4% 1-butanol effectively blocked germination. When normal seedlings were transferred onto media containing 0.2% and 0.4% 1-butanol, the inhibitor retarded root growth by about 40% and 90%, respectively, by reducing cell elongation. Inhibited plants showed significant swelling in the root elongation zone, bulbous or branched root hairs, and modified cotyledon morphology. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy of root tips revealed that 1-butanol disrupted the organisation of interphase cortical microtubules. Butanol isomers that do not inhibit PLD-dependent PA production, 2- and 3-butanol, had no effect on seed germination, seedling growth, or microtubule organisation. We propose that production of PA by PLD may be required for normal microtubule organisation and hence normal growth in Arabidopsis.

  11. Study of reaction parameters and kinetics of esterification of lauric acid with butanol by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Sini; Agarwal, Madhu; Chaurasia, S P

    2013-12-01

    Esterification of lauric acid with n-butanol, catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (CAL) in aqueous-organic biphasic solvent system was studied. Effects of various reaction parameters on esterification were investigated, such as type and amount of solvent, amount of buffer, pH, temperature, speed of agitation, amount of enzyme, butanol and lauric acid. The most suitable reaction conditions for esterification were observed at 50 degrees C and pH 7.0 using 5000 micromoles of lauric acid, 7000 pmoles of butanol, 0.25 ml phosphate buffer, 1 ml of isooctane as the solvent and 50 mg of immobilized enzyme in the reaction medium at agitation speed of 150 rpm. Maximum esterification of 96.36% was acheived in 600 min of reaction time at n-butanol to lauric acid molar ratio of 1: 0.7. Kinetic study for the esterification of lauric acid with n-butanol using immobilized CAL was carried out and the kinetic constants were estimated by using non-linear regression method. The estimated value of Michaelis kinetic constants for butanol (KmBt) and acid (KmAc) were 451.56 (M) and 4.7 x 10(-7)(M), respectively and the value of dissociation constant (KBt) of the butanol-lipase complex was 9.41 x 10(7)(M). The estimated constants agreed fairly well with literature data.

  12. Butanol isomers exert distinct effects on voltage-gated calcium channel currents and thus catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McDavid

    Full Text Available Butanol (C4H10OH has been used both to dissect the molecular targets of alcohols/general anesthetics and to implicate phospholipase D (PLD signaling in a variety of cellular functions including neurotransmitter and hormone exocytosis. Like other primary alcohols, 1-butanol is a substrate for PLD and thereby disrupts formation of the intracellular signaling lipid phosphatidic acid. Because secondary and tertiary butanols do not undergo this transphosphatidylation, they have been used as controls for 1-butanol to implicate PLD signaling. Recently, selective pharmacological inhibitors of PLD have been developed and, in some cases, fail to block cellular functions previously ascribed to PLD using primary alcohols. For example, exocytosis of insulin and degranulation of mast cells are blocked by primary alcohols, but not by the PLD inhibitor FIPI. In this study we show that 1-butanol reduces catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells to a much greater extent than tert-butanol, and that the PLD inhibitor VU0155056 has no effect. Using fluorescent imaging we show the effect of these drugs on depolarization-evoked calcium entry parallel those on secretion. Patch-clamp electrophysiology confirmed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (I(Ca is inhibited by 1-butanol, with little or no block by secondary or tert-butanol. Detailed comparison shows for the first time that the different butanol isomers exert distinct, and sometimes opposing, effects on the voltage-dependence and gating kinetics of I(Ca. We discuss these data with regard to PLD signaling in cellular physiology and the molecular targets of general anesthetics.

  13. Butanol isomers exert distinct effects on voltage-gated calcium channel currents and thus catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Sarah; Bauer, Mary Beth; Brindley, Rebecca L; Jewell, Mark L; Currie, Kevin P M

    2014-01-01

    Butanol (C4H10OH) has been used both to dissect the molecular targets of alcohols/general anesthetics and to implicate phospholipase D (PLD) signaling in a variety of cellular functions including neurotransmitter and hormone exocytosis. Like other primary alcohols, 1-butanol is a substrate for PLD and thereby disrupts formation of the intracellular signaling lipid phosphatidic acid. Because secondary and tertiary butanols do not undergo this transphosphatidylation, they have been used as controls for 1-butanol to implicate PLD signaling. Recently, selective pharmacological inhibitors of PLD have been developed and, in some cases, fail to block cellular functions previously ascribed to PLD using primary alcohols. For example, exocytosis of insulin and degranulation of mast cells are blocked by primary alcohols, but not by the PLD inhibitor FIPI. In this study we show that 1-butanol reduces catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells to a much greater extent than tert-butanol, and that the PLD inhibitor VU0155056 has no effect. Using fluorescent imaging we show the effect of these drugs on depolarization-evoked calcium entry parallel those on secretion. Patch-clamp electrophysiology confirmed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (I(Ca)) is inhibited by 1-butanol, with little or no block by secondary or tert-butanol. Detailed comparison shows for the first time that the different butanol isomers exert distinct, and sometimes opposing, effects on the voltage-dependence and gating kinetics of I(Ca). We discuss these data with regard to PLD signaling in cellular physiology and the molecular targets of general anesthetics.

  14. Flow calorimetry of the sorption of butanols to elastin preparations and comparison with surface areas determined by krypton-85 adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, L; Robert, B; Houtman, J P; Stack, M V

    1971-12-28

    1. The apparent surface areas of elastin samples as well as of several other fibrous protein preparations (collagen, keratin, polymeric stroma of aorta) were determined using two different approaches: (a) the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method with 85Kr and (b) microflow calorimetry with n- and tert.-butanol as adsorbents in a heptane stream. 2. Areas of heat signals obtained by flow calorimetry for the adsorption and desorption of n- and tert.-butanol were substantially equivalent; desorption was more protracted than adsorption, the difference between the speed of desorption and adsorption increased with decreasing chain length of the alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol). 3. An inverse linear relationship was found between the energy change recorded during the adsorption process and the chain length of the alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol). 4. Heats of adsorption of tert.-butanol were systematically found to be significantly lower than those of n-butanol with all the protein samples investigated. 5. The apparent surface areas of the protein samples determined with tert.-butanol were on the average of the same order or only slightly higher than those obtained with 85Kr. Results obtained with n-butanol were significantly higher. The difference between surface areas obtained with n- and tert.-butanol depended on the nature of the protein sample, on its method of preparation and to some extent on the residual humidity of the sample. 6. The results could be explained on the basis of the hydrophobic theory of elastin structure (see ref. 4) and confirmed our former conclusions (see ref. 3) concerning the significantly higher surface areas of elastin samples purified by different procedures as compared to collagen or to keratin. They also confirmed the accessibility of the surface of elastic fibers to the molecular probes used in the polymeric stroma of aorta.

  15. Excess volumes of binary mixtures of 1,3-dichloropropane with isomeric butanols at 298. 15 and 313. 15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, C.; Pardo, J.; Rodriguez, V.; Royo, F.M.; Urieta, J.S. (Univ. de Zargoza (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica)

    1993-10-01

    Excess molar volumes, V[sub m][sup E], for binary mixtures of 1,3-dichloropropane with 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol have been determined from density measurements at 298.15 and 313.15 K by means of an Anton Paar DMA-58 vibrating tube densimeter. V[sub m][sup E] is positive over the whole composition range except for mixtures containing 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol at 298.15 K in which V[sub m][sup E] shows negative values at low mole fractions of dichloroalkane.

  16. Improving performance of a gas stripping-based recovery system to remove butanol from Clostridium beijerinckii fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Karcher, Patrick M; Qureshi, Nasib; Blaschek, Hans P

    2005-05-01

    The effect of factors such as gas recycle rate, bubble size, presence of acetone, and ethanol in the solution/broth were investigated in order to remove butanol from model solution or fermentation broth (also called acetone butanol ethanol or ABE or solvents). Butanol (8 g L(-1), model solution, Fig. 2) stripping rate was found to be proportional to the gas recycle rate. In the bubble size range attempted (ABE productivity was reduced from 0.47 g L(-1) h(-1) to 0.25 g L(-1) h(-1) when smaller (ABE (Fig. 4, results reported as butanol/ABE concentration). The productivity was reduced as a result of addition of an excessive amount of antifoam used to inhibit the production of foam caused by the smaller bubbles. This suggested that the fermentation was negatively affected by antifoam.

  17. The influence of n-butanol blending on the ignition delay times of gasoline and its surrogate at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Agbro, Edirin

    2016-09-24

    The influence of blending n-butanol at 20% by volume on the ignition delay times for a reference gasoline was studied in a rapid compression machine (RCM) for stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures at 20 bar and 678-858 K. Delay times for the blend lay between those of stoichiometric gasoline and stoichiometric n-butanol across the temperature range studied. At lower temperatures, delays for the blend were however, much closer to those of n-butanol than gasoline despite n-butanol being only 20% of the mixture. Under these conditions n-butanol acted as an octane enhancer over and above what might be expected from a simple linear blending law. The ability of a gasoline surrogate, based on a toluene reference fuel (TRF), to capture the main trends of the gasoline/n-butanol blending behaviour was also tested within the RCM. The 3-component TRF based on a mixture of toluene, n-heptane and iso-octane was able to capture the trends well across the temperature range studied. Simulations of ignition delay times were also performed using a detailed blended n-butanol/TRF mechanism based on the adiabatic core assumption and volume histories from the experimental data. Overall, the model captured the main features of the blending behaviour, although at the lowest temperatures, predicted ignition delays for stoichiometric n-butanol were longer than those observed. A brute-force local sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the main chemical processes driving the ignition behaviour of the TRF, n-butanol and blended fuels. The reactions of fuel + OH dominated the sensitivities at lower temperatures, with H abstraction from n-butanol from a and 7 sites being key for both the n-butanol and the blend. At higher temperatures the decomposition of H2O2 and reactions of HO2 and that of formaldehyde with OH became critical, in common with the ignition behaviour of other fiiels. Remaining uncertainties in the rates of these key reactions are discussed. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published

  18. Alcohol Selectivity in a Synthetic Thermophilic n-Butanol Pathway Is Driven by Biocatalytic and Thermostability Characteristics of Constituent Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Andrew J.; Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Garrison, G. Dale; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2015-01-01

    n-Butanol is generated as a natural product of metabolism by several microorganisms, but almost all grow at mesophilic temperatures. A synthetic pathway for n-butanol production from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) that functioned at 70°C was assembled in vitro from enzymes recruited from thermophilic bacteria to inform efforts for engineering butanol production into thermophilic hosts. Recombinant versions of eight thermophilic enzymes (β-ketothiolase [Thl], 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase [Hbd], and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase [Crt] from Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis; trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase [Ter] from Spirochaeta thermophila; bifunctional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase/alcohol dehydrogenase [AdhE] from Clostridium thermocellum; and AdhE, aldehyde dehydrogenase [Bad], and butanol dehydrogenase [Bdh] from Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain X514) were utilized to examine three possible pathways for n-butanol. These pathways differed in the two steps required to convert butyryl-CoA to n-butanol: Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-AdhE (C. thermocellum), Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-AdhE (Thermoanaerobacter X514), and Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-Bad-Bdh. n-Butanol was produced at 70°C, but with different amounts of ethanol as a coproduct, because of the broad substrate specificities of AdhE, Bad, and Bdh. A reaction kinetics model, validated via comparison to in vitro experiments, was used to determine relative enzyme ratios needed to maximize n-butanol production. By using large relative amounts of Thl and Hbd and small amounts of Bad and Bdh, >70% conversion to n-butanol was observed in vitro, but with a 60% decrease in the predicted pathway flux. With more-selective hypothetical versions of Bad and Bdh, >70% conversion to n-butanol is predicted, with a 19% increase in pathway flux. Thus, more-selective thermophilic versions of Bad, Bdh, and AdhE are needed to fully exploit biocatalytic n-butanol production at elevated temperatures. PMID:26253677

  19. Simultaneous production of isopropanol, butanol, ethanol and 2,3-butanediol by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 engineered strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Collas, Florent; Kuit, Wouter; Clément, Benjamin; Marchal, Rémy; López-Contreras, Ana M.; Monot, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Isopropanol represents a widely-used commercial alcohol which is currently produced from petroleum. In nature, isopropanol is excreted by some strains of Clostridium beijerinckii, simultaneously with butanol and ethanol during the isopropanol butanol ethanol (IBE) fermentation. In order to increase isopropanol production, the gene encoding the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme from C. beijerinckii NRRL B593 (adh) which catalyzes the reduction of acetone to isoprop...

  20. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

  1. Neutron scattering studies of solid-state polymorphism in dimethyl butanol glass formers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszynska, E. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Massalska-Arodz, M. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)], E-mail: Maria.Massalska-Arodz@ifj.edu.pl; Natkaniec, I. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Krawczyk, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland)

    2008-01-01

    Inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) studies have been performed for two dimethyl 1-butanols and two dimethyl 2-butanols with CH{sub 3} side molecular groups. Low-temperature vibrational density of states confirmed solid-state polymorphism detected by calorimetric methods, i.e., existence of crystalline and ODIC phases for all isomers, orientationally disordered glass for 2,2-DM 1-B and 3,3-DM 2-B, and glass of isotropic phase for 3,3-DM 1-B. Difference in vibrational density of states between glass and the ordered crystal has shown the so-called Boson peak. Influence of the OH group position in the molecules on their vibrational dynamics up to 50 meV is discussed.

  2. Application of Biotechnological Method to Biodiesel Fuel Production using n-butanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kazanceva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuel derived from oil (animal or vegetable origin, or used for frying and alcohol is an alternative to traditional petroleum diesel fuel. The most popular kind of biodiesel fuel is rapeseed oil methylesters. Rapeseed oil butylesters have not been widely analyzed yet. Transesterification of rapeseed oil was performed using n-butanol and immobilized lipase in the solvent-free medium. The most effective biocatalyst was selected from Novozym 435, Lipozyme TL IM, Lipozyme RM IM, lipase G and lipase F-EC. The most suitable lipase for that process was Lipozyme TL IM. The transesterification reaction was optimized in order to get a highest yield of rapeseed oil butylesters. Optimal conditions (temperature, lipase concentration, rapeseed oil and n-butanol stoichiometric ratio, and reaction duration of a rapeseed oil butanolysis process were also determined.

  3. Cellulosic butanol production from alkali-pretreated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and phragmites (Phragmites australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Boiano, Simone; Marzocchella, Antonio; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-12-01

    A potential dedicated energy crop (switchgrass) and an invasive (North America) plant species (phragmites) were compared as potential substrates for acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Both biomass were pretreated with 1% (w/v) NaOH and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. Total reducing sugar yields were 365 and 385gkg(-1) raw biomass for switchgrass and phragmites. Fermentation of the hydrolysates resulted in overall ABE yields of 146 and 150gkg(-1) (per kg dry plant material), with a theoretical maximum of 189 and 208gkg(-1), respectively. Though similar overall solvent yields were obtained from both crops, the largest carbon loss in the case of switchgrass occurred during pretreatment, while the largest loss in the case of phragmites occurred to enzymatic hydrolysis. These findings suggest that higher overall yields are achievable and that both crops are suitable feedstocks for butanol fermentation.

  4. Continuous production of isopropanol and butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survase, Shrikant A; Jurgens, German; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

    2011-09-01

    Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423 was studied using different continuous production methods to give maximum and stable production of isopropanol and n-butanol. In a single-stage continuous culture, when wood pulp was added as a cell holding material, we could increase the solvent productivity from 0.47 to 5.52 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ with the yield of 54% from glucose. The overall solvent concentration of 7.51 g L⁻¹ (39.4% isopropanol and 60.6% n-butanol) with the maximum solvent productivity of 0.84 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ was obtained with two-stage continuous culture. We were able to run the process for more than 48 overall retention times without losing the ability to produce solvents.

  5. Structure of butanol and hexanol at aqueous, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid solution surfaces investigated by vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Lisa L; Minor, Rena N; Allen, Heather C

    2007-08-09

    The organization of 1-butanol and 1-hexanol at the air-liquid interface of aqueous, aqueous ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid solutions was investigated using vibrational broad bandwidth sum frequency generation spectroscopy. There is spectroscopic evidence supporting the formation of centrosymmetric structures at the surface of pure butanol and pure hexanol. At aqueous, ammonium bisulfate, and at most sulfuric acid solution surfaces, butanol molecules organize in all-trans conformations. This suggests that butanol self-aggregates. The spectrum for the 0.052 M butanol in 59.5 wt % sulfuric acid solution is different from the other butanol solution spectra, that is, the surface butanol molecules are observed to possess a significant number of gauche defects. Relative to surface butanol, surface hexanol chains are more disordered at the surface of their respective solutions. Statistically, an increase in the number of gauche defects is expected for hexanol relative to butanol, a six carbon chain vs a four carbon chain. Yet, self-aggregation of hexanol at its aqueous solution surfaces is not ruled out because the methylene spectral contribution is relatively small. The surface spectra for butanol and hexanol also show evidence for salting out from the ammonium bisulfate solutions.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production from maltose and soluble starch by overexpressing α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-07-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum does not have the enzymes needed for using maltose or starch. Two extracellular α-glucosidases encoded by agluI and agluII from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 catalyzing the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glycosidic bonds in maltose and starch from the non-reducing end were cloned and expressed in C. tyrobutyricum (Δack, adhE2), and their effects on n-butanol production from maltose and soluble starch in batch fermentations were studied. Compared to the parental strain grown on glucose, mutants expressing agluI showed robust activity in breaking down maltose and produced more butanol (17.2 vs. 9.5 g/L) with a higher butanol yield (0.20 vs. 0.10 g/g) and productivity (0.29 vs. 0.16 g/L h). The mutant was also able to use soluble starch as substrate, although at a slower rate compared to maltose. Compared to C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, the mutant produced more butanol from maltose (17.2 vs. 11.2 g/L) and soluble starch (16.2 vs. 8.8 g/L) in batch fermentations. The mutant was stable in batch fermentation without adding antibiotics, achieving a high butanol productivity of 0.40 g/L h. This mutant strain thus can be used in industrial production of n-butanol from maltose and soluble starch.

  7. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  8. Synthesis, properties and application of butanolic ethers of condensation products of diphenylolpropane and formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Suvorova, Yuliya; Chervakov, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract ? The main purpose of this work was to develop methods for the synthesis and modification properties of butanolic ethers of condensation products of diphenylolpropane and formaldehyde (BDPO), and well as creating based on them corrosion-resistant coatings for use as a means of sofeization. Coatings on the basis of the obtained resins are characterized by an excellent complex of physical and mechanical properties, good adhesion to metals and their use allows to prevent the formatio...

  9. Lipase-catalyzed enantioselective esterification of flurbiprofen with n-butanol

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The influences of water activity and solvent hydrophobicity on the kinetics of the lipase-catalyzed enantioselective esterification of flurbiprofen with n-butanol were investigated. The solvent effect was not similar for lipases from Candida rugosa (Crl), Mucor javanicus (Mjl), and porcine pancreas (Ppl). The lipase-catalyzed reaction rates in different solvents across a wide range of water activities revealed that the Ppl-catalyzed reaction exhibited no enantioselectivity and no substantial ...

  10. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the enhanced production of isopropanol-butanol-ethanol fuel mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Joungmin; Im, Jung Ae; Lee, Sang Yup; Lee, Julia; Eom, Moon-Ho; Cho, Jung-Hee; Seung, Do Young

    2013-01-01

    Butanol is considered as a superior biofuel, which is conventionally produced by clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Among ABE, only butanol and ethanol can be used as fuel alternatives. Coproduction of acetone thus causes lower yield of fuel alcohols. Thus, this study aimed at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced fuel alcohol production capability. For this, we previously developed a hyper ABE producing BKM19 strain was further engineered to convert acetone into isopropanol. The BKM19 strain was transformed with the plasmid pIPA100 containing the sadh (primary/secondary alcohol dehydrogenase) and hydG (putative electron transfer protein) genes from the Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593 cloned under the control of the thiolase promoter. The resulting BKM19 (pIPA100) strain produced 27.9 g/l isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE) as a fuel alcohols with negligible amount of acetone (0.4 g/l) from 97.8 g/l glucose in lab-scale (2 l) batch fermentation. Thus, this metabolically engineered strain was able to produce 99% of total solvent produced as fuel alcohols. The scalability and stability of BKM19 (pIPA100) were evaluated at 200 l pilot-scale fermentation, which showed that the fuel alcohol yield could be improved to 0.37 g/g as compared to 0.29 g/g obtained at lab-scale fermentation, while attaining a similar titer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest titer of IBE achieved and the first report on the large scale fermentation of C. acetobutylicum for IBE production.

  11. Butanol and hexanol production in Clostridium carboxidivorans syngas fermentation: Medium development and culture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John R; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Tanner, Ralph S; Torres, Juan R; Saxena, Jyotisna; Wilkins, Mark R; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium carboxidivorans was grown on model syngas (CO:H2:CO2 [70:20:10]) in a defined nutrient medium with concentrations of nitrogen, phosphate and trace metals formulated to enhance production of higher alcohols. C. carboxidivorans was successfully grown in a limited defined medium (no yeast extract, no MES buffer and minimal complex chemical inputs) using an improved fermentation protocol. Low partial pressure of CO in the headspace, coupled with restricted mass transfer for CO and H2, was required for successful fermentation. In the absence of substrate inhibition (particularly from CO), growth limitation increased production of alcohols, especially butanol and hexanol. Concentrations of butanol (over 1.0g/L), hexanol (up to 1.0g/L) and ethanol (over 3.0g/L) were achieved in bottle fermentations. Minimal medium and controlled supply of CO and H2 should be used in characterizing candidate butanol and hexanol producing strains to select for commercial potential.

  12. Cell growth behaviors of Clostridium acetobutylicum in a pervaporation membrane bioreactor for butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peina; Xiao, Zeyi; Chen, Chunyan; Li, Weijia; Deng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum was studied in the continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system. The experiment lasting for 192 H was carried out by integrating fermentation with in situ pervaporation. In the entire process, the cell growth profile took place in the following two phases: the logarithmic phase during early 28 H and the linear phase from 130 to 150 H. This was a unique characteristic compared with the curve of traditional fermentation, and the fitting equations of two growth phases were obtained by Origin software according to the kinetic model of cell growth. Besides, the kinetic parameters that include the butanol yield, maximum specific growth rate, average specific formation rate, and volumetric productivity of butanol were measured as 0.19 g g(-1) , 0.345 H(-1) , 0.134 H(-1) and 0.23 g L(-1)  H(-1) , respectively. The C. acetobutylicum in the CCCF system showed good adaptability and fermentation performance, and the prolonged fermentation period and high production were also the main advantages of CCCF technology.

  13. Optimization of wastewater microalgae saccharification using dilute acid hydrolysis for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Yessica; Ellis, Joshua T.; Miller, Charles D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2015-02-01

    Exploring and developing sustainable and efficient technologies for biofuel production are crucial for averting global consequences associated with fuel shortages and climate change. Optimization of sugar liberation from wastewater algae through acid hydrolysis was determined for subsequent fermentation to acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acid concentration, retention time, and temperature were evaluated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions by assessing the sugar and ABE yield as well as the associated costs. Sulfuric acid concentrations ranging from 0-1.5 M, retention times of 40-120 min, and temperatures from 23°C- 90°C were combined to form a full factorial experiment. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment of 10% dried wastewater microalgae using 1.0 M sulfuric acid for 120 min at 80-90°C was found to be the optimal parameters, with a sugar yield of 166.1 g for kg of dry algae, concentrations of 5.23 g/L of total ABE, and 3.74 g/L of butanol at a rate of USD $12.83 per kg of butanol.

  14. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing Butanol Production under the Stress Environments of Co-Culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Integrated with Exogenous Butyrate Addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhen Luo

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE fermentation strategy integrating Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culturing system with exogenous butyrate addition, was proposed and experimentally conducted. In solventogenic phase, by adding 0.2 g-DCW/L-broth viable S. cerevisiae cells and 4.0 g/L-broth concentrated butyrate solution into C. acetobutylicum culture broth, final butanol concentration and butanol/acetone ratio in a 7 L anaerobic fermentor reached the highest levels of 15.74 g/L and 2.83 respectively, with the increments of 35% and 43% as compared with those of control. Theoretical and experimental analysis revealed that, the proposed strategy could, 1 extensively induce secretion of amino acids particularly lysine, which are favorable for both C. acetobutylicum survival and butanol synthesis under high butanol concentration environment; 2 enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and over-produce intracellular NADH for butanol synthesis in C. acetobutylicum metabolism simultaneously; 3 direct most of extra consumed glucose into butanol synthesis route. The synergetic actions of effective amino acids assimilation, high rates of substrate consumption and NADH regeneration yielded highest butanol concentration and butanol ratio in C. acetobutylicum under this stress environment. The proposed method supplies an alternative way to improve ABE fermentation performance by traditional fermentation technology.

  16. Viscosidades de la mezcla n,n-Dimetilformamida + I-Butanol a Diferentes Temperaturas Viscosities of the Mixture n,n-Dimethylformamide + 1-Butanol at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel S Páez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los tiempos de flujo de la mezcla binaria usando un viscosímetro Anton Paar modelo AMVn. La mezcla estudiada fue n,n-dimetilformamida+1-butanol sobre todo el intervalo de fracciones molares a las siete temperaturas, desde 283.15 a 313.15 K. A partir de los datos obtenidos se calcularon las viscosidades absolutas, las desviaciones de viscosidad, los coeficientes de la ecuación de Redlich-Kister, los parámetros de activación del flujo viscoso y las propiedades termodinámicas de exceso. Los resultados se interpretaron en términos de las interacciones presentes en la solución. El sistema mostró desviaciones negativas de viscosidad, lo cual podría indicar disrupción de los enlaces de hidrógeno presentes en el alcohol y presencia de débiles interacciones físicas entre las moléculas distintas en la mezcla. Esto está de acuerdo con los valores obtenidos para los parámetros de activación de exceso del flujo viscoso.Flowing times of a binary mixture were determined using an AMVn Anton Paar viscometer. The mixture studied was n,n-Dimetilformamida + 1-butanol over the entire range of mole fractions at seven temperatures, from 283.15 to 313.15 K. From the data obtained, the absolute viscosity, viscosity deviations, coefficients of the Redlich-Kister equation, activation parameters of viscous flow and excess thermodynamic properties were calculated. The results were interpreted in terms of the interactions present in the solution. The system showed negative deviations for the viscosity, which could mean disruption of hydrogen bonds present in the alcohol and the presence of weak physical interactions between unlike molecules in the mixture. This is in agreement with the values obtained for the excess activation parameters of viscous flow.

  17. On the high-temperature combustion of n-butanol: Shock tube data and an improved kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Vasu, Subith S.

    2013-11-21

    The combustion of n-butanol has received significant interest in recent years, because of its potential use in transportation applications. Researchers have extensively studied its combustion chemistry, using both experimental and theoretical methods; however, additional work is needed under specific conditions to improve our understanding of n-butanol combustion. In this study, we report new OH time-history data during the high-temperature oxidation of n-butanol behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1300-1550 K and at pressures near 2 atm. These data were obtained at Stanford University, using narrow-line-width ring dye laser absorption of the R1(5) line of OH near 306.7 nm. Measured OH time histories were modeled using comprehensive n-butanol literature mechanisms. It was found that n-butanol unimolecular decomposition rate constants commonly used in chemical kinetic models, as well as those determined from theoretical studies, are unable to predict the data presented herein. Therefore, an improved high-temperature mechanism is presented here, which incorporates recently reported rate constants measured in a single pulse shock tube [C. M. Rosado-Reyes and W. Tsang, J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, 116, 9825-9831]. Discussions are presented on the validity of the proposed mechanism against other literature shock tube experiments. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Pal Toor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Esters are an important pharmaceutical intermediates and very useful perfumery agents. In this study the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso-butanol over an acidic cation exchange resin, Amberlyst 15 were carried out. The effects of certain parameters such as temperature, catalyst loading, initial molar ratio between reactants on the rate of reaction were studied. The experiments were conducted in a stirred batch reactor in the temperature range of 351.15 K to 366.15K.Variation of parameters on rate of reaction demonstrated that the reaction was intrinsically controlled.The activation energy for the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso butanol is found to be 28.45 k J/mol and 23.29 kJ/mol respectively. ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 16th December 2010, Revised: 19th March 2011; Accepted: 7th April 2011[How to Cite: A.P. Toor, M. Sharma, G. Kumar, and R. K. Wanchoo. (2011. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 23-30. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/665 ] | View in 

  19. An Evaluation of Methanol, Ethanol, the Propanols, and the Butanols as Ship Propulsion Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    This report evaluates the alkyl monohydric alcohols from methanol through the butanols (C-1 to C-4) as Navy ship propulsion fuels. Properties of the alcohols from the technical literature are compared with the properties of Navy ship propulsion hydrocarbon fuels (Diesel Fuel Marine and JP-5). None of these alcohols is suitable as a direct substitute or as an extender for the currently used ship propulsion fuels. The use of methanol with its low volumetric energy content would entail over a 50% reduction in range

  20. Microbial synthesis of n-butanol, isobutanol, and other higher alcohols from diverse resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ethan I; Liao, James C

    2013-05-01

    Microbial production of fuel and chemical feedstock is a promising approach to solving energy and environmental problems. n-Butanol, isobutanol and other higher alcohols are of particular interest because they can serve as both fuel and chemical feedstock. Alternative resources such as CO2, syngas, waste protein, and lignocellulose are currently being investigated for their potential to produce these compounds. Except for lignocellulose, utilization of such alternative resource has not been examined extensively. This review aims to summarize the development of metabolic pathways for efficient synthesis of these higher alcohols and the current status of microbial strain development for the conversion of diverse resources into higher alcohols.

  1. Green chemistry: Efficient epoxides ring-opening with 1-butanol under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Vidal, Jesus A. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Campus Universitario, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, E-06071-Badajoz (Spain); Duran-Valle, Carlos J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Campus Universitario, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, E-06071-Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: carlosdv@unex.es; Ferrera-Escudero, Santiago [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Quimica Tecnica, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C/Senda del Rey, 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-06-30

    Two activated carbons treated with mineral acids (HNO{sub 3} and sulfonitric mixture) have been tested as acid catalysts in the epoxides (1,2-epoxyhexane and styrene oxide) ring-opening reaction with 1-butanol under microwave (MW) irradiation. The mayor obtained product is that resulting of the alcohol addition to the most substituted carbon in the epoxide ring. The most active catalyst is that treated with sulfonitric mixture. The use of a MW oven allows achieving to the complete conversion of styrene oxide in only 2 min.

  2. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C H; Okos, M R; Wankat, P C

    1989-06-05

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was successfully carried out in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor. The reactor was composed of two serial columns packed with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 entrapped on the surface of natural sponge segments at a cell loading in the range of 2.03-5.56 g dry cells/g sponge. The average cell loading was 3.58 g dry cells/g sponge. Batch experiments indicated that a critical pH above 4.2 is necessary for the initiation of cell growth. One of the media used during continuous experiments consisted of a salt mixture alone and the other a nutrient medium containing a salt mixture with yeast extract and peptone. Effluent pH was controlled by supplying various fractions of the two different types of media. A nutrient medium fraction above 0.6 was crucial for successful fermentation in a trickle bed reactor. The nutrient medium fraction is the ratio of the volume of the nutrient medium to the total volume of nutrient plus salt medium. Supplying nutrient medium to both columns continuously was an effective way to meet both pH and nutrient requirement. A 257-mL reactor could ferment 45 g/L glucose from an initial concentration of 60 g/L glucose at a rate of 70 mL/h. Butanol, acetone, and ethanol concentrations were 8.82, 5.22, and 1.45 g/L, respectively, with a butanol and total solvent yield of 19.4 and 34.1 wt %. Solvent productivity in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor was 4.2 g/L h, which was 10 times higher than that obtained in a batch fermentation using free cells and 2.76 times higher than that of an immobilized CSTR. If the nutrient medium fraction was below 0.6 and the pH was below 4.2, the system degenerated. Oxygen also contributed to the system degeneration. Upon degeneration, glucose consumption and solvent yield decreased to 30.9 g/L and 23.0 wt %, respectively. The yield of total liquid product (40.0 wt %) and butanol selectivity (60.0 wt %) remained almost constant. Once the cells were degenerated

  3. Effect of Butanol Extract of Maturated Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa Fruit on Liver Tissue of Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIF SOEKSMANTO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa [Scheff.] Boerl. is a poisonous plant, but almost all parts of the plants can be used as a traditional medicine. Consuming the plant directly can cause swollen, sprue, numb at tongue, fever, even unconscious. Although the plant can conquere various diseases, from diabetes mellitus, hemorrhoid, impotency to cancer, but research on the plant is still limited. A research was conducted to find out effect of subchronic dosage of butanol extract of maturated mahkota dewa fruit. Observation was carried out on liver tissue which is main organ detoxifying poison in the body. Dosage of butanol extract of 0; 42,5; 85 and 170 mg/kg body weight was administered intra peritoneally to mice. The result showed that butanol extract of maturated mahkota dewa fruit did not affect liver tissue, although at dosage 170 mg/kg body weight, a vacuolization on liver's tissue, was occurred.

  4. A new process for the valorisation of a bio-alcohol. The oxidehydration of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarelli, A.; Cavani, F.; Garone, O.; Pavarelli, G. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e dei Materiali; Bologna Univ. (Italy). CIRCC, Research Unit; Dubois, J.L. [ARKEMA, Colombes (France); Mitsova, I.; Simeonova, L. [JSC, Russe (Bulgaria). Orgachim

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with a study on the gas-phase transformation of 1-butanol into maleic anhydride, using different types of catalysts. Indeed, catalytic acid properties are needed to dehydrate 1-butanol into 1-butene, whereas redox-type properties are required for the oxidation of the olefin into maleic anhydride. The two types of active sites can be combined in bifunctional systems, showing both acid and redox-type properties. We found that vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyzes the one-pot reaction, giving a maximum selectivity to maleic anhydride of 28%. In fact, various side reactions contributed to the formation of by-products, eg, 1-butanol (oxidative) dehydrogenation into butyraldehyde, formation of light carboxylic acids and carbon oxides, and condensation of unsaturated C{sub 4} intermediates (butenes and butadiene) with the formed maleic anhydride to yield heavier compounds. (orig.)

  5. NEW STRAIN PRODUCERS OF BIOBUTANOL. III. METHODS OF INCREASED BUTANOL ACCUMULATION FROM BIOMASS OF SWITCHGRASS Panicum virgatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigunova O. O.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to enlarge accumulation of butanol from switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass using strains-producers obtained from grounds and silts of Kyiv lakes. The objects of the study were strains of C. acetobutylicum ІМВ B-7407 (IFBG C6H, Clostridium acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5М and Clostridium tyrobutyricum IFBG C4B from the "Collections of microbial strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology" of the Public Institution "Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics" of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Gas chromatography was used to determine the alcohol concentration at the stage of solvent synthesis. To determine the effect of butanol precursors during cultivation, butyric, lactic and acetic acids were used. Optimization of processing parameters, which was based on the needs of cultures, allowed us to increase the yield by 20 and 50% for the initial and mutant strain respectively. Using synthetic precursors (such as lactic, butyric and acetic acid during cultivation increased total concentration of butanol by 1.7 times. To optimize the process, a study was carried out using acetone- butyl grains. Using of acetone-butyl grains in concentrations up to 60% does not affect the synthesis of butanol by C. acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5M. Increasing the concentration of grains led to decrease in accumulation of butanol. Almost double increase in accumulation of the target product (butanol was achieved using two-stage fermentation and/or precursors of synthesis. It was shown the possibility of using acetone-butyl grains in fermentation. As a result the mass fraction of the waste was reduced.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for n-butanol production through co-utilization of glucose and xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-10-01

    The glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in Clostridium tyrobutyricum impedes efficient utilization of xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. In order to relieve the CCR and enhance xylose utilization, three genes (xylT, xylA, and xylB) encoding a xylose proton-symporter, a xylose isomerase and a xylulokinase, respectively, from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 were co-overexpressed with aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) in C. tyrobutyricum (Δack). Compared to the strain Ct(Δack)-pM2 expressing only adhE2, the mutant Ct(Δack)-pTBA had a higher xylose uptake rate and was able to simultaneously consume glucose and xylose at comparable rates for butanol production. Ct(Δack)-pTBA produced more butanol (12.0 vs. 3.2 g/L) with a higher butanol yield (0.12 vs. 0.07 g/g) and productivity (0.17 vs. 0.07 g/L · h) from both glucose and xylose, while Ct(Δack)-pM2 consumed little xylose in the fermentation. The results confirmed that the CCR in C. tyrobutyricum could be overcome through overexpressing xylT, xylA, and xylB. The mutant was also able to co-utilize glucose and xylose present in soybean hull hydrolysate (SHH) for butanol production, achieving a high butanol titer of 15.7 g/L, butanol yield of 0.24 g/g, and productivity of 0.29 g/L · h. This study demonstrated the potential application of Ct(Δack)-pTBA for industrial biobutanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Direct fermentation of gelatinized cassava starch to acetone, butanol, and ethanol using Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant obtained by atmospheric and room temperature plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-bin

    2014-04-01

    The mutant strain designated as ART18, obtained from the wild-type strain Clostridium acetobutylicum PW12 treated by atmospheric and room temperature plasma, showed higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than that of the wild-type strain. The production of butanol was 11.3 ± 0.5 g/L, 31 % higher than that of the wild-type strain when it was used for acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation in P2 medium. Furthermore, the effects of cassava flour concentration, pH regulators, and vitamins on the ABE production were also investigated. The highest butanol production of 15.8 ± 0.8 g/L and butanol yield (0.31 g/g) were achieved after the above factors were optimized. When acetone, butanol, and ethanol fermentation by ART18 was carried out in a 15-L bioreactor, the butanol production, the productivity of butanol, and the total solvent were 16.3 ± 0.9, 0.19, and 0.28 g/L(/)h, respectively. These results indicate that ART18 is a promising industrial producer in ABE fermentation.

  8. Study on Properties of Microemulsion AEO-9/Butanol/Cyclohexane/Salt Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Guanming; Chen Yongjie; Tian Yiguang; Fang Li; Xiao Linjiu; Sun Yanbin

    2004-01-01

    The microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution (or ammonium salt aqueous solution) was studied, which was used as 'micro-reactor' in preparing long afterglow phosphor materials SrAl2O4: Eu2+ ,Dy3+. The phase behavior of microemulsion was investigated. The radius of inner water droplet Rw and the change of standard free energy ΔG*o→i were obtained by means of dilution method and theoretical calculation. The result shows that with the increase of W/S, the area of microemulsion region decreases, Rw and ΔG*o→i increase and the microemulsion stability decreases. The structure change and formation area of microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution ( or ammonium salt aqueous solution) were offered for the adoption of a synthesis method with newly high efficiency and utility. The particular size and its distribution theory gist, fluorescence life-span, and quenching concentration parameter data were expected. A new approach was explored for finding a new preparation method of rare earths afterglow materials and increasing luminescence intensity without crashing.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for isopropanol-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Choi, Sung Jun; Im, Jung Ae; Song, Hyohak; Cho, Jung Hee; Seung, Do Young; Papoutsakis, E Terry; Bennett, George N; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-03-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum naturally produces acetone as well as butanol and ethanol. Since acetone cannot be used as a biofuel, its production needs to be minimized or suppressed by cell or bioreactor engineering. Thus, there have been attempts to disrupt or inactivate the acetone formation pathway. Here we present another approach, namely, converting acetone to isopropanol by metabolic engineering. Since isopropanol can be used as a fuel additive, the mixture of isopropanol, butanol, and ethanol (IBE) produced by engineered C. acetobutylicum can be directly used as a biofuel. IBE production is achieved by the expression of a primary/secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-593 (i.e., adh(B-593)) in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. To increase the total alcohol titer, a synthetic acetone operon (act operon; adc-ctfA-ctfB) was constructed and expressed to increase the flux toward isopropanol formation. When this engineering strategy was applied to the PJC4BK strain lacking in the buk gene (encoding butyrate kinase), a significantly higher titer and yield of IBE could be achieved. The resulting PJC4BK(pIPA3-Cm2) strain produced 20.4 g/liter of total alcohol. Fermentation could be prolonged by in situ removal of solvents by gas stripping, and 35.6 g/liter of the IBE mixture could be produced in 45 h.

  10. Organosolv pretreatment of rice straw for efficient acetone, butanol, and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zilouei, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) was produced from rice straw using a process containing ethanol organosolv pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum bacterium. Pretreatment of the straw with 75% (v/v) aqueous ethanol containing 1% w/w sulfuric acid at 150 °C for 60 min resulted in the highest total sugar concentration of 31 g/L in the enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the highest ABE concentration and productivity (10.5 g/L and 0.20 g/Lh, respectively) were obtained from the straw pretreated at 180 °C for 30 min. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the straw pretreated at 180 °C for 30 min with 5% solid loading resulted in glucose yield of 46.2%, which was then fermented to 80.3 g butanol, 21.1 g acetone, and 22.5 g ethanol, the highest overall yield of ABE production. Thus, the organosolv pretreatment can be applied for efficient production of the solvents from rice straw.

  11. Recent progress on industrial fermentative production of acetone-butanol-ethanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhihao

    2009-06-01

    China is one of the few countries, which maintained the fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production for several decades. Until the end of the last century, the ABE fermentation from grain was operated in a few industrial scale plants. Due to the strong competition from the petrochemical industries, the fermentative ABE production lost its position in the 1990s, when all the solvent fermentation plants in China were closed. Under the current circumstances of concern about energy limitations and environmental pollution, new opportunities have emerged for the traditional ABE fermentation industry since it could again be potentially competitive with chemical synthesis. From 2006, several ABE fermentation plants in China have resumed production. The total solvent (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) production capacity from ten plants reached 210,000 tons, and the total solvent production is expected to be extended to 1,000,000 tons (based on the available data as of Sept. 2008). This article reviews current work in strain development, the continuous fermentation process, solvent recovery, and economic evaluation of ABE process in China. Challenges for an economically competitive ABE process in the future are also discussed.

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y

    2016-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis.

  13. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

  14. Phase Behavior and Dielectric Spectroscopy of the Sodiun Dodecyl Trioxyethylene Sulfate/n-Butanol/Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI, Su-Xiang; MU, Jian-Hai; ZHAO, Kong-Shuang; LEI, Jian-Ping; LI, Gan-Zuo

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system of sodium dodecyl trioxyethylene sulfate (SDES)/n-butanol/water is obtained at (30.0 ± 0.1) ℃. There exists a clear, isotropic, and low-viscosity L phase, which could be divided into W/O micelle, bicontinuous (B. C. ) phase and O/W micelle by conductivity measurements. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS) measurements are applied to investigate microstructure changes of this system. For samples with a fixed weight ratio, SDES/nbutanol = 3/7, DRS indicates a structure transition from W/Oto O/W micelles via B.C. Phase with the increase of water content. For the samples with a fixed weight ratio, SDES/H2O =4/6, DRS can presents that there exist changes of onefold structure size of W/O micelles as n-butanol content increases. The results obtained from DRS and their analyses are in good agreement with those from phase diagram and conductivity measurements.

