WorldWideScience

Sample records for butadiene rubber-polyvinyl chloride

  1. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  2. Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

  3. Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride: The use of maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiah Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO, and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/poly vinyl chloride (PVC blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0 showed the highest cure rate index (CRI. MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1 based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.

  4. Copolymerization of 1-hexene and 1-dodecene with 1,3-butadiene by a versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Monteiro da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate an alpha-olefin (1-hexene or 1-dodecene in a high cis polybutadiene chain, using a neodymium versatate/diisobutylaluminum hydride/t-butyl chloride catalyst system. The influence of alpha-olefin on polymerization reaction and polymer characteristics, using different weight ratios of butadiene/α-olefin, was evaluated. The copolymers were characterized by SEC, FTIR, NMR, TGA and viscosimetric analysis. The thermal stability of the polymer tended to increase with incorporation of alpha-olefins, while its microstructure was not affected. The weight average molecular mass (Mw tended to increase and the polymerization conversion tended to decrease with increasing alpha-olefins content. The copolymers showed a lower intrinsic viscosity than for the homopolymer. The results indicated that the alpha-olefins were incorporated in the polybutadiene chain.

  5. FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION FOR YIELD STRESS OF HARD POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE BLENDS AT DIFFERENT CROSSHEAD SPEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-hua Du; Jie Yu; Peng-fei Lin; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zneng

    2011-01-01

    Hard poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends were prepared using injectionmolding and influence of crosshead speed on mechanical properties was examined.Based on morphology parameters obtained from transmission electron microscopy photography and the material parameters from true stress-strain curves of neat PVC and ABS,yield stresses of the blends at different crosshead speeds were simulated employing a two-dimensional nine-particle model based on the finite element analysis (FEA).The FEA results were compared with the experimental yielding stress and the good agreement validated the simulation approach.The FEA approach allowed establishing a yielding criterion related to local yielding of the interstitial matrix between ABS particles.

  6. Preparation of anionically polymerized butadiene-co-styrene copolymer-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Guang; Wang, Jing Hua; Ling Xu

    2012-01-01

    Poly(butadiene-co-styrene) copolymer/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SB-MWNTs) nanocomposites are prepared via terminating anionically synthesized living poly(butadiene-styryl)lithium with acyl chlorides on the MWNTs,which obtained from the carboxylation and acylation of the MWNTs.Results from the characterization of the SB-MWNTs nanocomposites,including its soluble in solvent,UV-vis and TEM of the dissolved samples,TGA and SEM of nanocomposites are presented and discussed respectively.MWNTs treated by SB can be easily distributed in the SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) matrix.

  7. Butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers as PVC modifiers

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rojek; J. Stabik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the results of research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on plasticized polyvinylchloride compounds used as window gasket material.Design/methodology/approach: Short review concerning application of modified plasticized PVC compounds as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers for PVC. Formulations with fifteen dif...

  8. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of miktoarm star copolymer of styrene and butadiene using multifunctional macromolecular initiator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Yan Zhang; Xing Ying Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of multifunctional macromolecular initiator with Sn-C bonds and polydiene arms was synthesized by living anionic polymerization.At first,polydiene-stannum chloride(PD-SnCl3)was prepared by the reaction of n-butyl-Li(n-BuLi),stannic chloride(SnCl4)and diene.Then PD-SnCl3 was used to react with the dilithium initiator to prepare the multifunctional organic macromolecular initiators.The result suggested that the initiators had a remarkable yield by GPC,nearly 90%.By using these multifunctional macromolecular initiators,styrene and butadiene were effectively polymerized via anionic polymerization,which gave birth to novel miktoarm star copolymers.The relative molecular weight and polydispersity index,microstructure contents,copolymerization components,glass transition temperature(Tg)and morphology of the miktoarm star copolymers were investigated by GPC-UV,1H NMR,DSC and TEM,respectively.

  10. Species difference in metabolism of inhaled butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure of B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats to butadiene (BD) produced a very high incidence of cancer in mice while the incidence in rats was much lower with different tissues affected. Studies at this institute indicate that for equivalent exposures, the blood BD epoxide concentrations in mice are 5-fold higher than in rats and > 10-fold higher than in Cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, the profiles of urinary metabolites of butadiene were determined in Cynomolgus monkeys, F344/N rats, Sprague Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice and Syrian hamsters, species containing widely divergent hepatic epoxide hydrolase (EH) activities. Animals were exposed for 2 hr to 8,000 ppm [14C]BD and 24-hr urine samples were analyzed for metabolites. Two major urinary metabolites were identified, N-acetyl-S-(-1(or 2)-3-butene-2(or 1)-ol)cysteine (1) and N-acetyl-S-(-4-butane-1,2-diol)cysteine (2). Monkeys exposed by inhalation produced primarily metabolite 2, while rodent species produced 1-4 times as much of 1 compared to 2. The ratio of 2/1 formation was related to the hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity in different species. The high 2/1 ratio in monkeys was consistent with the lower blood epoxide levels in this species. If BD metabolism by humans is similar to that in the monkey, exposure of humans to BD may result in lower tissue concentrations of reactive metabolites than an equivalent exposure of rodents. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of BD exposure based on rodent studies

  11. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    J. Stabik; M. Rojek

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to...

  12. BIOMARKERS IN CZECH WORKERS EXPOSED TO 1,3-BUTADIENE: A TRANSITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    All the biomarkers of exposure were correlated with the measurements of butadiene recorded by the air samplers. Although the correlation between hemoglobin adducts and exposure levels was strongest, urinary metabolites were also found to be very useful measures of butadiene...