  15. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from corn stover pretreated by alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Hou, Tongang; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Mu, Xindong; Wang, Haisong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreated corn stover was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after washing. The impact of solid loading and enzyme dose on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that 68.2 g/L of total fermentable sugar could be obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with the solid loading of 10 %, while the highest sugar recovery of 91.07 % was achieved when the solid loading was 2 % with the cellulase dose of 24 FPU/g substrate. Subsequently, the hydrolyzate was fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production of the hydrolyzate was compared with the glucose, xylose and simulated hydrolyzate medium which have the same reducing sugar concentration. It was shown that 7.1 g/L butanol and 11.2 g/L ABE could be produced after 72 h fermentation for the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with 6 % solid loading. This is comparable to the glucose and simulated hydrozate medium, and the overall ABE yield could reach 0.112 g/g raw corn stover.

  16. Biobutanol as Fuel for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells-Investigation of Sn-Modified Pt Catalyst for Butanol Electro-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Brett, Dan J L; Russell, Andrea E; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-05-25

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies are available for longer chain alcohols such as butanol. A significant development in the production of biobutanol and its proposed application as an alternative fuel to gasoline in the past decade makes butanol an interesting candidate fuel for fuel cells. Different butanol isomers were compared in this study on various Pt and PtSn bimetallic catalysts for their electro-oxidation activities in acidic media. Clear distinctive behaviors were observed for each of the different butanol isomers using cyclic voltammetry (CV), indicating a difference in activity and the mechanism of oxidation. The voltammograms of both n-butanol and iso-butanol showed similar characteristic features, indicating a similar reaction mechanism, whereas 2-butanol showed completely different features; for example, it did not show any indication of poisoning. Ter-butanol was found to be inactive for oxidation on Pt. In situ FTIR and CV analysis showed that OHads was essential for the oxidation of primary butanol isomers which only forms at high potentials on Pt. In order to enhance the water oxidation and produce OHads at lower potentials, Pt was modified by the oxophilic metal Sn and the bimetallic PtSn was studied for the oxidation of butanol isomers. A significant enhancement in the oxidation of the 1° butanol isomers was observed on addition of Sn to the Pt, resulting in an oxidation peak at a potential ∼520 mV lower than that found on pure Pt. The higher activity of PtSn was attributed to the

  17. Antihyperglycemic Effect on Chronic Administration of Butanol Fraction of Ethanol Extract of Moringa Stenopetala Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alemayehu Toma; Eyasu Makonnen; Asfaw Debella; Birhanu Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity on chronic administration of the butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Moringa Stenopetala leaves in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Methods: The mice were grouped in four groups; Normal control, Diabetic control, Butanol fraction treated and standard drug treated groups. The Diabetic mice received the butanol fraction of Moringa stenopetala daily for 28 days. Results: The butanol fraction of Moringastenopetala treatment resulted in significant reduction of fasting blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides level. This fraction also showed a tendency to improve body weight gain in diabetic mice. Its oral LD50 was found to be greater than 5000mg/Kg indicating its safety in mice. Conclusions: Though the mechanism of action of Moringa stenopetala seems to be similar to that of sulfonylureas, further studies should be done to confirm its mechanism of antidiabetic action. Furthermore the active principle(s) responsible for the antidabetic effects should also be identified.

  18. Underlying mechanism of protection from hypoxic injury seen with n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L. in hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Qin; Lingzhi Li; Qi Lv; Baoguo Yu; Shuwang Yang; Tao He; Yongliang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol and n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L.significantly protects myocardium from acute ischemic injury.However,its effects on rat hippocampal neurons and the mechanism of protection remain unclear.In this study,primary cultured hippocampal neurons from neonatal rats were incubated in 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 4 hours.Results indicated that hypoxic injury decreased the viability of neurons,increased the expression levels of caspase-9 and caspase-3 mRNA,as well as cytochrome c,Caspase-9,and Caspase-3 protein.Pretreatment with 0.25,0.0625,0.0156 mg/mL n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L.led to a significant increase in cell viability.Expression levels of caspase-9 and caspase-3 mRNA,as well as cytochrome c,Caspase-9,andCaspase-3 protein,were attenuated.The neuroprotective effect of n-butanol extract of Potentillaanserine L.was equivalent to tanshinone IIA.Our data suggest that the n-butanol extract of Potentilla anserine L.could protect primary hippocampal neurons from hypoxic injury by deactivating mitochondrial cell death.

  19. Enhancing bio-butanol production from biomass of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with sequential alkali pretreatment and acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a successful butanol production method using alkali and acid pretreated biomass of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6. The butanol concentration, yield, and productivity were 13.1g/L, 0.58mol/mol sugar, 0.66g/L/h, respectively. Nearly 2.93L/L of biohydrogen was produced during the acidogenesis phase in ABE fermentation. The hydrogen yield and productivity were 0.39mol/mol sugar and 104.2g/L/h respectively. In addition, the high glucose consumption efficiency (97.5%) suggests that the hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH (1%) followed by H2SO4 (3%) did not contain inhibitors to the fermentation. It was also discovered that an excess amount of nitrogen sources arising from hydrolysis of highly concentrated microalgal biomass negatively affected the butanol production. This work demonstrates the technical feasibility of producing butanol from sustainable third-generation feedstock (i.e., microalgal biomass).

  20. A systematic study of the isothermal crystallization of the mono-alcohol n-butanol monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Hartmann; Hecksher, Tina; Niss, Kristine;

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal crystallization of the mono-hydroxyl alcohol n-butanol was studied with dielectric spectroscopy in real time. The crystallization was carried out using two different sample cells at 15 temperatures between 120 K and 134 K. Crystallization is characterized by a decrease of the dielectric...

  1. Substrate dependent modulation of butanol to ethanol ratio in non-acetone forming Clostridium sporogenes NCIM 2918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Mehak; Ahlawat, Saumya; Mukherjee, Mayurketan; Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Goswami, Gargi; Das, Debasish

    2017-02-01

    Present study reports a non-acetone producing Clostridium sporogenes strain as a potential producer of liquid biofuels. Alcohol production was positively regulated by sorbitol and instant dry yeast as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. Media optimization resulted in maximum butanol and ethanol titer (gL(-1)) of 12.1 and 7.9 respectively. Depending on the combination of carbon sources, the organism was found to manipulate its metabolism towards synthesis of either ethanol or butanol, thereby affecting the total alcohol titer. Among various dual substrate combinations, glucose-glycerol mixture in the ratio of 60:40 resulted in maximum butanol and ethanol titer (gL(-1)) of 11.9 and 12.1 respectively with total alcohol productivity of 0.59gL(-1)h(-1). In the mixture, when pure glycerol was replaced with crude glycerol, butanol and ethanol titer (gL(-1)) of 11.2 and 11.7 was achieved. Hence, the strain shows immense potential for biofuels production using crude glycerol as cheap substrate.

  2. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system.

  3. Utilisation of saccharides in extruded domestic organic waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Contreras, A.M.; Claassen, P.A.; Mooibroek, H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Domestic organic waste (DOW) collected in The Netherlands was analysed and used as substrate for acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) production. Two different samples of DOW, referred to as fresh DOW and dried DOW, were treated by extrusion in order to expand the polymer fibres present and to obtain

  4. Process economics of renewable biorefineries: butanol and ethanol production in integrated bioprocesses from lignocellulosics and other industrial by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides process economic details on production of butanol from lignocellulosic biomass and glycerol in integrated bioreactors where numerous unit operations are combined. In order to compare various processes, economic evaluations were performed using SuperPro Designer Software (versio...

  5. Modulation of the Acetone/Butanol Ratio during Fermentation of Corn Stover-derived Hydrolysate by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Yong; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ze-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Yu; Li, Fu-Li

    2017-01-27

    Producing biobutanol from lignocellulosic biomass has shown promise to ultimately reduce greenhouse gases and alleviate the global energy crisis. However, because of the recalcitrance of a lignocellulosic biomass, a pretreatment of the substrate is needed which in many cases releases soluble lignin compounds (SLCs), which inhibit growth of butanol-producing clostridia. In this study, we found that SLCs changed the acetone/butanol ratio (A/B ratio) during butanol fermentation. The typical A/B molar ratio during Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 batch fermentation with glucose as the carbon source is about 0.5. In the present study, the A/B molar ratio during batch fermentation with a lignocellulosic hydrolysate as the carbon source was 0.95 at the end of fermentation. Structural and redox potential changes of the SLCs were characterized before and after fermentation by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and electrochemical analyses, which indicated that some exogenous SLCs were involved in distributing electron flow to C. beijerinckii, leading to modulation of the redox balance. This was further demonstrated by the NADH/NAD(+) ratio and trxB gene expression profile assays at the onset of solventogenic growth. As a result, the A/B ratio of end-products changed significantly during C. beijerinckii fermentation using corn stover-derived hydrolysate as the carbon source compared to that with glucose. These results revealed that SLCs not only inhibited cell growth, but also modulated the A/B ratio during C. beijerinckii butanol fermentation.

  6. One-step Synthesis of n-Butanol from Ethanol Condensation over Alumina-supported Metal Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Wu YANG; Xuan Zhen JIANG; Wei Chao ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    One-step synthesis of n-butanol from bimolecular condensation of ethanol was firstly achieved over nickel supported gamma alumina catalyst. A mechanism of dehydration path for the growth of carbon chain by eliminating a hydroxy group from one ethanol molecule with a α-H of other ethanol molecule rather than aldol condensation was verified.

  7. Binary, ternary and quaternary liquid-liquid equilibria in 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelman, J. G. M.; Kraai, G. N.; Heeres, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on liquid-liquid equilibria in the system 1-butanol, oleic acid, water and n-heptane used for biphasic, lipase catalysed esterifications. The literature was studied on the mutual solubility in binary systems of water and each of the organic components. Experimental results were obt

  8. Phase equilibria of microemulsion forming system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahl, Heike; Quitzsch, Konrad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1997-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the phase behaviour involving microemulsions is presented with respect to experimental and calculated data for the four-component system n-decyl-(beta)-D-glucopyranoside/water/n-octane/1-butanol and its corresponding ternaries at 25°C. The main feature of this kind o...

  9. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of total condensed tannins in plant tissues by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used to quantify extractable and insoluble forms of condensed tannin (CT, syn. proanthocyanidin) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants. However, this method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant materia...

  10. Implications of sterically constrained n-butane oxidation reactions on the reaction mechanism and selectivity to 1-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Sean T.; Gómez-Gualdrón, Diego A.; Getman, Rachel B.

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to analyze the reaction network in n-butane oxidation to 1-butanol over a Ag/Pd alloy catalyst under steric constraints, and the implications on the ability to produce 1-butanol selectively using MOF-encapsulated catalysts are discussed. MOFs are porous crystalline solids comprised of metal nodes linked by organic molecules. Recently, they have been successfully grown around metal nanoparticle catalysts. The resulting porous networks have been shown to promote regioselective chemistry, i.e., hydrogenation of trans-1,3-hexadiene to 3-hexene, presumably by forcing the linear alkene to stand "upright" on the catalyst surface and allowing only the terminal C-H bonds to be activated. In this work, we extend this concept to alkane oxidation. Our goal is to determine if a MOF-encapsulated catalyst could be used to selectively produce 1-butanol. Reaction energies and activation barriers are presented for more than 40 reactions in the pathway for n-butane oxidation. We find that C-H bond activation proceeds through an oxygen-assisted pathway and that butanal and 1-butanol are some of the possible products.

  11. Partial characterization of n-butanol-solubilized rejection-type antigens of syngeneic murine colon tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N; Kikuchi, K

    1985-04-01

    Previous investigation of the transplantation immunity of 2 cultured murine colon lines of BALB/c origin, C-C36 and C-C26, showed these tumor lines to be immunogenic against individual tumors and to have possibly cross-reactive, tumor-rejection-type antigens. For characterization of the molecular features of tumor-rejection antigens expressed on the colon tumor cells, n-butanol was used for the extraction of rejection-type antigens from tumor cells and immunogenic molecules were analyzed on transplantation immunity. The data demonstrated that extraction of the rejection-type antigens from C-C36 and C-C26 surface membrane without cellular lysis was possible with n-butanol treatment of these cells, and immunogenic activities of these extracts from C-C36 and C-C26 cells were more potent than those of nonionic detergent Nonidet P40 extracts in the tumor-rejection assays. The extracts were partially characterized by chromatographic separation on Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and lectin-affinity chromatography. It was suggested that the C-C36 antigens responsible for tumor-rejection activity against the same tumor cells had a molecular weight range of approximately 150,000 to 250,000 (fraction II) in the presence of 5 mM EDTA and had been eluted into unbound fractions to lens culinaris lectin on affinity chromatography. Moreover, immunization of mice with antigens from the same fractions (fraction II) of n-butanol extracts of C-C26 tumor on the gel filtration could induce the resistance against challenged C-C36 as well as against challenged C-C26 tumor growth. These results may indicate that solubilized tumor-rejection-type antigens found in C-C36 and C-C26 colon tumors have a size similar to that of the molecules and that cross-reacting, rejection-type antigens between these cells are the products of the same gene clusters or somatic derivatives of a single gene.

  12. 溶液表面吸附实验拓展%Extension of surface adsorption experiment for butanol aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李田; 杨玲; 徐金荣; 吴忠云; 朱涛

    2016-01-01

    ‘Determination of surface adsorption for n-butanol aqueous solution’is a classical experiment in physical chemistry laboratory.This paper expands the solution system from n-butanol to three isomers including n-butanol,i-butanol and t-butanol.Their surface tension at different concentrations is determined.The occupied area of each molecule is acquired and consistent with the theoretical modeling by chem3D Ultra.The result demonstrates that the surface adsorption experiment can characterize the molecule structure size in nano-scale accurately,and this teaching design can help students understand the experiment more deeply.%对经典的物理化学实验“溶液表面吸附的测定”进行了拓展,将体系由单一的正丁醇溶液扩展成正丁醇、异丁醇和叔丁醇一系列同分异构体。分别测定了3种醇溶液在不同浓度下的表面张力,拟合实验数据进而计算得到了单分子的占有面积,并与 chem3D软件的理论模拟进行了比较。结果表明,实验求得吸附量和单分子占有面积的同时,可以有效地区分分子纳米尺度的结构差异。实验有助于增强学生对微观的具象认识,并对表面吸附实验有更加深刻全面的理解。

  13. In situ hydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from oleaginous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elhagag Ahmed; Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Bagy, Magdy Mohamed Khalil; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    An in situ batch fermentation technique was employed for biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and microdiesel production from oleaginous fungal biomass using the anaerobic fermentative bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Oleaginous fungal Cunninghamella echinulata biomass which has ability to accumulate up to 71% cellular lipid was used as the substrate carbon source. The maximum cumulative hydrogen by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from crude C. echinulata biomass was 260 ml H2 l(-1), hydrogen production efficiency was 0.32 mol H2 mole(-1) glucose and the hydrogen production rate was 5.2 ml H2 h(-1). Subsequently, the produced acids (acetic and butyric acids) during acidogenesis phase are re-utilized by ABE-producing clostridia and converted into acetone, butanol, and ethanol. The total ABE produced by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 during batch fermentation was 3.6 g l(-1) from crude fungal biomass including acetone (1.05 g l(-1)), butanol (2.19 g l(-1)) and ethanol (0.36 g l(-1)). C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 has ability to produce lipolytic enzymes with a specific activity 5.59 U/mg protein to hydrolyze ester containing substrates. The lipolytic potential of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was used as a biocatalyst for a lipase transesterification process using the produced ethanol from ABE fermentation for microdiesel production. The fatty acid ethyl esters (microdiesel) generated from the lipase transesterification of crude C. echinulata dry mass was analyzed by GC/MS as 15.4% of total FAEEs. The gross energy content of biohydrogen, acetone, butanol, ethanol and biodiesel generated through C. acetobutylicum fermentation from crude C. echinulata dry mass was 3113.14 kJ mol(-1). These results suggest a possibility of integrating biohydrogen, acetone, butanol and ethanol production technology by C. acetobutylicum with microdiesel production from crude C. echinulata dry mass and therefore improve the feasibility and commercialization of bioenergy production.

  14. Genome shuffling of Clostridium acetobutylicum CICC 8012 for improved production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Guohua; He, Kaize; Jin, Yanling

    2012-08-01

    Genome shuffling was applied to increase ABE production of the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum CICC 8012. By using physical and chemical mutagenesis, strains with superior streptomycin sulfate, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and butanol tolerance levels were isolated. These strains were used for genome shuffling. The best performing strain F2-GA was screened after two rounds of genome shuffling. With 55 g glucose/l as carbon source, F2-GA produced 22.21 g ABE/l in 72 h and ABE yield reached 0.42 g/g which was about 34.53 % improvement compared to the wild type. Fermentation parameters and gene expression of several key enzymes in ABE metabolic pathways were varied significantly between F2-GA and the wild type. These results demonstrated the potential use of genome shuffling to microbial breeding which were difficult to deal with traditional methods.

  15. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol production by corn stalk immobilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuedong; Ma, Yujiu; Yang, Fangxiao; Zhang, Chunhui

    2009-08-01

    Corn stalk was used as a support to immobilize Clostridia beijerinckii ATCC 55025 in the fermentation process of acetone, butanol, and ethanol production. The effect of the dilution rate on solvent production was examined in a steady-state 20-day continuous flow operation. The maximum total solvent concentration of 8.99 g l(-1) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.2 h(-1). Increasing the dilution rate between 0.2 and 1.0 h(-1) resulted in an increased solvent productivity, and the highest solvent productivity was obtained at 5.06 g l(-1) h(-1) with a dilution rate of 1 h(-1). The maximum solvent yield from glucose of 0.32 g g(-1) was observed at 0.25 h(-1). The cell adsorption and morphology change during the growth on corn stalk support were examined by the SEM.

  16. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L).

  17. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  18. Thermal and relaxational properties of glass-forming material, 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massalska-Arodz, Maria [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland) and Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: Maria.Massalska-Arodz@ifj.edu.pl; Nakamoto, Tadahiro [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Wasiutynski, Tadeusz [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Mayer, Jacek [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Krawczyk, Jan [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Sorai, Michio [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: sorai@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2004-10-01

    As a part of a project for glass-formers having various values of fragility, molecular dynamics of a glass-forming material 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol has been presented on the basis of the dielectric relaxation studies. Three characteristic relaxations were observed. To provide thermodynamic aspects of this material, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry has also been performed in the (13 to 302) K temperature range. The stable crystal of this material melts at T{sub m} = 235.7 K. When the material is rapidly cooled at a rate greater than 5 K min{sup -1}, the liquid is easily super-cooled and eventually transformed to a glassy state. Standard thermodynamic quantities are evaluated for both the stable crystalline and the glassy states. Structural relaxation processes are discussed in relation to the phase behaviour revealed by the calorimetry.

  19. Molecular Thermodynamics of Methane Solvation in tert-Butanol-Water Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maeng-Eun; Van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2007-01-01

    We studied solvation structure and thermodynamics of methane in mixtures of tert-butanol and water using computer simulations. We show that for alcohol mole fractions below 20%, methane is preferentially solvated by hydrated alcohol clusters. Because methane expels water molecules from these clusters, a large endothermic solvent reorganization enthalpy occurs. This process is responsible for the experimentally observed maximum of the heat of methane solvation close to 5% alcohol in the mixture and contributes to a positive entropy change relative to solvation in pure water. Because the structural solvent reorganization enthalpy is enthalpy-entropy compensating, the methane solvation free energy is a smoothly varying function of the alcohol/water solution composition.

  20. Low-temperature combustion chemistry of n-butanol: principal oxidation pathways of hydroxybutyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Oliver; Zádor, Judit; Savee, John D; Sheps, Leonid; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A

    2013-11-21

    Reactions of hydroxybutyl radicals with O2 were investigated by a combination of quantum-chemical calculations and experimental measurements of product formation. In pulsed-photolytic Cl-initiated oxidation of n-butanol, the time-resolved and isomer-specific product concentrations were probed using multiplexed tunable synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The interpretation of the experimental data is underpinned by potential energy surfaces for the reactions of O2 with the four hydroxybutyl isomers (1-hydroxybut-1-yl, 1-hydroxybut-2-yl, 4-hydroxybut-2-yl, and 4-hydroxybut-1-yl) calculated at the CBS-QB3 and RQCISD(T)/cc-pV∞Z//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory. The observed product yields display substantial temperature dependence, arising from a competition among three fundamental pathways: (1) stabilization of hydroxybutylperoxy radicals, (2) bimolecular product formation in the hydroxybutyl + O2 reactions, and (3) decomposition of hydroxybutyl radicals. The 1-hydroxybut-1-yl + O2 reaction is dominated by direct HO2 elimination from the corresponding peroxy radical forming butanal as the stable coproduct. The chemistry of the other three hydroxybutylperoxy radical isomers mainly proceeds via alcohol-specific internal H-atom abstractions involving the H atom from either the -OH group or from the carbon attached to the -OH group. We observe evidence of the recently reported water elimination pathway (Welz et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4 (3), 350-354) from the 4-hydroxybut-2-yl + O2 reaction, supporting its importance in γ-hydroxyalkyl + O2 reactions. Experiments using the 1,1-d2 and 4,4,4-d3 isotopologues of n-butanol suggest the presence of yet unexplored pathways to acetaldehyde.

  1. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from substandard and surplus dates by Egyptian native Clostridium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; Zohri, Abdel-Naser Ahmed; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Ali, Shimaa Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    One hundred and seven mesophilic isolates of Clostridium were isolated from agricultural soils cultivated with different plants in Assuit Governorate, Egypt. Eighty isolates (out of 107) showed the ability to produce ABE (Acetone, butanol and ethanol) on T6 medium ranging from 0.036 to 31.89 g/L. The highest numbers of ABE producing isolates were obtained from soil samples of potato contributing 27 isolates, followed by 18 isolates from wheat and 10 isolates from onion. On the other hand, there were three native isolates that produced ABE more than those produced by the reference isolate Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (11.543 g/L). The three isolates were identified based on phenotypic and gene encoding 16S rRNA as Clostridium beijerinckii ASU10 (KF372577), Clostridium chauvoei ASU55 (KF372580) and Clostridium roseum ASU58 (KF372581). The highest ABE level from substandard and surplus dates was produced by C. beijerinckii ASU10 (24.07 g/L) comprising butanol 67.15% (16.16 g/L), acetone 30.73% (7.4 g/L) and ethanol 2.12% (0.51 g/L), while C. roseum ASU58 and C. chauvoei ASU55 produced ABE contributing 20.20 and 13.79 g/L, respectively. ABE production by C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was 15.01 g/L. This study proved that the native strains C. beijerinckii ASU10 and C. roseum ASU58 have high competitive efficacy on ABE production from economical substrate as substandard and surplus date fruits. Additionally, using this substrate without any nutritional components is considered to be a commercial substrate for desired ABE production.

  2. Butanol production from cassava fermentation%木薯发酵产丁醇的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋钢; 郑璞; 倪晔; 王云; 孙珊; 孙志浩

    2012-01-01

    Butanol was produced by fermentation of cassava by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The effects of nitrogen sources, cassava content, α-amylase loading, and initial pH of medium were investigated. The optimal conditions were obtained as follows; fermentation medium composing of 120 g/L cassava and 6 g/L ammonium acetate; the cassava hydrolyzed at 90 ℃ for 60 min with high-temperature amylase of 20 U/g and gelatinized for 30 min; and initial fermentation pH 6. 0. When fermentation was carried out in 5-L fermentor under these conditions for 96 h, the concentrations of butanol and total solvents reached 13. 5 g/L and 22. 8 g/L, respectively.%对丙酮丁醇梭菌发酵木薯产溶剂进行研究,分别考察了N源、木薯含量、酶处理条件和培养基pH对发酵产丁醇的影响.结果表明:最佳的产丁醇发酵培养基为木薯粉120 g/L,乙酸铵6g/L;木薯粉先用高温淀粉酶按酶量20 U/g、90℃水解60 min,再糊化30 min;发酵初始pH为6.0,发酵96 h.在此条件下,5L发酵罐中丁醇产量达到13.5 g/L,总溶剂达到22.8 g/L.

  3. One-Pot Liquid-Phase Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to 1-Butanol over Aluminium Oxide—The Effect of the Active Metal on the Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyri-Pekka Mikkola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct catalytic valorization of bioethanol to 1-butanol over different alumina supported catalysts was studied. Thirteen (13 heterogeneous catalysts were screened in search for the optimal material composition for direct one-pot conversion of ethanol to 1-butanol. For the most promising catalyst, a 25% ethanol conversion with 80% selectivity (among liquid carbon products to 1-butanol could be reached at 250 °C. Additionally, the reaction kinetics and mechanisms were further investigated upon use of the most suitable catalyst candidate.

  4. Phase equilibrium properties of binary and ternary systems containing di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene at 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamanan, Rosa M. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: rvillama@dce.uva.es; Martin, M. Carmen [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: mcmg@eis.uva.es; Chamorro, Cesar R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: cescha@eis.uva.es; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: miguel.villamanan@eis.uva.es; Segovia, Jose J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: josseg@eis.uva.es

    2006-05-15

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibria data of (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene) (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol) and (1-butanol + benzene) have been measured at T = 313.15 K using an isothermal total pressure cell. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for the excess molar Gibbs energy using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary. The Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems reported here.

  5. One-Step Nonaqueous Synthesis of Pure Phase TiO2 Nanocrystals from TiCl4 in Butanol and Their Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure phase TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by an autoclaving treatment of TiCl4 with butanol as a single alcohol source. It was found that the control of molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol played an important role in determining the TiO2 crystal phase and morphology. A high molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol favored the formation of anatase nanoparticles, whereas rutile nanorods were selectively obtained at a low molar ratio of TiCl4 to butanol. Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized TiO2 was performed in terms of decomposition of organic dye rhodamine B under ultraviolet irradiation. It turned out that the as-synthesized TiO2 crystallites possessed higher photocatalytic activities toward bleaching rhodamine B than Degussa P25, benefiting from theirhigh surface area, small crystal size as well as high crystallinity.

  6. Use of the composite membrane of poly(ether-block-amide) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a pervaporation system incorporated with fermentation for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Yang, I-Kuan

    2012-04-01

    Fermentation incorporated with pervaporation was regarded as an efficient way to relieve the feedback inhibition of butanol in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The addition of CNTs (carbon nanotubes) to PEBA (poly(ether-block-amide)) could greatly enhance the removal flux of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) in a model solution test. The butanol removing rate results in a 61% increase in the batch with PEBA+CNTs (5%) membrane compared with that of the batch with PEBA alone. Besides the increase of removal flux, the addition of CNTs enforces the mechanical strength of the pervaporation membrane, which leads to more resistance for a longer operational time. The combination of a 5-L fermenter with the pervaporation membrane of PEBA+CNTs (10%) indicates a 20% increase both in productivity and yield compared to using PEBA. In conclusion, the addition of CNTs to a PEBA pervaporation membrane has great potential when applied in the ABE fermentation industry.

  7. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu

    2010-12-01

    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties.

  8. The n-Butanol Fraction and Rutin from Tartary Buckwheat Improve Cognition and Memory in an In Vivo Model of Amyloid-β-Induced Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Dong Gu; Cho, Sunghun; Yoon, Young-Ho; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Sanghyun

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the beneficial effects of the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from tartary buckwheat (TB) on learning and memory deficits in a mouse model of amyloid β (Aβ)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD). Learning and memory were assessed using the T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. Animals administered Aβ showed impaired cognition and memory, which were alleviated by oral administration of an n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB. Similarly, Aβ-induced increases in nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys were attenuated by treatment with n-butanol fraction and rutin from TB in addition to antioxidant effects observed in control (nonAβ-treated) animals. The results of the present study suggest that the n-butanol fraction and rutin extracted from TB are protective against and have possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of AD.

  9. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of bio-butanol over novel supported Co-based bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weijie; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramirez; Homs, Narcis

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the hydrogen production through the steam reforming of a bioresource-derived butanol mixture (butanol:acetone:ethanol=6:3:1 mass ratio) over supported cobalt-based catalysts. The support plays an important role for the catalytic behavior and Co/ZnO exhibits the best catalytic performance compared to Co/TiO(2) and Co/CeO(2). Moreover, a higher hydrogen yield is obtained over bimetallic Co-Ir/ZnO, which shows an increase in H(2) selectivity and a decrease in CH(4) selectivity under steam reforming conditions, compared to Co/ZnO. Raman results of the used catalysts indicate that the addition of Ir could prevent the coke formation to prolong the catalyst stability.

  10. Hydrogen production from oxidative steam reforming of bio-butanol over CoIr-based catalysts: effect of the support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weijie; Piscina, Pilar Ramírez de la; Gabrowska, Klaudia; Homs, Narcís

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the support on the behavior of bimetallic CoIr-based catalysts (6.5 wt.% Co, 0.4 wt.% Ir) for hydrogen production from the oxidative steam reforming of bio-butanol raw mixture (butanol/acetone/ethanol = 6/3/1 mass ratio). Catalytic tests were carried out at 500 °C for 60 h with raw mixture/water/air/Ar = 1/10/7.5/12 molar ratio and GHSV = 7500 h(-1). Over CoIr/18CeZrO(2) and CoIr/ZnO the main process which took place was the oxidative steam reforming of the raw mixture. CoIr/18CeZrO(2) showed the better catalytic performance. Characterization of the used catalysts indicated that both active metal sintering and coke formation was prevented on the CoIr/18CeZrO(2) catalyst.

  11. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  12. Biocatalyzed processes for production of commodity chemicals: Assessment of future research advances for N-butanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    This report is a summary of assessments by Chem Systems Inc. and a further evaluation of the impacts of research advances on energy efficiency and the potential for future industrial production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents and other products by biocatalyzed processes. Brief discussions of each of the assessments made by CSI, followed by estimates of minimum projected energy consumption and costs for production of solvents by ABE biocatalyzed processes are included. These assessments and further advances discussed in this report show that substantial decreases in energy consumption and costs are possible on the basis of specific research advances; therefore, it appears that a biocatalyzed process for ABE can be developed that will be competitive with conventional petrochemical processes for production of n-butanol and acetone. (In this work, the ABE process was selected and utilized only as an example for methodology development; other possible bioprocesses for production of commodity chemicals are not intended to be excluded.) It has been estimated that process energy consumption can be decreased by 50%, with a corresponding cost reduction of 15-30% (in comparison with a conventional petrochemical process) by increasing microorganism tolerance to n-butanol and efficient recovery of product solvents from the vapor phase.

  13. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta

    2010-05-01

    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips.

  14. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp.

  15. Production of an acetone-butanol-ethanol mixture from Clostridium acetobutylicum and its conversion to high-value biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sanil; Baer, Zachary C; Pazhamalai, Anbarasan; Gunbas, Gorkem; Grippo, Adam; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is a bacterial species that ferments sugar to a mixture of organic solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol). This protocol delineates a methodology to combine solventogenic clostridial fermentation and chemical catalysis via extractive fermentation for the production of biofuel blendstocks. Extractive fermentation of C. acetobutylicum is operated in fed-batch mode with a concentrated feed solution (500 grams per liter glucose and 50 grams per liter yeast extract) for 60 h, producing in excess of 40 g of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) between the completely immiscible extractant and aqueous phases of the bioreactor. After distillation of the extractant phase, the acetone, butanol and ethanol mixture is upgraded to long-chain ketones over a palladium-hydrotalcite (Pd-HT) catalyst. This reaction is generally carried out in batch with a high-pressure Q-tube for 20 h at 250 °C. Following this protocol enables the production of ∼0.5 g of high-value biofuel precursors from a 1.7-g portion of fermentation solvents.

  16. Efficient production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava by a fermentation-pervaporation coupled process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Zhang, Yuming; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-10-01

    Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava was investigated with a fermentation-pervaporation (PV) coupled process. ABE products were in situ removed from fermentation broth to alleviate the toxicity of solvent to the Clostridium acetobutylicum DP217. Compared to the batch fermentation without PV, glucose consumption rate and solvent productivity increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, in batch fermentation-PV coupled process, while in continuous fermentation-PV coupled process running for 304 h, the substrate consumption rate, solvent productivity and yield increased by 58%, 81% and 15%, reaching 2.02 g/Lh, 0.76 g/Lh and 0.38 g/g, respectively. Silicalite-1 filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane modules ensured media recycle without significant fouling, steadily generating a highly concentrated ABE solution containing 201.8 g/L ABE with 122.4 g/L butanol. After phase separation, a final product containing 574.3g/L ABE with 501.1g/L butanol was obtained. Therefore, the fermentation-PV coupled process has the potential to decrease the cost in ABE production.

  17. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Se-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. Methods This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and nuclear factor (NF-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Results We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  18. Integrated, systems metabolic picture of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen; Seo, Seung-Oh; Celik, Venhar; Liu, Huaiwei; Kong, Wentao; Wang, Yi; Blaschek, Hans; Jin, Yong-Su; Lu, Ting

    2015-07-07

    Microbial metabolism involves complex, system-level processes implemented via the orchestration of metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. One canonical example of such processes is acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum, during which cells convert carbon sources to organic acids that are later reassimilated to produce solvents as a strategy for cellular survival. The complexity and systems nature of the process have been largely underappreciated, rendering challenges in understanding and optimizing solvent production. Here, we present a system-level computational framework for ABE fermentation that combines metabolic reactions, gene regulation, and environmental cues. We developed the framework by decomposing the entire system into three modules, building each module separately, and then assembling them back into an integrated system. During the model construction, a bottom-up approach was used to link molecular events at the single-cell level into the events at the population level. The integrated model was able to successfully reproduce ABE fermentations of the WT C. acetobutylicum (ATCC 824), as well as its mutants, using data obtained from our own experiments and from literature. Furthermore, the model confers successful predictions of the fermentations with various network perturbations across metabolic, genetic, and environmental aspects. From foundation to applications, the framework advances our understanding of complex clostridial metabolism and physiology and also facilitates the development of systems engineering strategies for the production of advanced biofuels.

  19. Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil for Biodiesel Production with tert-Butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester that can be derived from any vegetable oil or animal fat via the process of transesterification. It is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. In this paper, we have evaluated the efficacy of a transesterification process for rapeseed oil with methanol in the presence of an enzyme and tert-butanol, which is added to ameliorate the negative effects associated with excess methanol. The application of Novozym 435 was determined to catalyze the transesterification process, and a conversion of 76.1% was achieved under selected conditions (reaction temperature 40 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio 3:1, 5% (w/w) Novozym 435 based on the oil weight, water content 1% (w/w), and reaction time of 24h). It has also been determined that rapeseed oil can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester using this system, and the results of this study contribute to the body of basic data relevant to the development of continuous enzymatic processes.

  20. Effects of nutritional enrichment on the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, In Ho

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an industrially important organism that produces acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE). The main objective of this study was to characterize the effects of increased cell density on the production of ABE during the phase transition from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum. The increased ABE productivity of C. acetobutylicum was obtained by increasing the cell density using a newly designed medium (designated C. a cetobutylicum medium 1; CAM1). The maximum OD(600) value of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 strain obtained with CAM1 was 19.7, which is 1.8 times higher than that obtained with clostridial growth medium (CGM). The overall ABE productivity obtained in the CAM1-fermetation of the ATCC 824 strain was 0.83 g/L/h, which is 1.5 times higher than that (0.55 g/L/h) obtained with CGM. However, the increased productivity obtained with CAM1 did not result in an increase in the final ABE titer, because phase transition occurred at a high titer of acids.

  1. Wood pulp as an immobilization matrix for the continuous production of isopropanol and butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survase, Shrikant A; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The study was focused on developing a continuous method to produce an alcohol mixture suitable to be used as a gasoline supplement. The immobilized column reactor with wood pulp fibers was successfully used for the continuous production of butanol and isopropanol using Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423. A sugar mixture (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose and xylose) representing lignocellulose hydrolysate was used as a substrate for the production of solvents. The effect of dilution rate on solvent production was studied during continuous operation. The maximum total solvent concentration of 11.99 g/l was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.16 h(-1). The maximum solvent productivity (5.58 g/l h) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1). The maximum solvent yield of 0.45 g/g from sugar mixture was observed at 0.25 h(-1). The system will be further used for the solvent production using wood hydrolysate as a substrate.

  2. Improvement of acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from woody biomass using organosolv pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hamid; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2015-10-01

    A suitable pretreatment is a prerequisite of efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from wood by Clostridia. In this study, organosolv fractionation, an effective pretreatment with ability to separate lignin as a co-product, was evaluated for ABE production from softwood pine and hardwood elm. ABE production from untreated woods was limited to the yield of 81 g ABE/kg wood and concentration of 5.5 g ABE/L. Thus, the woods were pretreated with aqueous ethanol at elevated temperatures before hydrolysis and fermentation to ABE by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Hydrolysis of pine and elm pretreated at 180 °C for 60 min resulted in the highest sugar concentrations of 16.8 and 23.2 g/L, respectively. The hydrolysate obtained from elm was fermented to ABE with the highest yield of 121.1 g/kg and concentration of 11.6 g/L. The maximum yield of 87.9 g/kg was obtained from pine pretreated for 30 min at 150 °C. Moreover, structural modifications in the woods were investigated and related to the improvements. The woody biomasses are suitable feedstocks for ABE production after the organosolv pretreatment. Effects of the pretreatment conditions on ABE production might be related to the reduced cellulose crystallinity, reduced lignin and hemicellulose content, and lower total phenolic compounds in the hydrolysates.

  3. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production in a novel continuous flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the potential of using a novel integrated biohydrogen reactor clarifier system (IBRCS) for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using a mixed culture at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The results of this study showed that using a setting tank after the fermenter and recycle the settled biomass to the fermenter is a practical option to achieve high biomass concentration in the fermenter and thus sustainable ABE fermentation in continuous mode. The average ABE concentrations of 2.3, 7.0, and 14.6gABE/L which were corresponding to ABE production rates of 0.4, 1.4, and 2.8gABE/Lreactorh were achieved at OLRs of 21, 64, and 128gCOD/Lreactord, respectively. The main volatile fatty acids components in the effluent were acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Acetic acid was the predominant component in the OLR-1, while butyric acid was the predominant acid in OLRs 2 and 3.

  4. Candida albicans PROTEIN PROFILE CHANGES IN RESPONSE TO THE BUTANOLIC EXTRACT OF Sapindus saponariaL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana FIORINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen that is capable of causing superficial and systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Extracts of Sapindus saponaria have been used as antimicrobial agents against various organisms. In the present study, we used a combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS to identify the changes in protein abundance of C. albicans after exposure to the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC of the butanolic extract (BUTE of S. saponaria and also to fluconazole. A total of six different proteins with greater than 1.5 fold induction or repression relative to the untreated control cells were identified among the three treatments. In general, proteins/enzymes involved with the glycolysis (GPM1, ENO1, FBA1, amino acid metabolism (ILV5, PDC11 and protein synthesis (ASC1 pathways were detected. In conclusion, our findings reveal antifungal-induced changes in protein abundance of C. albicans. By using the previously identified components of the BUTE of S. saponaria(e.g., saponins and sesquiterpene oligoglycosides, it will be possible to compare the behavior of compounds with unknown mechanisms of action, and this knowledge will help to focus the subsequent biochemical work aimed at defining the effects of these compounds.

  5. Solvatochromism and preferential solvation in mixtures of Methanol with Ethanol, 1-Propanol and 1-Butanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sayadian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectral shift of 4-nitroaniline was determined in pure methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol and binary mixtures of methanol with other 1-alkanols at 25 ⁰C by UV-vis spectroscopy. The effect of specific and non-specific solute-solvent interactions on the spectral shift was investigated by using the linear solvation energy relationship concept. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to correlate the spectral shift with microscopic Kamlet-Taft parameters (a, b and p* in pure solvents. Results indicate that the spectral shift is highly related with the specific solute-solvent interactions. In binary mixtures, a nonideal behavior of spectral shift was observed respective to the analytical mole fraction of alcohols; indicating preferential solvation. The spectral shifts were fitted to a known preferential solvation model named solvent exchange model to calculate the preferential solvation parameters. The preference of solute to be solvated by one of the solvating species relative to others was explained in terms of solvent-solvent and solute-solvent interactions.

  6. Microbial 1-butanol production: Identification of non-native production routes and in silico engineering interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sridhar; Maranas, Costas D

    2010-07-01

    The potential of engineering microorganisms with non-native pathways for the synthesis of long-chain alcohols has been identified as a promising route to biofuels. We describe computationally derived predictions for assembling pathways for the production of biofuel candidate molecules and subsequent metabolic engineering modifications that optimize product yield. A graph-based algorithm illustrates that, by culling information from BRENDA and KEGG databases, all possible pathways that link the target product with metabolites present in the production host are identified. Subsequently, we apply our recent OptForce procedure to pinpoint reaction modifications that force the imposed product yield in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate this procedure by suggesting new pathways and genetic interventions for the overproduction of 1-butanol using the metabolic model for Escherichia coli. The graph-based search method recapitulates all recent discoveries based on the 2-ketovaline intermediate and hydroxybutyryl-CoA but also pinpoints one novel pathway through thiobutanoate intermediate that to the best of our knowledge has not been explored before.

  7. The Study of Synergistic Effects of n.butanolic Cyclamen coum Extract and Ciprofloxacin on inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ahya abdi ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm are the major causes of death in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Some studies revealed that biofilms are resistant to several antibiotics because of their impermeable structures. In order to re-sensitize bacteria to different antibiotics, biofilm formation should be inhibited. In this research, evaluation of antibiofilm activity of n-butanolic Cyclamen coum extract as a medici­nal plant from Myrsinaceae family, in combination with ciprofloxacin was carried out.   Materials and method s: The biofilm formation ability by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and one clinically isolated P. aeruginosa (PA214 was confirmed by microtiter plate method. Extraction of the tubers of Cyclamen coum was done by fractionation method . The antibiofilm and antibacterial properties of n-butanolic C. coum extract (which includes saponin compounds alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin by using microdilution and crystal violet methods were examined. The cytotoxicity effect of the n-butanolic extract on HT-29 cells was assayed by MTT (3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide test.   Results : The biofilm formation ability by P. aeruginosa strains was quantitatively confirmed. Saponin content of the n-butanolic C.coum extract was 156 µg/mL. The extract revealed antibacterial activity against the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa strains. The combination of n-butanolic C.coum extract and ciprofloxacin significantly inhibited P.aeruginosa biofilm formation (ΣFBIC = 0.5. The n-butanolic C.coum extract showed insignificant cytotoxic effect against HT-29 human cancer cell line after 48 hours and 72 hours incubation .   Discussion and conclusion : It can be concluded that n-butanolic C.coum extract in combination with ciprofloxacin significantly revealed antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilm however, further clinical investigations are required.

  8. Liquid/liquid interface layering of 1-butanol and [bmim]PF6 ionic liquid: a nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Takashi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Sakai, Yasunari; Morita, Akihiro; Kim, Doseok; Ouchi, Yukio

    2015-10-14

    IR-visible sum-frequency generation (IV-SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to study the local layering order at the interface of 1-butanol-d9 and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF6), a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). The presence of a local non-polar layer at the interface of the two polar liquids was successfully demonstrated. In the SFG spectra of 1-butanol-d9, we observed significant reduction and enhancement in the strength of the CD3 symmetric stretching (r(+)) mode and the antisymmetric stretching (r(-)) mode peaks, respectively. The results can be well explained by the presence of an oppositely oriented quasi-bilayer structure of butanol molecules, where the bottom layer is strongly bound by hydrogen-bonding with the PF6(-) anion. MD simulations reveal that the hydrogen-bonding of butanol with the PF6(-) anion causes the preferential orientation of the butanols; the restriction on the rotational distribution of the terminal methyl group along their C3 axis enhances the r(-) mode. As for the [bmim](+) cations, the SFG spectra taken within the CH stretch region indicate that the butyl chain of [bmim](+) points away from the bulk RTIL phase to the butanol phase at the interface. Combining the SFG spectroscopy and MD simulation results, we propose an interfacial model structure of layering, in which the butyl chains of the butanol molecules form a non-polar interfacial layer with the butyl chains of the [bmim](+) cations at the interface.

  9. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of Clostridium acetobutylicum Rh8 and its parent strain DSM 1731 revealed new understandings on butanol tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Guanhui [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Dong, Hongjun; Zhu, Yan; Mao, Shaoming [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang, Tianrui [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Yanping [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Zugen [Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Yin, E-mail: yli@im.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Genomes of a butanol tolerant strain and its parent strain were deciphered. • Comparative genomic and proteomic was applied to understand butanol tolerance. • None differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. • Mutations in ribosome might be responsible for the global difference of proteomics. - Abstract: Clostridium acetobutylicum strain Rh8 is a butanol-tolerant mutant which can tolerate up to 19 g/L butanol, 46% higher than that of its parent strain DSM 1731. We previously performed comparative cytoplasm- and membrane-proteomic analyses to understand the mechanism underlying the improved butanol tolerance of strain Rh8. In this work, we further extended this comparison to the genomic level. Compared with the genome of the parent strain DSM 1731, two insertion sites, four deletion sites, and 67 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) are distributed throughout the genome of strain Rh8. Among the 67 SNVs, 16 SNVs are located in the predicted promoters and intergenic regions; while 29 SNVs are located in the coding sequence, affecting a total of 21 proteins involved in transport, cell structure, DNA replication, and protein translation. The remaining 22 SNVs are located in the ribosomal genes, affecting a total of 12 rRNA genes in different operons. Analysis of previous comparative proteomic data indicated that none of the differentially expressed proteins have mutations in its corresponding genes. Rchange Algorithms analysis indicated that the mutations occurred in the ribosomal genes might change the ribosome RNA thermodynamic characteristics, thus affect the translation strength of these proteins. Take together, the improved butanol tolerance of C. acetobutylicum strain Rh8 might be acquired through regulating the translational process to achieve different expression strength of genes involved in butanol tolerance.

  10. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from cane molasses using Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained by combined low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Gu, Qiu-ya; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Wen-jun; Yu, Xiao-bin

    2013-06-01

    In order to obtain mutant strains showing higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than those of wild-type strains, the butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii L175 was subjected to mutagenesis using a combined method of low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction. With this effort, mutant strain MUT3 was isolated. When it was used for butanol fermentation in P2 medium, the production of butanol was 15.8±0.7 g/L 46% higher than the wild-type strain. Furthermore, after optimization of butanol production from cane molasses with MUT3, the maximum butanol production of 14.9±0.5 g/L were obtained in crew-capped bottles. When ABE production by MUT3 was carried out in a bioreactor, the production of butanol and total solvent were 15.1±0.8 g/L and 22.1±0.9 g/L, respectively. The remarkable butanol production and solvent tolerance of MUT3 make it promising for butanol production from cane molasses.

  11. Metabolic process engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 for enhanced n-butanol production from glucose: effects of methyl viologen on NADH availability, flux distribution, and fermentation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-04-01

    Butanol biosynthesis through aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) is usually limited by NADH availability, resulting in low butanol titer, yield, and productivity. To alleviate this limitation and improve n-butanol production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 overexpressing adhE2, the NADH availability was increased by using methyl viologen (MV) as an artificial electron carrier to divert electrons from ferredoxin normally used for H2 production. In the batch fermentation with the addition of 500 μM MV, H2 , acetate, and butyrate production was reduced by more than 80-90%, while butanol production increased more than 40% to 14.5 g/L. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that butanol production increased in the fermentation with MV because of increased NADH availability as a result of reduced H2 production. Furthermore, continuous butanol production of ∼55 g/L with a high yield of ∼0.33 g/g glucose and extremely low ethanol, acetate, and butyrate production was obtained in fed-batch fermentation with gas stripping for in situ butanol recovery. This study demonstrated a stable and reliable process for high-yield and high-titer n-butanol production by metabolically engineered C. tyrobutyricum by applying MV as an electron carrier to increase butanol biosynthesis.

  12. 1-Butanol absorption in poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) ion exchange resins for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maciá, M A; Curcó, D; Bringué, R; Iborra, M; Rodríguez-Ropero, F; van der Vegt, N F A; Aleman, Carlos

    2015-12-21

    The swelling behaviour of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene), P(S-DVB), ion exchange resins in 1-butanol (BuOH) has been studied by means of atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The topological characteristics reported for the resin in the dry state, which exhibited complex internal loops (macropores), were considered for the starting models used to examine the swelling induced by BuOH contents ranging from 10% to 50% w/w. Experimental measurements using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer indicate that swelling causes a volume variation with respect to the dry resin of 21%. According to MD simulations, such a volume increment corresponds to a BuOH absorption of 31-32% w/w, which is in excellent agreement with the indirect experimental estimation (i.e. 31% w/w). Simulations reveal that, independently of the content of BuOH, the density of the swelled resin is higher than that of the dry resin, evidencing that the alcohol provokes important structural changes in the polymeric matrix. Thus, BuOH molecules cause a collapse of the resin macropores when the content of alcohol is ≤20% w/w. In contrast, when the concentration of BuOH is close to the experimental value (∼30% w/w), P(S-DVB) chains remain separated by pores faciliting the access of the reactants to the reaction centers. On the other hand, evaluation of both bonding and non-bonding interactions indicates that the mixing energy is the most important contribution to the absorption of BuOH into the P(S-DVB) resin. Overall, the results displayed in this work represent a starting point for the theoretical study of the catalytic conversion of BuOH into di-n-butyl ether in P(S-DVB) ion exchange resins using sophisticated electronic methods.

  13. Soy molasses as fermentation substrate for production of butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N; Lolas, A; Blaschek, H P

    2001-05-01

    Spray-dried soy molasses (SDSM) contains the sugars dextrose, sucrose, fructose, pinitol, raffinose, verbascose, melibiose, and stachyose. Of the 746 g kg(-1) total sugars in SDSM, 434 g kg(-1) is fermentable using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. SDSM was used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by C. beijerinckii BA101 in batch cultures. Using 80 g l(-1) SDSM, 10.7 g l(-1) ABE was produced in P2 medium. Higher concentrations of SDSM resulted in poor solvent production due to the presence of excessive salt and inhibitory components. C. beijerinckii BA101 in SDSM at 80 g l(-1) concentration produced 22.8 g l(-1) ABE when supplemented with 25.3 g l(-1) glucose. SDSM contains 57.4 g kg(-1) mineral ash and 2% tri-calcium phosphate. Tri-calcium phosphate up to 43.1 g l(-1) was not inhibitory and at a tri-calcium phosphate concentration of 28.8 g l(-1), the culture produced more solvents (30.1 g l(-1)) than the control experiment (23.8 g l(-1)). In contrast, sodium chloride was a strong inhibitor of C. beijerinckii BA101 cell growth. At a concentration of 10 g l(-1) sodium chloride, a maximum cell concentration of 0.6 g l(-1) was achieved compared to 1.7 g l(-1) in the control experiment. The effects of two salts on specific growth rate constant (mu) and specific rate of ABE production (nu) for C. beijerinckii BA101 were examined.

  14. 高抗逆高丁比拜氏梭菌的选育及其性能考察%Screening of Clostridium beijerinckii mutant with high inhibitor tolerance and high proportions of butanol for butanol production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺爱永; 尹春燕; 孔祥平; 陈佳楠; 姜岷; 吴昊

    2014-01-01

    以抗逆突变株Clostridium beijerinckii IB4为出发菌株,通过常压室温等离子体诱变( ARTP ),刃天青平板初筛,摇瓶发酵复筛,筛选出1株高抗逆高丁比的突变菌株C.beijerinckii IT111。发酵结果表明:该突变菌株利用多种C源时均展现其高丁醇比的特性,以玉米芯酸解糖液为C源时,溶剂产量达到10.5 g/L,丁醇8.0 g/L,丁醇比高达76%。抑制物抗逆性测试结果显示:糠醛和酸类对C.beijerinckii发酵影响较小,酚类物质对C.beijerinckii抑制作用较强,其中以香草醛为最。综上所述,C.beijerinckii IT111是1株极具潜力的利用木质纤维原料制备丁醇的菌株。%Clostridium beijerinckii IT111,a tolerance mutant strain with high proportions of butanol,was obtained by atmospheric and room temperature plasma ( ARTP ) and high-throughput screening.Fermentation results showed that the mutant had a high butanol proportions using a variety of carbon sources.When non-detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysate of corn fiber treated with dilute sulfuric acid ( SAHHC) was used as a substrate,total solvent( ABE) and butanol production of 10.5 g/L and 8.0 g/L were obtained,respectively.The butanol proportion was up to 76%.The results of toxicity evaluation of model inhibitors showed that acetates,furfural and 5-HMF were not inhibitory to ABE production,while phenolic compounds were potent inhibitors of growth and ABE production, especially vanillin.C.beijerinckii IT111 was a promising strain for ABE production from lignocellulosic materials.

  15. Effects of different replicons in conjugative plasmids on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression and n-butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingrui; Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yang, Shang-Tian [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). William G. Lowrie Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Tang, I-Ching [Bioprocessing Innovative Company, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 can produce butyric acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen as the main products from various carbon sources. In this study, C. tyrobutyricum was used as a host to produce n-butanol by expressing adhE2 gene under the control of a native thiolase promoter using four different conjugative plasmids (pMTL82151, 83151, 84151, and 85151) each with a different replicon (pBP1 from C. botulinum NCTC2916, pCB102 from C. butyricum, pCD6 from Clostridium difficile, and pIM13 from Bacillus subtilis). The effects of different replicons on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, adhE2 expression and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase activities, and butanol production by different mutants of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated. Among the four plasmids and replicons studied, pMTL82151 with pBP1 gave the highest transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression, and butanol biosynthesis. Butanol production from various substrates, including glucose, xylose, mannose, and mannitol were then investigated with the best mutant strain harboring adhE2 in pMTL82151. A high butanol titer of 20.5 g/L with 0.33 g/g yield and 0.32 g/L h productivity was obtained with mannitol as the substrate in batch fermentation with pH controlled at {proportional_to}6.0. (orig.)

  16. A New Process for Maleic Anhydride Synthesis from a Renewable Building Block: The Gas-Phase Oxidehydration of Bio-1-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarelli, Giulia; Velasquez Ochoa, Juliana; Caldarelli, Aurora; Puzzo, Francesco; Cavani, Fabrizio; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the synthesis of maleic anhydride by oxidehydration of a bio-alcohol, 1-butanol, as a possible alternative to the classical process of n-butane oxidation. A vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst was used to explore the one-pot reaction, which involved two sequential steps: 1) 1-butanol dehydration to 1-butene, catalysed by acid sites, and 2) the oxidation of butenes to maleic anhydride, catalysed by redox sites. A non-negligible amount of phthalic anhydride was also formed. The effect of different experimental parameters was investigated with chemically sourced 1-butanol, and the results were then confirmed by using genuinely bio-sourced 1-butanol. In the case of bio-1-butanol, however, the purity of the product remarkably affected the yield of maleic anhydride. It was found that the reaction mechanism includes the oxidation of butenes to crotonaldehyde and the oxidation of the latter to either furan or maleic acid, both of which are transformed to produce maleic anhydride.

  17. Control of Carbon and Electron Flow in Clostridium acetobutylicum Fermentations: Utilization of Carbon Monoxide to Inhibit Hydrogen Production and to Enhance Butanol Yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B H; Bellows, P; Datta, R; Zeikus, J G

    1984-10-01

    Extracts prepared from non-solvent-producing cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum contained methyl viologen-linked hydrogenase activity (20 U/mg of protein at 37 degrees C) but did not display carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity. CO addition readily inhibited the hydrogenase activity of cell extracts or of viable metabolizing cells. Increasing the partial pressure of CO (2 to 10%) in unshaken anaerobic culture tube headspaces significantly inhibited (90% inhibition at 10% CO) both growth and hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum. Growth was not sensitive to low partial pressures of CO (i.e., up to 15%) in pH-controlled fermentors (pH 4.5) that were continuously gassed and mixed. CO addition dramatically altered the glucose fermentation balance of C. acetobutylicum by diverting carbon and electrons away from H(2), CO(2), acetate, and butyrate production and towards production of ethanol and butanol. The butanol concentration was increased from 65 to 106 mM and the butanol productivity (i.e., the ratio of butanol produced/total acids and solvents produced) was increased by 31% when glucose fermentations maintained at pH 4.5 were continuously gassed with 85% N(2)-15% CO versus N(2) alone. The results are discussed in terms of metabolic regulation of C. acetobutylicum saccharide fermentations to achieve maximal butanol or solvent yield.

  18. Effects of different replicons in conjugative plasmids on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression and n-butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingrui; Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yang, Shang-Tian; Tang, I-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 can produce butyric acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen as the main products from various carbon sources. In this study, C. tyrobutyricum was used as a host to produce n-butanol by expressing adhE2 gene under the control of a native thiolase promoter using four different conjugative plasmids (pMTL82151, 83151, 84151, and 85151) each with a different replicon (pBP1 from C. botulinum NCTC2916, pCB102 from C. butyricum, pCD6 from Clostridium difficile, and pIM13 from Bacillus subtilis). The effects of different replicons on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, adhE2 expression and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase activities, and butanol production by different mutants of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated. Among the four plasmids and replicons studied, pMTL82151 with pBP1 gave the highest transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression, and butanol biosynthesis. Butanol production from various substrates, including glucose, xylose, mannose, and mannitol were then investigated with the best mutant strain harboring adhE2 in pMTL82151. A high butanol titer of 20.5 g/L with 0.33 g/g yield and 0.32 g/L h productivity was obtained with mannitol as the substrate in batch fermentation with pH controlled at ~6.0.

  19. Isocoreopsin:An active constituent of n-butanol extract of Butea monosperma flowers against colorectal cancer (CRC)$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boopathi Subramaniyan; Navaneethakrishnan Polachi; Ganeshan Mathan n

    2016-01-01

    The herb Butea monosperma constitutes several human health beneficial components, which are mostly studied for their anticancer effects. In this study, the activity of n-butanol fractions of B. monosperma floral extract was examined on inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in azoxymethane induced Wistar albino rats. The n-butanol extracts (150 mg/kg) decreased the ACF formation (per rat) by 92%and 78%in short-and long-term in vivo treatments, respectively. All the compounds in the n-butanol extract were isolated and purified using column and reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray–ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) to determine important flavonoids, namely isocoreopsin, butrin and isobutrin. These compounds were studied for their free radical scavenging and anticancer activities. The compound isocoreopsin showed significantly greater efficacy in cell death on human colon and liver cancer cell lines (50μg/mL in HT-29 and 100μg/mL in HepG2) than butrin (100μg/mL in HT-29 and 500μg/mL in HepG2) and isobutrin (80μg/mL in HT-29 and 150μg/mL in HepG2). These results suggest that isocoreopsin, butrin and isobutrin are the important key compounds for the chemoprevention of colon cancer and isocoreopsin can be considered as a promising novel drug.

  20. STUDY ON IMMOBILIZED PORCINE PANCREATIC LIPASE CATALYZING TRANSESTERIFICATION BETWEEN METHYL—BUTYRATE AND 1—BUTANOL IN NONAQUEOUS SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XieZhidong; LueXianyu; 等

    1996-01-01

    Transesterification between methyl-butyrate and 1-butanol in nonaqueous systems was catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase which was immobilized on cross-linked polystyrene.Organic solvents,substrate concentration,contents of water and other parameters which affect the immobilized enzyme activity were studied.Lipase immobilized on hydrophobic crosslinked polystyrene can reduce its diffusion limit in the reaction.It was found that the activity of immobilized lipase in organic systems was two times as high as that of free lipase.

  1. Enhanced Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 Grown on Date Fruit as Carbon Source in P2 Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Emran I. Khamaiseh; Aidil Abdul Hamid; Peyman Abdeshahian; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff; Mohd Sahaid Kalil

    2014-01-01

    The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35°C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-etha...

  2. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low.

  3. Complementary vapor pressure data for 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol at a pressure range of (15 to 177) kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Quezada, Nathalie [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl

    2009-09-15

    The vapor pressure of pure 2-methyl-1-propanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, components called congeners that are present in aroma of wine, pisco, and other alcoholic beverages, were measured with a dynamic recirculation apparatus at a pressure range of (15 to 177) kPa with an estimated uncertainty <0.2%. The measurements were performed at temperature ranges of (337 to 392) K for 2-methyl-1-propanol and (358 to 422) K for 3-methyl-1-butanol. Data were correlated using a Wagner-type equation with standard deviations of 0.09 kPa for the vapor pressure of 2-methyl-1-propanol and 0.21 kPa for 3-methyl-1-butanol. The experimental data and correlation were compared with data selected from the literature.

  4. Acetone-butanol-ethanol competitive sorption simulation from single, binary, and ternary systems in a fixed-bed of KA-I resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhuang, Wei; Ying, Hanjie; Jiao, Pengfei; Li, Renjie; Wen, Qingshi; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jingwei; Yang, Pengpeng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of butanol based on sorption methodology from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth has advantages in terms of biocompatibility and stability, as well as economy, and therefore gains much attention. In this work a chromatographic column model based on the solid film linear driving force approach and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equations was used to predict the competitive sorption behaviors of ABE single, binary, and ternary mixture. It was observed that the outlet concentration of weaker retained components exceeded the inlet concentration, which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. Butanol, the strongest retained component, could replace ethanol almost completely and also most of acetone. In the end of this work, the proposed model was validated by comparison of the experimental and predicted ABE ternary breakthrough curves using the real ABE fermentation broth as a feed solution.

  5. The effect of CTAB on synthesis in butanol of samaria and gadolinia doped ceria - nickel oxide ceramics; Efeito do CTAB na sintese solvotermica em butanol de ceramicas de ceria dopada com samaria e gadolinia - oxido de niquel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakaki, A.R.; Cunha, S.M.; Yoshito, W.K.; Ussui, V.; Lazar, D.R.R., E-mail: alexander@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CCTM/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    In this work it was synthesized doped ceria and Samaria gadolinia - nickel oxide ceramics, mainly applied as anodes Fuel Cells Solid Oxide. Powders of composition Ce{sub 0,8}(SmGd){sub 0,2}O{sub 1,9}/NiO and mass ratio of 40: 60% were initially synthesized by hydroxides coprecipitation and then treated solvo thermically in butanol. Cerium samarium, gadolinium and nickel chlorides and CTAB with molar ratio metal / CTAB ranging from 1 to 3, were used as raw materials Powders were treated in butanol at 150 deg C for 16h. The powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area for adsorption of nitrogen and particle size distribution by laser beam scattering. The ceramics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and density measurements by immersion technique in water. The results showed that the powders had the characteristic crystalline structures of ceria and nickel hydroxide, and high specific surface area (80 m{sup 2} / g). The characterizations of ceramics demonstrated high chemical homogeneity and porosity values of 30%. (author)

  6. Shock tube study on the thermal decomposition of n-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Reyes, Claudette M; Tsang, Wing

    2012-10-11

    Dilute concentrations of normal-butanol has been decomposed in single pulse shock tube studies in the presence of large quantities of a chemical inhibitor that suppresses contributions from chain decomposition. Reaction temperatures and pressures are in the range of [1126-1231] K and [1.3-6.5] bar. Ethylene and 1-butene are the only products. The mechanism of the initial decomposition steps involves direct elimination of water and C-C bond cleavage. The fundamental high pressure unimolecular decomposition rate expressions are k(C(4)H(9)OH → CH(3) + CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH) = 10(16.4±0.4) exp(42410 ± 800 [K]/T) s(-1); k(C(4)H(9)OH → CH(3)CH(2) + CH(2)CH(2)OH) = 10(16.4±0.4) exp(-41150 ± 800 [K]/T) s(-1); k(C(4)H(9)OH → CH(3)CH(2)CH(2) + CH(2)OH) = 10(16.4±0.4) exp(-41150 ± 800 [K]/T) s(-1); and k(C(4)H(9)OH → CH(3)CH(2)CH═CH(2) + H(2)O) = 10(14.0±0.4) exp(-35089 ± 800 [K]/T) s(-1), where the rate expressions for C-C bond cleavage are based on assumptions regarding the relative rates of the three processes derived from earlier studies on the effect of an OH group on rate expressions. All reactions are in the high pressure limit and suggest that the step size down in the presence of argon is at least 1300 cm(-1). These rate expressions are consistent with the following H-C bond dissociation energies: BDE(H-CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)OH) = 417.2 ± 7 kJ/mol, BDE(H-CH(2)CH(2)OH) = 419.2 ± 7 kJ/mol, and BDE(H-CH(2)OH) = 401.7 ± 9 kJ/mol, with an estimated uncertainty of 6 kJ/mol. The kinetics and thermodynamic results are compared with estimates used in the building of combustion kinetics databases.

  7. 电子载体对丁醇发酵的影响%Effects of electronic carrier on butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周灿灿; 唐波; 罗玮; 顾秋亚; 余晓斌

    2012-01-01

    研究在培养基中加入不同电子载体对丁醇发酵的影响.结果表明:添加微量的苄基紫精可以促进丁醇的产生,同时可强烈抑制丙酮的合成,丁醇体积分数由66.92%提高到82.35%.苄基紫精可促进菌株快速进入产溶剂期,发酵周期明显缩短,丁醇生产强度显著提高.7%玉米培养基中加入40 mg/L苄基紫精,丁醇产量最高达16.10 g/L,生产强度为0.37g/(L·h),分别较对照提高10.96%和60.87%.在初始丁醇体积分数较低的条件下,苄基紫精对丁醇合成的促进作用更明显.%The effects of different electronic carriers on butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum were investigated. Results showed that benzyl viologen on low concentrations could promote butanol production and reduce acetone production, and the butanol ratio increased from 66.92% to 82.35%. Using benzyl viologen, C. acetobutylicum could enter solventogenesis rapidly and the fermentation period was shortened, thus butanol productivity was markedly increased. C. acetobutylicum produced 16. 10 g/L butanol with a productivity of 0. 37 g/ ( L·h) when grown in corn medium containing 40 mg/L benzyl viologen. Meanwhile, the butanol production and the productivity were 10.96% and 60.87%, higher than those of control. The promotion of the benzyl viologen on the butanol production was more active when the butanol ratio was lower.

  8. Nanostructured composite TiO{sub 2}/carbon catalysts of high activity for dehydration of n-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyganiuk, Aleksandra [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Klimkiewicz, Roman [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAN, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Bumajdad, Ali [Faculty of Science, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969 Safat, Kuwait 13060 (Kuwait); Ilnicka, Anna [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P., E-mail: jerzy_lukaszewicz@o2.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • New biotechnological method for fabrication of composite catalysts. • In situ synthesis of nanosized TiO{sub 2} clusters in the carbon matrix. • High dispersion of TiO{sub 2} in carbon matrix. • High catalytic activity achieved for very low active phase content. • Efficient dehydration of n-butanol to butane-1. - Abstract: A novel method of wood impregnation with titanium ions is presented. Titanium(IV) ions were complexed to peroxo/hydroxo complexes which were obtained by treating a TiCl{sub 4} water solution with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The solution of chelated titanium ions was used for the impregnation of living stems of Salix viminalis wood. Saturated stems were carbonized at 600–800 °C, yielding a microporous carbon matrix, in which nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} were uniformly distributed. A series of composite TiO{sub 2}–carbon catalysts was manufactured and tested in the process of n-butanol conversion to butane-1. The composite catalysts exhibited very high selectivity (ca. 80%) and yield (ca. 30%) despite a low content of titanium (ca. 0.5% atomic). The research proved that the proposed functionalization led to high dispersion of the catalytic phase (TiO{sub 2}), which played a crucial role in the catalyst performance. High dispersion of TiO{sub 2} was achieved due to a natural transport of complexed titanium ions in living plant stems.

  9. Role of Calcination Temperature on the Hydrotalcite Derived MgO–Al2O3 in Converting Ethanol to Butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group and Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Job, Heather [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Santosa, Daniel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Li, Xiaohong Shari [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Karkamkar, Abhi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Wang, Yong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group and Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; ; Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-10-09

    In the base catalyzed ethanol condensation reactions, the calcined MgO-Al2O3 derived hydrotalcites used broadly as catalytic material and the calcination temperature plays a big role in determining the catalytic activity. The characteristic of the hydrotalcite material treated between catalytically relevant temperatures 450ºC and 800ºC have been studied with respect to the physical, chemical, and structural properties and compared with catalytic activity testing. With the increasing calcination temperature, the total measured catalytic basicity dropped linearly with the calcination temperature and the total measured acidity stayed the same for all the calcination temperatures except 800ºC. However, the catalyst activity testing does not show any direct correlation between the measured catalytic basicity and the catalyst activity to the ethanol condensation reaction to form 1-butanol. The highest ethanol conversion of 44 percent with 1-butanol selectivity of 50 percent was achieved for the 600ºC calcined hydrotalcite material.

  10. Technoeconomic evaluation of the extractive fermentation of butanol as a guide to research in this area of biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-09-01

    This report represents the completion of a part of an overall project to evaluate the technical and economic status of several newly conceptualized processes for producing butanol, acetone, acetic acid, and aerobically produced specialty chemicals, which are candidates for research support. The objective of the project are to identify strengths and weaknesses in the proposed and to assist in developing an ongoing research strategy along economically relevant lines. The products to be studied presently comprise a collective US market for 10.7 billion lb valued at $2.8 billion. If their manufacturing processes were converted from petroleum feedstocks to corn, they could consume 556 million bushels. Furthermore, if ethanol could be produced at a low enough price to serve as the precursor to ethylene and butadiene, it an its derivatives could account for 159 billion lb, or 50% of the US production of 316 billion lb of synthetic organic chemicals, presently valued at $113 billion. This use would consume 3.4 billion bushels, or {approximately}45% of the corn crop. In addition, the use of butanol for diesel blends or in jet fuel blends to enhance the range of military aircraft could further increase its market.

  11. Microbial production of a biofuel (acetone-butanol-ethanol) in a continuous bioreactor: impact of bleed and simultaneous product removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka; Qureshi, Nasib; Blaschek, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) was produced in an integrated continuous one-stage fermentation and gas stripping product recovery system using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and fermentation gases (CO(2) and H(2)). In this system, the bioreactor was fed with a concentrated sugar solution (250-500 g L(-1) glucose). The bioreactor was bled semi-continuously to avoid accumulation of inhibitory chemicals and products. The continuous system was operated for 504 h (21 days) after which the fermentation was intentionally terminated. The bioreactor produced 461.3 g ABE from 1,125.0 g total sugar in 1 L culture volume as compared to a control batch process in which 18.4 g ABE was produced from 47.3 g sugar. These results demonstrate that ABE fermentation can be operated in an integrated continuous one-stage fermentation and product recovery system for a long period of time, if butanol and other microbial metabolites in the bioreactor are kept below threshold of toxicity.

  12. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and gas production under slight pressure in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Linyuan; Xiao, Guoqing; Liu, Yucheng; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina

    2014-07-01

    Two rounds of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation under slight pressure were carried out in the continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system. Spores of the clostridium were observed and counted, with the maximum number of 2.1 × 10(8) and 2.3 × 10(8)ml(-1) separately. The fermentation profiles were comparable with that at atmospheric pressure, showing an average butanol productivity of 0.14 and 0.13 g L(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the average gas productivities of 0.28 and 0.27 L L(-1)h(-1) were obtained in two rounds of CCCF, and the cumulative gas production of 52.64 and 25.92 L L(-1) were achieved, with the hydrogen volume fraction of 41.43% and 38.08% respectively. The results suggested that slight pressures have no obvious effect on fermentation performance, and also indicated the significance and feasibility of gas recovery in the continuous ABE fermentation process.

  13. Sorption and phase distribution of ethanol and butanol blended gasoline vapours in the vadose zone after release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoha, Ejikeme; Andresen, John M

    2014-03-01

    The sorption and phase distribution of 20% ethanol and butanol blended gasoline (E20 and B20) vapours have been examined in soils with varying soil organic matter (SOM) and water contents via laboratory microcosm experiments. The presence of 20% alcohol reduced the sorption of gasoline compounds by soil as well as the mass distribution of the compounds to soil solids. This effect was greater for ethanol than butanol. Compared with the sorption coefficient (Kd) of unblended gasoline compounds, the Kd of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 54% for pentane, 54% for methylcyclopentane (MCP) and 63% for benzene, while the Kd of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 38% for MCP and 49% for benzene. The retardation factor (R) of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 53% for pentane, 53% for MCP and 48% for benzene, while the R of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 37% for MCP and 38% for benzene. For all SOM and water contents tested, the Kd and R of all gasoline compounds were in the order of unblended gasoline > B20 > E20, indicating that the use of high ethanol volume in gasoline to combat climate change could put the groundwater at greater risk of contamination.

  14. Preparation and characterization of zirconia-loaded lignocellulosic butanol residue as a biosorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Enmin [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Liu, Xiaohuan, E-mail: liuxiaohuancaf@163.com [School of Engineering, National Engineering and Technology Research Center of Wood-Based Resources Comprehensive Utilization, and Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, Lin’an 311300 (China); Jiang, Jinhua [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Fu, Shenyuan [School of Engineering, National Engineering and Technology Research Center of Wood-Based Resources Comprehensive Utilization, and Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, Lin’an 311300 (China); Chu, Fuxiang [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products, CAF, Nanjing 210037 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • LBR-Zr was evaluated as a novel biosorbent for phosphate removal. • Effects of process factors on phosphate adsorption were studied in detail. • LBR-Zr showed markedly enhanced phosphate adsorption compared to LBR. • The underlying mechanism for phosphate adsorption of LBR-Zr was fully investigated. - Abstract: Zirconium(IV) loaded lignocellulosic butanol residue (LBR-Zr) used for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from aqueous solution was synthesized and evaluated. The adsorption isotherms were fitted well with the Freundlich and Temkin modes. Thermodynamic analyses indicated that phosphate adsorption on the LBR-Zr increased with increasing temperature from 298 to 338 K. The kinetic datas were described better by the pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic rate model. Increasing pH suppressed phosphate adsorption. Coexisting anions study exhibited that the incorporation of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} anion had the largest influence on the phosphate adsorption capacity. The mechanism of adsorption process on LBR-Zr was analyzed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technologies, respectively. The above results confirmed that surface hydroxyl groups on biosorbent LBR-Zr were replaced by phosphate. The LBR-Zr with good specific affinity towards phosphate was a promising biosorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The research would be beneficial for developing a promising, eco-friendly phosphate biosorbent from plentiful lignocellulosic butanol residue.

  15. Preparation and characterization of zirconia-loaded lignocellulosic butanol residue as a biosorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Enmin; Liu, Xiaohuan; Jiang, Jinhua; Fu, Shenyuan; Chu, Fuxiang

    2016-11-01

    Zirconium(IV) loaded lignocellulosic butanol residue (LBR-Zr) used for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from aqueous solution was synthesized and evaluated. The adsorption isotherms were fitted well with the Freundlich and Temkin modes. Thermodynamic analyses indicated that phosphate adsorption on the LBR-Zr increased with increasing temperature from 298 to 338 K. The kinetic datas were described better by the pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic rate model. Increasing pH suppressed phosphate adsorption. Coexisting anions study exhibited that the incorporation of CO32- anion had the largest influence on the phosphate adsorption capacity. The mechanism of adsorption process on LBR-Zr was analyzed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technologies, respectively. The above results confirmed that surface hydroxyl groups on biosorbent LBR-Zr were replaced by phosphate. The LBR-Zr with good specific affinity towards phosphate was a promising biosorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solution. The research would be beneficial for developing a promising, eco-friendly phosphate biosorbent from plentiful lignocellulosic butanol residue.

  16. Process integration for simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR): production of butanol from corn stover using Clostridium beijerinckii P260.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N; Singh, V; Liu, S; Ezeji, T C; Saha, B C; Cotta, M A

    2014-02-01

    A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86 g L(-1) corn stover provided, over 97% of the sugars were released during hydrolysis and these were fermented completely with an ABE productivity of 0.34 g L(-1)h(-1) and yield of 0.39. This productivity is higher than 0.31 g L(-1)h(-1) when using glucose as a substrate demonstrating that AB could be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass. Acetic acid that was released from the biomass during pretreatment and hydrolysis was also used by the culture to produce AB. An average rate of generation of sugars during corn stover hydrolysis was 0.98 g L(-1)h(-1). In this system AB was recovered using vacuum, and as a result of this (simultaneous product recovery), 100% sugars were used by the culture.

  17. PDMS/陶瓷复合膜用于正丁醇-水体系的渗透汽化分离%Pervaporation Separation of Butanol-Water Mixtures Using Polydimethylsiloxane/Ceramic Composite Membrane*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘公平; 侯丹; 卫旺; 相里粉娟; 金万勤

    2011-01-01

    Pervaporation has attracted considerable interest owing to its potential application in recovering biobutanol from biomass acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth. In this study, butanol was recovered from its aqueous solution using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/ceramic composite pervaporation membrane. The effects of operating temperature, feed concentration, feed flow rate and operating time on the membrane pervaporation performance were investigated. It was found that with the increase of temperature or butanol concentration in the feed,the total flux through the membrane increased while the separation factor decreased slightly. As the feed flow rate increased, the total flux increased gradually while the separation factor changed little. At 40 ℃ and 1% (by mass) butanol in the feed, the total flux and separation factor of the membrane reached 457.4 g·m-2·h-1 and 26.1, respectively. The membrane with high flux is suitable for recovering butanol from ABE fermentation broth.

  18. Investigation of acetone, butanol and carbon dioxide as new breath biomarkers for convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail; Öztürk, Önder; Akman, Hatice

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether analysis of carbon dioxide, acetone and/or butanol present in human breath can be used as a simple and noninvasive diagnosis method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). For this purpose, overnight changes in the concentrations of these breath molecules were measured before and after sleep in 10 patients who underwent polysomnography and were diagnosed with OSAS, and were compared with the levels of these biomarkers determined after sleep in 10 healthy subjects. The concentrations of exhaled carbon dioxide were measured using external cavity laser-based off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy, whereas the levels of exhaled acetone and butanol were determined using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We observed no significant changes in the levels of exhaled acetone and carbon dioxide in OSAS patients after sleep compared with pre-sleep values and compared with those in healthy control subjects. However, for the first time, to our knowledge, analyses of expired air showed an increased concentration of butanol after sleep compared with that before sleep and compared with that in healthy subjects. These results suggest that butanol can be established as a potential biomarker to enable the convenient and noninvasive diagnosis of OSAS in the future.

  19. A process integration approach for the production of biological iso-propanol, butanol and ethanol using gas stripping and adsorption as recovery methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyrgakis, Konstantinos A.; Vrije, de G.J.; Siegers-Budde, M.A.W.; Kyriakou, Kyriakos; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Kokossis, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass fermentation to Iso-propanol, Butanol and Ethanol (IBE) is particularly important as IBE is a common building block in the development of biorefineries and IBE-producing bacteria are robust industrial organisms, capable to utilize the sugars of the lignocellulosic biomass. Research is focuse

  20. Molecular dynamics insights into the structural and diffusive properties of ZIF-8/PDMS mixed matrix membranes in the n-butanol/water pervaporation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Fang, Manquan; Wu, Zhen; Yu, Lixin; Li, Jiding

    2017-04-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the structural and diffusive properties of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a novel alcohol-permselective mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Simulation models of one pure PDMS membrane and three ZIF-8/PDMS MMMs with increasing loadings were successfully constructed. Non-bond energy turned out to be a strong attractive interaction between the PDMS matrix and ZIF-8 cells. The morphology and mobility of PDMS chains were characterized by mean square displacement (MSD). The fraction of free volume (FFV) of the pure membrane and MMMs was calculated and showed declining trends with increasing ZIF-8 loadings. The diffusion coefficients of n-butanol and water molecules were calculated by the Einstein relation. {D}n-\\text{butanol} first increased then decreased, while {D}{{water}} decreased with the increasing loadings. The mechanism of selective diffusion behaviour was investigated and it was found that the inner channels of ZIF-8 provided selective pathways for n-butanol. Diffusion coefficients were correlated with FFV and the results showed that the logarithm of {D}{{water}} demonstrated a good linear relation with the inverse FFV and was in agreement with the free volume theory, while {D}n-\\text{butanol} showed a significant deviation in the case of MMM-1 due to the selective diffusion channels provided by ZIF-8.

  1. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme concentration

  2. Acetone enhances the direct analysis of Procyanidin- and Prodelphinidin-based condensed tannins in lotus species by the butanol-HCl-iron assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The butanol-HCl spectrophotometric assay is widely used for quantifying extractable and insoluble condensed tannins (CT, syn. proanthocyanidins) in foods, feeds, and foliage of herbaceous and woody plants, but the method underestimates total CT content when applied directly to plant material. To imp...

  3. SYNTESIS OF THE COMPLEXES OF MACROPOROUS SULFONATED RESINS WITH FERRIC CHLORIDE AND THEIR CATALYTIC BEHAVIOR FOR SETERIFICATION OF ACETIC ACID WITH BUTANOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangWenqiang; HouXin; 等

    1997-01-01

    The complex resins prepared from macroporous sulfonated resin D72(H+ form) with ferric chloride or ferric chloride hexahydrate have both sites of Bronsted acid and Lewis acid.In the catalysis of exterification of acetic acid with butanol the complex resins show to have much higher catalytic activity than that of its matrix.a conventional sulfonated cation exchange resin D72.

  4. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  5. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy.

  6. Effect of cellulosic sugar degradation products (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were performed to identify chemicals present in wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) that enhance acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) productivity. These chemicals were identified as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Control experiment resulted in the production of 21.09-21.66 gL**-1 ABE with a ...

  7. Acetone-butanol fermatative production using cellobiose%纤维二糖发酵生产丙酮丁醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊莲; 潘微; 陈新德; 唐绿蓉; 马隆龙

    2012-01-01

    分别考察C.acetobutylicum 810705、810706以不同浓度的麸皮和玉米粉添加物作为营养元素,纤维二糖直接进行丙酮丁醇(ABE)发酵的结果,发现2株菌对于玉米粉和麸皮的浓度变化趋势一致,C.acetobutylicum 810706转化率较高.纤维二糖ABE发酵工艺条件表明:玉米粉添加量为总糖含量的30%、底物糖质量浓度60 g/L,pH 6.5、温度35℃时,C.acetobutylicum 810706转化率达到37.38%,总溶剂质量浓度22.43 g/L,比葡萄糖、木糖ABE发酵转化率高.模拟纤维素酶水解产物配制混合糖培养基,其溶剂转化率较单独的葡萄糖、木糖发酵的转化率高,为34.95%.对比纤维素酶水解条件,C.acetobutylicum 810706具有优良的纤维素酶水解同步糖化ABE发酵能力.%Fermantative production of acetone-butanol by C. Acetobutylicum 810705 and C. Acetobutylicum 810706 was studied from cellobiose with different additive amounts of bran and corn starch. The same variation tendency of solvent concentration and substrate conversion was testified, and substrate conversion of C. Acetobutylicum 810706 was a little higher. Corn starch was proved to be better nutritional supplements than bran, and the optimum additive ratio was 30% of total sugar. Based on the optimization of culture conditions, C. Acetobutylicum 810706 achieved a 37. 38% substrate conversion and 22. 43 g/L solvent concerntration, and it was better than fermantative production of acetone-butanol from glucose and xylose while cultured at 35 ℃ with 60 g/L sugar concentration of substrate and initial pH 6. 5. Mixed sugar substrate prepared by imitating the concentration of cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis was fermented. 34. 95% of substrate conversion was obtained, and it was higher than any single sugar. Results showed that C. Acetobutylicum 810706 had excellent potential of cellulose saccharified by enzymatic hydrolysis and acetone-butanol fermentation simultaneously.

  8. Partition behavior of surfactants, butanol, and salt during application of density-modified displacement of dense non-aqueous phase liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damrongsiri, S. [Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, Phaya-Thai Rd., Bangkok (Thailand); Tongcumpou, C., E-mail: tchantra@chula.ac.th [Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, Phaya-Thai Rd., Bangkok (Thailand); Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand); Sabatini, D.A. [School of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Aqueous surfactant increases the partition of butanol aqueous phase. ► Water partition to NAPL phase via butanol and surfactant in NAPL phase. ► PCE partition to aqueous phase by solubilization into micelles. ► Surfactants cause the dramatically partition of water to NAPL phase. ► Aqueous salt dispels surfactant to NAPL phase. -- Abstract: Density-modified displacement (DMD) is a recent approach for removal of trapped dense NAPL (DNAPL). In this study, butanol and surfactant are contacted with the DNAPL to both reduce the density as well as release the trapped DNAPL (perchloroethylene: PCE). The objective of the study was to determine the distribution of each component (e.g., butanol, surfactant, water, PCE) between the original aqueous and PCE phases during the application of DMD. The results indicated that the presence of the surfactant increased the amount of n-butanol required to make the NAPL phase reach its desired density. In addition, water and anionic surfactant were found to partition along with the BuOH into the PCE phase. The water also found partitioned to reverse micelles in the modified phase. Addition of salt was seen to increase partitioning of surfactant to BuOH containing PCE phase. Subsequently, a large amount of water was solubilized into reverse micelles which lead to significantly increase in volume of the PCE phase. This work thus demonstrates the role of each component and the implications for the operation design of an aquifer treatment using the DMD technique.

  9. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  10. Glass Formation of n-Butanol: Coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations Using Gay-Berne Potential Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-long Xie; Yong-hong Zhang; Shi-ping Huang

    2012-01-01

    Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations based on Gay-Berne potential model,we have simulated the cooling process of liquid n-butanol.A new set of GB parameters are obtained by fitting the results of density functional theory calculations.The simulations are carried out in the range of 290-50 K with temperature decrements of 10 K.The cooling characteristics are determined on the basis of the variations of the density,the potential energy and orientational order parameter with temperature,whose slopes all show discontinuity.Both the radial distribution function curves and the second-rank orientational correlation function curves exhibit splitting in the second peak.Using the discontinuous change of these thermodynamic and structure properties,we obtain the glass transition at an estimate of temperature Tg=120±10 K,which is in good agreement with experimental results 110±1 K.

  11. Influence of n Si/ n Al ratio of HY zeolite catalysts on alkylation of toluene with tert-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Song, Hua; Sun, Xinglong; Song, HuaLin

    2016-12-01

    The highly selective synthesis of 4- tert-butyltoluene from toluene and tert-butanol over HY zeolites was performed in liquid phase. The effect of Si/Al ratio (6.3, 7.5, 11, 12) of HY zeolites on the alkylation performance was studied. The catalysts were characterized by SEM, XRD, FT-IR, and NH3-TPD methods. With increase of Si/Al ratio, the conversion of toluene and the selectivity towards 4- tert-butyltoluene increased gradually. HY-12 was found to be more suitable for the tert-butylation of toluene. When the alkylation reaction was conducted at 180°C for 4 h using HY-12 catalyst, the conversion and the selectivity of 4- tertbutyltoluene reached 40.74 and 70.91%, respectively.