  13. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stabik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to 25% by weight were prepared and tested. Additionally three commercial compounds were tested as reference formulations. The following test were performed: Shore hardness, short-term and long-term elastic recovery, tensile strength, elongation at break and migration of plasticizers from gasket material to unplasticized PVC.Findings: Application of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers as PVC modifier enhanced many properties essential for window gasket materials such as long-term and short term elastic recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. At the same time addition of these elastomers did not change migration of other plasticizers contained in gasket material. Obtained results indicated that among tested compounds best properties as gasket material exhibited plasticized PVC with 23% of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer Chemigum P83. Reference commercial compounds exhibited worse performance properties than compounds with this acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer. Practical implications: Research programme allowed to elaborate plasticized PVC compounds modified with acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer that can be industrially applied for PVC window gaskets.Originality/value: Obtained results are of scientific and practical value. Research programme allowed to investigate the influence of elastomeric modifiers on plasticized PVC properties. Research results are also of practical importance.

  14. On the catalytic gas phase oxidation of butadiene to furan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubias, B.; Rodemerck, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Ritschl, F.; Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Applying the thermochemical selectivity criterion of Hadnett et al. It is shown that the selectivity of the furan formation is not limited by a too low strength of the C-H bonds in furan when compared with the C-H bond dissociation energy in the educt molecule butadiene. In the oxidation of butadiene on a CsH{sub 2}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} catalyst a maximum yield of 22 mol% furan has been obtained. To improve this comparatively low furan yield oxidation activity of the catalyst must be lowered to prevent the consecutive reaction to maleic anhydride. (orig.)

  15. Gender differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene to butadiene diepoxide in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E. [and others

    1995-12-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a gaseous compound used in the production of rubber, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats. The mechanism of BD-induced carcinogenicity is thought to involve genotoxic effects of its reactive epoxide metabolites butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO{sub 2}). Studies in our laboratory have shown that levels of the epoxides, particularly BDO{sub 2}, are greater in mice-the more sensitive species-than rats. While both epoxides are genotoxic in a number of assays, BDO{sub 2} is mutagenic in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than BDO. Species differences in carcinogenicity of BD have posed a dilemma to investigators deciding which animal model is most appropriate for BD risk assessment.

  16. Excited State Spectra and Dynamics of Phenyl-Substituted Butadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Møller, Søren;

    1994-01-01

    A combination of steady-state and dynamic spectral measurements are used to provide new insights into the nature of the excited-state processes of all-trans-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene and several analogs: 1,4-diphenyl- 1,3-cyclopentadiene, 1,1,4,4-tetraphenylbutadiene, 1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-1...

  17. Biocompatibility of epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solution casting method and then was epoxidized with peroxyformic acid generated in situ to yield the epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane (ESBS). The structure and properties of ESBS were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The performances of contact angle, water content, protein adsorption, and water vapor transmission rate on ESBS membrane were determined. After epoxidation, the hydrophilicity of the membrane increased. The water vapor transmission rate of ESBS membrane is similar to human skin. The biocompatibility of ESBS membrane was evaluated with the cell culture of fibroblasts on the membrane. It revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the various ESBS membranes and the population doubling time for fibroblast culture decreased.

  18. A Study of the Fluorescence Response of Tetraphenyl-butadiene

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry, R.; Winslow, L.(Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, U.S.A.); Bugel, L.; Conrad, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a widely used fluorescent wavelength-shifter. A common application is in liquid-argon-based particle detectors, where scintillation light is produced in the UV at 128 nm. In liquid argon experiments, TPB is often employed to shift the scintillation light to the visible range in order to allow detection via standard photomultiplier tubes. This paper presents studies on the stability of TPB with time under exposure to light. We also examine batch-to-batch variatio...

  19. Scintillation of thin tetraphenyl butadiene films under alpha particle excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Pollmann, Tina; Kuźniak, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The alpha induced scintillation of the wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) was studied to improve the understanding of possible surface alpha backgrounds in the DEAP dark matter search experiment. We found that vacuum deposited thin TPB films emit 882 +/-210 photons per MeV under alpha particle excitation. The scintillation pulse shape consists of a double exponential decay with lifetimes of 11 +/-5 ns and 275 +/-10ns.

  20. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  1. Synthesis of Cyclododecatriene from 1,3-Butadiene by Trimerization over Amine-Titanium Complex Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Da Min; Kim, Gye Ryung; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Geon-Joong [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Deuk Hee [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The new complex catalysts were synthesized by the reaction of titanium compounds (titanium chloride or titanium butoxide) and diamines in this work, and they showed very high catalytic activities for the cyclododecatriene (CDT) synthesis from 1,3-butadiene through trimerization. CDT synthetic reaction was performed in an autoclave reactor, and the effects of reaction temperature, type of catalyst, catalyst amount added into the system, the mole ratio of Al/Ti and immobilization method were investigated on the yield of product CDT. The titanium complex catalyst combined to diamine with 1:1 ratio showed high selectivity to CDT more than 90%. The ratio of TTT-CDT/TTC-CDT isomers in the product revealed as different values, depending on the type of diamine combined to titanium and Ti/diamine ratios. Those homogeneous complexes could be used as a heterogenized catalyst after anchoring on the supports, and the immobilized titanium catalyst retained the catalytic activities for several times in the recycled reactions without leaching. The carbon support containing titanium has exhibited superior activity to the silica support. Especially, when the titanium complex was anchored on the support which was fabricated by the hydrolysis of tripropylaminosilane itself, the resulting titanium catalyst showed the highest BD conversion and CDT selectivity.

  2. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene. (a) Sampling for benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement methods for benzene and...

  3. Pressure dependence of the Boson peak in poly(butadiene)

    CERN Document Server

    Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    Variation of pressure and temperature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments allows us to separate density and thermal energy contributions. We summarise briefly the influence of pressure and temperature on the dynamic scattering law of the polymer glass former poly(butadiene) far below the glass transition. We also show the advantage of using a liquid-niobium pressure cell in such studies. The effect of pressure on the boson peak is to shift the peak towards higher energies and to reduce the low-frequency modes more strongly below the boson-peak maximum than above. A decrease in the Debye-Waller factor with increasing pressure is observed. (orig.)