  12. Synthesis of monodisperse nimesulide nanoparticles in microemulsions E170/isopropyl myristate/water/n-butanol (or isopropanol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuigne, F; Cuisenaire, J; Jeunieau, L; Masereel, B; Nagy, J B

    2000-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nimesulide have been synthesized in two systems of microemulsion: E170/isopropyl myristate/water/n-butanol (or isopropanol). Nanoparticles are monodisperse. In the two microemulsions, the size of the nanoparticles is comprised between 45 and 60 A and also seems to be independent of the factor R ([water]/[E170]) and of the concentration of the nimesulide solubilized in chloroform. The constancy of the size suggests that the size is controlled by thermodynamic stabilization of the nanoparticles with the surfactant. The nature of the cosurfactant does not have an obvious influence on the nanoparticle size. The nanoparticles are instantaneously formed and stay stable during a long period of time (several months).

  13. A comparison of the energy use of in situ product recovery techniques for the Acetone Butanol Ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Victoria; Lalander, Carl-Axel; Lee, Jonathan G M; Davis, E Timothy; Harvey, Adam P

    2016-11-01

    The productivity of the Acetone Butanol Ethanol (ABE) fermentation can be significantly increased by application of various in situ product recovery (ISPR) techniques. There are numerous technically viable processes, but it is not clear which is the most economically viable in practice. There is little available information about the energy requirements and economics of ISPR for the ABE fermentation. This work compares various ISPR techniques based on UniSim process simulations of the ABE fermentation. The simulations provide information on the process energy and separation efficiency, which is fed into an economic assessment. Perstraction was the only technique to reduce the energy demand below that of a batch process, by approximately 5%. Perstraction also had the highest profit increase over a batch process, by 175%. However, perstraction is an immature technology, so would need significant development before being integrated to an industrial process.

  14. Oil palm empty fruit bunch as alternative substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium butyricum EB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamad Faizal; Abd-Aziz, Suraini; Razak, Mohamad Nafis Abdul; Phang, Lai Yee; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. In this study, Clostridium butyricum EB6 was employed for ABE fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). A higher amount of ABE (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated OPEFB as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at pH 5.5. ABE production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at pH 6.0. The fermentation using limited nitrogen concentration of 3 g/l improved the ABE yield by 64%. The study showed that OPEFB has the potential to be applied for renewable ABE production by C. butyricum EB6.

  15. The influence of the pentose's pathway of the Clostridium Acetobutylicum on the production of butanol: Insights from mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rafael Ferreira; da Silva, Fabrício Alves Barbosa; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ramos; Caffarena, Ernesto Raul

    2016-12-01

    This work is a pilot study for further analysis of the organism Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and the influences of the Pentose's Pathway on the parasite Clostridium acetobutylicum, already cataloged in the database of OptFlux program. We used the approach parcimonius Flux Balance Analysis (pFBA) to simulate the wild type organism and the mutant with an inhibition of the R_01056 reaction in pentose's pathway. Results showed a reduction of approximately 1/3 of the biomass and 2/3 of the butanol production. This reduction shows the direct influence of the Pentose's Pathway on the primary production of metabolites and the biomass generation from the Clostridium metabolites. This information prompted us to build in the future an SBML parameter file to represent the flow of T.cruzi pathways, which will be essential for the development of new drugs against.

  16. Synthesis and applications of mesoporous Cu-Zn-Al2O3 catalyst for dehydrogenation of 2-butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deren Fang; Wanzhong Ren; Zhongmin Liu; Xiufeng Xu; Lei Xu; Hongying L(u); Weiping Liao; Huimin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A series of mesoporous Cu-Zn-Al2O3 materials have been synthesized at ambient temperature and their structure was characterized by XRD, N2 physical adsorption and TPR techniques. Their catalytic applications for the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were evaluated in a fixed-bed flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. It is demonstrated from the XRD patterns that both the as-synthesized samples and calcined samples have the typical XRD patterns of meso-structured materials and the results of N2O chemical adsorption showed that Cu was embedded in the framework of the mesoporous materials and homogeneously dispersed in the mesoporous Cu-Zn-Al2O3 materials. The catalytic activity of 2-hntanol dehydrogenation was varied in the order of CZA(10)

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak M Kasote; Anand A Zanwar; Santosh T Devkar; Mahabaleshwar V Hegde; Keshav K Deshmukh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF) of flaxseed in rat. Methods: Immunomodulatory activity of EPC-BF was assessed in rat at oral doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg using neutrophil adhesion test, heamagglutination test and measuring delayed type hypersensitivity response. Results: EPC-BF modulates immune response by significantly reducing cell-mediated immune response at oral dose 150 mg/kg but not at dose 300 mg/kg. However, EPC-BF did not affect on the neutrophil adhesion and humoral immunity at both the studied doses. Conclusion: EPC-PC modulates immune response by reducing cell-mediated immune response at lower dose but not at higher dose, which could be due to the presence of both immunostimulant and immunosuppressant phenols together in EPC-BF. These studies suggest that EPC-BF could be a promising source for new immune modifier.

  20. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping.

  1. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on mesoporous silica morphology and esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Zhou, Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.com; Jiang, Bin; Zhao, Minnan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silica materials with a range of morphology evolution, i.e., from curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica to straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica, were successfully prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and triblock copolymer as dual template. The effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on mesoporous silica structure parameters were studied. Results showed that surface area and pore volume continuously decreased with increased PVP molecular weight. Mesoporous silica prepared with PVP K30 also possessed larger pore diameter, interplanar spacing (d{sub 100}), and cell parameter (a{sub 0}) than that prepared with PVP K15 and PVP K90. In addition, with increased PVP concentration, d{sub 100} and a{sub 0} continuously decreased. The mechanism of morphology evolution caused by the change in PVP concentration was investigated. The conversion rate of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was also evaluated. Results showed that PPL immobilized on amino-functionalized straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica maintained 50% of its esterification conversion rate even after five cycles of use with a maximum conversion rate was about 90.15%. - Graphical abstract: Curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at low and the highest PVP concentration, while straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at higher PVP concentration. - Highlights: • Mesoporous silica with morphology evolution from CRMS to SRMS were prepared. • Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on silica morphology were studied. • A possible mechanism for the formation of morphology evolution SiO{sub 2} was proposed. • Esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized PPL.

  2. Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantoft, Thomas M; Skovbjerg, Sine; Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna-Sara; Engkilde, Kaare; Lind, Nina; Nordin, Steven; Hellgren, Lars I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants. The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure. Design Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure. Settings Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper. Participants 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls. Outcome measures 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels. Results MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls. Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate

  3. Selective n-butanol production by Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365 during continuous synthesis gas fermentation due to expression of synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Vel; Tyurin, Michael; Kiriukhin, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Acetogen Clostridum sp. MT1962 produced 287 mM acetate (p < 0.005) and 293 mM ethanol (p < 0.005) fermenting synthesis gas blend 60% CO and 40% H₂ in single-stage continuous fermentation. This strain was metabolically engineered to the biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365. The engineered biocatalyst lost production of ethanol and acetate while initiated the production of 297 mM of n-butanol (p < 0.005). The metabolic engineering comprised Cre-lox66/lox71-based elimination of phosphotransacetylase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase along with integration to chromosome synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase. This is the first report on elimination of acetate and ethanol production genes and expression of synthetic gene cluster encoding n-butanol biosynthesis pathway in acetogen biocatalyst for selective fuel n-butanol production with no antibiotic support for the introduced genes.

  4. Inhibition of ascitic ehrlich tumor cell growth by intraperitoneal injection of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng butanolic residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of the administration of butanolic residue (BR of Pfaffia paniculata by intraperitoneal route to Ehrlich ascitis tumor bearing mice. Initially, a toxicity study of P. paniculata BR was performed in which doses of 12.5; 25 and 50mg/Kg were administered by intraperitoneal injection for seven days to Swiss mice. The treatment did not show toxicity. Then, Swiss male mice received, by intraperitoneal injection, once a day, 12.5; 25 or 50mg/Kg of P. paniculata BR for seven days. This protocol started in the same day of tumor inoculation with 5X10(6 cells i.p. The treatment with butanolic residue of P.paniculata i.p caused a significant increase in the ascitic volume; however, a significant decrease in tumor cells number per ml (pNeste estudo, foi avaliado o efeito do tratamento intraperitoneal com Resíduo Butanólico de Pfaffia paniculata, sobre o crescimento do Tumor de Ehrlich, forma ascítica. Foram utilizados dois grupos de 15 camundongos cada, sendo um grupo controle e o outro grupo tratado com RB 50mg/Kg. Todos os animais foram inoculados intraperitonealmente, com 5X10(6 células tumorais O tratamento iniciou-se no mesmo dia da inoculação do tumor. Assim, os animais receberam diariamente, por via intraperitoneal, 0,1 ml de RB na concentrações 50 mg/Kg, ou PBS como controle. Após 7 dias da inoculação do tumor, os animais foram eutanasiados e foi colhido o fluído ascítico total, para a contagem do número de células tumorais presentes neste fluído e estudo da morfologia destas células . Neste experimento observou-se aumento significante da quantidade de fluido ascítico nos animais tratados com RB, e diminuição significativa em relação ao número de células tumorais/ml e células tumorais totais, presentes no fluído ascítico, comparativamente com os animais controle. Estes resultados sugerem efeito inibitório tópico do RB levando à morte as células neoplásicas.

  5. Copper-based nanocatalysts for 2-butanol dehydrogenation: Screening and optimization of preparation parameters by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geravand, Elham; Shariatinia, Geravand; Yaripour, Fereydoon [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahebdelfar, Saeed [National Iranian Petrochemical Company, P. O. Box 1493, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Two types of copper-based dehydrogenation nanocatalysts (Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cu/SiO{sub 2}) were prepared from various precursors by impregnation (IM), sol-gel (SG) and co precipitation (COPRE) methods. The structures of samples were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, XRF, TPR, N{sub 2}O-Titration, FT-IR, FE-SEM and TEM techniques. The catalytic performance tests in vapor-phase dehydrogenation of 2-butanol to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 260 .deg. C under atmospheric pressure and LHSV of 4mL/(h·g cat). The experimental results indicated that (i) the copper oxide over the COPRE nanocatalyst was reduced at a lower temperature (222 .deg. C) in comparison with the CuO reduced on the SG and IM samples (243 and 327 .deg. C, respectively). Also, the percentage of reduction of CuO species on COPRE catalyst was the highest (98.8%) in comparison with the two other samples, (ii) the COPRE nanocatalyst exhibited the highest activity for the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol to MEK, and (iii) co-precipitation method was selected as an optimum method for preparation of nanocatalyst. The central composite experimental design method was applied for investigation of the effects of four critical preparation factors on the MEK selectivity of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst. The results showed that Cu/Zn molar ratio and precipitation pH are the most effective factors on the response and the optimum conditions for synthesis of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocatalyst with maximum selectivity of MEK were T(pre)=67.5 .deg. C, T(aging)=68.8 .deg. C, pH(pre)=7.27 and Cu/Zn molar ratio=1.38. The performance of the prepared nanocatalyst at the optimum conditions was comparable to the commercially available nanocatalyst.

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the binary systems of 1-butanol with some halohydrocarbons at 40.0 and 101.3 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artigas, H.; Lafuente, C.; Cea, P.; Royo, F.M.; Urieta, J.S. [Univ. de Zaragoza (Spain)

    1997-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements at 40.0 and 101.3 kPa are reported for 1-butanol + chlorocyclohexane, + chlorobenzene, + bromocyclohexane, + bromobenzene. Some of the studied systems show minimum temperature azeotropes. The experimental data were tested for thermodynamic consistency and satisfactorily correlated with the Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. Predictions with the UNIFAC method and ASOG method were also obtained.

  7. Enhanced isopropanol and n-butanol production by supplying exogenous acetic acid via co-culturing two clostridium strains from cassava bagasse hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Qu, Chunyun; Huang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yukai; Liao, Zhengping; Wang, Jufang

    2016-07-01

    The focus of this study was to produce isopropanol and butanol (IB) from dilute sulfuric acid treated cassava bagasse hydrolysate (SACBH), and improve IB production by co-culturing Clostridium beijerinckii (C. beijerinckii) with Clostridium tyrobutyricum (C. tyrobutyricum) in an immobilized-cell fermentation system. Concentrated SACBH could be converted to solvents efficiently by immobilized pure culture of C. beijerinckii. Considerable solvent concentrations of 6.19 g/L isopropanol and 12.32 g/L butanol were obtained from batch fermentation, and the total solvent yield and volumetric productivity were 0.42 g/g and 0.30 g/L/h, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of isopropanol and butanol increased to 7.63 and 13.26 g/L, respectively, under the immobilized co-culture conditions when concentrated SACBH was used as the carbon source. The concentrations of isopropanol and butanol from the immobilized co-culture fermentation were, respectively, 42.62 and 25.45 % higher than the production resulting from pure culture fermentation. The total solvent yield and volumetric productivity increased to 0.51 g/g and 0.44 g/L/h when co-culture conditions were utilized. Our results indicated that SACBH could be used as an economically favorable carbon source or substrate for IB production using immobilized fermentation. Additionally, IB production could be significantly improved by co-culture immobilization, which provides extracellular acetic acid to C. beijerinckii from C. tyrobutyricum. This study provided a technically feasible and cost-efficient way for IB production using cassava bagasse, which may be suitable for industrial solvent production.

  8. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  9. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.

    2013-12-19

    In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content can exhibit very different ignition delay periods than similarly blended reference fuels. The experiments further showed that n-butanol blends behaved unlike PRF blends when comparing the autoignition behavior as a function of the percentage of low reactivity component. The HCCI and FIT experimental results favorably compared against single and multizone models with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms - both an existing mechanism as well as one developed during this study were used. The experimental and modeling results suggest that that the FIT instrument is a valuable tool for analysis of high pressure, low temperature chemistry, and autoignition for future fuels in advanced combustion engines. Additionally, in both the FIT and engine experiments the fraction of low temperature heat release (fLTHR) was found to correlate very well with the crank angle of maximum heat release and shows promise as a useful metric for fuel reactivity in advanced combustion applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Effect of operating temperature on transient behaviour of a biofilter treating waste-air containing n-butanol vapour during intermittent loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Farzaneh; Nasernejad, Bahram; Zamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Transient-state removal of n-butanol vapour was investigated in a biofilter (BF) packed with compost and lava rock at different operating temperatures in the range of 30-45°C under intermittent loading (8 h per day). Adsorption on the inactive bed and biodegradation in the microbial-active bed were studied separately at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 1 min and inlet concentrations of 2.6-3.2 g m(-3), respectively. According to the transient experiments, the highest removal efficiency (RE) around 86% was obtained at 40°C due to a high microbial activity. Comparison of CO2 production and pure adsorption of n-butanol showed that adsorption was the major mechanism in the start-up of BF at each operating condition; although the impact of adsorption declined as temperature increased from 30°C to 45°C. The process was reaction limited at all operating conditions. Based on the determination of stoichiometric coefficients of n-butanol biodegradation, the CO2 production level was significantly lower than that of the chemical oxidation process which resulted in a decrease in environmental pollution.

  11. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production in fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed cassava flour by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and solvent separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépiz-Aguilar, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Arias, María Laura; Lutz, Giselle

    2013-08-01

    Cassava constitutes an abundant substrate in tropical regions. The production of butanol in ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using cassava flour (CF) was scaled-up to bioreactor level (5 L). Optimized fermentation conditions were applied; that is, 40℃, 60 g/l CF, and enzymatic pretreatment of the substrate. The batch fermentation profile presented an acidogenic phase for the first 24 h and a solventogenic phase afterwards. An average of 37.01 g/l ABE was produced after 83 h, with a productivity of 0.446 g/l/h. Butanol production was 25.71 g/l with a productivity of 0.310 g/l/h, high or similar to analogous batch processes described for other substrates. Solvent separation by different combinations of fractioned and azeotropic distillation and liquid-liquid separation were assessed to evaluate energetic and economic costs in downstream processing. Results suggest that the use of cassava as a substrate in ABE fermentation could be a cost-effective way of producing butanol in tropical regions.

  12. Saccharification of polysaccharide content of palm kernel cake using enzymatic catalysis for production of biobutanol in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Hafiza; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Nasser; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Rahman, Norliza A; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose content of palm kernel cake (PKC) by different types of hydrolytic enzymes was studied to evaluate monomeric sugars released for production of biobutanol by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564) in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Experimental results revealed that when PKC was hydrolyzed by mixed β-glucosidase, cellulase and mannanase, a total simple sugars of 87.81±4.78 g/L were produced, which resulted in 3.75±0.18 g/L butanol and 6.44±0.43 g/L ABE at 168 h fermentation. In order to increase saccharolytic efficiency of enzymatic treatment, PKC was pretreated by liquid hot water before performing enzymatic hydrolysis. Test results showed that total reducing sugars were enhanced to 97.81±1.29 g/L with elevated production of butanol and ABE up to 4.15±1.18 and 7.12±2.06 g/L, respectively which represented an A:B:E ratio of 7:11:1.

  13. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone. Phase two: analysis of research advances. Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-08-01

    The initial objective of this work was to develop a methodology for analyzing the impact of technological advances as a tool to help establish priorities for R and D options in the field of biocatalysis. As an example of a biocatalyzed process, butanol/acetone fermentation (ABE process) was selected as the specific topic of study. A base case model characterizing the technology and economics associated with the ABE process was developed in the previous first phase of study. The project objectives were broadened in this second phase of work to provide parametric estimates of the economic and energy impacts of a variety of research advances in the hydrolysis, fermentation and purification sections of the process. The research advances analyzed in this study were based on a comprehensive literature review. The six process options analyzed were: continuous ABE fermentaton; vacuum ABE fermentation; Baelene solvent extraction; HRI's Lignol process; improved prehydrolysis/dual enzyme hydrolysis; and improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity. Of the six options analyzed, only improved microorganism tolerance to butanol toxicity had a significant positive effect on energy efficiency and economics. This particular process option reduced the base case production cost (including 10% DCF return) by 20% and energy consumption by 16%. Figures and tables.

  14. An Investigation of Structure Transition in Sodium Dodecyl Trioxyethylene Sulfate/n-Butanol/n-Octane/Water System by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jian-hai; ZHAO Kong-shuang; WEI Su-xiang; LI Ying; LI Gan-zuo

    2004-01-01

    The phase diagram of the quaternary system of sodium dodecyl trioxyethylene sulfate(SDES)/n-butanol/n-octane/water was obtained at (30.0±0.1) ℃. There exists a clear, isotropic, and low-viscosity L phase, which can be divided into W/O, bi-continuous(B.C.) and O/W microemulsions by conductivity measurement results. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy(DRS) measurements, including permittivity, conductivity, relaxation strength, characteristic relaxation time, dielectric parameters, phase parameters, etc., were applied to investigating the microstructures of the system mentioned above. For the samples with a fixed SDES/n-butanol mass ratio of 4/6 including 20%(mass fraction) of n-octane, DRS indicated a structure transition from a W/O to an O/W via a B.C. microemulsion with the increase of the water content. For the samples with a fixed (SDES/20%n-octane)/H2O mass ratio of 5/5, DRS presented that there only exists a onefold structure of a W/O microemulsion as the (n-butanol/20%n-octane) content increases. The results obtained from DRS are in good agreement with those from the phase diagram.

  15. Butanol Dehydration over V2O5-TiO2/MCM-41 Catalysts Prepared via Liquid Phase Atomic Layer Deposition

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    Jong-Ki Jeon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MCM-41 was used as a support and, by using atomic layer deposition (ALD in the liquid phase, a catalyst was prepared by consecutively loading titanium oxide and vanadium oxide to the support. This research analyzes the effect of the loading amount of vanadium oxide on the acidic characteristics and catalytic performance in the dehydration of butanol. The physical and chemical characteristics of the TiO2-V2O5/MCM-41 catalysts were analyzed using XRF, BET, NH3-TPD, XRD, Py-IR, and XPS. The dehydration reaction of butanol was performed in a fixed bed reactor. For the samples with vanadium oxide loaded to TiO2/MCM-41 sample using the liquid phase ALD method, it was possible to increase the loading amount until the amount of vanadium oxide reached 12.1 wt %. It was confirmed that the structural properties of the mesoporous silica were retained well after titanium oxide and vanadium loading. The NH3-TPD and Py-IR results indicated that weak acid sites were produced over the TiO2/MCM-41 samples, which is attributed to the generation of Lewis acid sites. The highest activity of the V2O5(12.1-TiO2/MCM-41 catalyst in 2-butanol dehydration is ascribed to it having the highest number of Lewis acid sites, as well as the highest vanadium dispersion.

  16. Neuroprotection of n-Butanol Extract from Roots of Potentilla anserina on Hypoxic Injury in Primary Hippocampal Neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xiao-jing; LI Ling-zhi; LV Qi; YU Bao-guo; YANG Shu-wang; HE Tao; ZHANG Yong-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of n-butanol extract from the roots of Potentilla anserina (NP) on hypoxic hippocampal neurons in neonatal rats.Methods Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were pretreated with different concentration of NP (0.25,0.0625,and 0.0156 mg/mL) before incubation in a low oxygen (0.1%) environment for 4 h.Cell viability was evaluated by Trypan blue staining assay.Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released by neurons into the medium was measured.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cell cytosol was determined using nitroblue tetrazolium.Morphological changes and mitochondrial function were observed by transmission electron microscopy.Results Hypoxic injury could decrease the cells viability of neuron,enhance LDH release (P < 0.05),decrease SOD activity,and increase mitochondrial injury.Pretreatment with NP significantly increased cell viability,decreased LDH release (P < 0.05),promoted SOD activity (P < 0.05),and remarkably improved cellular ultra-microstructure compared with the model group.Conclusion NP could protect the primary hippocampal neurons from hypoxic injury by attenuating mitochondrial cell death.

  17. N-Butanol Extract from Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb Affects Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines and Mediators

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    Lei Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb is a traditional medicinal plant for treating inflammation-related disease. This explores the inner anti-inflammatory mechanism of n-butanol extract from M. suaveolens Ledeb. Inflammatory cellular model was established by lipopolysaccharide intervention on RAW264.7 cell line. Levels of secreted cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and IL-10 in supernatant, mRNA expression of TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS and HO-1, protein expression of COX-2 and HO-1, activation of NF-κB and ingredients in the extract were assayed by ELISA, real time quantitative PCR, western blot, immunocytochemical test and HPLC fingerprint test, respectively. As a result, the extract could not only markedly reduce the production of pro-inflammatory mediators to different extents by blocking NF-κB activation but also promote the release of anti-inflammatory mediator HO-1 significantly. Each 1 g extract contained 0.023531 mg coumarin and another two high polar ingredients, probably saponins. It can be concluded that the extract has similar effects on antagonizing pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines like Dexamethasone, and has effects on promoting the production of anti-inflammatory mediators.

  18. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 immobilized on chemically modified sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangping; He, Aiyong; Zhao, Jie; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min

    2015-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was chemically modified by polyethylenimine (PEI) and glutaraldehyde (GA) and then used as a support to immobilize Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 in the process of butanol production. Compared with batch fermentation using unmodified sugarcane bagasse, 22.3 g/L total solvents were produced by cells immobilized on 4 g/L PEI treated sugarcane bagasse with high solvent productivity of 0.62 g/(L h) and glucose consumption rate of 1.67 g/(L h). Improvement of 14, 43, and 37 % in total solvent titer, solvent productivity and glucose consumption rate was observed, respectively. Enhanced solvent production of 25.14 g/L was obtained when using a high concentration of glucose of 80 g/L. Continuous fermentation was studied using PEI/GA modified sugarcane bagasse as immobilization support with a range of dilution which rates from 0.2 to 2.5 to find an optimal condition. The maximum solvent productivity of 11.32 g/(L h) was obtained at a high dilution rate of 2.0 h(-1).

  19. Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-01

    During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs.

  20. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on mesoporous silica morphology and esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Zhou, Guowei; Jiang, Bin; Zhao, Minnan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Mesoporous silica materials with a range of morphology evolution, i.e., from curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica to straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica, were successfully prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and triblock copolymer as dual template. The effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on mesoporous silica structure parameters were studied. Results showed that surface area and pore volume continuously decreased with increased PVP molecular weight. Mesoporous silica prepared with PVP K30 also possessed larger pore diameter, interplanar spacing (d100), and cell parameter (a0) than that prepared with PVP K15 and PVP K90. In addition, with increased PVP concentration, d100 and a0 continuously decreased. The mechanism of morphology evolution caused by the change in PVP concentration was investigated. The conversion rate of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was also evaluated. Results showed that PPL immobilized on amino-functionalized straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica maintained 50% of its esterification conversion rate even after five cycles of use with a maximum conversion rate was about 90.15%.

  1. Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells

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    Hwang Pei-Ing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinacea spp. extracts and the derived phytocompounds have been shown to induce specific immune cell activities and are popularly used as food supplements or nutraceuticals for immuno-modulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs, the most potent antigen presenting cells, play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunities. In this study, we investigated the specific and differential gene expression in human immature DCs (iDCs in response to treatment with a butanol fraction containing defined bioactive phytocompounds extracted from stems and leaves of Echinacea purpurea, that we denoted [BF/S+L/Ep]. Results Affymetrix DNA microarray results showed significant up regulation of specific genes for cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-18 and chemokines (CXCL 2, CCL 5, and CCL 2 within 4 h after [BF/S+L/Ep] treatment of iDCs. Bioinformatics analysis of genes expressed in [BF/S+L/Ep]-treated DCs revealed a key-signaling network involving a number of immune-modulatory molecules leading to the activation of a downstream molecule, adenylate cyclase 8. Proteomic analysis showed increased expression of antioxidant and cytoskeletal proteins after treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep] and cichoric acid. Conclusion This study provides information on candidate target molecules and molecular signaling mechanisms for future systematic research into the immune-modulatory activities of an important traditional medicinal herb and its derived phytocompounds.

  2. The n-Hexane, ethylacetate, and butanol fractions from Hydnocarpi Semen enhanced wound healing in a mice ulcer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum Seon; Yim, Dongsool; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kang, Tae Jin

    2012-12-01

    Our previous report showed that Hydnocarpi Semen (HS) extract has wound repair activity at ulcer lesion in diabetic mice. In this study, fractions of n-Hexane, ethylacetate (EtOAc), and butanol (BuOH) from HS crude extract were evaluated for their wound healing activity by using in vivo diabetic ulcer models and in vitro acute inflammation model. Although n-Hexane and EtOAc fractions promote wound healing in mice with ulcer, the BuOH fraction exhibited the most potent wound healing activity and the wound area score significantly decreased after treatment of BuOH fraction even at dose of 2 mg/kg. BuOH fraction stimulated macrophages to increase the production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α. The BuOH fraction also enhanced the production of TGF-β and VEGF, which were involved in fibroblast activation and angiogenesis. The mRNA expression and activation of MMP-9 were increased by three fractions and the activity was higher in BuOH fraction-treated group compared to the other groups. The mechanism that the HS helps to promote healing of diabetic ulcer is possibly associated with the production of TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, as well as the secretion of VEGF, TGF-β, and MMP-9, which were involved in proliferation of capillaries and fibroblasts. These results suggest that HS can be a new candidate material for the treatment of wound in skin ulcer.

  3. Shotgun proteomic monitoring of Clostridium acetobutylicum during stationary phase of butanol fermentation using xylose and comparison with the exponential phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivagnanam, Kumaran [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Raghavan, Vijaya G. S. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

    2012-01-01

    Economically viable production of solvents through acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation requires a detailed understanding of Clostridium acetobutylicum. This study focuses on the proteomic profiling of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 from the stationary phase of ABE fermentation using xylose and compares with the exponential growth by shotgun proteomics approach. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 22.9% of the C. acetobutylicum genome and 18.6% was found to be common in both exponential and stationary phases. The proteomic profile of C. acetobutylicum changed during the ABE fermentation such that 17 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the two phases. Specifically, the expression of five proteins namely, CAC2873, CAP0164, CAP0165, CAC3298, and CAC1742 involved in the solvent production pathway were found to be significantly lower in the stationary phase compared to the exponential growth. Similarly, the expression of fucose isomerase (CAC2610), xylulose kinase (CAC2612), and a putative uncharacterized protein (CAC2611) involved in the xylose utilization pathway were also significantly lower in the stationary phase. These findings provide an insight into the metabolic behavior of C. acetobutylicum between different phases of ABE fermentation using xylose.

  4. Enhanced butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 grown on date fruit as carbon source in P2 medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaiseh, Emran I; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Abdeshahian, Peyman; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2014-01-01

    The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35 °C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) was 0.32 and 0.35 gram per gram of carbohydrate consumed (g/g), respectively, when an initial date fruit concentration of 10 g/L was utilized. At this fruit date concentration a biobutanol production value of 1.56 g/L was obtained. On the other hand, the maximum yield of biobutanol (0.48 g/g) and ABE (0.63 g/g) was produced at 50 g/L date fruit concentration with a biobutanol production value as high as 11 g/L. However, when a higher initial date fruit concentration was used, biobutanol and ABE production decreased to reach the yield of 0.22 g/g and 0.35 g/g, respectively, where 100 g/L date fruit was used. Similar results also revealed that 10.03 g/L biobutanol was produced using 100 g/L date fruit.

  5. Optimization and validation of a GC-FID method for the determination of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Fan, Jiansheng; Wen, Qingshi; Li, Renjie; Jin, Xiaohong; Wu, Jinglan; Qian, Wenbin; Liu, Dong; Xie, Jingjing; Bai, Jianxin; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-03-01

    An improved, simple gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method was developed for measuring the products of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and the combined fermentation/separation processes. The analysis time per sample was reduced to less than 10 min compared to those of a conventional GC-FID (more than 20 min). The behavior of the compounds in temperature-programmed gas chromatographic runs was predicted using thermodynamic parameters derived from isothermal runs. The optimum temperature programming condition was achieved when the resolution for each peak met the analytical requirement and the analysis time was shortest. With the exception of acetic acid, the detection limits of the presented method for various products were below 10 mg/L. The repeatability and intermediate precision of the method were less than 10% (relative standard deviation). Validation and quantification results demonstrated that this method is a sensitive, reliable and fast alternative for conventional investigation of the adsorption-coupled ABE fermentation process.

  6. Effective multiple stages continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by immobilized bioreactors: Making full use of fresh corn stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhen; Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Fu, Chaohui; Wang, Guoqing; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-04-01

    In order to make full use of the fresh corn stalk, the sugar containing juice was used as the sole substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production without any nutrients supplement, and the bagasse after squeezing the juice was used as the immobilized carrier. A total 21.34g/L of ABE was produced in batch cells immobilization system with ABE yield of 0.35g/g. A continuous fermentation containing three stages with immobilized cells was conducted and the effect of dilution rate on fermentation was investigated. As a result, the productivity and ABE solvents concentration reached 0.80g/Lh and 19.93g/L, respectively, when the dilution rate in each stage was 0.12/h (corresponding to a dilution rate of 0.04/h in the whole system). And the long-term operation indicated the continuous multiple stages ABE fermentation process had good stability and showed the great potential in future industrial applications.

  7. Beta-cyclodextrin induced room temperature phosphorescence from 1-bromonaphthalene in the presence of naphthalene and 1-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin-Zhen; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Xian-Zhi; Li, Yao-Qun; Jiang, Yun-Bao; Chen, Guo-Zhen

    1996-10-01

    Intense room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) from host-guest inclusion complex of beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with 1-bromonaphthalene (1-BrN), stabilized by naphthalene (N) and 1-butanol (B), has been investigated. The spectral characteristics of luminescence emission and optimal conditions involved are reported. It has been confirmed that N and B are incorporated into the nonpolar cavity of β-CD as the second and third guests. The extra space inside the cavity is more filled by N and B, and δ-CD more effectively shields 1-BrN from quencher in aqueous solution. B completely hinders the formation of N excimer. Greater rigidity of the complex was achieved. Consequently, much more intense fluorescence and phosphorescence appear in comparison with the ternary β-CD:1-BrN:B complex. The limit of detection is 7.38 × 10 -8mol 1 -1 for 1-BrN and 1.36 × 10 -6mol 1 -1 for N.

  8. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M; Jones, Patrik R; Akhtar, M Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability.

  9. Glycerol supplementation of the growth medium enhances in situ detoxification of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii during butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural adversely affect fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals due to their toxicity on fermenting microbes. To harness the potential of lignocellulose as a cheap source of fermentable sugars, in situ detoxification of furfural and other lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors is essential. To enhance in situ detoxification and tolerance of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, the effect of glycerol on NADH/NADPH generation and ABE production by furfural (4, 5, and 6 g/L)-challenged cultures was investigated in this study. In all instances, beneficial outcomes were observed. For example, the fermentation medium supplemented with glycerol and subjected to 5 g/L furfural elicited up to 1.8- and 3-fold increases, respectively, in NADH and NADPH levels in C. beijerinckii 8052 relative to the control culture. These critical changes are the likely underpinnings for the glycerol-mediated 2.3-fold increase in the rate of detoxification of 5 g/L furfural, substrate consumption, and ABE production compared to the unsupplemented medium. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased intracellular NADH/NADPH in C. beijerinckii 8052 due to glycerol utilization engenders favorable effects on many aspects of cellular metabolism, including enhanced furfural reduction and increased ABE production.

  10. DENSIDADES Y PROPIEDADES VOLUMÉTRICAS DE LA MEZCLA N,N-DIMETILFORMAMIDA (DMF + 1-BUTANOL A DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS

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    MANUEL PÁEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las densidades de la mezcla binaria de N,N-Dimetilformamida (DMF + 1-Butanol usando un densímetro de tubo vibrador DMA 5000, sobre todo el intervalo de fracciones molares en el intervalo de temperaturas de 283.15K a 313.15K y 1.011 bar. Se calcularon los volúmenes molares de exceso (V e m volúmenes molares parciales (Vi, volúmenes molares parciales a dilución infinita (V i ∞ , volúmenes molares parciales de exceso ( V i E del soluto y del solvente. Los volúmenes molares de exceso se correlacionaron usando la ecuación de Redlich-Kister. Adicionalmente, se calcularon los coeficientes viriales (bv de acuerdo a la teoría de McMillan-Mayer. Los valores obtenidos para estos parámetros fueron discutidos en términos de las interacciones presentes en solución.

  11. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effect of Butanolic Fraction from Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Moraes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caryocar brasiliense Camb. “pequi” is a native plant from the Cerrado region of Brazil that contains bioactive components reported to be antioxidant agents. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes. We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE of C. brasiliense leaves relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and that the butanolic fraction (BF produced an effect similar to that of the CHE. Aortic relaxation induced by BF was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylatecyclase inhibitor ODQ. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had no effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with BF, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after incubation with L-NAME. In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a reversible hypotension. The results reveal that C. brasiliense possesses both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of BF involves stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

  12. Changes in membrane fatty acid composition through proton-induced fabF mutation enhancing 1-butanol tolerance in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Kim, Sun Hong; Han, Sang Soo; Kim, Myung Hee; Lee, Keun Chul

    2012-07-01

    While a rational approach based on genomic data has become the preferred method for microbial strain development, radiation-induced random mutagenesis is still a robust method for organisms such as plants whose genome or target gene information is unavailable. We previously reported on a combined approach that consists of proton irradiation and a long-term experimental evolution to enhance 1-butanol tolerance of the E. coli C strain so that it can be used as a basal strain for the production of 1-butanol, a potential biofuel along with ethanol. Genome sequencing of one randomly chosen clone (PKH5000) from the endpoint population revealed eleven mutations occurring in the coding regions, and we found that a mutation (F74C) in fabF gene encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthases II is associated with a twofold increase in the major unsaturated fatty acid, cis-vaccenic acid. The increase of cis-vaccenic acid by wild-type FabF, which is more active at low temperatures or in the presence of organic compounds, is considered to be a protective mechanism against cold stress. A structural analysis of the FabF protein suggests that the F74C mutation may affect the enzyme activity through a change in flexibility around the catalytic site. The expression of a plasmid that harbors mutant fabF gene in the fabF knockout strain enhanced growth in a medium containing butanol with a concomitant elevation of the cis-vaccenic acid level. Among the eight available Keio knockout strains for genes that have amino acid substitution in the PKH5000 strain, the fabF mutant showed the slowest growth in the presence of 0.7% butanol. We propose that fabF, as probably the gene most responsible for butanol tolerance in wild-type form, contributes further when converted into a F74C missense mutation, which is beneficial as it increases the level of cis-vaccenic acid.

  13. 木薯和玉米原料丁醇发酵中丁醇丙酮质量比的图论理论计算及其验证%Theoretical calculation of butanol acetone mass ratio by graph theory and its experimental verification in cassava and corn media based butanol fermentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乐; 李志刚; 李鑫; 史仲平

    2013-01-01

    在丁醇发酵产溶剂阶段,乙酸和丁酸的生成途径、消耗途径同时存在,各自形成一个闭环路径.本研究利用图论对丁醇发酵中丁醇丙酮质量比进行了理论计算,并对以木薯和玉米为原料的丁醇发酵进行了模拟计算,结果表明:丁酸闭环路径(L2环)的代谢强度是影响丁醇丙酮质量比的主要因素,并且L2环的代谢强度越弱,丁醇丙酮质量比越高;与玉米原料丁醇发酵相比,木薯原料发酵的m(丁醇)/m(丙酮)提高了16.7%.实验结果证实了以上计算结果:在传统发酵、油醇萃取发酵和生物柴油萃取发酵中,以木薯(适时添加酵母浸粉)为原料的发酵批次与以玉米为原料的发酵批次相比,由于其丁酸闭环路径代谢强度较弱,相应发酵方式下丁醇丙酮质量比分别提高了12.9%、61.4%和6.7%,而且两种原料相应发酵方式的丁醇总产量和生产效率基本持平.另外,高丁醇丙酮质量比的木薯发酵所得改良型生物柴油中丁醇浓度与玉米发酵的相比提高了16%,性能得到进一步提高.%ABE fermentation is characterized with acetate butyrate formation and re-assimilation in multiple closed reaction loops during solventogenesis phase.In this study,we estimated butanol acetone mass ratio using graph theory for bio-butanol production utilizing cassava and corn based media.Theoretical calculations revealed that the metabolic strength of butyrate loop (L2) dominantly influenced butanol acetone mass ratio and lower metabolic strength in butyrate loop led to a higher butanol acetone mass ratio,and the ratio could be increased by 16.7% when using cassava based medium.Experimental results confirmed the theoretical estimations:weakened metabolic strength in butyrate loop using cassava based medium led to higher butanol acetone mass ratios in traditional fermentation and extractive fermentations with oleyl alcohol and biodiesel as the extractants,and butanol acetone mass ratios

  14. IKKβ-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Butanol Fraction of Artificially Cultivated Cordyceps pruinosa Fruit Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Gyung; Yang, Woo Seok; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Eunji; Yang, Sungjae; Park, Yung Chul; Sung, Jae Mo; Yoon, Deok Hyo; Kim, Tae Woong; Hong, Sungyoul; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory activities of the Cordyceps pruinosa butanol fraction (Cp-BF) were investigated by determining inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells and by evaluating HCl/ethanol (EtOH)-triggered gastric ulcers in mice. The molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of Cp-BF were investigated by identifying target enzymes using biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Cp-BF strongly inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic uptake of FITC-dextran, and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α in activated RAW264.7 cells. Cp-BF also strongly downregulated the NF-κB pathway by suppressing IKKβ according to luciferase reporter assays and immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, Cp-BF blocked both increased levels of NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and phosphorylation of p65/p50 observed by IKKβ overexpression. Finally, orally administered Cp-BF was found to attenuate gastric ulcer and block the phosphorylation of IκBα induced by HCl/EtOH. Therefore, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cp-BF may be mediated by suppression of IKKα and its downstream NF-κB activation. Since our group has established the mass cultivation conditions by developing culture conditions for Cordyceps pruinosa, the information presented in this study may be useful for developing new anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25132860

  15. IKK β -Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Butanol Fraction of Artificially Cultivated Cordyceps pruinosa Fruit Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Gyung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of the Cordyceps pruinosa butanol fraction (Cp-BF were investigated by determining inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells and by evaluating HCl/ethanol (EtOH-triggered gastric ulcers in mice. The molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of Cp-BF were investigated by identifying target enzymes using biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Cp-BF strongly inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS, phagocytic uptake of FITC-dextran, and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL-6, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in activated RAW264.7 cells. Cp-BF also strongly downregulated the NF-κB pathway by suppressing IKKβ according to luciferase reporter assays and immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, Cp-BF blocked both increased levels of NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and phosphorylation of p65/p50 observed by IKKβ overexpression. Finally, orally administered Cp-BF was found to attenuate gastric ulcer and block the phosphorylation of IκBα induced by HCl/EtOH. Therefore, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cp-BF may be mediated by suppression of IKKα and its downstream NF-κB activation. Since our group has established the mass cultivation conditions by developing culture conditions for Cordyceps pruinosa, the information presented in this study may be useful for developing new anti-inflammatory agents.

  16. Enhanced Butanol Production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 Grown on Date Fruit as Carbon Source in P2 Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran I. Khamaiseh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35°C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE was 0.32 and 0.35 gram per gram of carbohydrate consumed (g/g, respectively, when an initial date fruit concentration of 10 g/L was utilized. At this fruit date concentration a biobutanol production value of 1.56 g/L was obtained. On the other hand, the maximum yield of biobutanol (0.48 g/g and ABE (0.63 g/g was produced at 50 g/L date fruit concentration with a biobutanol production value as high as 11 g/L. However, when a higher initial date fruit concentration was used, biobutanol and ABE production decreased to reach the yield of 0.22 g/g and 0.35 g/g, respectively, where 100 g/L date fruit was used. Similar results also revealed that 10.03 g/L biobutanol was produced using 100 g/L date fruit.

  17. Cerebral haemodynamics during hypo- and hypercapnia. Determination with simultaneous {sup 15}O-butanol-PET and transcranial Doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppel, T.D.; Hautzel, H.; Mueller, H.W.; Krause, B.J. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Terborg, C.; Witte, O.W. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie; Herzog, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin

    2007-07-01

    Aim: Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) is increasingly used in cerebrovascular disease for monitoring brain perfusion. It allows estimation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the measurement of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). The CBFV as well as CBF are intimately associated with the intravascular CO{sub 2}-concentration. Thus, hyper- or hypocapnia can be used to induce a defined range of blood flows. The aim of our study was the comparison of vasomotor reactivity assessed with simultaneous TCD and quantitative regional CBFmeasurements (rCBF) by PET (serving as the reference method for in-vivo quantification of rCBF). Patients, methods: Six healthy young volunteers participated in this study. CBF was measured using {sup 15}O-butanol PET. A flow and dispersion- model was fitted to the measured time activity curves using arterial input curves. Each subject underwent five scans at five different end-tidal CO2 levels (EtCO{sub 2}): 25, 32, 40, 48, and 55 mmHg. CBFV was assessed by continuous bilateral TCD of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Volumes of interest for rCBF determination were placed in grey matter of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as determined from individual MRIs. Comparisons between the rCBF, EtCO{sub 2} and CBFV were carried out with regression and correlation analysis and paired t-tests. Results: Strong positive linear correlations of rCBF and CBFV with the CO{sub 2}-concentration and linear relationships between rCBF and CBFV were found in each individual. Normalised CO{sub 2}-reactivities measured by TCD and PET were closely correlated. Conclusions: TCD-measurements of vascular reactivity in healthy volunteers show a high correlation to those acquired with PET that serves as the reference method of quantitative rCBF-measurement. The results of the MCA insonation are a close approximation of the rCBF changes induced by variations of EtCO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  18. Periodic peristalsis increasing acetone-butanol-ethanol productivity during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-exploded corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2016-11-01

    The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of lignocellulose at high solids content has recently attracted extensive attention. However, the productivity of high solids ABE fermentation of lignocellulose is typically low in traditional processes due to the lack of efficient intensifying methods. In the present study, periodic peristalsis, a novel intensifying method, was applied to improve ABE production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-exploded corn straw using Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. The ABE concentration and the ABE productivity of SSF at a solids content of 17.5% (w/w) with periodic peristalsis were 17.1 g/L and 0.20 g/(L h), respectively, which were higher than those obtained under static conditions (15.2 g/L and 0.14 g/(L h)). The initial sugar conversion rate over the first 12 h with periodic peristalsis was 4.67 g/(L h) at 10 FPU/g cellulase dosage and 15% (w/w) solids content, an increase of 49.7% compared with the static conditions. With periodic peristalsis, the period of batch fermentation was shortened from 108 h to 84 h. The optimal operating regime was a low frequency (6 h(-1)) of periodic peristalsis in the acid-production phase (0-48 h) of SSF. Therefore, periodic peristalsis should be an effective intensifying method to increase the productivity of ABE fermentation at high solids content.

  19. Production of butanol from bagasse and molasses by mixed fermentation%甘蔗渣和糖蜜混合发酵制备燃料丁醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜腾飞; 郭亭; 汤艳; 贺爱永; 姜岷

    2012-01-01

    以抗逆突变株Clostridium beijerinckii IB4为研究对象,葡萄糖为C源,对其进行补料分批发酵过程的优化,同时将该优化工艺应用于甘蔗渣和糖蜜混合发酵制备燃料丁醇.结果表明:在5L发酵罐中,先加入作为还原糖的甘蔗渣酸解糖液10 g/L,16 h后补加甘蔗糖蜜30 g/L,于35 ℃、100 r/min发酵50 h,丁醇和总溶剂产量分别达到11.1和15.3 g/L,丁醇比例高达72.5%.%A tolerance mutant strain Clostridium beijerinckii IB4 was selected. Fed-batch fermentations were carried out in P2 fermentation medium with glucose, and the optimal fed-batch fermentation strategy was applied to butanol mixed fermentation from bagasse and molasses. Clostridium beijerinckii IB4 was cultured in a 5 L fermentor at 35 ℃ , 100 r/min for 50 h. The initial 10 g/L reducing sugar of acid hy-drolysate of bagasse was added, and 30 g/L of molasses was fed into fermentation medium after 16 h. Butanol and total solvents concentrations accumulated in the broth were 11.1 and 15. 3 g/L, respectively. Butanol proportion was up to 72. 5%.

  20. 利用微藻处理生物丁醇废水的初步研究%The Primary Studies on Treatment of Butanol Wastewater by Microalgae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锏文; 李智斌; 陈柏铨; 李璟

    2015-01-01

    The removal efficiency of COD by various microalgae in a butanol wastewater was investigated. The results showed that the Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella zofingiensis, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Spirulina platensis can effectively remove the COD in the butanol wastewater. The highest removal efficiency for COD(86. 56%) , total nitrogen (41. 39%), PO3-4 -P (86. 56%) were achieved by the heterotrophic cultivated Chlorella sorokiniana. In addition, the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana achieved the highest removal efficiency of the main pollutants in butanol wastewater when the concentration of wastewater was 50%.%对比了8个微藻藻株对丁醇废水中COD的去除效率,结果表明小球藻Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella zofingiensis,四尾栅藻和钝顶螺旋藻能有效去除丁醇废水中的COD。试验发现小球藻Chlorella sorokiniana在异养培养方式下,能有效去除丁醇废水中的COD、总氮和 PO3-4-P。其中对 COD 的去除率最高为85.78%,对总氮的去除率为41.39%,对 PO3-4-P 的去除率为86.56%。此外,当废水浓度为50%时,小球藻Chlorella sorokiniana对丁醇废水中主要污染物的去除效率最高。

  1. A novel process for direct production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from native starches using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kobayashi, Genta

    2014-02-01

    In this work, a new approach for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production has been proposed. Direct fermentation of native starches (uncooked process) was investigated by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Even the process was carried out under suboptimal condition for activity of GSHE, the production of ABE was similar with that observed in conventional process or cooked process in terms of final solvent concentration (21.3 ± 0.4 to 22.4 ± 0.4 g/L), butanol concentration (17.5 ± 0.4 to 17.8 ± 0.3 g/L) and butanol yield (0.33 to 0.37 g/g). The production of solvents was significantly dependent on the source of starches. Among investigated starches, corn starch was more susceptible to GSHE while cassava starch was the most resistant to this enzyme. Fermentation using native corn starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.47 g/L h, which was about 15 % higher than that achieved in cooked process. On the contrary, uncooked process using cassava and wheat starch resulted in the solvent productivity of 0.30 and 0.37 g/L h, which were respectively about 30 % lower than those obtained in cooked process. No contamination was observed during all trials even fermentation media were prepared without sterilization. During the fermentation using native starches, no formation of foam is observed. This uncooked process does not require cooking starchy material; therefore, the thermal energy consumption for solvent production would remarkably be reduced in comparison with cooked process.

  2. Experimental research on the performance of engine-fueled butanol gasoline%发动机燃用丁醇汽油的性能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石美玉; 朱荣福; 林明; 杨兆

    2015-01-01

    Butanol/gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blended fuels are mixed based on volume ratio with gasoline(butanol and ethanol accounted 10% ,respectively ) .The effects of blended fuels compared with gasoline on the engine performance are investigated through experiments .T he experiment results show that ,without any modification of the engine ,the power and brake specific fuel consumption of engine‐fueled butanol/gasoline blended fuel are relatively closed to gasoline ,and HC and CO emission are reduced more significantly ,compared with same proportion of ethanol/gasoline blended fuel .But the increment of NO x emission is higher than that of ethanol/gasoline blended fuel .%以汽油为基础油,按照体积分数分别配制出10%的丁醇汽油混合燃料和10%的乙醇汽油混合燃料,研究电喷汽油机在不作改动的情况下燃用丁醇汽油和乙醇汽油混合燃料时的性能变化情况。研究结果表明:在不改变汽油机任何参数的情况下,与相同比例的乙醇汽油相比,发动机燃用10%体积掺混率的丁醇汽油混合燃料的功率和油耗与汽油更为接近,CO和HC排放降低幅度高于乙醇汽油,而NO x增加幅度高于乙醇汽油。

  3. 红薯发酵产丁醇的工艺优化%Optimization on Fermentation Conditions of Butanol from Sweet Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田毅红; 朱志豪; 高媛; 张雨婷; 李文林; 龚大春

    2016-01-01

    对以红薯为原料、丙酮丁醇梭菌发酵产丁醇的工艺条件进行了优化,考察了红薯浓度、外加氮源及浓度、乙酸钠添加量对发酵的影响。结果表明:当红薯浓度为8%、乙酸铵浓度为2%(即碳氮比为20)、乙酸钠添加量为0.4%时,发酵液中丁醇含量达到最高,为14.410 mg·mL-1,较优化前显著提高。为发酵法产丁醇的工业化生产奠定了基础。%Fermentation conditions of Clostridium acetobutylicum to produce butanol by using sweet potato as raw material were optimized.Effects of the concentration of sweet potato,the type and concentration of addi-tional nitrogen source,and the dosage of sodium acetate on fermentation were investigated.The results showed that,when the concentration of sweet potato was 8%,the concentration of ammonium acetate was 2%(C/N val-ue was 20 ),the dosage of sodium acetate was 0.4%,the content of butanol in fermentation broth reached 14.410 mg·mL-1 ,which obviously higher than that of non-optimization process.The study lays the foundation for industrialization of butanol production by fermentation.

  4. Chemiluminescence analysis of the effect of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the spray-combustion process in an experimental common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion process was studied from the injection until the late combustion phase in an high swirl optically accessible combustion bowl connected to a single cylinder 2-stroke high pressure common rail compression ignition engine. Commercial diesel and blends of diesel and n-butanol (20%: BU20 and 40%: BU40 were used for the experiments. A pilot plus main injection strategy was investigated fixing the injection pressure and fuel mass injected per stroke. Two main injection timings and different pilot-main dwell times were explored achieving for any strategy a mixing controlled combustion. Advancing the main injection start, an increase in net engine working cycle (>40% together with a strong smoke number decrease (>80% and NOx concentration increase (@50% were measured for all pilot injection timings. Compared to diesel fuel, butanol induced a decrease in soot emission and an increase in net engine working area when butanol ratio increased in the blend. A noticeable increase in NOx was detected at the exhaust for BU40 with a slight effect of the dwell-time. Spectroscopic investigations confirmed the delayed auto-ignition (~60 ms of the pilot injection for BU40 compared to diesel. The spectral features for the different fuels were comparable at the start of combustion process, but they evolved in different ways. Broadband signal caused by soot emission, was lower for BU40 than diesel. Different balance of the bands at 309 and 282 nm, due to different OH transitions, were detected between the two fuels. The ratio of these intensities was used to follow flame temperature evolution.

  5. Excess enthalpy, density, and speed of sound determination for the ternary mixture (methyl tert-butyl ether + 1-butanol + n-hexane)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascato, Eva [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Mariano, Alejandra [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Pineiro, Manuel M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: mmpineiro@uvigo.es; Legido, Jose Luis [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Paz Andrade, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultade de Fisica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Density, ({rho}), and speed of sound, (u), from T = 288.15 to T = 308.15 K, and excess molar enthalpies, (h{sup E}) at T = 298.15 K, have been measured over the entire composition range for (methyl tert-butyl ether + 1-butanol + n-hexane). In addition, excess molar volumes, V{sup E}, and excess isentropic compressibility, {kappa}{sub s}{sup E}, were calculated from experimental data. Finally, experimental excess enthalpies results are compared with the estimations obtained by applying the group-contribution models of UNIFAC (in the versions of Dang and Tassios, Larsen et al., Gmehling et al.), and DISQUAC.

  6. Technical research on using cassava to produce bio-butanol%利用木薯生产生物丁醇的技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄园园; 黄国科

    2013-01-01

    Looking for fuel alcohol instead of oil, modification of the Clostridium acetobutylicum using molecular biology techniques, reducing alcohol fermentation production costs, the realization of large-scale production of butanol.%寻找可替代石油的燃料丁醇,利用分子生物学技术对丁醇梭菌进行改造,降低丁醇发酵法生产的成本,实现丁醇的大规模生产。

  7. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. Results A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain

  8. Excess enthalpies of binary and ternary mixtures containing dibutyl ether (DBE), 1-butanol, and heptane at T = 298.15 K and 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Fernando; Alaoui, Fatima E.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain); Segovia, Jose J.; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain); Montero, Eduardo A., E-mail: emontero@ubu.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Experimental excess molar enthalpies of the ternary systems left bracedibutyl ether (DBE) + 1-butanol + heptaneright brace and the corresponding binary systems at T = 298.15 K and T = 313.15 K at atmospheric pressure are reported. A quasi-isothermal flow calorimeter has been used to make the measurements. All the binary and the ternary systems show endothermic character. The experimental data for the binary and ternary systems have been fitted using the Redlich-Kister equation, the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The values of the standard deviation indicate good agreement between the experimental results and those calculated from the equations.

  9. 多轮次胁迫驯化及多因子复合筛选丁醇高产菌%Multi-repeat stress acclimation and butanol high-yielding strain screening by multi-factor complex medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小波; 罗玮; 顾秋亚; 余晓斌

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this study was to isolate a butanol-producing strain from the soil of corn field in Shiquan County, Shaanxi Province, China, and to improve its butanol tolerance and butanol yield.[Methods] Using the multi-factor complex screening and the treatment of butanol stress acclimation, the strain with a high yield and butanol tolerance was obtained.[Results] The results showed that through several batches of acclimation and screening, the mutant T64 was derived from isolated wild-type strain D64, its butanol tolerance was significantly improved and could grow well in the complex screening medium containing 20 g butanol/L.It produced 21.8 g/L total solvent (acetone, butanol, ethanol) and a butanol yield reached 15.18 g/L using 7% corn mash as fermentation medium, which was higher than that of the wild-type strain D64 (13.35 g/L).[Conclusion] In conclusion, the designed multi-factor complex screening is more effective than the mono-factor screening for obtaining high-producing butanol strain.In addition, the stress acclimation of increasing butanol concentration in long term provides new ideas to research the tolerance of butanol.%[目的]从陕西省石泉县玉米地土壤中分离获得一株产丁醇菌株并提高其丁醇耐受性和丁醇产量.[方法]采用自行设计的多因子复合筛选方法和丁醇胁迫驯化处理,在获得丁醇高产菌株的同时提高菌株的丁醇耐受性.[结果]野生菌株D64经多轮次丁醇胁迫驯化处理和多因子复合筛选,分离获得突变株T64,其丁醇耐受性明显提高,能在丁醇浓度为20 g/L的复合筛选培养基上正常生长,发酵7%玉米醪丁醇产量由13.35 g/L提高到15.18 g/L,总溶剂(丙酮、丁醇、乙醇)达到21.8 g/L.[结论]采用长时间且丁醇浓度呈梯度渐进增加的胁迫驯化方式,可使菌种在丁醇的环境中不断进化并有效地提高菌株对丁醇的耐受性.多因子复合筛选方法较其他单一因子

  10. Three-dimensional Morphology and X-ray Scattering Structure of Aqueous tert-Butanol Mixtures: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUPREET KAUR; HEMANT K KASHYAP

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that water-alcohol mixtures exhibit anomalous properties at very low as well as at very high alcohol concentrations. Almost all the studies in this regard intend to link these anomalies to the microscopic structural changes as water (or alcohol) concentration increases in the mixture. However, it isimportant to note that the nature of these structural changes could be different at the water- and TBA-rich concentrations. In this article, our goal is to address such structural change overs, if really present, in the mixtures of water and tert-butanol (TBA) by using simulated X-ray scattering structure function, S(q), real space radial and spatial distribution functions and heterogeneity order parameter. By using a judicial partitioning scheme, we show that structural characteristic of pure water is qualitatively retained for XTBA < 0.1. The simulated S(q) peaks at around q=2 and q=2.8 Å⁻¹, which correspond to water oxygen correlations, begin to fade away only after XTBA ≥ 0.1. This is a clear indication of microscopic structural transition at XTBA ≈ 0.1. Beyond XTBA = 0.1, the TBA structural features begin to take over to that of water. The peak at q=1.3 Å⁻¹ which primarily corresponds to nonpolar-nonpolar correlations in pure TBA begin to rise at XTBA ≈ 0.1. However, the pre-peak at around q=0.75 Å⁻¹, which is due to polar-polar and nonpolar-polar correlations in pure TBA, seems to appear at lower q value only at the equi-molar concentration of the mixture. From the solvent cage surrounding the TBA molecules, we observe that while the aggregation of TBA alkyl groups, due to hydrophobic interaction, is maximum at 10% TBA, the intervening hydrogen bonding interactions between water and TBA molecules tend to lower the hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl groups of alcohol with increasing concentration of TBA. In addition to this, we also observe dimers and small clusters of water molecules in the TBA-rich regime. The

  11. The Influence of 1-Butanol and Trisodium Citrate Ion on Morphology and Chemical Properties of Chitosan-Based Microcapsules during Rigidification by Alkali Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Chatterjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linseed oil which has various biomedical applications was encapsulated by chitosan (Chi-based microcapsules in the development of a suitable carrier. Oil droplets formed in oil-in-water emulsion using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as emulsifier was stabilized by Chi, and microcapsules with multilayers were formed by alternate additions of SDS and Chi solutions in an emulsion through electrostatic interaction. No chemical cross-linker was used in the study and the multilayer shell membrane was formed by ionic gelation using Chi and SDS. The rigidification of the shell membrane of microcapsules was achieved by alkali treatment in the presence of a small amount of 1-butanol to reduce aggregation. A trisodium citrate solution was used to stabilize the charge of microcapsules by ionic cross-linking. Effects of butanol during alkali treatment and citrate in post alkali treatment were monitored in terms of morphology and the chemical properties of microcapsules. Various characterization techniques revealed that the aggregation was decreased and surface roughness was increased with layer formation.

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 and in situ recovery by PDMS/ceramic composite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Chen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Gong-Ping; Jiang, Min; Guo, Ting; Jin, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Da-Wei

    2012-09-01

    PDMS/ceramic composite membrane was directly integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 at 37 °C and in situ removing ABE from fermentation broth. The membrane was integrated with batch fermentation, and approximately 46 % solvent was extracted. The solvent in permeates was 118 g/L, and solvent productivity was 0.303 g/(L/h), which was approximately 33 % higher compared with the batch fermentation without in situ recovery. The fed-batch fermentation with in situ recovery by pervaporation continued for more than 200 h, 61 % solvent was extracted, and the solvent in penetration was 96.2 g/L. The total flux ranged from 0.338 to 0.847 kg/(m(2)/h) and the separation factor of butanol ranged from 5.1 to 27.1 in this process. The membrane was fouled by the active fermentation broth, nevertheless the separation performances were partially recovered by offline membrane cleaning, and the solvent productivity was increased to 0.252 g/(L/h), which was 19 % higher compared with that in situ recovery process without membrane cleaning.

  13. Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5 g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8 g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability.

  14. Enhanced sugar production from pretreated barley straw by additive xylanase and surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Junhua; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Soininen, Pasi; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to improve enzymatic sugar production from dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated barley straw for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The effects of additive xylanase and surfactants (polyethylene glycol [PEG] and Tween) in an enzymatic reaction system on straw hydrolysis yields were investigated. By combined application of 2g/100g dry-matter (DM) xylanase and PEG 4000, the glucose yield was increased from 53.2% to 86.9% and the xylose yield was increased from 36.2% to 70.2%, which were considerably higher than results obtained with xylanase or surfactant alone. The ABE fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate produced 10.8 g/L ABE, in which 7.9 g/L was butanol. The enhanced sugar production increased the ABE yield from 93.8 to 135.0 g/kg pretreated straw. The combined application of xylanase and surfactants has a large potential to improve sugar production from barley straw pretreated with a mild acid and that the hydrolysate showed good fermentability in ABE production.

  15. Improvement in the bioreactor specific productivity by coupling continuous reactor with repeated fed-batch reactor for acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlhaku, Mpho; Brunberg, Sina; Villa, Eva Del Amor; Wichmann, Rolf

    2012-10-15

    In comparison to the different fermentation modes for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) researched to date, the continuous fermentation is the most economically favored. Continuous fermentation with two or more reactor cascade is reported to be the most efficient as it results in a more stable solvent production process. In this work, it is shown that a continuous (first-stage) reactor coupled to a repeated fed-batch (second stage) is superior to batch and fed-batch fermentations, including two-stage continuous fermentation. This is due to the efficient catalyst use, reported through the specific product rate and rapid glucose consumption rate. High solvents are produced at 19.4 g(ABE) l⁻¹, with volumetric productivities of 0.92 g(butanol) l⁻¹ h⁻¹ and 1.47 g(ABE) l ⁻¹ h⁻¹. The bioreactor specific productivities of 0.62 and 0.39 g g⁻¹(cdw) h⁻¹ obtained show a high catalyst activity. This new process mode has not been reported before in the development of ABE fermentation and it shows great potential and superiority to the existing fermentation methods.

  16. Effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on the conversion of different parts of corn stalk to fermentable sugars and its application in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Li, Ping; Luo, Zhangfeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dilute alkaline pretreatment on different parts of biomass, corn stalk was separated into flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem, which were treated by NaOH in range of temperature and chemical loading. The NaOH-pretreated solid was then enzymatic hydrolysis and used as the substrate for batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The results demonstrated the five parts of corn stalk could be used as potential feedstock separately, with vivid performances in solvents production. Under the optimized conditions towards high product titer, 7.5g/L, 7.6g/L, 9.4g/L, 7g/L and 7.6g/L of butanol was obtained in the fermentation broth of flower, leaf, cob, husk and stem hydrolysate, respectively. Under the optimized conditions towards high product yield, 143.7g/kg, 126.3g/kg, 169.1g/kg, 107.7g/kg and 116.4g/kg of ABE solvent were generated, respectively.

  17. Alkalization of steam and condensate with 2-amino-1-butanol and hydrazine; Alkalisering av aanga och kondensat med butanolamin och hydrazin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I. [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    To maintain a low corrosion level in steam- and condensate systems at power and industrial plants, an alkalization of the steam is needed. A low corrosion level lowers the risk of operation disturbances and reduces the cost of the condensate clean up. A better knowledge in the behavior of the alkalis will improve the possibilities to avoid the corrosion attacks. In this work experimental measurements have been carried out during steam boiler conditions as temperature, continuous steam generation and condensation. It has been found that the volatility of 2-amino-1-butanol is very low during stationary dynamic conditions at 250 deg C and 120 deg C. To achieve a high ph-value in the final condensate a very high concentration of 2-amino-1-butanol is thus needed especially when the steam contains acidic compounds. The alkalization effect is obtained from ammonia which is created by thermal decomposition of hydrazine in the boiler water. It is necessary to carry out experimental investigations showing the thermal stability of organic compounds in boiler water before it is possible to recommend them as better volatile alkalis than ammonia and hydrazine. 6 refs, 13 figs

  18. Liquid density of biofuel mixtures: (Dibutyl ether + 1-butanol) system at pressures up to 140 MPa and temperatures from (293.15 to 393.15) K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaoui, Fatima E.M. [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR CNRS 5150, Universite de Pau, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain); Montero, Eduardo A., E-mail: emontero@ubu.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain); Bazile, Jean-Patrick [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR CNRS 5150, Universite de Pau, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Aguilar, Fernando [Departamento de Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Burgos, E-09006 Burgos (Spain); Boned, Christian [Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, UMR CNRS 5150, Universite de Pau, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > New density data for binary mixtures of (dibutyl ether + 1-butanol) are reported. > The pressure and temperature intervals are 0.1 to 140 MPa and 293.15 to 393.15 K. > 445 Data points measured at five compositions were fitted to a Tait-like equation. > Excess volumes have been calculated from the experimental data. > The isobaric expansivity and the isothermal compressibility have been derived. - Abstract: This work reports new experimental density data (445 points) for binary mixtures of (dibutyl ether + 1-butanol) over the composition range (five compositions; 0.15 {<=} dibutyl ether mole fraction x {<=} 0.85), from (293.15 to 393.15) K (every 20 K), and for 15 pressures from (0.1 to 140) MPa (every 10 MPa). An Anton Paar vibrating tube densimeter, calibrated with an uncertainty of {+-}0.5 kg . m{sup -3} was used to perform these measurements. The experimental density data were fitted with a Tait-like equation with low standard deviations. Excess volumes have been calculated from the experimental data and fitted by the Redlich-Kister equation. In addition, the isobaric thermal expansivity and the isothermal compressibility have been derived from the Tait-like equation.

  19. Butanol Alcoholysis of Succinic Anhydride Under Neutral Condition%中性条件下丁二酸酐的丁醇解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳萍; 张利萍

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholysis of succinic anhydride and n - butyl alcohol takes place without catalysts and the monobutyl succinie forms. The IR and MS spectra of the products are measured respectively. The factors such as the molar radio between succinic anhydride and n - butanol, raction time are discussed. The radio of succinic acid to n - butanol is 1:3 ,the reaction time is 2h, alcoholysis radio is up to 95.8% ;the reaction time is over 2.5h,succinic anhydride has been alcoholyzed and a little amount of dibutyl has formed.%丁二酸酐和正丁醇在无催化剂参与下,直接醇解生成丁二酸正丁单酯。用IR谱和MS谱分别对产物进行了结构表征。反应讨论了物质的量比、反应时间对醇解反应的影响。当酸酐与醇的物质的量比为1:3,反应2h时,酸酐醇解率已达到95.8%;反应2.5h以上时,酸酐完全醇解,并且有少量丁二酸二丁酯生成。

  20. 硅橡胶渗透汽化复合膜在丁醇发酵中的应用%Application of silicon rubber pervaporation membrane to butanol fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄; 吴坚平; 童灿灿; 张林; 杨立荣

    2011-01-01

    丁醇发酵受产物丁醇的抑制,产率和产物浓度低,过程经济性差,为减轻丁醇的抑制,制备了聚二甲基硅氧烷/聚偏氟乙烯(PIMS/PVDF)复合膜用于丙酮-丁醇-乙醇-水体系有机成分的分离.以分离因子和渗透通量为评价指标,考察了料液温度、质量分数和pH值对复合膜渗透汽化分离性能的影响.结果表明:料液温度升高能提高膜的分离性能;料液质量分数的增加能增大复合膜的总渗透通量和丁醇的分离因子,但丙酮和乙醇的分离因子则有所降低;料液pH值的影响不明显.将复合膜应用于丁醇发酵过程,进行丁醇发酵与分离的耦合,使淀粉利用率提高了51.2%,溶剂质量分数提高了87.3%,耦合阶段生产强度达到了1.33 g/(L·h),提高了73.7%,并且丁醇在渗透液中得到浓缩.因此,所制备的PDMS/PVDF复合膜能够应用于丁醇发酵过程,显著提高丁醇发酵过程的经济性.%Butanol fermentation is inhibited by butanol product, leading to low productivity, low product concentration and poor economic feasibility. In order to decrease the inhibition of butanol, PDMS/PVDF membrane was prepared for separating acetone, butanol and ethanol from aqueous solutions. Taking separation factor and flux as evaluating index, the effects of feed temperature, mass fraction and Ph on pervaporation performance were investigated. The results indicate that the membrane separation performance ascends with increasing feed temperature; the increase of feed mass fraction improves the total flux and the separation factor of butanol but reduces the separation factors of acetone and ethanol; the Ph of feed liquid has little influence. By utilizing PDMS/ PVDF membrane in butanol fermentation, coupled with butanol fermentation and separation, the utilization ratio of cassava starch and the solvent mass fraction are increased by 51. 2% and 87. 3% , respectively. The production intensity during the period of coupling is 1

  1. Estudio de volumen molar y refracción molar de miscelas de triglicéridos (triacetina, tributirina o tricaprilina y alcoholes (etanol, 1-butanol o 1-hexanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, M.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Values of molar refraction for every studied mixtures show linear plots versus molar fractions of triglyceride. Values of molar volume show this behaviour, but only for tributyrin-butanol or tricaprylin-butanol miscellas. However, in tributyrin-ethanol mixtures, volume contractions have been found, whereas triacetin-butanol and tributyrin-hexanol show volume expansions. These facts are related to the mode of being structured of the alcohol and triglyceride molecules in mixtures. A linear relationship between molar volume and temperature have been found, and also a linear dependence between the coefficient of thermal expansion at constant pressure and the molar fraction of triglyceride.

    Los valores de la refracción molar en todas las miscelas estudiadas presentan variaciones lineales frente a la fracción molar de triglicérido. la misma variación que presentan los valores del volumen molar de las miscelas tributirina y tricaprilina en butanol. Sin embargo, en las miscelas de tributirina-etanol se encuentran contracciones de volumen mientras que en las de triacetina-butanol y tributirina-hexanol expansiones, atribuidas en ambos casos a la forma de estructurarse las moléculas de alcohol y triglicérido en las miscelas. Por otra parte, se encuentra una variación lineal entre el volumen molar de las miscelas y la temperatura, y se establece una relación lineal entre el coeficiente de dilatación térmico molar a presión constante y la fracción molar de triglicérido en los cinco sistemas estudiados.

  2. Efficient carbon dioxide utilization and simultaneous hydrogen enrichment from off-gas of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by succinic acid producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Aiyong; Kong, Xiangping; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-08-01

    The off-gas from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was firstly used to be CO2 source (co-substrate) for succinic acid production. The optimum ratio of H2/CO2 indicated higher CO2 partial pressures with presence of H2 could enhance C4 pathway flux and reductive product productivity. Moreover, when an inner recycling bioreactor was used for CO2 recycling at a high total pressure (0.2Mpa), a maximum succinic acid concentration of 65.7g·L(-1) was obtained, and a productivity of 0.76g·L(-1)·h(-1) and a high yield of 0.86g·g(-1) glucose were achieved. Furthermore, the hydrogen content was simultaneously enriched to 92.7%. These results showed one successful attempt to reuse the off-gas of ABE fermentation which can be an attractive CO2 source for succinic acid production.

  3. Response surface optimisation for acetone-butanol-ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of Clostridium butylicum and Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production from cassava starch was enhanced by a syntrophic co-culture of Clostridium butylicum TISTR 1032 and high amylase producing Bacillus subtilis WD 161 without anaerobic pretreatment. The production of amylase and ABE using this co-culture were respectively 16 and 6 times higher than those using the pure culture of C. butylicum TISTR 1032. The effect of the medium components on the performance of the co-culture was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Among the investigated components, cassava starch and ammonium nitrate contributed a significant effect on the production of amylase and ABE, while yeast extract had less effect. Based on the optimum strategy using RSM, the ABE production by the co-culture was improved 2.2-fold compared with that obtained from the initial condition and with a minimum requirement of nitrogen source.

  4. Downstream process synthesis for biochemical production of butanol, ethanol, and acetone from grains: generation of optimal and near-optimal flowsheets with conventional operating units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahong; Fan, L T; Seib, Paul; Friedler, Ferenc; Bertok, Botond

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing butanol, ethanol, and acetone through grain fermentation has been attracting increasing research interest. In the production of these chemicals from fermentation, the cost of product recovery constitutes the major portion of the total production cost. Developing cost-effective flowsheets for the downstream processing is, therefore, crucial to enhancing the economic viability of this manufacturing method. The present work is concerned with the synthesis of such a process that minimizes the cost of the downstream processing. At the outset, a wide variety of processing equipment and unit operations, i.e., operating units, is selected for possible inclusion in the process. Subsequently, the exactly defined superstructure with minimal complexity, termed maximal structure, is constructed from these operating units with the rigorous and highly efficient graph-theoretic method for process synthesis based on process graphs (P-graphs). Finally, the optimal and near-optimal flowsheets in terms of cost are identified.

  5. 丙酮丁醇梭菌发酵玉米秸秆生产丁醇%Butanol Production from Corn Stover by Fermentation with Clostridium acetobutylicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓建; 张霞; 常春

    2014-01-01

    以丙酮丁醇梭菌为发酵用菌株发酵水蒸气爆破玉米秸秆酶解上清液生产丁醇,研究了酶解上清液浓度、初始pH值以及菌液接种量对丁醇产量的影响,并通过正交试验来确定营养元素的最佳添加量.结果表明:在丙酮丁醇梭菌发酵水蒸气爆破玉米秸秆酶解上清液生产丁醇的最佳条件下(上清液糖浓度57.5 g/L、初始pH值6.3,菌液接种量6%,发酵温度37℃,营养元素酵母膏、乙酸铵、磷酸二氢钾、烟酰胺添加量分别为0.8、6.0、0.5、0.25 g/L),丁醇产量达9.726 g/L;水蒸气爆破玉米秸秆酶解液中有抑制产生溶剂的物质,少量烟酰胺能有效促进丁醇生产.%In this paper,butanol was prepared from the enzymatic hydrolysate supermatant of steam-exploded corn stover,with Clostridium acetobutylicum as the experimental bacterium.Then,the effects of supermatant concentra-tion,initial pH value and microbial inoculation quantity on butanol yield were investigated,and the optimal dosages of nutrient elements were determined by orthogonal test.The results show that,under optimal conditions,that is,a supermatant sugar content of 57.5 g/L,an initial pH value of 6.3,an inoculation quantity of 6%,a fermentation temperature of 37 ℃,and a nutrient elements addition of yeast extract 0.8 g/L+CH3 COONH4 6.0 g/L+KH2 PO4 0.5 g/L+nicotinamide 0.25 g/L,the butanol yield is up to 9.726 g/L.Moreover,it is also found that there exist some inhibitors for the solvent production from steam-exploded corn stover enzymatic hydrolysate,and that a small amount of nicotinamide may effectively promote butanol production.

  6. Phase behavior of mixtures of polyoxyethylene(10) stearyl ether (Brij-76), 1-butanol, isooctane, and mixed polar solvents I. Water and formamide (or N,N-dimethyl formamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Debdurlav; Mitra, Rajib K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2006-08-01

    The isothermal phase diagram of the quaternary system polyoxyethylene(10) stearyl ether (Brij-76)/1-butanol/isooctane/water has been constructed at 30 degrees C with equal amounts of oil and water. A regular fishtail diagram was obtained, confirming the establishment of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) in the system. Mixing of formamide (FA) [or N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)] with water as a cosolvent altered the HLB and decreased the solubilization capacity of the quaternary system. No three-phase body appeared at high FA or DMF content. Similar observations were noted for temperature-induced phase diagrams. The effect of DMF was more pronounced than that of FA in reducing the maximum solubilization capacity. The results have been summarized on the basis of HLB and mutual solubility of the components.

  7. Excess parameters for binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate with 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol at T=303, 308, 313, 318, and 323 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreehari Sastry, S., E-mail: sreeharisastry@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Babu, Shaik, E-mail: babu.computers@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Vishwam, T., E-mail: vishwam@gitam.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, Gitam University, Hyderabad Campus, Andhra Pradesh 502 239 (India); Parvateesam, K., E-mail: kps27031966@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Andhra Pradesh 522 510 (India); Sie Tiong, Ha., E-mail: hast@utar.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemical Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Universiti, Bandar Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Various thermo–acoustic parameters, such as excess isentropic compressibility (K{sub s}{sup E}), excess molar volume (V{sup E}), excess free length (L{sub f}{sup E}), excess Gibb's free energy (ΔG{sup *E}), and excess Enthalpy (H{sup E}), have been calculated from the experimentally determined data of density, viscosity and speed of sound for the binary mixtures of ethyl benzoate+1-propanol, or +1-butanol, or +1-pentanol over the entire range of composition at different temperatures (303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K). The excess functions have been fitted to the Redlich–Kister type polynomial equation. The deviations for excess thermo–acoustic parameters have been explained on the basis of the intermolecular interactions present in these binary mixtures.

  8. 玉米秸秆预处理后的酶水解及丁醇发酵%Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Butanol Fermentation of Pretreated Corn Stalk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林有胜; 王旭明; 王竞; 孙晓红; 仇天雷; 韩梅琳

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to find the optimum enzymolysis process conditions after corn stalk pretreatment. [Method] The corn stalk was pretreated by using alkali steeping method and ammonia steeping method to study the effect of the factors such as pretreatment method, temperature, enzyme concentration, pH value and substrate concentration on the corn stalk enzymatic hydrolysis, which got the optimum enzymolysis process conditions and used the optimum condition hydrolysate to make butanol fermentation. [Result] The alkali method could effective improve the hydrolysis efficiency of enzyme. The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis process condition after corn stalk pretreatment was that the pH value was 4.5-5.0, the temperature was 50 ℃, the substrate concn. Was 3.33%, the enzyme dosage was 950 U/g stalk. The yield radio of solvents (butanol, acetone, ethanol) was 10.0∶1.5∶1.0 after making butanol fermentation by using stalk hydrolysate, which increased the radio of butanol, comparing with the traditional fermented(6∶3∶1). [Conclusion] This research provided the test basis for the development and utilization of new energy with lignocellulose as the material.%[目的] 寻求玉米秸秆预处理后的最佳酶解工艺条件.[方法] 采用碱浸泡法和氨水浸泡法对玉米秸秆进行预处理,考察预处理方法以及温度、酶用量、pH值、底物浓度等因素对玉米秸秆酶水解的影响,得出最佳酶解条件,并利用最佳条件下的水解液进行丁醇发酵.[结果] 碱法预处理玉米秸秆能有效地提高酶的水解效率.玉米秸秆经过预处理后的最佳酶水解工艺条件为:pH 值4.5~5.0,温度50 ℃,底物浓度3.33%,酶用量950 U/g 秸秆.利用秸秆水解液进行丁醇发酵后,溶剂(丁醇、丙酮、乙醇)的产率比值为10.0∶1.5∶1.0,与传统发酵(6∶3∶1)相比, 提高了丁醇所占的比值.[结论] 该研究为以木质纤维素为原料进行新能源的开发和利用验提供试验依据.

  9. [Butanol extraction combined with dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for indirect determination of molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Ping; Geng, Guo-Xing; Tang, Yan-Kui; Lu, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As(V) and ammonium molybdate in 0.3 mol x L(-1) sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0-15 microg x L(-1) range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0.44 microg x L(-1) and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95.6%-101.3% were achieved.

  10. The elimination of water from a conformationally complex alcohol: A computational study of the gas phase dehydration of n-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moc, Jerzy; Simmie, John M.; Curran, Henry J.

    2009-06-01

    Relative stabilities of the 14 conformers of n-butanol were calculated at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311G(d,p) level. The three most stable structures found, TGt, TGg and TGg' ( trans (T or t) and gauche (G or g) with respect to the CC-CC, CC-CO and CC-OH dihedral angles, respectively) lie within 0.14 kcal/mol, Δ H(0 K), with the TGt being favoured thermodynamically (the ZPVE corrections were found at the MP2 level). The rotational isomerizations to the other conformers were examined, in particular those involved in the elimination of water. The elimination of H 2O from n-butanol involving the formation of the corresponding carbene, 1-butene, methylcyclopropane and cyclobutane, 1,1-, 1,2-, 1,3- and 1,4-elimination, respectively, was systematically investigated. The 1,2-H 2O loss occurring from the TGg' conformer and involving a four-center transition state has been found to be thermodynamically and kinetically the most favoured route. This elimination which leads to the 1-butene olefin isomer is endothermic by 8.25 kcal/mol, Δ H(0 K), with an associated activation enthalpy at 0 K of 67.26 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311G(d,p) level (relative to the TGt conformer). The respective CBS-QB3 estimates are 7.84 and 67.88 kcal/mol.

  11. Isolation of a solventogenic Clostridium sp. strain: fermentation of glycerol to n-butanol, analysis of the bcs operon region and its potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, J C; Zverlov, V V; Pham, V T T; Stürzl, S; Schieder, D; Schwarz, W H

    2014-02-01

    A new solventogenic bacterium, strain GT6, was isolated from standing water sediment. 16S-rRNA gene analysis revealed that GT6 belongs to the heterogeneous Clostridium tetanomorphum group of bacteria exhibiting 99% sequence identity with C. tetanomorphum 4474(T). GT6 can utilize a wide range of carbohydrate substrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, xylose and glycerol to produce mainly n-butanol without any acetone. Additional products of GT6 metabolism were ethanol, butyric acid, acetic acid, and trace amounts of 1,3-propanediol. Medium and substrate composition, and culture conditions such as pH and temperature influenced product formation. The major fermentation product from glycerol was n-butanol with a final concentration of up to 11.5 g/L. 3% (v/v) glycerol lead to a total solvent concentration of 14 g/L within 72 h. Growth was not inhibited by glycerol concentrations as high as 15% (v/v). The solventogenesis genes crt, bcd, etfA/B and hbd composing the bcs (butyryl-CoA synthesis) operon of C. tetanomorphum GT6 were sequenced. They occur in a genomic arrangement identical to those in other solventogenic clostridia. Furthermore, the sequence of a potential regulator gene highly similar to that of the NADH-sensing Rex family of regulatory genes was found upstream of the bcs operon. Potential binding sites for Rex have been identified in the promoter region of the bcs operon of solvent producing clostridia as well as upstream of other genes involved in NADH oxidation. This indicates a fundamental role of Rex in the regulation of fermentation products in anaerobic, and especially in solventogenic bacteria.

  12. Effect of Isomerism in the Dipolar Interaction of Benzene with Butanol%同分异构体对苯和丁醇的偶极相互作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Sound velocity, density, and viscosity values were measured at 303 K in four binary systems of benzene + 1-, 2-, tert-, or iso-butanol. From these data, acoustical parameters, such as adiabatic compressibility, free length, free volume, and internal pressure were estimated using the standard relations. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interaction between the components of the mixtures. Observed excess value in all the mixture indicates that the molecular symmetry existing in the system is highly disturbed by the nonpolar benzene molecules. Interaction energy terms of the statistical mixing are also verified for these binary systems and the dipole-dipole interactions are found to be predominantly present and are sharply affected by the isomeric forms of butanol.

  13. A novel method to produce solid lipid nanoparticles using n-butanol as an additional co-surfactant according to the o/w microemulsion quenching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedian, Mohammad M; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) are novel medicinal carriers for controlled drug release and drug targeting in different roots of administration such as parenteral, oral, ophthalmic and topical. These carriers have some benefits such as increased drug stability, high drug payload, the incorporation of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs, and no biotoxicity. Therefore, due to the cost-efficient, proportionally increasable, and reproducible preparation of SLN/NLC and the avoidance of organic solvents used, the warm microemulsion quenching method was selected from among several preparation methods for development in this research. To prepare the warm O/W microemulsion, lipids (distearin, stearic acid, beeswax, triolein alone or in combination with others) were melted at a temperature of 65°C. After that, different ratios of Tween60 (10-22.5%) and glyceryl monostearate (surfactant and co-surfactant) and water were added, and the combination was stirred. Then, 1-butanol (co-surfactant) was added dropwise until a clear microemulsion was formed and titration continued to achieve cloudiness (to obtain the microemulsion zone). The warm o/w microemulsions were added dropwise into 4°C water (1:5 volume ratio) while being stirred at 400 or 600 rpm. Lipid nanosuspensions were created upon the addition of the warm o/w microemulsion to the cold water. The SLN were obtained over a range of concentrations of co-surfactants and lipids and observed for microemulsion stability (clearness). For selected preparations, characterization involved also determination of mean particle size, polydispersity and shape. According to the aim of this study, the optimum formulations requiring the minimum amounts of 1-butanol (1.2%) and lower temperatures for creation were selected. Mono-disperse lipid nanoparticles were prepared in the size range 77 ± 1 nm to 124 ± 21 nm according to a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and transmission electron

  14. Densities and volume properties of (water + tert-butanol) over the temperature range of (274.15 to 348.15) K at pressure of 0.1 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, Gennadiy I., E-mail: gie@isc-ras.r [Laboratory of Structure and Dynamics of Molecular and Ion-Molecular Solutions, Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya Street, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Makarov, Dmitriy M. [Laboratory of Structure and Dynamics of Molecular and Ion-Molecular Solutions, Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Akademicheskaya Street, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The densities of {l_brace}water (1) + tert-butanol (2){r_brace} binary mixture were measured over the temperature range (274.15 to 348.15) K at atmospheric pressure using 'Anton Paar' digital vibrating-tube densimeter. Density measurements were carried out over the whole concentration range at (308.15 to 348.15) K. The following volume parameters were calculated: excess molar volumes and thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture, partial molar volumes and partial molar thermal isobaric expansivities of the components. Concentration dependences of excess molar volumes were fitted with Redlich-Kister equation. The results of partial molar volume calculations using four equations were compared. It was established that for low alcohol concentrations at T {<=} 208 K the inflection points at x{sub 2} {approx} 0.02 were observed at concentration dependences of specific volume. The concentration dependences of partial molar volumes of both water and tert-butanol had extremes at low alcohol content. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of water had some inversion at x{sub 2} {approx} 0.65. The temperature dependence of partial molar volumes of tert-butanol at infinite dilution had minimum at {approx}288 K. It was discovered that concentration dependences of thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture at small alcohol content and low temperatures passed through minimum.