  4. Carbon nanotubes as reinforcement of styrene-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports an easy technique to produce cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites with a sulphur/accelerator system at 150 deg. C. Significant improvement in Young's modulus and tensile strength were achieved by incorporating 0.66 wt% of filler without sacrificing SBR elastomer high elongation at break. A comparison with carbon black filled SBR was also made. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate dispersion and fracture surfaces. Results indicated that the homogeneous dispersion of MWCNT throughout SBR matrix and strong interfacial adhesion between oxidized MWCNT and the matrix are responsible for the considerable enhancement of mechanical properties of the composite

  5. POLYMER-SUPPORTED LANTHANIDE COMPLEXES FOR THE POLYMERIZATION OF BUTADIENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guangqian; LI Yuliang; LIU Chongming

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of styrene-acrylic acid copolymer supported lanthanide complexes(SAAC Ln)(Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) were described.butadiene, a peak in activity appeared at Nd and Pr, Sm, Eu and the heavy lanthanides exhibited low or no activities. The effects of some factors on the activities were discussed. The microstructure of the polymers obtained with all the lanthanides in the series were the same and the content of cis-1,4 polybutadiene attained was more than 98%.

  6. Pressure dependence of the Boson peak in poly(butadiene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of pressure and temperature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments allows us to separate density and thermal energy contributions. We summarise briefly the influence of pressure and temperature on the dynamic scattering law of the polymer glass former poly(butadiene) far below the glass transition. We also show the advantage of using a liquid-niobium pressure cell in such studies. The effect of pressure on the boson peak is to shift the peak towards higher energies and to reduce the low-frequency modes more strongly below the boson-peak maximum than above. A decrease in the Debye-Waller factor with increasing pressure is observed. (orig.)

  7. Species differences in metabolism of 1,3-butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a 4-carbon gaseous compound with two double bonds. Used in high tonnage to make styrene-butadiene polymers in the rubber industry. Because of large amounts in use, BD was tested for toxicity in 2-year inhalation exposures of both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. The results of the two-species studies were dramatically different. In the initial study in mice, BD was shown to be a potent multiple-site carcinogen at exposure levels of 625 and 1250 ppM. There were increased incidences of neoplasia in the heart, lung, mammary gland, and ovary; malignant lymphomas resulted in early deaths of the mice so that the planned 2-year study was stopped after only 61 weeks of exposure. The second study in mice was conducted at much lower exposure concentrations (6.25, 20, 62.5, 200, and 625 ppM) and lasted 104 weeks. Increased incidences of hemangiosarcomas of the heart and lung neoplasia were observed in males exposed to 62.5 ppM BD, while females had increased lung neoplasia even at the 6.25 ppM exposure level. Early deaths from lymphomas were again observed at the high exposure concentration (625 ppm). A noncancer toxicity observed in mice was a macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia.

  8. Mechanical property modification and morphology of poly(styrene-b-hydrogenated butadiene-b-styrene)/poly(hydrogenated butadiene) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetzold, J.P.; Gancarz, I.; Quan, X.; Koberstein, J.T. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))

    1994-09-12

    The mechanical properties and morphology of a series of triblock copolymer blends with midblock associating homopolymers of varying molecular weight (Mw) have been characterized. The symmetric triblock copolymer studied contains polystyrene endblocks and midblocks of hydrogenated poly(1,2-butadiene) and is mixed with hydrogenated poly (1,2-butadiene) homopolymers of Mw both below and above that of the copolymer midblock. The rubbery plateau modulus determined by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy increases with increasing Mw of the homopolymer at fixed overall homopolymer content. At fixed Mw, the composition dependence of the plateau modulus is complex and shows unusually synergistic behavior. For high Mw homopolymers the plateau modulus increases initially upon homopolymer addition. Small angle neutron scattering and TEM are employed to determine the morphological changes. In all cases, the blends exhibit a lamellar microphase structure, with homopolymer macrophases apparent at high homopolymer contents. The apparent homopolymer solubility limits are found to be inversely related to the homopolymer Mw. The results indicate that the lamellar repeat distance decreases upon addition of the lowest Mw homopolymer and that the microdomains swell in blends containing homopolymers with Mw similar to that of the midblock sequence and are unchanged for high Mw homopolymers with negligible solubility. The results suggest that the interesting mechanical response of the blends can be explained by consideration of the changes in their entanglement structure resulting from confinement of the homopolymer chains within the highly constrained environment of the midblock lamellae.

  9. Photodegradation Mechanisms of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Coatings for Liquid Argon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J P; Conrad, J M; Pla-Dalmau, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone (BP). We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  10. A Study of the Fluorescence Response of Tetraphenyl-butadiene

    CERN Document Server

    Jerry, R; Bugel, L; Conrad, J M

    2010-01-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a widely used fluorescent wavelength-shifter. A common application is in liquid-argon-based particle detectors, where scintillation light is produced in the UV at 128 nm. In liquid argon experiments, TPB is often employed to shift the scintillation light to the visible range in order to allow detection via standard photomultiplier tubes. This paper presents studies on the stability of TPB with time under exposure to light. We also examine batch-to-batch variations. We compare scintillation-grade TPB to 99% pure TPB response. In the 99% pure samples, we report a yellowing effect, and full degradation of the TPB emission-peak, upon extended exposure to light.