  15. Preparation of Butyl Chloride from Butanol and Hydrochloric Acid Using Ionic Liquids as Catalyst%离子液体催化丁醇与盐酸反应制备丁基氯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱军; 聂毅; 李春喜; 王子镐

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic performance of some quaternary ammonium salts for the liquid phase reaction of butanol and hydrochloric acid at different conditions was studied experimentally and compared with the traditional catalyst (ZnC12). The organic ammonium catalysts investigated include ionic liquids N-butyl-N-methyl imidazolium fluobo-rate ([BMIM][BF4]) and N-butyl-N-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as well as hydrochloric salts of N-methylimidazol ([HMIM]Cl), pyridine ([Hpy]Cl) and triethylamine ([HEt3N]Cl). It is shown that the intrinsic catalytic performance of all organic ammonium salts except [Het3N]Cl is slightly superior to ZnCl2, while the se-lectivity of butyl chloride is nearly at the same level around 96%. The conversion of butanol increases slightly with temperature and the catalyst amount added while the variation of selectivity is not obvious. Based on the recycle experiments, the ionic liquids as catalyst for the reaction of butanol and hydrochloric acid can be used more than 5 times, which suggests great potential of using ionic liquids as novel catalyst for such reactions.

  16. A many-body model for alcohols: applications to the cyclic methanol/water hetero trimers, and to the (methanol)n, (ethanol)n and (t-butanol)n cyclic clusters (n=2-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Michel Masella Jean-Pierre

    The TCPE many-body model for water has been adapted to alcohols. As for water, the model parameters have been assigned to reproduce ab initio results at the MP2 level with the methanol/water hetero dimers and the methanol cyclic trimer. Model results have been shown to be in good agreement with available ab initio calculations on methanol/water hetero cyclic trimers and with experiment for (methanol)n, (ethanol)n and (t-butanol)n cyclic clusters (n = 2-6). Cooperative effects estimated from this model have been shown to increase with cluster size (from about 15% for n = 3 to about 25% for n = 6, and even 33% in the case of t-butanol), and the polarization many-body effects shown to represent more than 70% (81% for t-butanol) of the total cooperative effects in such systems. All of these results suggest that the TCPE model is well suited to use in simulations of alcohol or alcohol/water systems.

  17. Experimental Research on Effects of Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled with Butanol/Gasoline Blends%燃用丁醇汽油对发动机性能影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石美玉; 朱荣福; 齐晓杰; 崔宏耀; 安永东; 谭建伟

    2015-01-01

    以汽油为基础油,按照体积分数配制出10%、20%和30%的丁醇汽油混合燃料,研究电喷汽油机在不作改动的情况下,燃用不同比例丁醇汽油混合燃料时的性能变化情况。研究结果表明:在不改变汽油机任何参数的情况下,发动机燃用20%体积掺混率的丁醇汽油,混合燃料的功率和油耗下降并不明显,NOx增加幅度较小,而CO和HC排放明显降低。%Butanol/gasoline blended fuels were mixed based on volume ratio with gasoline (butanol accounted for 10% ,20% and 30% ,respectively) .The effects of different proportion blended fuels on the engine performance were investigated through experiments .The experiment results showed that ,without any modification of the engine ,power ,brake specific fuel consumption and NOx emission of engine fueled with 20% butanol/gasoline blended fuel did not worsen significantly ,but HC and CO emission reduced obviously .

  18. Butanol-Partitioned Extraction from Aqueous Extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata Inhibits Cell Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells Involving Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chi-Chen; Li, Kun-Tzu; Tang, Jen-Yang; Wang, Hui-Ru; Liu, Jing-Ru; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chang, Fang-Rong; Tsai, Cheng-En; Lo, I-Wen; Huang, Ming-Yii; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2016-05-01

    We have previously found that the aqueous extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (AEGT) and its partitioned fractions had antioxidant properties in biochemical assays. Although the butanol-partitioned fraction of AEGT (AEGT-pBuOH) had a stronger antioxidant performance than AEGT, its biological effects are still unknown. In this study, the cellular responses of oral cancer cells to AEGT-pBuOH were monitored in terms of cell viability, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and oxidative stress responses. In an ATP content assay, the cell viability of oral cancer cells treated with AEGT-pBuOH was dose responsively inhibited (p < 0.005). For flow cytometry, AEGT-pBuOH was also found to dose responsively induce cell cycle disturbance by propidium iodide (PI) staining and to induce apoptosis by annexin V/PI and pan-caspase staining (p < 0.005). In AEGT-pBuOH-treated oral cancer cells, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased and mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased in a dose-response manner (p < 0.005). These results suggest that AEGT-pBuOH inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of oral cancer cells involving the ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization.

  19. Hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF of flaxseed against CCl 4 -induced liver damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M Kasote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the hepatoprotective potential of ether insoluble phenolic components of n-butanol fraction (EPC-BF of flaxseed against CCl 4 -induced liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced to Wistar rats by administration of 0.2% CCl 4 in olive oil (8 mL/kg, i.p. on the seventh day of treatment. Hepatoprotective potential of EPC-BF at doses, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was assessed through biochemical and histological parameters. Results: EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated animal groups showed significantly decreased activities of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and level of total bilirubin, elevated by CCl 4 intoxication. Hepatic lipid peroxidation elevated by CCl 4 intoxication were also found to be alleviated at almost normal level in the EPC-BF and silymarin pretreated groups. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and treatment of EPC-BF at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. was found to be effective in restoring CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage. However, EPC-BF did not show dose-dependent hepatoprotective potential. EPC-BF depicted maximum protection against CCl 4 -induced hepatic damage at lower dose 250 mg/kg than higher dose (500 mg/ kg. Conclusion: EPC-BF possesses the significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl 4 induced liver damage, which could be mediated through increase in antioxidant defenses.

  20. Surface tension of dilute alcohol-aqueous binary fluids: n-Butanol/water, n-Pentanol/water, and n-Hexanol/water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuok Kong; Park, Chanwoo

    2017-01-01

    Surface tension of pure fluids, inherently decreasing with regard to temperature, creates a thermo-capillary-driven (Marangoni) flow moving away from a hot surface. It has been known that few high-carbon alcohol-aqueous solutions exhibit an opposite behavior of the surface tension increasing with regard to temperature, such that the Marangoni flow moves towards the hot surface (self-rewetting effect). We report the surface tensions of three dilute aqueous solutions of n-Butanol, n-Pentanol and n-Hexanol as self-rewetting fluids measured for ranges of alcohol concentration (within solubility limits) and fluid temperatures (25-85 °C). A maximum bubble pressure method using a leak-tight setup was used to measure the surface tension without evaporation losses of volatile components. It was found from this study that the aqueous solutions with higher-carbon alcohols exhibit a weak self-rewetting behavior, such that the surface tensions remain constant or slightly increases above about 60 °C. These results greatly differ from the previously reported results showing a strong self-rewetting behavior, which is attributed to the measurement errors associated with the evaporation losses of test fluids during open-system experiments.

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure within semi-open air cafes and tobacco specific 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL concentrations among nonsmoking employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine I. Vardavas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Secondhand smoke (SHS is a defined occupational hazard. The association though between SHS exposure in semi-open air venues and tobacco specific carcinogen uptake is an area of debate. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey of 49 semi-open air cafes in Athens, Greece was performed during the summer of 2008, prior to the adoption of the national smoke free legislation. All venues had at least 1 entire wall open to allow for free air exchange. Indoor concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5 attributable to SHS were assessed during a work shift, while 1 non-smoking employee responsible for indoor and outdoor table service from each venue provided a post work shift urine sample for analysis of 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL. Results: Post work shift NNAL concentrations were correlated with work shift PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS (r = 0.376, p = 0.0076. Urinary NNAL concentrations among employees increased by 9.5%, per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS after controlling for the time of day and day of week. Conclusions: These results indicate that the commonly proposed practice of maintaining open sliding walls as a means of free air exchange does not lead to the elimination of employee exposure to tobacco specific carcinogens attributable to workplace SHS.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Compounds from a Chinese Herb: Compatibility and Dose Optimization of Compounds from N-Butanol Extract of Ipomoea stolonifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Congyi; Chen, Yicun; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Jiang, Jiyang; Xu, Han; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    The herbal medicine Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has previously been shown to have considerable anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and in vitro. To establish a method for exploring the synergistic effects of multiple compounds, we study the compatibility and dose optimization of compounds isolated from n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS). Raw264.7 cell was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of compounds from BE-IS, namely scopoletin, umbelliferone, esculetin, hesperetin and curcumin, using the orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method. To verify the best efficacy of principal constituents in vivo, the uniform design was used in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. The results from LPS-induced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) show that, esculetin, curcumin and hesperetin were the principal constituents that had synergistic effects when used at the optimal ratio. Additionally, the principal constituents were found to work synergistically in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model at low doses. It turned out that the three experimental optimization and analysis methods (orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method) can be effectively used to solve both compatibility and dose optimization for combined use of multiple compounds. PMID:27255791

  3. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Han Gyung; Park, Jae Gwang; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Hyojeung; Song, Changsik; Cho, Jae Han; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Kim, Tae Woong

    2015-01-01

    The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF) of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom. PMID:25918546

  4. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethylphenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for the high-yield production of a biofuel composed of an isopropanol/butanol/ethanol mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusséaux, Simon; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum was metabolically engineered to produce a biofuel consisting of an isopropanol/butanol/ethanol mixture. For this purpose, different synthetic isopropanol operons were constructed and introduced on plasmids in a butyrate minus mutant strain (C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Δcac15ΔuppΔbuk). The best strain expressing the isopropanol operon from the thl promoter was selected from batch experiments at pH 5. By further optimizing the pH of the culture, a biofuel mixture with almost no by-products was produced at a titer, a yield and productivity never reached before, opening the opportunities to develop an industrial process for alternative biofuels with Clostridial species. Furthermore, by performing in vivo and in vitro flux analysis of the synthetic isopropanol pathway, this flux was identified to be limited by the [acetate](int) and the high Km of CoA-transferase for acetate. Decreasing the Km of this enzyme using a protein engineering approach would be a good target for improving isopropanol production and avoiding acetate accumulation in the culture medium.

  6. Extractionless GC/MS analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone with trifluoroacetic anhydride and heptafluoro-1-butanol from aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabucedo, Alberto J; Furton, Kenneth G

    2004-06-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a DEA Schedule I drug of abuse commonly spiked into beverages to incapacitate victims of sexual assault. GHB is a challenging drug for analysis by GC/MS because of its small size, charged nature, low volatility, and intramolecular esterification leading to gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). In this work an extractionless technique has been developed that allows for the use of an aqueous sample for direct derivatization. The technique uses a solution of trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butanol (HFB) to derivatize the active hydrogens of GHB. The conversion of GBL into GHB can be forced under alkaline conditions by diluting the sample in 10 mM borate buffer, pH 12. GBL found in beverages intended for human consumption is treated as a Schedule I control substance analogue. Spikes of the two compounds into several beverage matrices gave quantitative recovery of GHB by GC/MS. The derivatization produces higher molecular mass products whose fragmentation pattern provides multiple peaks for confirmation and quantification. The concentration of GBL can also be indirectly determined by the method developed. Therefore, this extractionless technique is rapid, sensitive, and selective for the confirmation of the presence of GHB and GBL in commercial beverages.

  7. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Rajkumar, V; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have been the target for cancer therapy for several years but there is still a dearth of information on potent compounds that may protect normal cells and selectively destroy cancerous cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on WRL-68 (normal human hepatic cells), MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte cells) lines by XTT assay. Prior to cytotoxicity testing, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detecting the presence of compounds with therapeutic potential. Their relative antioxidant properties were evaluated using the reducing power and DPPH* radical scavenging assay. Since most of the observed chemo-preventive potential invariably correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the extract, their levels were quantified and identified by HPLC analysis. Correlation studies indicated a strong and significant (PAnnona muricata. Isolation of the active metabolites from the extract is in prospect.

  9. The n-butanolic extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten enhances long-term memory in the passive avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Park, Dong Hyun; Jung, Seo Yun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Jin, Changbae; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-08-16

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino (Cactaceae) is used to treat burns, edema, dyspepsia, and asthma in traditional medicine. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of the n-butanolic extract of O. ficus-indica var. saboten (BOF) on memory performance in mice and attempts to uncover the mechanisms underlying its action. Memory performance was assessed with the passive avoidance task, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure changes in protein expression and cell survival. After the oral administration of BOF for 7 days, the latency time in the passive avoidance task was significantly increased relative to vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05). Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding-protein (pCREB), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2 were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 7 days of BOF administration (P<0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining also revealed that BOF significantly enhanced the survival of immature neurons, but did not affect neuronal cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the subchronic administration of BOF enhances long-term memory, and that this effect is partially mediated by ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling and the survival of immature neurons.

  10. Association between Secondhand Smoke in Hospitality Venues and Urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol Concentrations in Non-Smoking Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lee, Do Hoon; Kim, KyooSang

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between urinary cotinine and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) concentrations in non-smoking staff and the indoor levels of fine particles (PM2.5) in hospitality venues that allow smoking, with respect to demographic and indoor environmental factors. We evaluated 62 hospitality venues that allowed smoking in Seoul, Korea. A real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Field technicians recorded indoor environmental characteristics. One non-smoking staff member in each hospitality venue was tested for urinary cotinine and total NNAL concentrations. Demographic characteristics were obtained from self-reported staff questionnaires. Natural-log (ln)-transformed PM2.5 concentrations were significantly correlated with the ln-transformed cotinine (r = 0.31) and the total NNAL concentrations (r = 0.32). In multivariable regression analysis, the urinary cotinine concentrations of the staff members were significantly correlated with indoor PM2.5 concentrations; those with the highest concentrations were more likely to be women or staff members that worked in venues with a volume hospitality venues that allow smoking.

  11. Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Performance of La-SO42-/SBA-15 in Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-Butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhi-ming; DENG Qi-gang; SUN Hui; ZHAO De-feng

    2008-01-01

    La-SO42-/SBA-15 was synthesized with various amounts of lanthanum via incipient-wetness impregnation.Characterization was done by X-ray diffraction(XRD), transmission electron micrographs(TEM), nitrogen adsorption,FTIR spectroscopic analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and the total amount of acidity of catalyst was estimated by TPD of NH3. The results indicate that lanthanum has been incorporated into SBA-15 molecular sieve. The prepared materials(La-SO42-/SBA-15) keep the highly ordered mesoporous two-dimensional hexagonal structure and do not change the mesoporous channel structure of the support SBA-15. The catalyst showed best catalytic activity in the synthesis of n-butyl acetate. The optimum conditions of the esterification by orthogonal experiments were studied: the molar ratio of n-butanol to acetic acid 1:1.2, the amount of catalyst 7.5%, reaction time 80 min. The yield of n-butyl acetate could reach 93.2% under the optimum conditions. The catalyst was recyclable, cost effective and environmental friendly.

  12. Experimental evaluation of the effect of compression ratio on performance and emission of SI engine fuelled with gasoline and n-butanol blend at different loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinu Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Never ending demand for efficient and less polluting engines have always inspired newer technologies. Extensive study has been done on variable compression ratio, a promising in-cylinder technology, in the recent past. The present work is an experimental investigation to examine the variation of different parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and emissions with respect to change in compression ratio in a single-cylinder carbureted SI engine at different loads with two different fuels. Experiments were conducted at three different compression ratios (CR = 7:1, 8.5:1 and 10:1. The fuels used in this study are pure gasoline and 20% n-butanol blend (B20 in gasoline. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency increases with CR at all loads. Further, the experimental results showed the scope of improving the part-load efficiency of SI engine by adopting the concept of variable compression ratio (VCR technology, especially when fuels with better anti-knock characteristics are used. The uncertainty analysis of the experiments based on the specifications of the equipment used is also tabulated.

  13. Gas-phase rate coefficients for the OH + n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol reactions measured between 220 and 380 K: non-Arrhenius behavior and site-specific reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Max R; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Burkholder, James B

    2013-06-01

    Butanol (C4H9OH) is a potential biofuel alternative in fossil fuel gasoline and diesel formulations. The usage of butanol would necessarily lead to direct emissions into the atmosphere; thus, an understanding of its atmospheric processing and environmental impact is desired. Reaction with the OH radical is expected to be the predominant atmospheric removal process for the four aliphatic isomers of butanol. In this work, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol isomers with the OH radical were measured under pseudo-first-order conditions in OH using pulsed laser photolysis to produce OH radicals and laser induced fluorescence to monitor its temporal profile. Rate coefficients were measured over the temperature range 221-381 K at total pressures between 50 and 200 Torr (He). The reactions exhibited non-Arrhenius behavior over this temperature range and no dependence on total pressure with k(296 K) values of (9.68 ± 0.75), (9.72 ± 0.72), (8.88 ± 0.69), and (1.04 ± 0.08) (in units of 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for n-, i-, s-, and t-butanol, respectively. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. The observed non-Arrhenius behavior is interpreted here to result from a competition between the available H-atom abstraction reactive sites, which have different activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The present results are compared with results from previous kinetic studies, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and theoretical calculations and the discrepancies are discussed. Results from this work were combined with available high temperature (1200-1800 K) rate coefficient data and room temperature reaction end-product yields, where available, to derive a self-consistent site-specific set of reaction rate coefficients of the form AT(n) exp(-E/RT) for use in atmospheric and combustion chemistry modeling.

  14. Hydrolysate detoxified from steam exploded corn cob and its fermentation producing butanol fuels%蒸汽爆破玉米芯水解液脱毒及其发酵生产燃料丁醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王风芹; 仝银杏; 李传斌; 谢慧; 宋安东

    2016-01-01

    The development and utilization of biomass have been paid great attention by many countries with the depletion of fossil energy sources. Due to the recalcitrant and complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass, various pretreatment methods are adopted to help biomass carbohydrate’s hydrolysis. Pretreatment can increase the biomass digestibility for efficient fermentable sugar production, but many fermentation inhibitors are also produced during this process, such as furan derivatives (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural), mini-molecule organic acid (acetic acid and formic acid), and lignin degradation products (coumaric acid, vanillin and other phenolics). Therefore, the detoxification process which removes fermentation inhibitors from hydrolysates is essential for the production of biomass energy; at the same time, for different fermentations have different adaptability of initial sugar concentration in fermentation liquor, the studies about the optimal initial sugar fermentation concentration are also meaningful. In order to study the best technology of butanol fuel production from steam exploded corn cob, 4 detoxification methods, which were over liming, D301 resin, over liming combined with D301 resin, and over liming combined with NKAII macro porous resin, were used to detoxify the hydrolysate of steam exploded corn cob, and their effects on butanol production were also determined in this research. The results showed that the D301 resin detoxification was the most efficient way to detoxify the hydrolysate of steam exploded corn cob. The removal ratio of vanillin could reach 100%; the removal ratio of formic acid, acetic acid, total phenol, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural reached 60%, 46.04%, 56.31%, 82.95% and 87.52%, respectively. At the same time, total sugar lost ratio was only 4.38%. Finally, butanol and ABE (actone, butanol, ethanol) production were 5.2 and 7.5 g/L by fermentation withC. acetobutylicumCICC 8016, and the utilization rate of glucose

  15. Otimização da esterificação de ácido hexanóico com n-butanol empregando lipase (Termomyces lanuginosus imobilizada em gelatina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Skoronski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Lipozyme (Termomyces lanuginosus immobilized in gelatin gel in aliphatic ester synthesis was investigated taking the esterification of hexanoic acid with n-butanol as a model reaction. Conditions were optimized by factorial design and the highest conversion was obtained under the following conditions: molar ratio alcohol: acid of 2:1, reaction time of 48 h and biocatalyst weight of 7.0 g. Under these conditions the esterification yield was around 98 %. The operational stability of the immobilized lipase was assessed and results showed that after 12 batch runs, the enzyme showed no significant loss of activity.

  16. 丙酮丁醇梭菌Clostridium acetobutylicum CICC 8012发酵鲜芭蕉芋生产丁醇%Optimization of Butanol Production from Canna edulis Ker by Clostridium acetobutylicum Using Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙飞; 靳艳玲; 赵云; 郜晓峰; 李宇浩; 陈谦; 赵海

    2013-01-01

    以非粮作物鲜芭蕉芋为原料,利用丙酮丁醇梭菌CICC 8012发酵生产丁醇.采用中心组合实验设计(CCD),选取初始糖浓度、接种量、中性红、乙酸铵为主要影响因素,对发酵条件进行优化,建立以丁醇产量为响应值的数学模型.对模型求解得到:初始糖浓度62.25 g/L,接种量为10.81%,中性红为0.81 g/L,乙酸铵为0.574 g/L时,最终的丁醇产量为12.83 g/L.验证实验结果表明,在优化条件下丁醇发酵产量达到12.73 g/L,证明了模型可靠有效.%Raw Canna edulis Ker, one of the non-food crops, was utilized in this study to produce butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum CICC 8012. Central Composite Design (CCD) was adopted to optimize experiment conditions including four crucial factors which were initial sugar concentration, inoculation volume, neutral red and ammonium acetate. According to the results of the model, the optimal conditions of butanol fermentation were that: initial sugar concentration 62.25 g/L, inoculation volume 10.81%, neutral red usage 0.81 g/L, ammonium acetate usage 0.574 g/L and final butanol yield of 12.83 g/L. In the verification experiment, the butanol yield of 12.73 g/L was obtained under the optimal conditions, which indicated that the model was reliable and effective. Fig 3, Tab 5, Ref 24

  17. Standardized butanol fraction of WIN-34B suppresses cartilage destruction via inhibited production of matrix metalloproteinase and inflammatory mediator in osteoarthritis human cartilage explants culture and chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huh Jeong-Eun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WIN-34B is a novel Oriental medicine, which represents the n-butanol fraction prepared from dried flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb and dried roots of Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE. The component herb of WIN-34B is used for arthritis treatment in East Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the cartilage-protective effects and mechanisms of WIN-34B and its major phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and mangiferin, in osteoarthritis (OA human cartilage explants culture and chondrocytes. Methods The investigation focused on whether WIN-34B and its standard compounds protected cartilage in interleukin (IL-1β-stimulated cartilage explants culture and chondrocytes derived from OA patients. Also, the mechanisms of WIN-34B on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs, inflammatory mediators, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs pathways were assessed. Results WIN-34B was not cytotoxic to cultured cartilage explants or chondrocytes. WIN-34B dose-dependently inhibited the release of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen, increased the mRNA expression of aggrecan and type II collagen, and recovered the intensity of proteoglycan and collagen by histological analysis in IL-1β-stimulated human cartilage explants culture. The cartilage protective effect of WIN-34B was similar to or better than that of chlorogenic acid and mangiferin. Compared to chlorogenic acid and mangiferin, WIN-34B displayed equal or greater decreases in the levels of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5, and markedly up-regulated TIMP-1 and TIMP-3. WIN-34B inhibited inflammatory mediators involved in cartilage destruction, such as prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-1β. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 was significantly reduced by WIN-34B treatment, while phosphorylation of JNK was only

  18. Standardized butanol fraction of WIN-34B suppresses cartilage destruction via inhibited production of matrix metalloproteinase and inflammatory mediator in osteoarthritis human cartilage explants culture and chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background WIN-34B is a novel Oriental medicine, which represents the n-butanol fraction prepared from dried flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb and dried roots of Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE. The component herb of WIN-34B is used for arthritis treatment in East Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the cartilage-protective effects and mechanisms of WIN-34B and its major phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and mangiferin, in osteoarthritis (OA) human cartilage explants culture and chondrocytes. Methods The investigation focused on whether WIN-34B and its standard compounds protected cartilage in interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated cartilage explants culture and chondrocytes derived from OA patients. Also, the mechanisms of WIN-34B on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), inflammatory mediators, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways were assessed. Results WIN-34B was not cytotoxic to cultured cartilage explants or chondrocytes. WIN-34B dose-dependently inhibited the release of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen, increased the mRNA expression of aggrecan and type II collagen, and recovered the intensity of proteoglycan and collagen by histological analysis in IL-1β-stimulated human cartilage explants culture. The cartilage protective effect of WIN-34B was similar to or better than that of chlorogenic acid and mangiferin. Compared to chlorogenic acid and mangiferin, WIN-34B displayed equal or greater decreases in the levels of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, ADAMTS-4, and ADAMTS-5, and markedly up-regulated TIMP-1 and TIMP-3. WIN-34B inhibited inflammatory mediators involved in cartilage destruction, such as prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-1β. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 was significantly reduced by WIN-34B treatment, while phosphorylation of JNK was only inhibited by chlorogenic

  19. Generation of counter ion radical (Br2(•-)) and its reactions in water-in-oil (CTAB or CPB)/n-butanol/cyclohexane/water) microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K; Sarkar, Sisir K; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2011-09-15

    Herein we report the generation of counterion radicals and their reactions in quaternary water-in-oil microemulsion. Hydrated electrons in the microemulsion CTAB/H(2)O/n-butanol/cyclohexane have a remarkably short half-life (∼1 μs) and lower yield as compared to that in the pure water system. Electrons are solvated in two regions: one is the water core and other the interface; however, the electrons in the water core have a shorter half-life than those in the interface. The decay of the solvated electrons in the interface is found to be water content dependent and it has been interpreted in terms of increased interfacial fluidity with the increase in water content of the microemulsion. Interestingly another species, dibromide radical anion (Br(2)(•-)) in CTAB and CPB microemulsions have been observed after the electron beam irradiation. Assuming that the extinction coefficient of the radicals is the same as that in the aqueous solution, the yields of the radicals per 100 eV are 0.29 and 0.48 for the Br(2)(•-) radical in CTAB and CPB containing microemulsions (W(0) = 40), respectively, under N(2)O saturated conditions. Further, we intended to study electron transfer reactions, which occur at and through the interface. The reaction of the Br(2)(•-) radical anion with ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] has been studied to generate the ABTS radical in the water core, and further, its reaction has been investigated with the water-insoluble molecule vitamin E (tocopherol) and water-soluble vitamin C (ascorbic acid). In the present study, we were able to show that, even for molecules which are completely insoluble in water, ABTS scavenging assay is possible by pulse radiolysis technique. Furthermore, these results show that it is possible to follow the reaction of the hydrated inorganic radical with solutes dissolved in the organic phase in a microemulsion without use of a phase transfer catalyst.

  20. {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}-induced improvements of the catalytic behavior of MoO{sub 3}-(010) in the oxygen-assisted dehydration of 2-butanol: implications in selective oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaigneaux, E.M. [Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique of Belgium (Belgium); Naeye, M.L.; Dupont, O.; Ruiz, P.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Callant, M.; Kartheuser, B. [CERTECH, Senefffe (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    This article concerns the synergetic effects between an MoO{sub 3} sample composed of crystallites exposing preferentially the (010) basal faces and {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the oxygen-assisted dehydration of 2-butanol at 220 C. The conversion of 2-butanol and the yield to butene improved when MoO{sub 3} was reacted in the presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The origin of the synergism is discussed. When reacted in the absence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MoO{sub 3} got over-reduced and fragmented to MoO{sub 2}. MoO{sub 2} is intrinsically less active than MoO{sub 3} thus explaining that the deep reduction of MoO{sub 3} corresponds to its tendency to deactivate. In the presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the formation of MoO{sub 2} is inhibited with, as a consequence, the absence of deactivation. This leads to the synergetic effects obtained with the mechanical mixture of MoO{sub 3} with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (orig.)

  1. Effect of ozonolysis parameters on the inhibitory compound generation and on the production of ethanol by Pichia stipitis and acetone-butanol-ethanol by Clostridium from ozonated and water washed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Barrado, Enrique; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was ozone pretreated and detoxified by water washing, applying a L9(3)(4) orthogonal array (OA) design of experiments to study the effect of pretreatment parameters (moisture content, ozone concentration, ozone/oxygen flow and particle size) on the generation of inhibitory compounds and on the composition of hydrolysates of ozonated-washed samples. Ozone concentration resulted the highest influence process parameter on delignification and sugar release after washing; while, for inhibitory compound formation, moisture content also had an important role. Ozone expended in pretreatment related directly with sugar release and inhibitory compound formation. Washing detoxification was effective, providing non-inhibitory hydrolysates. Maximum glucose and xylose release yields obtained were 84% and 67%, respectively, for ozonated-washed SCB. Sugar concentration resulted in the decisive factor for biofuels yields. Ethanol production achieved an 88% yield by Pichia stipitis, whereas Clostridium acetobutylicum produced 0.072gBUTANOL/gSUGAR and 0.188gABE/gSUGAR, and, Clostridium beijerinckii 0.165gBUTANOL/gSUGAR and 0.257gABE/gSUGAR.

  2. Phase behavior of the mixtures of poly(oxyethylene) (10) stearyl ether (Brij-76), 1-butanol, isooctane, and mixed polar solvents II. Water and ethylene glycol (EG) or tetraethylene glycol (TEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Debdurlav; Mitra, Rajib K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2007-06-01

    The phase diagrams of the pseudo-quaternary systems poly(oxyethylene) (10) stearyl ether (Brij-76)/1-butanol/isooctane/water (with equal amounts of oil and water in the presence of two nonaqueous polar solvents (NPS), ethylene glycol (EG), and tetraethylene glycol (TEG)), have been constructed at 30 degrees C. Regular fish-tail diagrams were obtained up to psi (weight fraction of EG or TEG in the mixture of polar solvents) equal to 0.5, confirming the establishment of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of the systems. The maximum solubilization capacity passed through a minimum at psi=0.2. No HLB was obtained at higher psi. The usual fish-tail diagrams were also obtained in temperature-induced phase mapping at fixed W(1) (weight fraction of 1-butanol in total amphiphile). Solubilization capacity and HLB temperature (T(HLB)) decreased with increasing psi at a fixed W(1), the effect being more pronounced for TEG than EG. A correlation between HLB temperature (T(HLB)) and HLB number (N(HLB)) of mixed amphiphiles (Brij-76+Bu) in pseudo-quaternary systems (in the presence of water and partial substitution of water with both NPS) has been established. The novelty of the work with respect to possible applications has been discussed.

  3. 生物酶法合成(S)-2-氨基-1-丁醇的研究%Enzymatic preparation of optically pure (S)-2-amino-1-butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程仕伟; 魏东芝; 孙爱友

    2011-01-01

    With the source of Alcaligenes faecoiis penicillin C acylase as catalyst, optically pure (S) -2-amino-1-butanol is obtained via enantioselective hydrolysis of N-phenylacetyl racemic 2-amino-1-butanol. The optimal conditions of catalytic process are as follows: 2 U/mL of enzyme, 100 mmoVL of substrate concentration, 40℃ of reaction temperature,9. 0 of pH. Under the optimal conditions,the higher optical punty ( ee > 99% ) can be obtained when the racemic substrate conversion rate of 40% is achieved.%以粪产碱杆菌来源的青霉素G酰化酶为催化剂,酶法拆分苯乙酰消旋底物转化生成(S)-2-氨基-1-丁醇.通过对催化过程中加酶量、底物浓度、反应温度、pH进行优化,确定最适酶催化条件是pH 9.0,40℃,底物浓度100 mmol/L,酶量2 U/mL,反应体积80 mL.在最适反应条件下,当消旋底物转化率达40%时终止反应可获得较高的产物光学纯度(ee>99%).

  4. Application of polyvinylidene fluoride/polydimethylsiloxane composite membrane in butanol recovery%聚偏氟乙烯/聚二甲基硅氧烷渗透气化膜在丁醇分离中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜广庆; 陈丽杰; 薛闯; 白凤武

    2014-01-01

    A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite membrane for butanol recovery was fabricated by coating a dense PDMS separation layer on a PVDF porous support layer prepared by phase inversion. The total flux and separation factor of the PVDF/PDMS composite membrane could be 158.2 g·m-2·h-1 and 17.3, respectively, when feed solution was 15 g·L-1 butanol at 37℃ with a flow rate 1.6 L·min-1. To simulate the fermentation liquor, acetone and ethanol were added into the feed solution in a ratio 6(butanol):3:1, the total flux of PVDF/PDMS composite membrane increased to 189.5 g·m-2·h-1, but separation factor decreased to 14.8. Furthermore, fermentation broths with/without biomass as feed solution were investigated to evaluate pervaporation performance of the PVDF/PDMS composite membrane. The total flux and separation factor were 120.2 g·m-2·h-1 and 19.7 for without biomass case, 122.1 g·m-2·h-1 and 16.7 for with biomass case, respectively. Compared with PDMS membrane, the performance of PVDF/PDMS composite membrane had significant improvement for butanol recovery, indicating that it is of potential for industrial application of butanol recovery.%通过相转化法制备PVDF多孔支撑膜,在其上涂覆致密的PDMS分离层制备得到PVDF/PDMS复合膜,用于丁醇的分离纯化。以丁醇水溶液为原料液,流速为1.6 L·min-1,丁醇浓度为15 g·L-1,温度为37℃时, PVDF/PDMS 复合膜的总通量为158.2 g·m-2·h-1,分离因子为17.3。向丁醇水溶液中按丁醇:丙酮:乙醇比例为6:3:1添加丙酮和乙醇模拟发酵液,PVDF/PDMS复合膜的总通量升高到189.5 g·m-2·h-1,分离因子降低到14.8。进一步考察了以丙酮-丁醇-乙醇(ABE)发酵液为原料液的渗透气化膜分离性能,发酵液中不存在菌体时, PVDF/PDMS复合膜的总通量和分离因子分别为120.2 g·m-2·h-1和19.7,而菌体存在时,复合膜的总通

  5. Acetone-butanol fermentation from the mixture of fructose and glucose%果糖及葡萄糖混合物为底物的丙酮丁醇发酵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓攀; 陈丽杰; 辛程勋; 白凤武

    2011-01-01

    旨在以果糖和葡萄糖混合物模拟能源作物菊芋块茎水解液发酵生产丁醇.在培养基初始pH 5.5,发酵过程不控制pH的混合糖发酵中,出现了发酵提前终止现象,终点残糖浓度达23.26 g/L,而丁醇产量仅5.51g/L.进一步对比混合糖及葡萄糖、果糖不控制pH的发酵结果表明,导致这一现象的原因可能是有机酸毒性太大和pH太低.全程控制pH的混合糖发酵结果表明,高pH条件有利于提高糖利用率,但产酸多,丁醇产量较低:而低pH条件下发酵残糖较多,但丁醇产量相对较高.基于此,文中采用阶段性pH调控策略,即将发酵初期的pH控制在5.5,待菌体0D620上升到1.0后,解除pH控制,发酵终点残糖浓度下降到2.05 g/L,丁醇产量也相应提高到10.48 g/L.%A mixture of fructose and glucose was developed to simulate the hydrolysate of Jerusalem artichoke tubers, the fructose-based feedstock suitable for butanol production. With the initial pH of 5.5 without regulation during mixed-sugar fermentation, as high as 23.26 g/L sugars were remained unconverted, and butanol production of S.S 1 g/L were obtained. Compared with either glucose or fructose fermentation, the early termination of mixed-sugar fermentation might be caused by toxic organic acids and the low pH. When the pH of the fermentation system was controlled at higher levels, it was found that sugars utilization was facilitated, but less butanol was produced due to the over-accumulation of organic acids. On the other hand, when the pH was controlled at lower levels, more sugars were remained unconverted, although butanol production was improved. Based on these experimental results, a stage-wise pH regulation strategy, e.g., controlling the pH of the fermentation system at S.S untill the OD620 reached 1.0, and then the pH control was removed, was developed, which significantly improved the fermentation performance of the system, with only 2.0S g/L sugars unconverted and 10.48 g

  6. Butanol/Gasoline Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    with E10, E15 to E85. 3 Type 360-03 - Tube: Black Nitrile- Cover: Black Neoprene - Compatible up to E85. 4 Type 375 - Tube: Nitrile - Cover: Black... Neoprene . 5 Information from RB-S Piping System Diagrams - 25-RB-S-500-001, Rev C (Shts 1-5) and Contact with component vendors. 6 FloScan...constructed of nitrile, neoprene , or PVC are recommended. Eye protection - Goggles and face shield as needed to prevent eye and face contact

  7. Butanol / Gasoline Mercury CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    currently such as corn and sugar cane, and in the future other biomass, such as fast-growing grasses and agricultural waste products . This highlights its...exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. The United States Government does not endorse products or...Options for Coast Guard (CG) boats, identifying options for replacing the currently used ten percent ethanol (E10) gasoline for outboards. The study

  8. Catalytic Oxidative Dehydration of Butanol Isomers: 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, and Isobutanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the literature (9–12). In one such process, ethane auto- thermally decomposes to form ethylene (9). This process also converts heavier paraffins...There was minimal thermal cracking along the carbon backbone since 88– 99% of the olefins produced were butene isomers. Then the degree of...there was minimal thermal cracking of the hydrocarbon backbone since the typical butenes/(total olefin) ratio was 0.98-0.99. It was found that

  9. Butanol production from detoxified Salix hydrolysate%预处理沙柳酶解液脱毒及其丁醇发酵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林增祥; 李荣秀; 刘莉; 沈兆兵; 史吉平

    2015-01-01

    为了提高沙柳原料的丁醇发酵效果,考察沙柳原料经过蒸爆、超微粉碎+稀酸和超微粉碎+稀碱预处理后补料酶解的效果,优化了沙柳酶解液活性炭脱毒工艺参数,并对经过脱毒处理的酶解液进行了丁醇发酵研究,结果表明:预处理沙柳原料酶解底物质量浓度为200 g/mL时,3种预处理方法中蒸爆处理法水解效果最好,每克底物的滤纸酶酶加量15 U,酶解96 h后,酶解液总糖质量浓度达到57 g/L。活性炭脱毒处理的最优条件:pH 4�8,碳加量4%(质量分数)、温度70℃、1 h,该条件下的沙柳水解液脱色率达到97�4%、糖损失率3�1%。3种预处理沙柳原料的酶解液经活性炭脱毒后都可以被丁醇梭菌正常利用发酵产丁醇,发酵液总溶剂( ABE)质量浓度约为14 g/L。%In this study, we studied methods to improve butanol fermentation of Salix hydrolysates after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Salix samples were pretreated by steam explosion, ultrafine grind with dilute acid and ultrafine grind with dilute alkali, respectively. Before acetone⁃butanol⁃ethanol ( ABE) fermentation, we optimized the feeding enzyme hydrolysis and activated carbon detoxification. Steam explosion pretreated Salix samples had the highest sugar yield ( 57 g/L ) after enzymatic hydrolysis, with 200 g/mL substrate consistency, 15 FPU enzyme loading for 96 hours. The optimal condition of activated carbon detoxification was observed with 4% activated carbon loading at pH 4�8 and 70 ℃ for 1 hour. Under that condition, hydrolysate was decoloarated by 97�4% with 3�1% sugar loss. The detoxified Salix hydrolysates of three pretreatment methods could be fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicums, and the total product solvent ( ABE) was about 14 g/L.

  10. Shock tube measurements of the tert-butanol + OH reaction rate and the tert-C4H8OH radical β-scission branching ratio using isotopic labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranic, Ivo; Pang, Genny A; Hanson, Ronald K; Golden, David M; Bowman, Craig T

    2013-06-13

    The overall rate constant for the reaction tert-butanol + OH → products was determined experimentally behind reflected shock waves by using (18)O-substituted tert-butanol (tert-butan(18)ol) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as a fast source of (16)OH. The data were acquired from 900 to 1200 K near 1.1 atm and are best fit by the Arrhenius expression 1.24 × 10(-10) exp(-2501/T [K]) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The products of the title reaction include the tert-C4H8OH radical that is known to have two major β-scission decomposition channels, one of which produces OH radicals. Experiments with the isotopically labeled tert-butan(18)ol also lead to an experimental determination of the branching ratio for the β-scission pathways of the tert-C4H8OH radical by comparing the measured pseudo-first-order decay rate of (16)OH in the presence of excess tert-butan(16)ol with the respective decay rate of (16)OH in the presence of excess tert-butan(18)ol. The two decay rates of (16)OH as a result of reactions with the two forms of tert-butanol differ by approximately a factor of 5 due to the absence of (16)OH-producing pathways in experiments with tert-butan(18)ol. This indicates that 80% of the (16)OH molecules that react with tert-butan(16)ol will reproduce another (16)OH molecule through β-scission of the resulting tert-C4H8(16)OH radical. (16)OH mole fraction time histories were measured using narrow-line-width laser absorption near 307 nm. Measurements were performed at the line center of the R22(5.5) transition in the A-X(0,0) band of (16)OH, a transition that does not overlap with any absorption features of (18)OH, hence yielding a measurement of (16)OH mole fraction that is insensitive to any production of (18)OH.

  11. 柠檬酸与正丁醇合成柠檬酸三丁酯的热力学分析%Thermodynamic Analysis for Synthesis of Tributyl Citrate from Citric Acid and n-Butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩; 王建红; 乔聪震

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain the thermodynamic data of the synthesis of tributyl citrate from citric acid and n-butanol, the standard molar enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and molar heat capacity of the reactants and the products were calculated by Benson group contribution method.The enthalpy change,free energy change, equilibrium constant and equilibrium conversion of the reaction were calculated according to the principles of chemical thermodynamics in the temperature range of 300 - 1 000 K.The effect of mole ratio of n-butanol to citric acid on the equilibrium conversion of citrate acid was studied.The results showed that the reaction was endothermic and feasible thermodynamically because of the negative free energy change.The Gibbs free energy decreases with rise of the reaction temperature, which indicates that high temperature is favorable for the reaction.High equilibrium conversion of citric acid could be obtained under high mole ratio of n-butanol to citric acid, which could reach 0.990 theoretically.%采用 Benson 基团贡献法,对柠檬酸和正丁醇合成柠檬酸三丁酯反应体系进行了反应焓变、熵变、吉布斯自由能变和平衡常数的计算;在 300~1 000 K 温度范围内,研究了该酯化反应的焓变、熵变和吉布斯自由能变随反应温度的变化以及正丁醇与柠檬酸的摩尔比(醇酸比)对柠檬酸甲衡转化率的影响.计算结果表明,该反应为吸热反应;在考察温度范围内,该反应在热力学上是可行的;吉布斯自由能变随反应温度的升高而降低,说明高温有利于反应的进行;醇酸比的提高可以使柠檬酸的平衡转化率增大,理论上最高转化率可达0.990.

  12. Mechanism of Effects of n-Butanol Properties on Low Temperature Combustion in a Diesel Engine%正丁醇燃料特性对柴油机低温燃烧影响的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑尊清; 李善举; 刘海峰; 尧命发; 徐佳; 杨彬彬

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of effects of boiling point, fuel composition, cetane number, and oxygenated characteristic of n-butanol on low temperature combustion (LTC) were studied on a diesel engine. 20% volume addition of n-heptane, iso-octane and n-butanol is separately blended with diesel fuel. Results show that the combustion characteristics of n-heptane-diesel blend and iso-octane-diesel blend are respectively close to those of pure diesel and n-butanol-diesel blend, reflecting a dominant role of cetane number on LTC combustion. The difference in soot emission between n-heptane-diesel blend and diesel is small, suggesting small role of fuel physical property and composition on soot emission. Remarkable reduction of soot emission with iso-octane-diesel blend compared with that of pure diesel reveals the strong influence of cetane number on soot emission. Large reduction of soot emission with n-butanol-diesel blend compared with that of iso-octane-diesel blend suggests that oxygenated characteristic is favorable to decrease soot emission. Fuel property shows little influence on gasous emissions like NOx, CO and HC in this study.%在一台单缸柴油机上,将20%体积分数的正庚烷、异辛烷和正丁醇分别与柴油进行掺混燃烧,研究了正丁醇沸点、燃料组分、十六烷值和含氧特性等理化特性对柴油机低温燃烧(LTC)的影响机理.结果表明,十六烷值是影响LTC燃烧特性的主导参数,柴油+正庚烷和柴油+异辛烷的燃烧特性分别与纯柴油和柴油+正丁醇接近.碳烟排放上,柴油+正庚烷与纯柴油差别很小,表明在20%掺混条件下,物理特性和燃料组分对LTC碳烟排放影响较小;柴油+异辛烷的碳烟排放较纯柴油降低明显,表明十六烷值是影响LTC碳烟排放的重要因素;柴油+正丁醇的碳烟排放比柴油+异辛烷有较大降低,表明正丁醇含氧特性对改善LTC碳烟排放具有重要作用.燃料理化特性对NOx、CO和HC等气体污染物排放影响较小.

  13. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation from cane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422%一株拜氏梭菌利用甘蔗废糖蜜发酵生产丙酮丁醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙珊; 汪维云; 倪晔; 王云; 宋钢; 孙志浩

    2012-01-01

    以甘蔗废糖蜜作为原料,利用Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422菌株进行丙酮丁醇发酵的初步研究.结果表明:采用H2SO4预处理糖蜜,初糖质量浓度60 g/L,(NH4)2SO4 2g/L,CaCO3 10 g/L,温度30℃,pH 5.5~7.0,接种量6%(体积分数),在5L发酵罐中发酵培养96 h,总溶剂产量为16.17 g/L,其中丁醇质量浓度为10.07 g/L,总溶剂产率为30.2%,糖利用率为89.3%.%Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using sugar cane molasses by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6422 was studied. The molasses were pretreated with H2SO4 and the fermentation conditions including carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature and pH, etc. , were optimized. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions was as follows; initial sugar concentration 60 g/L, (NH4)2SO4 2 g/L, CaCO3 10 g/L, inoculation amount 6% ( V/V), pH 5. 5-7. 0, fermented at 30 ℃, for 96 h. Under these conditions, the total solvent, butanol ratio, solvent productivity, and sugar utilization in the 5-L bioreac-tor were 16. 17 g/L, 10. 07 g/L, 30. 2% , and 89. 3%, respectively.

  14. Cloning and expression of key genes of butanol synthetic pathway in Escherichia coli%丁醇合成途径关键酶基因在大肠杆菌中的克隆和表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 周鹏鹏; 王丕祥; 谢静莉; 叶勤

    2012-01-01

    [目的]克隆丙酮丁醇梭状芽胞杆菌(Clostridium acetobutylicum)ATCC824丁醇合成途径关键酶基因,构建产丁醇的工程大肠杆菌.[方法]以C.acetobutylicum ATCC824基因组为模板,分别扩增丁醇合成途径关键酶基因thil adhE2和BCS operon(crt-bcd-etfB-etfA-hbd)基因序列,构建BCS operon-adhE2-thil/pTrc99a/MG1655 (pBAT).重组菌E.coli pBAT采用0.1 mmol异丙基-β-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导5h,测定乙酰基转移酶(THL)、3-羟基丁酰辅酶A脱氢酶(HBD)、3-羟基丁酰辅酶A脱水酶(CRT)、丁酰辅酶A脱氢酶(BCD)、醛醇脱氢酶(BYDH/BDH)的酶活.并以该基因工程菌作为发酵菌种,采用好氧、厌氧和微好氧三种培养方式,检测丁醇产量.[结果]酶活测定结果显示:THL酶活达到0.160 U/mg protein,酶活力提高了近30倍;HBD酶活力提高了近5倍;CRT酶活达到1.53 U/mg protein,野生菌株无此酶活;BCD酶活力提高了32倍;BYDH/BDH酶活力无显著提高.3种发酵培养结果显示在微好氧和厌氧条件下,均有丁醇产生,且丁醇的最大产量约为84 mg/L.[结论]本实验通过构建产丁醇基因工程大肠杆菌,实现了丁醇关键酶基因在大肠杆菌中的活性表达以及发酵产丁醇,为发酵法生产丁醇开辟了一条新的途径.%[Objective] We constructed a recombinant Escherichia coli strain for butanol production by cloning the cDNA sequence of the key butanol synthetic pathway genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. [Methods] We amplified the genes of thil, adhE2 and BCS operon by PCR with C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 genome as a template. We constructed the recombinant strain E. coli pBAT (BCS operon-adhE2-thil/pTrc99a/MG1655). We used 0.1 mmol/l Isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) to induce the recombinant E. coli pBAT for 5 h for recombinant protein expression. We measured acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (THL) , β-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (HBD) , 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase (CRT) , butyryl

  15. Combustion Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Fuelled with Gasoline Blend Fuel of High n-Butanol Ratio%直喷汽油机燃用高比例正丁醇-汽油混合燃料的燃烧特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈征; 杨峰; 薛硕; 刘敬平

    2015-01-01

    在一台增压直喷汽油机上,进行了不同调和比例正丁醇-汽油混合燃料的燃烧特性研究,特别针对高比例正丁醇-汽油混合燃料(丁醇体积分数为 40%,)进行燃烧特性研究.结果表明,在相同负荷下,与汽油和低比例正丁醇-汽油混合燃料(丁醇体积分数为 15%,)相比,高比例混合燃料的滞燃期和燃烧持续期缩短,缸内最大爆发压力和瞬时放热率峰值升高,同时主放热时刻提前,燃烧反应速度加快;此外,高比例正丁醇-汽油混合燃料的燃烧稳定性增强,但抗爆震能力减弱;尽管其燃油消耗率有所升高,但有效热效率得到改善.%Combustion characteristics of n-butanol-gasoline blend fuels with different blending ratio,especially gasoline blend fuel of high n-butanol ratio(40%, n-butanol volume fraction),were investigated on a turbocharged gasoline direct injection(GDI)engine.The results showed that under the same load,for gasoline blend fuel of high n-butanol ratio,its ignition was delayed and combustion duration shortened compared with pure gaosoline and gasoline blend fuel of low n-butanol ratio (15%, n-butanol volume fraction).The peaks of combustion pressure and heat re-lease rate were raised,the main heat release timing advanced and the burning rate increased.In addition,its com-bustion stability was improved,but the anti-knock ability was degraded.Although its brake specific fuel consumption was increased,the brake thermal efficiency was improved.

  16. Vehicle emissions and fuel consumption of diesel vehicles fueled with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends%乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振斌; 倪计民; 张惜辉; 叶年业; 郝汝林; 麦瑞礼

    2012-01-01

    Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a diesel passenger car and a diesel minibus on road were measured to investigate the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends. The experimental data from the car fueled with an E10 blend that contains 10% ethanol and 4% butanol by volume, was compared with those from the fossil diesel, it resulted in decreases of 10.42% in NOX emissions, 27.43% in HC+NOX emissions and 2.13% in PM emissions. The fuel consumption also declined by 7.66% and 3.71% under the car in constant velocity conditions of 90 and 120 km/h, respectively. Nevertheless, the results showed increases of 31.43% in CO emissions and 4.48% in fuel consumption for the car in terms of New European Driving Cycle or NEDC. Yet the E10 mixture in the minibus reduced the emissions of free acceleration exhaust smoke by 31.11%. This research demonstrates the practical applications of ethanol-butanol- diesel blends for improving vehicle emissions and fuel consumption.%为了研究乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性,该文对分别使用乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料和柴油的在用柴油轿车的排放性能和燃油经济性,以及在用柴油客车的自由加速排气烟度排放进行了对比试验.研究结果表明:相对于柴油,在用柴油轿车使用E10(体积比,乙醇10%、丁醇4%、柴油86%)混合燃料的NOx排放减少10.42%,HC+NOx排放减少27.43%,微粒(PM)排放减少2.13%,90和120km/h等速行驶燃料消耗量分别减少7.66%和3.71%;然而CO排放增加31.43%,工况循环综合燃料消耗量增加4.48%.此外,在用柴油客车使用E10混合燃料的自由加速排气烟度排放减少31.11%.该研究结果对于完善乙醇柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性具有实用价值.

  17. 乙醚-甲醇-正丁醇多元系汽液平衡的热力学性质%Thermodynamic Properties for Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Diethyl Ether Methanol-n-Butanol Multicomponent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高大明; 张凌云; 管航敏; 孙虹; 陈红; 朱德春

    2011-01-01

    Under different liquid phase compositions, the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of three binary systems (diethyl ether-methanol, diethyi ether-n-butanol and methanol-n-butanol) and one ternary system (diethyl ether-methanol-n-butanol) were determined at 101.325 kPa by using a novel pump-ebullionmeter.The vapor-phase compositions y of above three binary systems were calculated from T,p,x by the indirect method.The activity coefficients of the three binary systems were correlated separately with Wilson, N-RTL, Margules and van Laar models, and the parameters of liquid phase activity coefficient models were calculated through the least square method, and then the obtained parameters were used to calculate the vapor-phase compositions y. The obtained activity coefficients were used to calculate the excess Gibbs function (GE/RT) of the three binary systems,and the results show that all the systems studied here do not exhibit azeotropes. Using the obtained parameters of Wilson, NRTL, Margules and van Laar models, the experimental VLE data of the ternary system were correlated to construct the thermodynamic model of VLE for the ternary system and to calculate its equilibrating vapor-phase composition y and the bubble point, respectively. The calculated bubble points agree with the experimental data well, and the thermodynamic consistency of the phase equilibrium data of the three binary systems calculated by those model parameters were checked with area test method and got satisfactory results.%用新型泵式沸点仪测定了在101.325 kPa下乙醚-甲醇、乙醚-正丁醇、甲醇-正丁醇3个二元系以及乙醚-甲醇-正丁醇三元系在不同液相组成时的沸点,并用间接法Tpx推算了3个二元系的汽相平衡组成y.3个二元体系活度系数分别用Wilson模型、NRTL模型、Margules模型和van Laar模型进行关联,用最小二乘法求出了它们的液相活度系数模型参数,同时,用这些模型参数来计算它们的

  18. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Lactic Acid with Isobutanol and n-Butanol Catalyzed by Ion-exchange Resins%离子交换树脂催化乳酸与异丁醇及正丁醇酯化反应的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈一新; 彭少君; 王水; 张志强; 王际东

    2009-01-01

    The esterification reactions of lactic acid with isobutanol and n-butanol have been studied in the presence of acid ion-exchange resin Weblyst D009. The influences of catalyst loading, stirrer speed, catalyst particle size, initial reactant molar ratio and temperature on the reaction rate have been examined. Experimental kinetic data were correlated by using the Pseudo-homogeneous, Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal models. Nonideality of the liquid phase was taken into account by using activities instead of molar fractions. The activity coefficients were calculated according to the group contribution method UNIFAC. Provided that the nonideality of the liquid is taken into account, the esterification kinetics of lactic acid with isobutanol and n-butanol catalyzed by the acid ion-exchange resin can be described using all three models with reasonable errors.

  19. A narrow pH range supports butanol, hexanol, and octanol production from syngas in a continuous co-culture of Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with in-line product extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Richter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carboxydotrophic bacteria (CTB have received attention due to their ability to synthesize commodity chemicals from producer gas and synthesis gas (syngas. CTB have an important advantage of a high product selectivity compared to chemical catalysts. However, the product spectrum of wild-type CTB is narrow. Our objective was to investigate whether a strategy of combining two wild-type bacterial strains into a single, continuously fed bioprocessing step would be promising to broaden the product spectrum. Here, we have operated a syngas-fermentation process with Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with in-line product extraction through gas stripping and product condensing within the syngas recirculation line. The main products from C. ljungdahlii fermentation at a pH of 6.0 were ethanol and acetate at net volumetric production rates of 65.5 and 431 mmol C•L-1•d-1, respectively. An estimated 2/3 of total ethanol produced was utilized by C. kluyveri to chain elongate with the reverse β-oxidation pathway, resulting in n-butyrate and n-caproate at net rates of 129 and 70 mmol C•L-1•d-1, respectively. C. ljungdahlii likely reduced the produced carboxylates to their corresponding alcohols with the reductive power from syngas. This resulted in the longer-chain alcohols n-butanol, n-hexanol, and n-octanol at net volumetric production rates of 39.2, 31.7, and 0.045 mmol C•L-1•d-1, respectively. The continuous production of the longer-chain alcohols occurred only within a narrow pH spectrum of 5.7-6.4 due to the pH discrepancy between the two strains. Regardless whether other wild-type strains could overcome this pH discrepancy, the specificity (mol carbon in product per mol carbon in all other liquid products for each longer-chain alcohol may never be high in a single bioprocessing step. This, because two bioprocesses compete for intermediates (i.e., carboxylates: 1 chain elongation; and 2 biological reduction. This innate

  20. 利用氟化钾从制药废液中回收正丁醇%RECOVERY OF n-BUTANOL FROM WASTE PHARMACEUTICAL LIQUOR BY POTASSIUM FLUORIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙武; 许文友

    2011-01-01

    测定了正丁醇-水-氟化钾体系在25℃时的液-液相平衡数据,以Pitzer理论和Wilson方程对液-液相平衡数据进行了关联计算,计算值与实测值接近,水相和有机相的绝对平均偏差分别为0.72%和0.56%.考察了氟化钾水溶液与制药废液质量比对脱水率的影响,结果表明,当质量分数为60%的氟化钾水溶液与该废液的质量比为0.75时,脱水率高达91.38%,将有机相进行精馏可得到质量分数为99.50%的正丁醇,水相中氟化钾稀溶液经蒸发回收后循环使用不影响分离性能.%The liquid-liquid equilibrium data for w-butanol-water-KF system were measured at 25 °C and calculated by means of the Pitzer theory and the Wilson equation. The calculated results were close to the experimental data and the average absolute deviations for the water phase and the organic phase were 0. 72% and 0. 56%, respectively. The effect of the mass ratio of potassium fluoride sol-ution to the waste pharmaceutical liquor on the dehydration rate was also studied. The dehydration rate was as high as 91. 38% when the mass ratio of the potassium fluoride solution with 60. 00% of mass fraction to the waste pharmaceutical liquor was 0. 75. W-Butanol with 99. 50% of mass fraction was obtained via distillation of the organic phase. The dilute potassium fluoride solution in the aqueous phase was concentrated by evaporation for recovery and recycling.

  1. Optically active antifungal azoles. V. Synthesis and antifungal activity of stereoisomers of 3-azolyl-2-(substituted phenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2- butanols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, A; Tsuchimori, N; Kitazaki, T; Hiroe, K; Hayashi, R; Okonogi, K; Itoh, K

    1995-03-01

    The (2S,3S)-, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)-stereoisomers of (2R,3R)-3-azolyl-2-(substituted phenyl)-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-butanols [(2R,3R)-1a--d] were prepared and evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo to clarify the relationships between stereochemistry and biological activities. The results revealed that the in vitro antifungal activity in each set of the four stereoisomers [(2R,3R)-, (2S,3S)-, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)-1a--d] definitely paralleled the in vivo antifungal activity against candidosis in mice, and the order of potency was (2R,3R) > (2R,3S) > or = (2S,3S) > or = (2S,3R). In addition, the four stereoisomers in each set were assessed for sterol biosynthesis-inhibitory activities in C. albicans and rat liver. The (2R,3R)-isomer was found to exert a strong and selective inhibitory effect on the sterol synthesis in C. albicans as compared with that in rat liver.

  2. 辛醇气相加氢催化剂使用寿命影响因素浅析%Briefly Analyzing Affecting Factors on Service Life of Vapor Phase Hydrogenation Catalyst of Butanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保利; 刘金辉; 付文敬; 郭玉峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了辛醇装置辛烯醛气相加氢(VPH)工艺流程和气相加氢催化剂的物化性能;从催化剂的装填、还原、运行、钝化以及催化剂卸出的全过程,逐段分析了可能影响催化剂使用寿命的因素,并提出了延长催化剂使用寿命的操作要求。%Abstract:Author has introduced the vapor phase hydrogenation (VPH) process flow of the octylene aldehyde in the butanol plant and the physical/ chemical properties of vapor phase hydrogenation catalyst; has, step by step, analyzed the affecting factors of possibly influencing the service life of cata- lyst from the whole process of catalyst filling, reduction, running, passivating and removing catalyst out, and has presented the operating requirement e- longating the service life of the catalyst.

  3. Comparison of Antioxidant Capability after Isopropanol Salting-Out Pretreatment and n-Butanol Partition Extraction, and Identification and Evaluation of Antioxidants of Sedum formosanum N.E.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Hui; Lai, Wen-Hui; Lin, Shang-Dung; Lan, Cheng-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Liao, Ming-Yuan

    2016-04-19

    Crude extracts of Sedum formosanum N.E.Br. obtained from n-butanol partition (BP) and isopropanol salting-out pretreatment (ISP) were analyzed using antioxidation assays. The results indicated that the extract from ISP contained more potent antioxidants and thus exhibited more antioxidant activity in all the assays. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity and inhibition of nitric oxide radicals achieved after ISP were 3.65 and 2.18 times higher than those achieved through BP, respectively. Eight bioactive natural products were isolated and identified according to an analysis of antioxidation activity in different fractions of the ISP crude extract, namely three cyanophoric glycosides 1-3, three flavonoids 4-6 and two phenolic compounds (7 and a new compound 8). Among them, compounds 5 and 6 exhibit the highest antioxidation capability, and the ISP is suitable for obtaining compounds 5 and 6 using HPLC chromatograms. Therefore, ISP is an excellent extraction technology that can be used to extract antioxidant compounds in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. 高掺比ABE/柴油混合燃料的喷雾与燃烧特性%Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Diesel Blend with High ABE Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晗; 林亦律; 肖国炜; Lee Timothy; 李佳峰; 张春化

    2016-01-01

    The acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE)/diesel blend with high ABE ratio as alternative fuel was studied and the experiments were conducted in a pre-combustion type constant volume chamber.ABE solution with typical volu-metric ratios of 30%, acetone,60%, butanol,and 10%, ethanol was blended with diesel at 80%, volume and was tested.The ambient temperature was set to be 1,100,K and 900,K,which represent normal temperature combustion mode and low temperature combustion mode,respectively,andthe ambient oxygen concentrations were set to be 21%,,16%, and 11%,,respectively,which represent different EGR conditions for diesel engine.In-cylinder pres-sure was recorded by using a pressure transducer and the time-resolved Mie-scattering image and natural flame lumi-nosity were captured by using a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser as a light source.The results show that,due to the high percentage of ABE in the blend,the liquid penetration and intensity of natural flame lu-minosity are reduced significantly,which indicates a high potential to reduce soot level when it is used as an alterna-tive fuel for internal combustion engine.Furthermore,a soot-free combustion is achieved by combing the low tem-perature combustion with blended fuel with a high percentage of ABE.Hence,in terms of soot emission,high ABE ratio blends are a very promising alternative fuel which can be directly used in diesel engines.%针对丙酮-丁醇-乙醇(ABE)/柴油混合燃料的喷雾蒸发和燃烧过程展开了试验研究.试验在预燃加热式定容燃烧弹中进行,燃料为体积分数80%的ABE和20%,的柴油混合物,且ABE溶液中丙酮、丁醇、乙醇的体积分数分别为30%,、60%,和10%,.试验过程中燃烧弹内喷雾环境温度分别控制在1,100,K和900,K以代表普通燃烧模式和低温燃烧模式,环境氧体积分数分别控制在21%,、16%,和11%,以对应发动机不同的 EGR 工况.由高速摄相机配合激光束的使用,拍摄喷雾

  5. 鳄嘴花正丁醇提取物对小鼠Heps肝癌的抑制作用%Inhibitive effect of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau n-butanol extracts on Heps hepatoma in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 郭文洁; 黄丹民; 高静

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-tumor activity and life extention effect of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau n-butanol extract (CN-N) on tumor loaded mice.Methods:Mice hepatoma carcinoma cells (Heps,grown in donor mice) were transplanted subcutaneously into armpit of the ICR mice to establish the tumor xenografts model.Tumor mice were randomized into four groups:control group,cytoxan group,CN-N low dose group (3 mg · kg-1 · d-1),CN-N high dose group (10 mg · kg-1 · d-1).Tumor inhibition rate,body weights,immune organs index and life-prolonging effect were recorded.Proliferation of tumor cells were detected by western blotting and apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay.Results:Compared with the control group,CN-N low dose group and high dose group showed remarkable inhibition of tumor weight (t =2.261,3.140,both P <0.05) ;no significant differences on spleen and thymus index of tumor-bearing mice (both P > 0.05).PCNA expression levels were greatly reduced when treated with low or high concentration of CN-N.Compared with the control group,CN-N high dose group significantly extended the survival time(t =3.416,P =0.003 1).Conclusion:CN-N exhibited good antitumor activity and significantly prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice.%目的:研究鳄嘴花正丁醇提取物[Clinacanthus nutans(Burm.f.)Lindau n-butanol extracts,CN-N]对荷瘤小鼠的体内抑瘤作用及延长生存时间作用.方法:肝癌细胞接种至ICR小鼠右侧腋下,建立Heps小鼠肝癌模型,随机分成4组,对照组、环磷酰胺组、CN-N低剂量组(3 mg·kg-1·d-1)、CN-N高剂量组(10mg·kg-1·d-1),每组10只,观察CN-N对荷瘤小鼠的抑瘤率、体质量、脾脏及胸腺指数、生存时间的影响.蛋白质印迹法检测增殖细胞核抗原(proliferating cell nuclear antigen,PCNA)的表达,TUNEL法检测细胞凋亡情况.结果:与对照组比较,CN-N低剂量组和高剂量组肿瘤质量明显降低(t分别为2.261,3.140,P均<0.05),荷瘤小

  6. The Effect of pH Control on Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 with Xylose and D-Glucose and D-Xylose Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jiang; Zhiqiang Wen; Mianbin Wu; Hong Li; Jun Yang; Jianping Lin; Yijun Lin; Lirong Yang; Peilin Cen

    2014-01-01

    D-Glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-xylose, and cellobiose are saccharification products of lignocellulose and important carbon sources for industrial fermentation. The fermentation efficiency with each of the five sugars and the mixture of the two most dominant sugars, D-glucose and D-xylose, was evaluated for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The utilization efficacy of the five reducing sugars was in the order of D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-xylose and cellobiose. D-Xylose, the second most abundant component in lignocellulosic hydrolysate, was used in the fermentation either as sole carbon source or mixed with glucose. The results indicated that maintaining pH at 4.8, the optimal pH value for solventogenesis, could increase D-xylose consumption when it was the sole carbon source. Different media con-taining D-glucose and D-xylose at different ratios (1:2, 1:5, 1.5:1, 2:1) were then attempted for the ABE fermenta-tion. When pH was at 4.8 and xylose concentration was five times that of glucose, a 256.9%increase in xylose utilization and 263.7%increase in solvent production were obtained compared to those without pH control. These results demonstrate a possible approach combining optimized pH control and D-glucose and D-xylose ratio to increase the fermentation efficiency of lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

  7. Process simulate and optimization of 2-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butyl ester by extractive distillation%萃取精馏分离2-甲基-1-丁醇与乙酸2-甲基-1-丁酯的过程模拟与工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨畅; 刘其松; 宋航; 蒲凌翔

    2013-01-01

    猪胰脂肪酶催化外消旋2-甲基-1-丁醇酯交换反应,生成S-2-甲基-1-丁醇和乙酸2-甲基-1-丁酯,由于醇酯体系共沸,故采用间歇萃取精馏的方式,以N,N-二甲基甲酰胺作为萃取剂进行萃取精馏,优化了回流比、进料速率、进料温度等重要工艺参数,并应用过程模拟软件ChemCAD对2-甲基-1-丁醇和乙酸2-甲基-1-丁酯的萃取精馏工艺做全流程静态模拟.模拟结果与实验结果能较好吻合.%S-2-Methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butyl ester were obtained by transesterification of racemic 2-methyl-1-butanol catalyzed by porcine pancreatic lipase. Due to the azeotropy of alcohol-ester system, DMF was used as the extractant in the batch extractive distillation of the products. Reflux ratio,rate and temperature of feed were optimized in the study. Static simulation of the whole process was simulated by ChemCAD for the extractive distillation of 2-methyl-1 -butanol and 2-methyl-1-butyl ester. Finally the experiment proved the simulation results were reliable.

  8. Otimização da esterificação de ácido hexanóico com n-butanol empregando lipase (Termomyces lanuginosus imobilizada em gelatina Optimization of n-butyl hexanoate synthesis applying lipase immobilized (Termomyces Lanuginosus in gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Skoronski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Lipozyme (Termomyces lanuginosus immobilized in gelatin gel in aliphatic ester synthesis was investigated taking the esterification of hexanoic acid with n-butanol as a model reaction. Conditions were optimized by factorial design and the highest conversion was obtained under the following conditions: molar ratio alcohol: acid of 2:1, reaction time of 48 h and biocatalyst weight of 7.0 g. Under these conditions the esterification yield was around 98 %. The operational stability of the immobilized lipase was assessed and results showed that after 12 batch runs, the enzyme showed no significant loss of activity.

  9. Carcinogenicity and DNA adduct formation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and enantiomers of its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol in F-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Silvia; Johnson, Charles S; Kovi, Ramesh C; James-Yi, Sandra A; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Wang, Mingyao; Le, Chap T; Khariwala, Samir S; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-12-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolized to enantiomers of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), found in the urine of virtually all people exposed to tobacco products. We assessed the carcinogenicity in male F-344 rats of (R)-NNAL (5 ppm in drinking water), (S)-NNAL (5 ppm), NNK (5 ppm) and racemic NNAL (10 ppm) and analyzed DNA adduct formation in lung and pancreas of these rats after 10, 30, 50 and 70 weeks of treatment. All test compounds induced a high incidence of lung tumors, both adenomas and carcinomas. NNK and racemic NNAL were most potent; (R)-NNAL and (S)-NNAL had equivalent activity. Metastasis was observed from primary pulmonary carcinomas to the pancreas, particularly in the racemic NNAL group. DNA adducts analyzed were O (2)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]thymidine (O (2)-POB-dThd), 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]guanine(7-POB-Gua),O (6)-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-oxobut-1-yl]deoxyguanosine(O (6)-POB-dGuo),the 4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl(PHB)adductsO (2)-PHB-dThd and 7-PHB-Gua, O (6)-methylguanine (O (6)-Me-Gua) and 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB)-releasing adducts. Adduct levels significantly decreased with time in the lungs of rats treated with NNK. Pulmonary POB-DNA adducts and O (6)-Me-Gua were similar in rats treated with NNK and (S)-NNAL; both were significantly greater than in the (R)-NNAL rats. In contrast, pulmonary PHB-DNA adduct levels were greatest in the rats treated with (R)-NNAL. Total pulmonary DNA adduct levels were similar in (S)-NNAL and (R)-NNAL rats. Similar trends were observed for DNA adducts in the pancreas, but adduct levels were significantly lower than in the lung. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the potent pulmonary carcinogenicity of both enantiomers of NNAL in rats and provide important new information regarding DNA damage by these compounds in lung and pancreas.

  10. Effects of Ethanol and n-Butanol-soluble Extract from Herba Portulacae on Learning and Memory Performance in D-Galactose-induced Senile Mice%马齿苋乙醇及其正乙醇提取物对D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠的学习记忆作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金英子; 李迎军; 张红英

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects and mechanisms of ethanol extract and its n-butanol-soluble fraction from Herba Portulacae on learning and memory performance in senile mice induced by D-galactose.Method: Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group,model group and n-butanol-soluble fraction treatment(0.5 g/(kg·d) and 0.25 g/(kg·d)) groups and ethanol extract treatment groups(1 g/(kg·d) and 0.5 g/(kg·d)) groups.Normal saline was given to control group once daily for 42 consecutive days by subcutaneous injection in the neck back,and 1 g/(kg·d) D-galactose to the other 5 groups using the same administration route before intragastric administration of the same volume of distilled water and corresponding drugs(in aqueous solution) every afternoon during the administration period.Mouse learning and memory performance were tested by step-through test and water maze test,and MDA content and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the brain of senile mice were assayed.Results: Both dosages of n-butanol-soluble fraction could significantly improve mouse learning and memory performance(P 0.01),and the dosage of 0.5 g/(kg·d) resulted in a significant increase in the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in the brain(P 0.05,P 0.01),and the other dosage significantly decreased MDA content in the brain(P 0.05).Meanwhile,ethanol extract from Herba Portulacae had a highly significant improving effect on mouse learning and memory performance(P 0.01) and significantly reduced MDA content in the brain(P 0.05).Conclusion: From these results,we concluded that ethanol extract and its n-butanol-soluble fraction from Herba Portulacae are capable of significantly improving senile mouse learning and memory performance.The possible mechanisms may be through increasing SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreasing MDA content in the brain.Furthermore,ethanol extract from Herba Portulacae is superior to its n-butanol-soluble fraction.%

  11. 正丁醇替代无水乙醇和二甲苯在制作大鼠全胚切片中的应用%Replacing absolute ethanol-xylene by n-butanol during preparation of sections of whole rat embryos at different gestational ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世明; 李和

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore a simple method to replace absolute ethanol and xylene with n-butanol for preparation of sections of whole rat embryos at different gastational ages. Methods Embryonic day ( E) 14, 16, 18,20 rat embryos were collected and fixed. After dehydration in low concentrations of the ethanol, some embryos were treated with the traditional absolute ethanol-xylene method in which absolute ethanol and xylene were used for dehydration and clearing, and other embryos were further dehydrated and cleared with the n-butanol method. Then, all the embryos were embedded in paraffin, cut on a microtome, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The quality of embedded blocks and embryo sections was compared and evaluated. Results Compared with the absolute ethanol-xylene method for preparation of whole rat embryo sections, the n-butanol method was more simple, and easier to control the time in the whole processes. Moreover, the embryos treated with n-butanol had better cutting performance and higher quality in morphological preservation of the hepatic tissue. Conclusion As a simple, safe and reliable method, the n-butanol method can replace the absolute ethanol-xylene method for preparation of whole rat embryo sections.%目的 探索一种以正丁醇替代无水乙醇和二甲苯制作不同胎龄大鼠全胚切片的简便方法.方法 收集胚龄14d(El4)、El6、El8、E20大鼠胚胎,固定及低浓度乙醇脱水后,部分标本按传统方法用无水乙醇脱水和二甲苯透明(无水乙醇-二甲苯法),另一部分标本用正丁醇脱水、透明(正丁醇法).所有标本进行石蜡包埋、切片、HE染色.对两种方法从蜡块质量和切片质量等方面进行比较和评价.结果 正丁醇法大大简化了操作步骤,标本处理时间容易控制,包埋块的切割性能及对肝脏组织的保存优于无水乙醇-二甲苯制片法.结论 正丁醇法步骤简单且制片安全可靠,可替代无水乙醇-二甲苯法制作大鼠全胚切片.

  12. 暴露于环境烟气中的大鼠尿样代谢物分析%Analysis of 4- (methylnitrosamino) -1- (3-pyridyl) -1 -butanol in the rat urine exposed to environmental tobacco smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练文柳; 任凤莲; 何智慧; 罗嘉; 刘锋

    2011-01-01

    4-(甲基亚硝胺基)-1-(3-吡啶基)-1-丁醇(NNAL)是烟草特有亚硝胺4-(甲基亚硝胺基)-1-(3-吡啶)-1-丁酮(NNK)在生物体内的一种代谢标记物,分析暴露于烟气中的生物体内NNAL的含量是研究卷烟烟气对生物体健康影响的有效手段.基于人体的个体差异性很大,本文以饲养的大鼠为研究对象,采用LC-MS/MS测定暴露于环境烟气中的大鼠尿样4-(甲基亚硝胺基)-1-(3-吡啶基)-1-丁醇(NNAL)代谢标记物的含量.2mL大鼠尿样通过分子印迹柱(MIP)分离富集,电喷雾离子化质谱检测.分析了暴露于环境烟气中1个月和2个月后大鼠尿样中总NNAL.方法的检出限为1.6 pg/mL尿样,精密度为7.8%~11.2%,平均回收率为87.1%.结果表明暴露于环境烟气中1个月和2个月的大鼠尿样NNAL含量没有区别(p>0.05),大鼠尿样中平均NNAL浓度为20.9±14.6 pg/mg肌酐,浓度范围为6.3~50.2 pg/mg肌酐.%4-methylnitrosamino)-l-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-( methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-l-butanone (NNK), was analyzed in the rat urine to assess the exposure of NNK in the tobacco smoke. The rats were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Urine samples were collected every month, all in two months.Quantitative analysis of was carried out by combined liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a simple cleanup based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) column. 2 mL of urine was hydrolyzed by β-glucuronidase and the total NNAL was enriched on the MIP column following the determination of LC-ESI-MS/MS. The detection limit of method is 1.6 pg/mL. The precision is from 7. 8 % to 11.2 % and the mean recovery is 87. 1%. The total urinary NNAL levels for the first month and the second month were compared. The results show that the presence of NNAL in the rat urine of the exposed subjects. There no significant difference in the total NNAL levels between the first month and the

  13. Constituents Determination in n-Butanol Part from Magnolia Officinalis Cortex before and after Ginger Mix-frying by HPLC-MS%HPLC-MS法分析厚朴姜炙前后正丁醇部位化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斯; 邱红汉; 周涛; 徐惠芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To comparatively study the chemical constituents in n-butanol part from Magnoliae Officinalis cortex before and after ginger mix-frying by HPLC-MS. Methods:A 4000 Q TRAP MS system was used with a C18 chromatographic column. Metha-nol-water with gradient elution was employed as the mobile phase. The data were collected by an electrospray ion source under the mode of positive and negative ions. The chemical constituents were analyzed by contrasting with the reference substances, analyzing the mass spectrometry data and retrieving literatures. Results:The negative ion mode had better separation for n-butanol part, and fourteen components with known peaks and the other unknown compositions were detected. The positive ion mode could detect fewer peaks, and the detected [ M+H] + peaks malnly were hydrogenation peaksmalnly for phenolic constituents. Conclusion:Through the analysis and comparison, it is suggested that n-butanol part from Magnoliae Officinalis cortex has qualitative and quantitative changes after ginger mix-frying.%目的::采用液质联用技术对厚朴、姜厚朴乙醇提取物正丁醇部位的化学成分进行分析比较。方法:用4000 Q TRAP MS系统,C18色谱柱,以甲醇-水为流动相进行梯度洗脱,用电喷雾离子源分别在正负离子模式下采集数据;采用与对照品对比和质谱数据分析及检索文献的方法分析化学成分。结果:厚朴乙醇提取物正丁醇部位的负离子模式具较好的分离,共检测到可推测峰的14个成分及多个未知成分,正离子模式下检测到较少的峰,检测到[ M+H]+峰也多为酚性成分的加氢峰。结论:通过分析比较,认为厚朴姜炙后乙醇提取物正丁醇部位有质变量变。

  14. 1,2-丙二醇+丁醇/戊醇/己醇二元系的过量体积和黏度%Excess Molar Volumes and Viscosities of Binary Mixtures Composed of 1,2-Propanediol with Butanol, Pentanol or Hexanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌锦龙; 李灵; 杨佳琳

    2016-01-01

    常压下测定了1,2-丙二醇分别与丁醇、戊醇和己醇组成的二元系在293.15~318.15 K下的密度和黏度,建立了混合液密度和黏度随温度和组成变化的方程。计算了过量摩尔体积VE,黏度偏差∆η和过量流动活化自由能∆G*E。结果表明,三个二元系的过量摩尔体积在全浓度范围内均为正值,随温度升高,偏差增大,但发生最大偏差时的溶液组成不同;过量摩尔体积值按丁醇-戊醇-己醇顺序逐渐增大;黏度偏差和过量流动活化自由能三个体系显示了相同的变化关系,均为负值,且都随温度降低而偏差增大。利用Redlich-Kister方程对过量性质进行了关联。分析和讨论了分子间相互作用。%The densities and viscosities of binary mixtures consisting of butanol, pentanol or hexanol with 1,2-propanediol(12PD) were measured using pycnometer and Ubbelohde viscometer at 293.15~318.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The density and viscosity data of the binary mixtures were fitted as functions of composition and temperature. Excess molar volumes (VE), viscosity deviations (∆η) and excess Gibbs energy of activation of viscous flow (∆G*E) were calculated from the experimental data. The results show that the excess molar volumes are positive over the whole mole fraction range in the temperature range studied for all of the binary mixtures, and the deviation increases as temperature increases. However, the largest deviation varies in different solution compositions. The excess molar volume value increases following an order of butanol - pentanol – hexanol. Both∆η and∆G*E are negative over the whole mole fraction range in the temperature range studied for all of the binary mixtures, and the deviation increases as temperature decreases. All of the excess properties are correlated by the Redlich-Kister equation and the molecular interactions are analyzed.

  15. 毛细管气相色谱法同时测定工作场所空气中丁酮、三氯乙烯、四氯乙烯、正丁醇、乙苯%Simultaneous Determination of Butanone, Trichloroethylene, Tetrachloroethylene, n-butanol and Ethylbenzene by Capillary GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潭

    2016-01-01

    This method is mainly based on gas chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of butanone, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, n-butanol and ethylbenzene in the air of workplace. The linear range of the method is 0. 2~1 630 μg/mL, the minimum detectable concentration is 0. 1 ~0. 7 mg/m3 , the standard recovery rate is 96. 43% ~98. 56%, and the relative standard deviation is less than 5%. The method has the advantages of high sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, simple operation, good separation effect, and can greatly reduce the sampling time and analysis time under the premise of satisfying the experimental conditions.%主要针对研究用气相色谱法同时测定工作场所空气中丁酮、三氯乙烯、四氯乙烯、正丁醇、乙苯质量浓度。该法线性范围0.2~1630μg/mL,最低检出质量浓度为0.1~0.7 mg/m3,加标回收率96.43%~98.56%,相对标准偏差小于5%。该法灵敏度高、精密度与准确度好、并且操作简便、分离效果好,在满足实验条件的前提下能大大缩短采样时间和分析时间。

  16. Influence of aconite normal butanol and water extract on ATPase activity and energy charge in rat model of deficiency cold syndrome%附子正丁醇、水提取物对虚寒证模型大鼠ATP酶活性及能荷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊; 滕佳林; 韩冰冰; 刘一洋; 杨富梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of aconite normal butanol and water extract on the ATPase activity and the energy charge in the rat model of deficiency-cold syndrome. Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: blank control group(group 1) ,model control group(group 2) ,aconite normal butanol group(group 3) and aconite water extract group(group 4). The rats in the model control and treatment groups were gavaged with the molding medicine 5mL,containing the crude drug 3. 2 g/ mL,once daily for 14 d,while the rats in the blank control group with same amount of normal saline. The content of Na K ATPase, Ca2+Mg2+ATPase, ATP and energy charge from deficiency-cold syndrome rat s blood plasma and liver were detected by spectrophotometer. Results The activity of Na+ K+ ATPase and Ca2+ Mg2+ ATPase in the group 2 was obviously lower than that in the group l(P<0. 01) ;the activity of Ca2+ Mg2+ ATPase in the group 3 was higher than that in the group 2 and 4(P<0. 05). The activity of ATPase and the percentage of energy charge in the group 2 was lower than that in the group l(P<0. 05) ;the percentage of energy charge in the group 3 was higher than that in the group 2(P<0. 05). Conclusion Aconite normal butanol and water extract can increase the activity of ATPase and the percentage of energy charge,and benefit the restoration of material metabolism in the rat model of deficiency-cold syndrome. ATPase activity reducing may be one of causes inducing the deficiency-cold syndrome model,but which still needs subsequent research for further verification.%目的 研究附子正丁醇、水提取物对虚寒证模型大鼠三磷酸腺苷(ATP)酶活性及能荷的影响.方法 将大鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、附子正丁醇组、附子水提物组,模型组与治疗组大鼠均予灌含生药量3.2 g/mL的造模药5 mL,每天1次,连续14 d,空白对照组每天灌服等量的生理盐水,造模成功后,附子正丁醇和水提物组分别

  17. 基于差分吸收激光雷达的一种新的对流层臭氧浓度反演算法%Butanol Extraction Combined with Dilute Hydrochloric Acid Dissolution-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometric Method for Indirect Determination of Molybdenum in Chinese Herbal Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范广强; 刘建国; 刘文清; 陆亦怀; 张天舒; 董云升; 赵雪松

    2012-01-01

    A method for indirectly determining the molybdenum in Chinese herbal medicine by butanol extraction and dilute hydrochloric acid dissolution was established for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The molybdoarsenate heteropoly acid, formed in the presence of As( V) and ammonium molybdate in 0. 3 mol · L-1 sulphuric acid medium, was separated and enriched in the organic solvent, then the evaporation of organic reagent was implemented and the left residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid in which the arsenic content was determined on behalf of molybdenum. In the optimum experimental conditions, molybdenum content in 0~15 μg · L-1 range depicts a good linear relationship, the detection limit and relative standard deviation of 0. 44 μg · L-1 and 1.1% were obtained, respectively. Spiked Chinese herbal medicine samples were determined with the proposed method, and recoveries of 95. 6%—101. 3% were achieved.%差分吸收激光雷达探测对流层臭氧浓度时,气溶胶的干扰会造成较大的误差.提出了一种算法,该算法能够同时反演得到对流层臭氧浓度和气溶胶消光系数,减少气溶胶对反演结果的影响.使用实验数据,分析计算了气溶胶雷达比,气溶胶波长指数、标定点气溶胶后向散射比各种变化参数对反演结果的误差.结果表明,1km以下,各种变化参数造成的反演误差小于8%,1km以上臭氧浓度误差主要来源于信号和背景噪声,各种参数反演误差小于3%.最后给出了利用该算法得到对流层臭氧浓度和气溶胶的消光系数垂直廓线,并和传统的双波长差分算法反演结果作了比较分析.实验结果表明该算法是可行的,该算法可以减少气溶胶对差分吸收激光雷达测量结果引起的误差.