  11. Aging studies on thin tetra-phenyl butadiene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Segreto, E.; Szelc, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    Tetra-Phenyl Butadiene (TPB) is the most commonly used compound to wave-shift the 128 nm scintillation light of liquid Argon down to the visible spectrum. We present a study on the loss of conversion efficiency of thin TPB films evaporated on reflective foils when exposed to light and atmosphere. The efficiency of the films is measured and monitored with a dedicated set-up that uses gaseous Argon excited by alpha particles to produce 128 nm photons and working at room temperature. In particular we performed a two years long exposure of the samples to lab diffuse light and atmosphere. We also performed more controlled aging tests to investigate the effect of storing samples in a inert atmosphere.

  12. Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J. P.; VanGemert, J. K.; Conrad, J. M.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone. We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  13. Durability of styrene-butadiene latex modified concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaker, F.A.; El-Dieb, A.S.; Reda, M.M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Structural Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete structures represents a major concern to many investigators. The use of latex modified concrete (LMC) in construction has urged researchers to review and investigate its different properties. This study is part of a comprehensive investigation carried on the use of polymers in concrete. The main objective of this study to investigate and evaluate the main durability aspects of Styrene-Butadiene latex modified concrete (LMC) compared to those of conventional concrete. Also, the main microstructural characteristics of LMC were studied using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM investigation of the LMC showed major differences in its microstructure compared to that of the conventional concrete. The LMC proved to be superior in its durability compared to the durability of conventional concrete especially its water tightness (measured by water penetration, absorption, and sorptivity tests), abrasion, corrosion, and sulphate resistance.

  14. Review of old chemistry and new catalytic advances in the on-purpose synthesis of butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makshina, Ekaterina V; Dusselier, Michiel; Janssens, Wout; Degrève, Jan; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2014-11-21

    Increasing demand for renewable feedstock-based chemicals is driving the interest of both academic and industrial research to substitute petrochemicals with renewable chemicals from biomass-derived resources. The search towards novel platform chemicals is challenging and rewarding, but the main research activities are concentrated on finding efficient pathways to produce familiar drop-in chemicals and polymer building blocks. A diversity of industrially important monomers like alkenes, conjugated dienes, unsaturated carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds are thus targeted from renewable feedstock. In this context, on-purpose production of 1,3-butadiene from biomass-derived feedstock is an interesting example as its production is under pressure by uncertainty of the conventional fossil feedstock. Ethanol, obtained via fermentation or (biomass-generated) syngas, can be converted to butadiene, although there is no large commercial activity today. Though practised on a large scale in the beginning of the 20th century, there is a growing worldwide renewed interest in the butadiene-from-ethanol route. An alternative route to produce butadiene from biomass is through direct carbohydrate and gas fermentation or indirectly via the dehydration of butanediols. This review starts with a brief discussion on the different feedstock possibilities to produce butadiene, followed by a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge regarding advances and achievements in the field of the chemocatalytic conversion of ethanol and butanediols to butadiene, including thermodynamics and kinetic aspects of the reactions with discussions on the reaction pathways and the type of catalysts developed. PMID:24993100

  15. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  16. An estimation of photon scattering length in tetraphenyl-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolp, D.; Dalager, O.; Dhaliwal, N.; Godfrey, B.; Irving, M.; Kazkaz, K.; Manalaysay, A.; Neher, C.; Stephenson, S.; Tripathi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a wavelength shifting material that can absorb ultraviolet photons and emit blue photons. It is used in the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons, for which typical photo-sensors, such as most photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), do not have any quantum efficiency. The secondary blue light is emitted isotropically, however, due to scattering within the material, its angular distribution upon exiting the material can not be easily predicted. Here we describe a procedure for estimating the scattering length of blue light in TPB, by measuring and modeling the angular distribution as a function of layer thickness. The experiment consists of shining 254nm light at various thicknesses of TPB deposited on fused silica, and measuring the intensity of blue light using SiPMs on either side of the sample. We simulate light propagation within the sample to estimate the light yield and compare that to the data, which allows us to estimate mean scattering length for photons in TPB to be in the range 2-3 μm, with some preference for a central value of 2.75 μm.

  17. High performance light-colored nitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanda; Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenyou; Jia, Demin

    2011-12-01

    High mechanical performance nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with light color was fabricated by the method of in situ formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) or magnesium disorbate (MDS). The in situ formed ZDS and its polymerization via internal mixing was confirmed by X-ray diffaraction. The mechanical properties, ageing resistance, morphology and the dynamic mechanical analysis were fully studied. It was found that with increasing loading of metallic disorbate both the curing rate and the ionic crosslink density was largely increased. The modulus, tensile strength and tear strength were largely increased. With a comparison between internal mixing and opening mixing, the mechanical performance for the former one was obviously better than the latter one. The high performance was ascribed to the finely dispersion nano domains with irregular shape and obscure interfacial structures. Except for the NBR vulcanizate with a high loading of MDS, the others' ageing resistance with incorporation of these two metallic disorbate was found to be good. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that, with increasing loading of metallic disorbate, the highly increased storage modulus above -20 degrees C, the up-shifted glass transition temperature (Tg) and the reduced mechanical loss were ascribed to strengthened interfacial interactions. PMID:22408977

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under high NOx conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cocker III

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years; however, reactions of other conjugated dienes emitted from anthropogenic sources remain poorly understood. SOA formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, isoprene-1-13C, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is investigated for high NOx conditions. The SOA yield measured in the 1,3-butadiene/NOx/H2O2 irradiation system (0.089–0.178 was close to or slightly higher than that measured with isoprene under similar NOx conditions (0.077–0.103, suggesting that the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene is a possible source of SOA in urban air. In contrast, a very small amount of SOA particles was produced in experiments with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Off-line liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis revealed oligoesters as the major SOA products observed from all dienes investigated. The oligoesters originate from the unsaturated aldehyde gas-phase diene reaction products, which undergo oligoester formation through heterogeneous oxidation under high NOx conditions. Oligoesters produced by the dehydration reaction between nitrooxypolyol and 2-methylglyceric acid monomer or its oligomer were also discovered in these experiments with isoprene as the starting diene. These oligomers are possible sources of the 2-methyltetrols found in ambient aerosol samples collected under high NOx conditions. Furthermore, in low-temperature experiments also conducted in this study, the SOA yield measured with isoprene at 278 K was 2–3 times as high as that measured at 300 K under similar concentration conditions. Although oligomerization plays an important role in SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation, the observed temperature dependence of SOA yield is largely explained by gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile compounds.

  19. Rich methane laminar flames doped with light unsaturated hydrocarbons. Part II: 1,3butadiene

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2007-01-01

    In line with the study presented in the part I of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a ratio C4H6 / CH4 of 16 %. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included usual methane C0-C2 combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene and toluene. In order to model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reacti...

  20. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  1. Rich premixed laminar methane flames doped by light unsaturated hydrocarbons. II. 1,3-Butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueniche, H.A.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Departement de Chimie-Physique des Reactions, UMR 7630 CNRS, INPL-ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2007-10-15

    In line with the study presented in Part I of this paper, the structure of a rich premixed laminar methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen, and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a C{sub 4}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4} ratio of 16%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene, and toluene. To model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways of consumption of 1,3-butadiene and of formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species have been derived from flow rate analyses. In this case, the C{sub 4} route to benzene formation plays an important role in comparison to the C{sub 3} pathway. (author)

  2. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  3. Synthesis And Properties Of Functional Ultra-High Molecular Weight Transparent Styrene-Butadiene Block Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guang-bi; ZHAO Xu-tao; WANG Gui-lun

    2004-01-01

    Functional ultra-high molecular weight transparent styrene-butadiene block copolymer possesses both high transparency and impact resistance and has excellent comprehensive properties prior to other transparent resins. In this paper we not only use anionic polymerization process which includes 1 time addition of initiator and 3 time addition of monomers, but also introduce functional coupling agent for the fist time to prepare mentioned functional block copolymer.The typical preparation process is described as the following: (a) Adding cyclohexane, styrene and initiator to the polymerizer, the polymerization is carried out at 50~75℃; (b) adding a mixture of styrene, butadiene and cyclohexane, the polymerization is carried out at 50~70℃ ;(c) adding a mixture of butadiene and cyclohexane, the polymerization is finished at 60~70℃ ;(d) adding coupling agent which is a substituted trimethoxysilane being expressed as N-silane, O-silane and being converted into a functional group (-NH, -OH) of mentioned block copolymer, coupling at 75~90℃ for 1 hr; (e) The amounts of coupling agent are about one sixth to one third of the initiator; (f) treating the prepared copolymer solution with some water and Carbon dioxide at 50~70℃ for 15 min.The copolymer is from three-arm to six-arm mono-modal radial block copolymer having 75~90%styrene, 10~25% butadiene and functional group of-NH or-OH. of the copolymer, Mw is from 30×104 to 120×104, Mw/Mn from 2.0 to 2.5, Izod notched impact strength 50~65 J/m,light transmission not less 87.5%, tensile strength not less 45 Mpa.The exploratory research shows that the mole ratio and feed rate of the random copolymerized styrene-butadiene, as well as the total ratio of styrene-butadiene have greater influence on the properties of the copolymer. The following model is established:Y=bo +∑3j=1 bjxj+∑3j=1bkjxkxj+∑3j=1bjjx2j (k<j)Where: Y is the light transmission, tensile strength, elongation, Izod notched impact

  4. Simulation of Particle Growth in Gas Phase Polymerization of Butadiene by the Multigrain Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建中; 赵军子; 何斯征; 周其云

    2001-01-01

    Gas phase polymerization of butadiene by neodymium catalyst was modeled. The effects of mass and heat transfer resistances in the external boundary layer and within particles, sorption of butadiene in polybutadiene,and deactivation of active sites on polymer particle growth and morphology were studied. Simulation results show that the effects of intraparticle mass and heat transfer resistances on the growth rate of polymer particles are insignificant, and that there is no significant effect of mass transfer resistance on the morphology of polymer particles.The simulation results were compared with the experimental results.

  5. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  6. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  7. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  8. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86 w

  9. Ternary Ag/MgO-SiO2 catalysts for the conversion of ethanol into butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Wout; Makshina, Ekaterina V; Vanelderen, Pieter; De Clippel, Filip; Houthoofd, Kristof; Kerkhofs, Stef; Martens, Johan A; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2015-03-01

    Ternary Ag/Magnesia-silica catalysts were tested in the direct synthesis of 1,3-butadiene from ethanol. The influence of the silver content and the type of silica source on catalytic performance has been studied. Prepared catalysts were characterized by (29) Si NMR, N2 sorption, small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, XRD, environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (ESEM/EDX), FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine and CO2 , temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Based on these characterization results, the catalytic performance of the catalysts in the 1,3-butadiene formation process was interpreted and a tentative model explaining the role of the different catalytically active sites was elaborated. The balance of the active sites is crucial to obtain an active and selective catalyst to form 1,3-butadiene from ethanol. The optimal silver loading is 1-2 wt% on a MgO-silica support with a molar Mg/Si ratio of 2. The silver species and basic sites (Mg−O pairs and basic OH groups) are of prime importance in the 1,3-butadiene production, catalyzing mainly the ethanol dehydrogenation and the aldol condensation, respectively. PMID:25410420

  10. HYDROXYL RADICAL AND OZONE INITIATED PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS OF 1,3-BUTADIENE. (R826247)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1,3-Butadiene, classified as hazardous in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is an important ambient air pollutant. Understanding its atmospheric transformation is useful for its own sake, and is also helpful for eliciting isoprene's fate in the atmosphere (isoprene dominates ...