  18. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment (PP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  19. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  20. 酸性离子液体催化纤维素在生物丁醇中转化为乙酰丙酸丁酯%Conversion of Cellulose to Butyl Levulinate in Bio-Butanol Medium Catalyzed by Acidic Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马浩; 龙金星; 王芙蓉; 王乐夫; 李雪辉

    2015-01-01

    Butyl levulinate (BL) is one of the most important biochemicals derived from cel ulose, and it is of particular interest in industrial applications. Efficient synthesis of BL from cel ulose in bio-butanol (bio-BuOH) medium has been investigated in the presence of acidic SO3H-functionalized ionic liquid (SFIL) catalysts. The results showed that the acid strength of the SFILs, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature, reaction time, and solvent composition significantly affected the conversion of cel ulose and the yield of the target products. Using the strongest acidic SFIL 1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3-methylimidazolium hydrosulfate ([C4H8SO3Hmim]HSO4) as the catalyst, 98.4%of cel ulose could be converted into 31.1%of BL accompanied with 33.4%, 20.6%, and 23.8%of butyl formate (BF), water soluble products (WSPs), and biofuel (Biof), respectively, under the optimized conditions. This catalytic system was water-tolerant, and the addition of 0.2 mL water did not significantly decrease its ability for conversion of cel ulose. Furthermore, this acidic SFIL catalyst could be recycled up to six consecutive times without loss of catalytic activity.%研究了几种磺酸功能化离子液体催化纤维素在生物丁醇中转化为乙酰丙酸丁酯的性能.系统考察了催化剂的酸强度,用量,反应温度,时间和溶剂对纤维素转化效率和产物分布规律的影响.实验结果表明酸度最强的磺酸功能化离子液体1-(4-磺酸丁基)-3-甲基咪唑硫酸氢盐([C4H8SO3Hmim]HSO4)能够有效地催化纤维素转化为乙酰丙酸丁酯,且在优化的反应条件下纤维素的转化率高达98.4%,乙酰丙酸丁酯的产率为31.1%,同时共生产物甲酸丁酯、水溶性产物和生物油的产率分别为33.4%、20.6%和23.8%.该催化体系具有一定的耐水性能,水的添加量为0.2 mL时并不会严重影响纤维素的转化率.此外,酸性离子液体催化剂还表现出了良好的重复使用性能,使用六次后仍然保持较高的活性.

  1. Bio-based n-butanol prepared from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate: optimization of the reduction of n-butyl crotonate to n-butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using metabolic engineering approaches, the biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) can be over-produced in organisms such as bacteria and plants such as switchgrass. Thermolysis of P3HB, either in isolated form or within biomass, yields crotonic acid. It is a potential bio-derived platform chemic...

  2. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  3. “In situ” removal of isopropanol, butanol and ethanol from fermentation broth by gas stripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Wal, van der H.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the removal of IBE from aqueous solutions by gas stripping has been characterized. The effect of one or more components in the solution on the kinetics of the separation has been studied, both at 37 °C and at 70 °C. Gas stripping has been applied to batch, repeated batch and continuou

  4. "In situ" removal of isopropanol, butanol and ethanol from fermentation broth by gas stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrije, Truus; Budde, Miriam; van der Wal, Hetty; Claassen, Pieternel A M; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the removal of IBE from aqueous solutions by gas stripping has been characterized. The effect of one or more components in the solution on the kinetics of the separation has been studied, both at 37°C and at 70°C. Gas stripping has been applied to batch, repeated batch and continuous cultures of Clostridium beijerinckii grown on a glucose/xylose mixed sugar substrate mimicking lignocellulosic hydrolysates, with the aim of finding optimal conditions for a stable IBE-producing culture with high productivity. An innovative repeated-batch process has been demonstrated in which the gas-stripping is performed at 70°C, resulting in a prolonged stable IBE culture.

  5. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolys

  6. Modeling the Fate of Groundwater Contaminants Resulting from Leakage of Butanol-blended Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    process, known as either hydroprocessing or hydrotreating , consists of two stages. In the first stage, oxygen is removed from oil. In the second...catalytic conversion scheme for the production of synfuel mentioned here is rather similar to FT synthesis. The composition of the hydrotreated synfuel is...aviation applications, the hydrotreated synthetic fuel is also referred to as hydroprocessed (or hydrotreated ) renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. HRJ fuel has

  7. Acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of corn stover: current production methods, economic viability and commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Nawa R; Slutzky, Lauren; Shah, Ajay; Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Cornish, Katrina; Christy, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol is a next-generation liquid biofuel with properties akin to those of gasoline. There is a widespread effort to commercialize biobutanol production from agricultural residues, such as corn stover, which do not compete with human and animal foods. This pursuit is backed by extensive government mandates to expand alternative energy sources. This review provides an overview of research on biobutanol production using corn stover feedstock. Structural composition, pretreatment, sugar yield (following pretreatment and hydrolysis) and generation of lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) from corn stover are discussed. The review also discusses different Clostridium species and strains employed for biobutanol production from corn stover-derived sugars with respect to solvent yields, tolerance to LDMICs and in situ solvent recovery (integrated fermentation). Further, the economics of cellulosic biobutanol production are highlighted and compared to corn starch-derived ethanol and gasoline. As discussed herein, the economic competitiveness of biobutanol production from corn stover largely depends on feedstock processing and fermentation process design.

  8. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 2. Experimental Validation with Simple Mixtures and Actual Fermentation Broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: In Part1 of this work, a process integrating vapor stripping, vapor compression, and a vapor permeation membrane separation step, Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was predicted to produce energy savings compared to traditional distillation systems for separat...

  9. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2014-09-01

    ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media.

  10. Increased productivity of Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentation of acetone, butanol, and ethanol by pervaporation through supported ionic liquid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izak, P.; Schwarz, K.M.; Ruth, W.; Bahl, H.; Kragl, U.

    2008-01-01

    Pervaporation proved to be one of the best methods to remove solvents out of a solvent producing Clostridium acetobutylicum culture. By using an ionic liquid (IL)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) ultrafiltration membrane (pore size 60 nm), we could guarantee high stability and selectivity during all meas

  11. Bioconversion of barley straw and corn stover to butanol (a biofuel) in integrated fermentation and simultaneous product recovery bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies concentrated sugar solutions of barley straw and corn stover hydrolysates were fermented with simultaneous product recovery and compared with the performance of a control glucose batch fermentation process. The control glucose batch fermentation resulted in the production of 23.25 g...

  12. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malon...

  13. 76 FR 54227 - Draft Toxicological Review of n-Butanol: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... will need audio-visual equipment (e.g., laptop computer and slide projector). In general, each.... and ending at 4 p.m., Eastern Daylight Time or when the last presentation has been completed. To... at the session and provide the length of your presentation. To register, please contact Ms....

  14. The effect of aqueous alcohols (methanol, t-butanol) and sulfolane on the dissociation constants and thermodynamic properties of alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, Naveen; Hamborg, Espen S.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2013-01-01

    The dissociation constants of protonated monoethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine have been determined in aqueous mixtures of methanol, t-butanol–water and sulfolane solvents. The mole fractions of the organic compounds ranged from (0.2 to 0.95) and the temperatures from (283 to 353) K. Standard sta

  15. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  16. Binary Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram of Phenol and t-Butanol: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaogang; Wu, Meifen

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the solid-liquid phase diagram of a binary system is always used as an experiment in the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory courses. However, most phase diagrams investigated in the lab are simple eutectic ones, despite the fact that complex binary solid-liquid phase diagrams are more common. In this article, the…

  17. The effect of aqueous alcohols (methanol, t-butanol) and sulfolane on the dissociation constants and thermodynamic properties of alkanolamines

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Naveen; Hamborg, Espen S.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2013-01-01

    The dissociation constants of protonated monoethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine have been determined in aqueous mixtures of methanol, t-butanol–water and sulfolane solvents. The mole fractions of the organic compounds ranged from (0.2 to 0.95) and the temperatures from (283 to 353) K. Standard state thermodynamic properties like ΔrG, were derived from the results. The basic strength of the protonated alkanolamine decreased with decreasing dielectric constant and increase in temperature of t...

  18. Noble Metal Decoration and Presulfation on TiO2: Increased Photocatalytic Activity and Efficient Esterification of n-Butanol with Citric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 has been widely used as a key catalyst in photocatalytic reactions; it also shows good catalytic activity for esterification reactions. Different sulfated M-TiO2 nanoparticles (M = Ag, Au, Rh, and Pt were prepared by photodeposition and ultrasonic methods. The results show that the noble metal nanoparticles, which were loaded onto a TiO2 surface, slightly affected the crystal phase and particle size of TiO2. Among all the catalysts, SO42-/Au-TiO2 exhibited the best catalytic activity in the esterification reaction for the synthesis of citric acid n-butyl acetate and in the decomposition of methyl orange, as confirmed by a high conversion rate of up to 98.2% and 100% degradation rate, respectively. This can be attributed to an increase in the Lewis acidity of the catalyst and increased separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs. This superior catalyst has great potential applications in esterification reactions and wastewater treatments.

  19. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra.

  20. On the use of tert-butanol/water cosolvent systems in production and freeze-drying of poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenková, Tereza; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the use of a water/tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) system in the manufacturing process of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles, namely in the synthesis stage, using the solvent displacement method in a confined impinging jet mixer (CIJM), and in the following freeze-drying stage. The experimental investigation evidenced that the nanoparticles size is significantly reduced with respect to the case where acetone is the solvent. Besides, the solvent evaporation step is not required before freeze-drying as TBA is fully compatible with the freeze-drying process. The effect of initial polymer concentration, flow rate, water to TBA flow rate ratio, and quench volumetric ratio on the mean nanoparticles size was investigated, and a simple equation was proposed to relate the mean nanoparticles size to these operating parameters. Then, freeze-drying of the nanoparticles suspensions was studied. Lyoprotectants (sucrose and mannitol) and steric stabilizers (Cremophor EL and Poloxamer 388) have to be used to avoid nanoparticles aggregation, thus preserving particle size distribution and mean nanoparticles size. Their effect, as well as that of the heating shelf temperature, has been investigated by means of statistical techniques, with the goal to identify which of these factors, or combination of factors, plays the key role in the nanoparticles size preservation at the end of the freeze-drying process.

  1. Fatty acid alkyl esters as solvents: An evaluation of the kauri-butanol value. Comparison to hydrocarbons, dimethyl diesters and other oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters, most commonly methyl esters, of vegetable oils or animal fats or other lipid feedstocks have found increasing use as an alternative diesel fuel known as biodiesel. However, biodiesel also has good solvent properties, a feature rendered additionally attractive by its biodegradability, low tox...

  2. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation's fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US martket, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  3. The VLE Experimental Study about Butanol and Dibutyl Ether%丁醇-二丁醚汽液相平衡的实验测定与关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆新华; 胡瑾; 李愚

    2006-01-01

    实验应用改进的Rose釜测定了丁醇-二丁醚在760 mmHg下的恒压汽液相平衡,所测数据符合热力学一致性.利用测定数据关联出一套NRTL参数,研究了它们的恒沸点情况,获得的结果对于工程模拟较为可靠.

  4. Environmental Risk Limits for alcohols, glycols, and some other relatively soluble and/or volatile compounds 1. Ecotoxicological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen EMJ; Rila JP; Traas TP; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; Posthumus R; SEC

    2006-01-01

    In this report, maximum permissible concentrations (MPC), negligible concentrations (NC) and serious risk concentrations (SRCeco) are derived for the following compounds: 1-butanol, 2-butanol, n-butyl acetate, cyclohexylamine, diethylene glycol, ethyl acetate, ethylene glycol, methanol, methyl ethyl

  5. A narrow pH range supports butanol, hexanol, and octanol production from syngas in a continuous co-culture of Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium kluyveri with in-line product extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, Hanno; Molitor, Bastian; Diender, Martijn; Machado de Sousa, Diana; Angenent, Largus T.

    2016-01-01

    Carboxydotrophic bacteria (CTB) have received attention due to their ability to synthesize commodity chemicals from producer gas and synthesis gas (syngas). CTB have an important advantage of a high product selectivity compared to chemical catalysts. However, the product spectrum of wild-type CTB

  6. Aspen Plus异丁醇-水萃取精馏过程的模拟计算%Simulation and calculation of extractive distillation process of Iso-butanol-water system using Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文; 黄雪莉

    2011-01-01

    借助Aspen Plus,对异丁醇-水体系萃取精馏过程所用的溶剂1,4-丁二醇、1,3-丁二醇、1,3-丙二醇、1,2-丙二醇、甘油、乙二醇等进行了模拟计算,确定分离能力大小的顺序为:1,4-丁二醇>甘油>乙二醇>1,2-丙二醇>1,3-丙二醇>1,3-丁二醇.在此基础上,以1,4-丁二醇为萃取剂,对该体系的萃取精馏过程进行了模拟计算,确定了萃取精馏过程的最佳工艺操作条件,并在此条件下获得质量浓度高达99.75%的异丁醇产品.为异丁醇-水萃取精馏分离工艺工业化提供了理论依据和设计参考.%With Aspen Plus software, extraction solvents,1,4-butanediol,l,3-butanediol, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3- propanediol, glycerol and ethylene-clycol, were investigated for the process of extractive distillation of isobutanol- water system. The ability of separation is: l,4-butanediol>Glycerol> ethylene glycol>l,2-propanediol>l,3- propanediol>l,3-butanediol, and 1,4-butanediol is the best extraction solvent. On this basis, with 1,4-butanediol for extraction solvent of the system, simulation and optimization! Were carried out for the process of extractive distillation to determine the optimum operation Conditions, under which the concentration of the isobutanol product was up to 99.75%. These works will provide a theory basis and design reference for the industrialization of the extractive distillation separation of isobutanol- water system.

  7. 丙醇和丁醇异构体在钯镍电极上的电催化氧化%Electrocatalytic oxidation of propanol and butanol isomers on palladium-nickel catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽枝; 易清风; 刘小平

    2013-01-01

    β环糊精(β-CD)具有特殊的空腔结构,将β-CD修饰的多壁碳纳米管(MWCNT)涂在钛基底上,采用电沉积的方法在修饰的钛基底上沉积纳米PdNi催化剂.SFM结果表明,PdNi纳米颗粒在β-CD/MWCNT修饰的钛片上有较好的分散度,粒径为90~130 nm.在碱性溶液中,测试了PdNi-β-CD/MWCNT/Ti电极分别对丙醇和丁醇不同异构体氧化的电催化活性;通过计算与-OH相连的碳原子上的Muliken净电荷,分析不同异构体的氧化机理.结果表明,不同异构体的氧化活性不同,PdNi-β-CD/MWCNT/Ti电极对正丙醇和正丁醇的氧化活性明显高于其异构体,-OH所在碳原子上的Muliken净电荷越小,醇类分子越容易被氧化.

  8. 叔丁醇体系中动物油脂制备生物柴油%Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from lard in a tert-butanol reaction medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑛; 郑海; 闫云君

    2007-01-01

    探讨了叔丁醇体系中脂肪酶Novozyme 435催化动物油脂制备生物柴油的新工艺.用猪油做原料,醇油摩尔比为5∶1, Novozyme 435用量3%(质量分数),叔丁醇用量40%(体积分数),50℃下240r/min反应24h,生物柴油得率为95.2%.酶重复使用10批次后生物柴油得率仍保持在90%以上,结果表明新工艺条件下猪油可以有效转化为生物柴油,且脂肪酶能保持良好的稳定性.

  9. 白英正丁醇萃取部位的化学成分研究%Study on the Chemical Compositions of N-butanol Extract from Solanum lyratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞玲; 孙俊馥; 杨森; 王林江; 徐顺

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究白英正丁醇萃取部位的化学成分。方法:采用葡聚糖LH-20柱层析、硅胶柱层析、薄层色谱对白英正丁醇萃取部位的化学成分进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据分析鉴定化合物结构。结果:从白英正丁醇萃取部位分离得到10个化合物,分别为芹菜素-7-O-β-D-芹糖(1→2)-β-D-葡萄糖(1)、芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖(2)、腺苷(3)、E-苯丙烯醇-3-甲氧基-5-[(8′S)-3′-甲氧基-4′-羟基-苯丙醇]-4-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(4)、N-(4-氨基正丁基)-3-(3-羟基-4-甲氧基-苯基)-E-丙烯酰胺(5)、N-(4-氨基正丁基)-3-(3-羟基-4-甲氧基-苯基)-Z-丙烯酰胺(6)、白藜芦醇(7)、柚皮素(8)、槲皮素(9)、薯蓣皂苷元(10)。结论:化合物1~8均为首次从白英中分离得到,该研究为白英质量评价奠定了一定基础。%OBJECTIVE:To study the chemical compositions of n-butabol extract from Solanum lyratum. METHODS:Glucan LH-20 column chromatography,silica gel column chromatography and TLC were adopted to separate and purity the chemical com-positions,physicochemical property and spectral evidence to identify their structures. RESULTS:Totally 10 chemical compositions were separated from n-butabol extract,namely apigenin-7-O-β-D-apiofuanosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucose (1),apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucose (2),adenosine(3),3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-5-[(8′S)-3′-methoxy-4′-hydroxyl-phenyl-alcohol]-E-cinnamic-phenylpropyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (4),N-(4-amino-butyl)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-E-acrylamide (5),N-(4-amino-butyl)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-me-thoxy-phenyl)-Z-acrylamide (6),resveratrol (7),naringenin (8),quercetin (9) and dioscin (10). CONCLUSIONS:Compound 1-8 are first separated from S. lyratum,the study can lay a foundation for quality evaluation of S. Lyratum.

  10. Apparent equilibration time required for surfactant-oil-water systems to emulsify into the morphology imposed by the formulation. Part 2: Effect of sec-butanol concentration and initial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriela; Antón, Raquel; Marfisi, Shirley; Márquez, Laura; Salager, Jean-Louis

    2004-06-22

    Winsor type I equilibrated surfactant-oil-water (SOW) systems produce o/w emulsions upon stirring. However, if the surfactant is initially dissolved in the oil phase, the attained type after inmediate emulsification is usually w/o. If the SOW system is partially equilibrated, it could result in a normal o/w emulsion, as if it were fully equilibrated. The minimum contact time for that to happen, the so-called apparent equilibration time tAPE, was previously shown (Langmuir 2002, 18, 607) to strongly depend on formulation, surfactant molecular weight, and oil viscosity. The present report shows that it depends on alcohol concentration and location in the unequilibrated system.

  11. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium of binary mixtures (1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol) at isobaric conditions[(Vapour+liquid) equilibrium; Cyclic ethers; Butanols; ASOG; UNIFAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Antonio; Lafuente, Carlos; Minones, Jose; Kragl, Udo; Royo, Felix M. E-mail: femer@posta.unizar.es

    2004-02-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of (1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane + 2-methyl-1-propanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol) at 40.0 kPa and 101.3 kPa has been studied with a dynamic recirculating still. The experimental VLE data are thermodynamically consistent. From these data, activity coefficients were calculated and correlated with the Margules, van Laar, Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC equations. The VLE results have been compared with the predictions by the UNIFAC and ASOG methods.

  12. Optimization of Fermentation Medium of Butanol Produced by Clostridium beijerinckii with Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化拜氏梭菌产丁醇培养基

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴建新; 庞浩; 郭媛; 林丽华; 黎贞崇; 黄日波

    2013-01-01

    目的:对拜氏梭菌发酵糖蜜生产丁醇培养基进行优化.方法:通过Plackett-Burman试验设计筛选出拜氏梭菌发酵糖蜜生产丁醇发酵培养基中8因素分别对丁醇产量的影响并进行评价.结果:主要影响因子为糖蜜、酵母粉和碳酸钙.根据实验结果对主要影响因子的大致范围进行估计,选定合适的浓度,采用最陡爬坡试验和Box-Behnken试验进行优化,Design-Expert8.0软件二次回归分析,所得主要因素的最佳浓度为:糖蜜121.6g/L,酵母粉12.4g/L,碳酸钙3.43g/L.结论:经过优化拜氏梭菌发酵糖蜜生产丁醇产量可达到12.83 g/L,比优化前的10.04 g/L提高了27.79%.

  13. Extended UNIQUAC Model for Correlation and Prediction of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Equilibria in Aqueous Salt Systems Containing Non-Electrolytes. Part B. Alcohol (Ethanol, Propanols, Butanols) - Water-salt systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Rasmussen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -Redlich-Kwong equation of state. The model only requires binary, temperature-dependent interaction parameters. It has previously been used to describe the excess Gibbs energy for aqueous electrolyte mixtures and aqueous electrolyte systems containing methanol. It has been found to be an adequate model for representing...... solid-liquid-vapor equilibrium and thermal property data for strongly non-ideal systems. In this work, the model is extended to aqueous salt systems containing higher alcohols. The calculations are based on an extensive database consisting of salt solubility data, vapor liquid equilibrium data...

  14. Experimental and Modeling on Ignition Delay of Binary Fuel Blends of Methyl Hexanoate and n-Butanol%己酸甲酯和正丁醇混合燃料着火延迟试验和模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 杨峥; 王玥; 刘文佳; 吕兴才

    2014-01-01

    通过一台快速压缩机开展了己酸甲酯和正丁醇混合燃料着火延迟的试验.混合气初始温度为353K,当量比为1.0,采用79%的Ar/N2混合气进行稀释,上止点压力分别为1.1、1.5和2.0 MPa,正丁醇在混合燃料中的比例分别为0、40%和60%,压缩上止点温度为660~ 830K.利用CHEMKIN软件在较宽温度范围内对混合燃料着火延迟进行了模拟比较.结果表明:己酸甲酯/正丁醇的着火延迟随温度变化表现出3阶段燃烧特性,具有明显的负温度系数现象.混合燃料的着火延迟随压缩压力的增大而减小,随正丁醇预混比的增大而增加,正丁醇可减弱混合燃料燃烧爆震倾向.低温燃烧时,混合燃料中的己酸甲酯和正丁醇都呈现两阶段反应特征.高温燃烧时,混合燃料中的己酸甲酯和正丁醇都呈现出单阶段反应现象.正丁醇的加入对己酸甲酯的低温反应路径有较为明显的影响,对其高温反应路径影响不大.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of ethyl (2E)-3-amino-2-({[(4-benzoyl-1,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)carbonyl]amino}carbonothioyl)but-2-enoate butanol solvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, İrfan; Sert, Yusuf; Gümüş, Mehmet; Kani, İbrahim; Çırak, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized ethyl (2E)-3-amino-2-({[(4-benzoyl-1,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)carbonyl]amino}carbonothioyl)but-2-enoate (2) by the reaction of 4-benzoyl-1,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonyl chloride (1), ammonium thiocyanate and ethyl 3-aminobut-2-enoate and then characterized by elemental analyses, IR, Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and X-ray diffraction methods. The experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 2 were investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) and Laser-Raman spectra (4000-100 cm-1) of the molecule in the solid phase were recorded. Theoretical vibrational frequencies and geometric parameters (bond lengths, bond angles) were calculated using Ab Initio Hartree Fock (HF), Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W program. The computed values of frequencies are scaled using a suitable scale factor to yield good coherence with the observed values. The assignments of the vibrational frequencies were performed by potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 program. The theoretical optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies were compared with the corresponding experimental X-ray diffraction data, and they were seen to be in a good agreement with each other. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies were calculated.

  16. Importance of Molecular Structure on the Thermophoresis of Binary Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Goswami, Debabrata

    2014-12-26

    Using thermal lens spectroscopy, we study the role of molecular structural isomers of butanol on the thermophoresis (or Soret effect) of binary mixtures of methanol in butanol. In this study, we show that the thermal lens signal due to the Soret effect changes its sign for all the different concentrations of binary mixtures of butanol with methanol except for the one containing tertiary-butanol. The magnitude and sign of the Soret coefficients strongly depend on the molecular structure of the isomers of butanol in the binary mixture with methanol. This isomerization dependence is in stark contrast to the expected mass dependence of the Soret effect.

  17. Effect of Alcohol Structure on the Optimum Condition for Novozym 435-Catalyzed Synthesis of Adipate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozym 435, was used as the biocatalyst in the esterification of adipic acid with four different isomers of butanol (n-butanol, sec-butanol, iso-butanol, and tert-butanol. Optimum conditions for the synthesis of adipate esters were obtained using response surface methodology approach with a four-factor-five-level central composite design concerning important reaction parameters which include time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of enzyme. Reactions under optimized conditions has yielded a high percentage of esterification (>96% for n-butanol, iso-butanol, and sec-butanol, indicating that extent of esterification is independent of the alcohol structure for primary and secondary alcohols at the optimum conditions. Minimum reaction time (135 min for achieving maximum ester yield was obtained for iso-butanol. The required time for attaining maximum yield and also the initial rates in the synthesis of di-n-butyl and di-sec-butyl adipate were nearly the same. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B was also capable of esterifying tert-butanol with a maximum yield of 39.1%. The enzyme is highly efficient biocatalyst for the synthesis of adipate esters by offering a simple production process and a high esterification yield.

  18. Espalhamento elástico de elétrons e pósitrons por Aminos-Alcanos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Flávio Matias

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Trabalhos recentes revelaram que as seções de choque diferenciais para o espalhamento elástico de eletrons de baixa energia por alcanos, a saber: metano, etano, propano, n-butano e iso-butano e os alcoois: metanol, etanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol e terc-butanol, exibiram um padrâo de onda f para moleculas de cadeia linear e d para moleculas de cadeia ramificada. Para sistemas menores, como o metano e metanol (onde nao ha ligacao C-C), foi observad...

  19. Inhibition of astroglial cell proliferation by alcohols: interference with the protein kinase C-phospholipase D signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, K; Jin, S; Klein, J

    2000-12-01

    Ethanol inhibits astroglial cell proliferation, an effect that may contribute to the development of alcoholic embryopathy in humans. In the present study, we investigated inhibitory effects of ethanol and butanol isomers (1-, 2- and t-butanol) on astroglial cell proliferation induced by the strongly mitogenic phorbol ester, 4beta-phorbol-12alpha,13beta-dibutyrate (PDB). 4beta-Phorbol-12alpha,13beta-dibutyrate (PDB) induced a 10-fold increase of [3H] thymidine incorporation in cortical astrocytes prepared from newborn rats (EC50: 70 nM) which was blocked by Ro 31-8220, a cell-permeable protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor. Ethanol blocked PDB-induced astroglial proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner; significant effects were already seen at 0.1% (v/v). Concomitantly, ethanol caused the formation of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) by phospholipase D (PLD) and reduced PLD-mediated formation of phosphatidic acid (PA). The butanols also inhibited the mitogenic action of phorbol ester; the inhibitory potency of the butanols was 1-butanol > 2-butanol > t-butanol. The same range of potencies was observed for the inhibitory activity of the butanols towards protein kinase C activity measured in vitro. At 0.3% concentration, 1-butanol potently suppressed the PDB-induced formation of phosphatidic acid while 2- and t-butanol were less active. Taken together, our results suggest that ethanol and 1-butanol exert a specific inhibitory effect on PKC-dependent astroglial cell proliferation by synergistically inhibiting PKC activity and the PLD signaling pathway.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Heroin, Amphetamine and their Basic Impurities and Adulterants Using Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao WEN; Xia ZHAO; Guo An LUO; Jian WANG; Yi Ming WANG; Pan LI; Jun ZHU; Zhong Shang YU

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous separation of 17 species of heroin, amphetamine and their basic impurities and adulterants was conducted within 10 minutes by using capillary microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. The influences of pH and 1-butanol cosurfactant on the separation were investigated, and 1-butanol was found to be a principal factor to improve separation efficiency.

  1. Genome Sequence of Clostridium acetobutylicum GXAS18-1, a Novel Biobutanol Production Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Xinchun; Pei, Jianxin; Guo, Yuan; Lin, Lihua; Peng, Lixin; Kou, Chan; Fan, Danmin; Pang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an organism involved in the production of acetone and butanol by traditional acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation (ABE). We report the draft genome sequence of C. acetobutylicum strain GXAS18-1, which can produce ABE directly from cassava flour.

  2. PHASE STABILITY OF MONOATOMIC ALCOHOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES FOR DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS AND HYDRODYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability for the mixtures of monoatomic alcohols (ethanol, butanol with gasoline in the presence of water. There have been determined the optimal storage conditions of mixtures depending on their composition and mixing conditions. The positive influence of butanol on the phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures was detected.

  3. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, D.; Urán, P.; Arnous, A.; Koppe, W.

    2007-01-01

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical

  4. Photocatalytic oxidation mechanism of alkanes in contact with titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, M.; Juillet, F.; Teichner, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    Isobutane was photooxidized on titanium dioxide between -16 and +180 C in tertiary butanol and acetone. The formation of tertiary butanol preceded the formation of acetone. Above 20 C the latter compound became clearly predominant. The reaction kinetics obeyed a steady state model of oxygen chemisorption with the involvement of isobutane in the physisorbed phase.

  5. Kinetics and thermodynamics of L-ascorbyl profen esters synthesis catalyzed by lipase in 2-methyl-2-butanol%L-抗坏血酸洛芬酯非水相酶促合成的动力学与热力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘信宁; 汤鲁宏

    2010-01-01

    对酶法合成L抗坏血酸洛芬酯(芬维C酯)的反应动力学与热力学进行研究,确定了最有效的酶促反应环境.合成布洛芬维C酯的最优条件:转速200 r/min,温度65 ℃,加酶量5%(以底物的质量分数计),底物浓度1 mol/L,平衡所需时间66 h,平衡时产物质量分数为19.07%;合成酮洛芬维C酯的最优条件:200 r/min,60 ℃,加酶量7.5%,底物浓度600 mmol/L,平衡时间132 h,产物质量分数为10.63%;合成氟比洛芬维C酯的最优条件:200 r/min,65 ℃,加酶量5%,底物浓度400 mmol/L,平衡时间144 h,产物质量分数为6.76%.对底物进行了比较,得到了各自的动力学与热力学参数.布洛芬米氏常数为0.101 μmol/L,vmax=32.68 μmol/(min·g),热力学平衡常数为0.166;酮洛芬的分别为0.144 μmol/L,12.97 μmol/(min·g),0.091;氟比洛芬的分别为0.185 μmol/L,9.35 μmol/(min·g),0.055.

  6. 糖丁基梭菌产丁醇途径在大肠杆菌中的构建及发酵%Construction of butanol-producing pathway from Clostridium saccharobutylicum in Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3) and its fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金; 韩瑞枝; 许国超; 董晋军; 倪晔

    2015-01-01

    [目的]通过克隆来源于糖丁基梭菌(Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM13864)丁醇合成途径的关键酶基因(thlA,bcs-operon和adhE),构建产丁醇大肠杆菌.[方法]以Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864的基因组为模板,分别扩增丁醇途径关键酶基因thlA,bcs-operon(crt-bcd1-etfB2-fixB2-hbd)和adhE,构建了两个重组质粒pETDuet-bcs和pRSFDuet-thlA-adhE,并成功转入E.coli JM109(DE3)实现异源表达,使大肠杆菌具备产丁醇能力.在半厌氧条件下进行重组菌的发酵,并研究不同培养基对产丁醇的影响.[结果]该重组菌在半厌氧条件下经摇瓶发酵丁醇产量达到25.4 mg/L,通过优化培养基后,在TB发酵培养基中丁醇产量可达到34.1 mg/L.[结论]通过构建重组共表达质粒,将糖丁基梭菌来源的丁醇途径关键酶基因在大肠杆菌中表达,成功构建产丁醇大肠杆菌.该研究提供了一株易于操作的丁醇发酵重组大肠杆菌,避免了传统梭菌发酵丁醇生产中苛刻的厌氧条件、易产孢子等限制问题.

  7. Phenolics-saponins rich fraction of defatted kenaf seed meal exhibits cytotoxicity towards cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifah Saiful Yazan; Napsiah Abd Rahman; Kim Wei Chan; Wan Nor Hafiza Wan Abd Ghani; Yin Sim Tor; Jhi Biau Foo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the cytotoxicity of crude ethanolic extract, n-butanol fraction and aqueous fraction on selected cancer cell lines, and to observe the morphological changes of the cancer cells treated with n-butanol fraction.Methods: The cytotoxic effect of n-butanol fraction, crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction on breast cancer(MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), colon cancer(HT29), lung cancer(A549), cervical cancer(He La) and normal mouse fibroblast(3T3) cell lines was determined using MTT assay. The morphological changes of the treated cells were observed under an inverted light microscope.Results: n-Butanol fraction was the most cytotoxic towards HT29 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner compared to crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction(P < 0.05). The IC50 of n-butanol fraction for HT29 and MCF-7 was(780.00 ± 28.28)and(895.00 ± 7.07) mg/m L, respectively. Cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies were noted following treatment of HT29 cells with n-butanol fraction.Conclusions: In conclusion, n-butanol fraction was more cytotoxic than crude ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction towards the selected cancerous cell lines and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract and fractions from Sarcochlamys pulcherrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afjal Hussain Mazumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial evaluation of methanol extract of Sarcochlamys pulcherrima leaf and its hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions against 31 strains of microorganisms, using agar well, agar disc diffusion, and broth microdilution methods, revealed the activity of methanol extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escheracia coli (zone of inhibition: 21-40 mm, 200 mg/mL, and MIC: 6.25-50 mg/mL. All fractions also displayed antimicrobial activity (5-20 mg/mL, indeed ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed better activity (MIC: 0.156 to 2.5 mg/mL. C. albicans was most sensitive to n-butanol fraction (15 mm, 2.5 mg/mL. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were more active against T. mentagrophytes (12 mm at 1.25 mg/mL and S. aureus (ethyl acetate-16 mm, n-butanol-14 mm at 0.625 mg/mL. E. coli was inhibited by n-butanol fraction (13 mm at 2.5 mg/mL. Further, n-butanol fraction (400 µg/disc exhibited promising activity against 14 bacteria, 2 dermatophytes and 2 yeasts strains.

  9. Effects of substitution on counterflow ignition and extinction of C3 and C4 alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu

    2016-06-17

    Dwindling reserves and inherent uncertainty in the price of conventional fuels necessitates a search for alternative fuels. Alcohols represent a potential source of energy for the future. The structural features of an alcohol fuel have a direct impact on combustion properties. In particular, substitution in alcohols can alter the global combustion reactivity. In this study, experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the critical conditions of extinction and autoignition of n-propanol, 1-butanol, iso-propanol and iso-butanol in non-premixed diffusion flames. Experiments were carried out in the counterflow configuration, while simulations were conducted using a skeletal chemical kinetic model for the C3 and C4 alcohols. The fuel stream consists of the pre-vaporized fuel diluted with nitrogen, while the oxidizer stream is air. The experimental results show that autoignition temperatures of the tested alcohols increase in the following order: iso-propanol > iso-butanol > 1-butanol ≈ n-propanol. The simulated results for the branched alcohols agree with the experiments, while the autoignition temperature of 1-butanol is slightly higher than that of n-propanol. For extinction, the experiments show that the extinction limits of the tested fuels increase in the following order: n-propanol ≈ 1-butanol > iso-butanol > iso-propanol. The model suggests that the extinction limits of 1-butanol is slightly higher than n-propanol with extinction strain rate of iso-butanol and iso-propanol maintaining the experimentally observed trend. The transport weighted enthalpy (TWE) and radical index (Ri) concepts were utilized to rationalize the observed reactivity trends for these fuels.

  10. Male white grub beetles prefer the pheromone composition of young females in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, N; Yasui, H; Wakamura, S; Nagayama, A; Arakaki, N

    2016-10-01

    Females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release both (R)- and (S)-2-butanol as sex pheromones, but the males are only attracted to (R)-2-butanol. In laboratory-reared females, the proportion of the (R)-isomer decreased significantly as their calling opportunities increased and as they aged. We examined whether such qualitative changes also occur in field populations. We collected virgin females from the field and then trapped and analysed the volatiles emitted during their first and second callings. The ratio of (R)- to (S)-2-butanol (R/S) was 78:22 at the first calling, but shifted to 39:61 at the second calling. While investigating the composition of the female pheromones, the question arose as to whether the male preferences change in response to the shift in female pheromone composition. To answer this question, we observed the behaviour of young and old males in response to various R/S ratios as lures in the laboratory and in the field. In the flight tunnel assay of laboratory-reared individuals, young males touched female models with a 9:1 R/S ratio lure less than those with pure (R)-2-butanol; however, older males touched the two groups with equivalent frequency. In the field trap test, older males were much more attracted to (R)-2-butanol-scented lures. When we tested using lures with the same amount of (R)-2-butanol but added different amounts of the (S)-isomer, we found that increased levels of (S)-2-butanol resulted in lower attractiveness to males. (S)-2-butanol was confirmed to have an inhibitive activity in the attractiveness of (R)-2-butanol.

  11. Metabolic engineering for biobutanol production:a review%生物丁醇代谢工程的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宗杰; 董红军; 朱岩; 张延平; 李寅

    2013-01-01

    Butanol is an important bulk chemical with wide application. Butanol was considered as a new biofuel alternative. Due to the energy and environment crisis, bio-based butanol production from sustainable biomass has been paid attention worldwide. Metabolic engineering as an efficient tool has been used widely for biobutanol production with different microorganisms. Metabolic engineering classic acetone-butanol-ethanol( ABE) fermentation was a significant direction for better butanol production. The rational design butanol producing pathway in model bacteria was another choice for butanol production. In this review, the progresses on metabolic engineering of butanol production in recent five years were summarized, the problems in butanol production to meet the demands of industrial production were also discussed.%丁醇作为一种重要的大宗化学品具有广泛的用途,同时又是一种潜在的生物燃料.随着能源与环境危机的日益加重,利用可再生原料通过微生物法生产丁醇受到全世界的普遍关注.代谢工程为定向改造微生物生产丁醇提供了有力的工具.通过改造经典的丙酮丁醇发酵和定向改造模式微生物生产丁醇是生物丁醇研究的两个重要方向.笔者从代谢工程改造的角度评述近5年来生物丁醇研究的进展,同时讨论了生物丁醇研究中需要着力解决的问题.

  12. Evaluation of recycling the effluent of hydrogen fermentation for biobutanol production: kinetic study with butyrate and sucrose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hsing; Jian, Zih-Ce

    2013-10-01

    Butyrate in the effluent of hydrogen-producing bioreactor is a potential feed for biobutanol production. For recycling butyrate, this study investigated the kinetics of biobutanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592 from different paired concentrations of butyrate and sucrose in a series of batch reactors. Results show that the lag time of butanol production increased with higher concentration of either sucrose or butyrate. In regression analyses, the maximum specific butanol production potential of 6.49 g g(-1) of dry cell was projected for 31.9 g L(-1) sucrose and 1.3 g L(-1) butyrate, and the maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.87 g d(-1) g(-1) of dry cell was predicted for 25.0 g L(-1) sucrose and 2.6 g L(-1) butyrate. The specific butanol production potential will decrease if more butyrate is added to the reactor. However, both sucrose and butyrate concentrations are weighted equally on the specific butanol production rate. This observation also is true on butanol yield. The maximum butanol yield of 0.49 mol mol(-1) was projected for 25.0 g L(-1) sucrose and 2.3 g L(-1) butyrate. In addition, a confirmation study found butanol yield increased from 0.2 to 0.3 mol mol(-1) when butyrate addition increased from 0 to 1 g L(-1) under low sugar concentration (3.8 g L(-1) sucrose). The existence of butyrate increases the activity of biobutanol production and reduces the fermentable sugar concentration needed for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

  13. Estudo do comportamento da lipase comercial Lipozyme RM IM em reações de esterificação para obtenção de biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika C. G. Aguieiras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study monoalkyl ester synthesis catalyzed by immobilized lipase Lipozyme RM IM via the esterification reaction. Yields of over 90% were obtained with butanol in esterification reactions with oleic acid. In the reactions with deodorizer distillates of vegetable oils and butanol, the conversion obtained was greater than 80% after 2.5 h. For the esterification reaction of palm fatty acid deodorizer distillate (PFAD and butanol, seven reuse cycles of Lipozyme RM IM were carried out and the final conversion was 42% lower than the initial conversion.

  14. Kinetics of the Esterification Reaction Catalyzed by Lipase in W/O Microemulsions of Alkyl Polyglucoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ling CHAI; Shou Qing WANG; Gan Zuo LI; Qing XU; Yan Hong GAO

    2004-01-01

    A novel kinetic mechanism of esterification reaction of 1-hexanoic acid with 1-butanol, catalyzed by lipase, was studied in water-in-oil microemulsions. The microemulsions were formed by alkyl polyglucoside C10G1.54 /1-butanol / cyclohexane/phosphate buffer solution. The result shows that when the ratio of mol concentration of 1-butanol to 1-hexanoic acid is about 3.0, the initial rate V0 get the maximum values. This phenomenon was explained by the modified fishlike phase diagrams.

  15. Synergic effects in the extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solution by the binary mixtures of diethyl ether and low molecular weight primary alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. M.; Živković, J. V.; Atanasković, D. S.; Nikolić, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of paracetamol from aqueous NaCl solutions was performed with diethyl ether, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 1-pentanol, and binary mixtures diethyl ether/1-propanol, diethyl ether/1-butanol, and diethyl ether/isobutanol. Among the pure solvents investigated in this study best extraction efficacy was obtained with 1-butanol. Synergic effects in the extraction with binary mixtures was investigated and compared with some other systems used for the extraction of poorly extractable compounds. Results obtained in this study may be of both fundamental and practical importance.

  16. Alcohol dehydration: Mechanism of ether formation using an alumina catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, B.; Davis, B.H. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Ether formation during the dehydration of secondary alcohols, namely, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, and 1-cyclopentylethanol, was investigated. Using the proper reaction conditions, the yield of di-2-butyl ether during the dehydration of 2-butanol on alumina can be as high as 40%. That ether is formed by adding an alcohol to the alkene is ruled out by the results from deuterium tracer studies. Results from experiments using S(+)- 2-butanol suggest that the formation of di-2-butyl ether occurs by a S{sub N}2-type mechanism. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Studies on Phase Behavior of Alkyl Polyglucoside Based on Microemulsions with Modified Fishlike Phase Diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Ling CHAI; Gan Zuo LI; Zhao Yu DIAO; Gao Yong ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The three-phase behavior in the quaternary system of an alkyl (C8/10- or C12/14-) polyglucoside / 1-butanol / n-octane / water has been studied at 40 ℃ with the modified fishlike phase diagram, which is presented by us for the first time. The mass fraction of 1-butanol in the hydrophile-lipophile balanced interfacial layer, AS, the coordinates of the start point B and the end point E of the phase diagram, and the solubilities of alkyl polyglucoside and 1-butanol in n-octane phase were calculated. The solubilization of the microemulsion was also discussed.

  18. Flavonoids from Rhizophora conjugata fruit extract blocks virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, D.; Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    : chloroform (1:1) extracts of 7 mangrove plants on P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 motilities (swarming, swimming and twitching). Amongst the 22 extracts tested, methanolic extract of Rhizophora conjugata fruit showed maximum inhibition. The butanol (RcBu) fraction...

  19. Effect of membrane and process characteristics on cost and energy usage for separating alcohol–water mixtures using a hybrid vapor stripping–vapor permeation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Alcohols, including ethanol and butanol, are receiving increased attention as renewable liquid biofuels. Alcohol concentrations may be low in a biological process due to product inhibition and, for non-starch feedstocks, limited substrate concentrations. The result is...

  20. Carbon 13-Metabolic Flux Analysis derived constraint-based metabolic modelling of Clostridium acetobutylicum in stressed chemostat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Janne; Maaheimo, Hannu; Eerikäinen, Tero

    2016-11-01

    The metabolism of butanol producing bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum was studied in chemostat with glucose limited conditions, butanol stimulus, and as a reference cultivation. COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) was applied using additional constraints from (13)C Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) and experimental measurement results. A model consisting of 451 metabolites and 604 reactions was utilized in flux balance analysis (FBA). The stringency of the flux spaces considering different optimization objectives, i.e. growth rate maximization, ATP maintenance, and NADH/NADPH formation, for flux variance analysis (FVA) was studied in the different modelled conditions. Also a previously uncharacterized exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by C. acetobutylicum was characterized on monosaccharide level. The major monosaccharide components of the EPS were 40n-% rhamnose, 34n-% glucose, 13n-% mannose, 10n-% galactose, and 2n-% arabinose. The EPS was studied to have butanol adsorbing property, 70(butanol)mg(EPS)g(-1) at 37°C.