  11. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under high NOx conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cocker III

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years; however, reactions of other conjugated dienes emitted from anthropogenic sources remain poorly understood. SOA formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, isoprene-1-13C, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is investigated for high NOx conditions. The SOA yield measured in the 1,3-butadiene/NOx/H2O2 irradiation system (0.089–0.178 was close to or slightly higher than that measured with isoprene under similar NOx conditions (0.077–0.103, suggesting that the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene is a possible source of SOA in urban air. In contrast, a very small amount of SOA particles was produced in experiments with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Off-line liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the signals of oligoesters comprise a major fraction (0.10–0.33 of the signals of the SOA products observed from all dienes investigated. The oligoesters originate from the unsaturated aldehyde gas phase diene reaction products; namely, semi-volatile compounds produced by the oxidation of the unsaturated aldehyde undergo particle-phase oligoester formation. Oligoesters produced by the dehydration reaction between nitrooxypolyol and 2-methylglyceric acid monomer or its oligomer were also characterized in these experiments with isoprene as the starting diene. These oligomers are possible sources of the 2-methyltetrols found in ambient aerosol samples collected under high NOx conditions. Furthermore, in low-temperature experiments also conducted in this study, the SOA yield measured with isoprene at 278 K was 2–3 times as high as that measured at 300 K under similar concentration conditions. Although oligomerization plays an important role in SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation, the observed temperature dependence of SOA yield is largely explained by gas/particle partitioning

  12. Emission of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-driven motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    This study reports the measurement of 1,3-butadiene emissions from 30 petrol-driven vehicles from the Australian car fleet using the Australian Design Rule 37/00 vehicle test procedure. Six of the cars tested were not equipped with catalytic converters and used leaded petrol as fuel. The remaining 24 cars were fitted with catalytic converters and used unleaded petrol. 1,3-Butadiene in exhaust samples was found to degrade rapidly in SUMMA treated stainless steel canisters and the degradation followed first-order kinetics. The rate coefficient of the decay can be represented by a linear dependence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust ( r2 = 0.79, n = 43), and the gas-phase reaction of NO 2 and 1,3-butadiene may have a major role in this loss. The 1,3-butadiene concentrations used to estimate vehicle emissions were corrected for this loss using the decay rate constant either observed from replicate analyses or from the NO x concentrations in the samples. The measurements showed that 1,3-butadiene was emitted at a rate of 20.7 ± 9.2 mg km -1 from 6 non-catalyst vehicles. There was considerable scatter in the observations from catalyst equipped vehicles and we infer that this was due to the malfunction of the emission control devices on some vehicles. The 19 vehicles that appeared to have functioning catalyst emission control devices had an average emission rate of 2.1 ± 1.5 mg km -1. These emission rates are consistent with atmospheric observations and are much higher than those reported previously. We calculate that more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust comes from the common alkane and aromatic constituents of the fuel. A comparison of emissions in the different phases of the drive cycle indicates that current emission controls remove more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene from the initial exhaust mixture.

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of polyelectrolytes based on polymers of diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride and poly(styrene-co-butadiene)

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, David

    2012-01-01

    In printed electronics there are many polyelectrolytes to choose from. While polyelectrolytes such as polystyrene sulfonic acid can fulfill many ofthe desired functionalities of a semiconductor, there is a need for other polyelectrolytes with other functionalities, such as functionality at low airhumidity and better cross-linking possibilities, while still functioning as a good semiconductor.Within this thesis, there is a description of general polyelectrolytes, as well as various usages.The ...

  14. Production and market analysis of styrene butadiene rubber%丁苯橡胶生产及市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晓战东; 孙雅斌; 白延军; 苏波; 郭滨诗

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarizes the production and market of styrene butadiene rubber both at home and abroad,analyzes the domestic styrene butadiene rubber development trend,and puts forward some advices on the problems in the domestic styrene butadiene rubber industry.%综述了国内外丁苯橡胶的生产及市场情况,对国内丁苯橡胶的市场发展趋势进行了分析.此外,还对国内丁苯橡胶行业存在的不足提出了几点建议.

  15. The enhanced catalytic performance of cobalt catalysts towards butadiene polymerization by introducing a labile donor in a salen ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dirong; Wang, Baolin; Jia, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xuequan

    2014-03-14

    A family of cobalt complexes supported by a tridentate Schiff base ligand with a labile donor (O, S, N) as a pendant arm (Co1-Co12, formulated as CoL2) were synthesized by the treatment of the corresponding ligands with cobalt acetate tetrahydrate. The resultant complexes were well characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, magnetic moment as well as EI-MS. The solid-state structures of Co7 and Co12 were determined by X-ray diffraction and both established a distorted octahedron geometry around the cobalt center. The butadiene polymerization capabilities of the 12 complexes were evaluated and compared in representative cases. Diethylaluminum chloride (AlEt2Cl) was found to be the compatible activator resulting in highly active catalysts for producing polybutadiene of 93.8-98.2% cis-1,4 enchainment with negligible 1,2-structure and trans-1,4 units. It appears that a certain degree of lability of the donor is beneficial for high catalytic activity, generally following the order of O > S > N, and the high cis-1,4 selectivity. Moreover, the remarkable thermal stability of these systems has been achieved: the catalytic systems have the ability of conducting a high level of active and selective polymerization, reaching an upper limit of polymerization temperature of about 70 °C. The enhanced catalytic performances were further rationalized by the established diene polymerization mechanism, which could shed light on developing highly selective and reactive industrially applicable catalysts with an enhanced thermal stability. PMID:24468706

  16. Conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene over Na doped ZnxZryOz mixed metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylon, Rebecca A.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on different oxide catalysts for the ethanol to 1,3-butadiene reaction, few have identified active sites (i.e., type of acidity) correlated to the catalytic performances. In this work, the type of acidity needed for ethanol to 1,3-butadiene conversion has been studied over Zn/Zr mixed oxide catalysts. Specifically, synthesis method, Zn/Zr ratio, and Na doping have been used to control the surface acid-base properties, as confirmed by characterizations such as NH3-TPD and IR-Py techniques. The 2000 ppm Na doped Zn1Zr10Oz-H with balanced base and weak Bronsted acid sites was found to give not only high selectivity to 1,3-butadiene (47%) at near complete ethanol conversion (97%), but also exhibited a much higher 1,3-butadiene productivity than other mixed oxides studied.

  17. Synthesis of novel N-, S-substituted-polyhalo-1, 3-butadienes and crystal structure of dibutadienyl homopiperazine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahide Gulsah Deniz; Cemil Ibis

    2013-07-01

    Polyhalogenated-2-nitro-1, 3-butadienes are important synthetic precursors for a variety of polyfunctionalized bioactive heterocycles. Herein, we report the reactions of 1, 1, 3, 4, 4-pentachloro-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene 1 and 4-bromo-1, 1, 3, 4-tetrachloro-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene 2 with amino and thiol containing nucleophiles to obtain highly functionalized (E)-polyhalodiene-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene derivatives. Most of these reactions were found to be highly selective resulting in good to high yields of the products. All new compounds have been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopic data. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis of compound 8c is reported.

  18. The Effect of Uncertainty in Exposure Estimation on the Exposure-Response Relation between 1,3-Butadiene and Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maldonado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a follow-up study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers, cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was positively associated with leukemia. Problems with historical exposure estimation, however, may have distorted the association. To evaluate the impact of potential inaccuracies in exposure estimation, we conducted uncertainty analyses of the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia. We created the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates using job-exposure matrices consisting of exposure values that corresponded to randomly selected percentiles of the approximate probability distribution of plant-, work area/job group-, and year specific butadiene ppm. We then analyzed the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia for each of the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates. In the uncertainty analysis, the point estimate of the RR for the first non zero exposure category (>0–<37.5 ppm-years was most likely to be about 1.5. The rate ratio for the second exposure category (37.5–<184.7 ppm-years was most likely to range from 1.5 to 1.8. The RR for category 3 of exposure (184.7–<425.0 ppm-years was most likely between 2.1 and 3.0. The RR for the highest exposure category (425.0+ ppm-years was likely to be between 2.9 and 3.7. This range off RR point estimates can best be interpreted as a probability distribution that describes our uncertainty in RR point estimates due to uncertainty in exposure estimation. After considering the complete probability distributions of butadiene exposure estimates, the exposure-response association of butadiene and leukemia was maintained. This exercise was a unique example of how uncertainty analyses can be used to investigate and support an observed measure of effect when occupational exposure estimates are employed in the absence of direct exposure measurements.

  19. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  20. The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. → Improvement in fatigue life of irradiated blends due to formation of irradiation-induced crosslinks. → Excessive crosslinking caused reduction of tensile properties of irradiated SBR/NBRr blends. -- Abstract: The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR/NBRr) blends were investigated. The SBR/NBRr blends were prepared at 95/5, 85/15, 75/25, 65/35, or 50/50 blend ratios with and without the presence of a 3 part per hundred rubber (phr) of polyfunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Results indicate that the crystallisation temperature (Tc) observed in polymeric blends is due to the alignment of polymer chains forming a semi-crystalline phase. Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. More crosslinking occurred between polymer blends with the help of TMPTA, upon irradiation. The improvement in fatigue life can also be associated with the stabilisation of SBR/NBRr blends upon irradiation and irradiation-induced crosslinking, which was accomplished with relatively low radiation-induced oxidative degradation in the presence of TMPTA. The tensile properties of both blends decreased over the periods of environmental exposure due to the effect of polymer degradation. After 6 months, the irradiated SBR/NBRr blends could not retain better retention [mainly with 25, 35 or 50 phr of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBRr) particles] due to the samples becoming brittle over the long period of outdoor exposure.

  1. Genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and its epoxy intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vernon E; Walker, Dale M; Meng, Quanxin; McDonald, Jacob D; Scott, Bobby R; Seilkop, Steven K; Claffey, David J; Upton, Patricia B; Powley, Mark W; Swenberg, James A; Henderson, Rogene F

    2009-08-01

    Current risk assessments of 1,3-butadiene (BD*) are complicated by limited evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans. Hence, there is a critical need to identify early events and factors that account for the heightened sensitivity of mice to BD-induced carcinogenesis and to deter-mine which animal model, mouse or rat, is the more useful surrogate of potency for predicting health effects in BD-exposed humans. HEI sponsored an earlier investigation of mutagenic responses in mice and rats exposed to BD, or to the racemic mixture of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (BDO) or of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (BDO2; Walker and Meng 2000). In that study, our research team demonstrated (1) that the frequency of mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene of splenic T cells from BD-exposed mice and rats could be correlated with the species-related differences in cancer susceptibility; (2) that mutagenic-potency and mutagenic-specificity data from mice and rats exposed to BD or its individual epoxy intermediates could provide useful information about the BD metabolites responsible for mutations in each species; and (3) that our novel approach to measuring the mutagenic potency of a given chemical exposure as the change in Hprt mutant frequencies (Mfs) over time was valuable for estimating species-specific differences in mutagenic responses to BD exposure and for predicting the effect of BD metabolites in each species. To gain additional mode-of-action information that can be used to inform studies of human responses to BD exposure, experiments in the current investigation tested a new set of five hypotheses about species-specific patterns in the mutagenic effects in rodents of exposure to BD and BD metabolites: 1. Repeated BD exposures at low levels that approach the occupational exposure limit for BD workers (set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) are mutagenic in female mice. 2. The differences in mutagenic responses of the Hprt gene to BD

  2. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Butane to Butadiene and Butene Using a Novel Inert Membrane Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene and butene was studied using a conventional fixed-bed ractor (FBR), inert membrane reactor (IMR) and mixed inert membrane reactor (MIMR). When IMR and MIMR were employed, a ceramic membrane modified by partially coating with glaze was used to distribute oxygen to a fixed-bed of 24-V-Mg-O catalyst. The oxygen partial pressure in the catalyst bed could be decreased. The effect of feeding modes and operation conditions were investigated. The selectivity of C4 dehydrogenation products (butene and butadiene) was found to be higher in IMR than in FBR. The feeding mode with 20% of air mixing with butane in MIMR was found to be more efficient than the feeding mode with all air permeating through ceramic membrane. The MIMR gave the most smooth temperature profile along the bed.

  3. Gamma Radiation Shielding Properties of Styrene- Butadiene Rubber/Lead Oxide Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites were prepared as gamma-radiation shields. The composites were prepared with different concentrations of red lead oxide (Pb3O4). The assessment of the linear attenuation coefficient of the SBR/lead oxide composites for gamma -rays from 137Cs gamma -radiation point source was studied. The styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites can attain up to about 43% of the shielding capacity of pure lead. The incorporation of high concentrations of lead oxide and the effect of accumulative irradiation doses up to 3000 kGy on the physico-mechanical properties of the composites were studied. These led to hardening of the SBR rubber/lead oxide composites

  4. Thermal Stability and Flammability of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber-Based (SBR) Ceramifiable Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Anyszka; Dariusz M. Bieliński; Zbigniew Pędzich; Przemysław Rybiński; Mateusz Imiela; Mariusz Siciński; Magdalena Zarzecka-Napierała; Tomasz Gozdek; Paweł Rutkowski

    2016-01-01

    Ceramifiable styrene-butadiene (SBR)-based composites containing low-softening-point-temperature glassy frit promoting ceramification, precipitated silica, one of four thermally stable refractory fillers (halloysite, calcined kaolin, mica or wollastonite) and a sulfur-based curing system were prepared. Kinetics of vulcanization and basic mechanical properties were analyzed and added as Supplementary Materials. Combustibility of the composites was measured by means of cone calorimetry. Their t...

  5. New Piperazine Derivatives Synthesized from Thio-Substituted Polyhalogeno-2-nitro-1,3-butadienes

    OpenAIRE

    S. Goksin Aydinli; Cemil Ibis

    2010-01-01

    It is known that polyhalogeno-nitro-1,3-butadienes are important starting materials for the synthesis of polyfunctionalized bioactive heterocycles. Novel N,S-substituted nitrobutadienes (4a-j) were synthesized from the reaction of the monothio-substituted nitrodiene derivatives (2a) and (2b) with some piperazine derivatives. These new compounds are stable and the structures of these products were characterized by spectroscopic data. The structure of the novel N,S-substituted nitrodiene compou...

  6. STUDY ON THE EPOXY RESIN TOUGHENED BY HYDROXY-TERMINATED BUTADIENE-ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiaozu; LI Shaoying; ZHANG Qingyu

    1990-01-01

    Toughened epoxy resin with excellent properties was obtained by adding organic acid anhydride curing agent and hydroxy-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (HTBN), which is cheaper than CTBN. The anhydride reacts with both epoxy groups on epoxy resin and hydroxyl groups on HTBN. As a result the soft long chains of HTBN and the rigid chain of epoxy resin form one network, giving the resin toughness. Two-phase structure of the toughened resin was observed by SEM and TEM.

  7. Performance Analysis of Styrene Butadiene Rubber-Latex on Cement Concrete Mixes.

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Kapil Soni; Dr. Y. P Joshi

    2014-01-01

    To improve the performance of concrete, polymers are mixed with concrete. It has been observed that polymer-modified concrete (PMC) is more durable than conventional concrete due to superior strength and high durability. In this research, effect of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) latex on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been studied and also the optimum polymer (SBR-Latex) content for concrete is calculated. This research was carried out to establish t...

  8. MORPHOLOGY,INTERFACIAL INTERACTION AND PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER/MODIFIED HALLOYSITE NANOTUBE NANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德民

    2009-01-01

    A natural nanotubular material,halloysite nanotubes(HNTs),was introduced to prepare styrene-butadiene rubber/modified halloysite nanotube(SBR/m-HNT) nanocomposites.Complex of resorcinol and hexamethylenetetramine (RH) was used as the interfacial modifier.The structure,morphology and mechanical properties of SBR/m-HNT nanocomposites,especially the interfacial interactions,were investigated.SEM and TEM observations showed that RH can not only facilitate the dispersion and orientation of HNTs in SBR matrix ...

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  10. In Situ IR Spectroscopic Study on the Hydrogenation of 1,3-Butadiene on Fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing; Wu Weicheng; Liu Shiyang

    2014-01-01

    The surface species formed from the adsorption of 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation over the fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was studied by in situ IR spectroscopy. It is found that 1,3-butadiene adsorption on the Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst mainly formsπ-adsorbed butadiene (πs andπd) andσ-bonded surface species. These species are adsorbed mainly on the surface Moδ+(0<δ<2) sites as evidenced by co-adsorption of 1,3-butadiene and CO on the fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The IR spectrometric analysis show that hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene over fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst produces mainly butane coupled with a small portion of butene. The selectivity of butene during the hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene over fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst might be explained by the adsorption mode of adsorbed 1,3-butadiene. Additionally, the active sites of the fresh Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst may be covered by coke during the hydrogenation reaction of 1,3-butadiene. The treatment with hydrogen at 673 K cannot remove the coke deposits from the surface of the Mo2C/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

  11. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  12. Synthesis and Molecular Structures of Two [1,4-bis(3-pyridyl-2,3-diazo-1,3-butadiene]-dichloro-Zn(II Coordination Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ta Wang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Two novel coordination polymers with 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs have been synthesized by reacting 1,4-bis(3-pyridyl-2,3-diazo-1,3-butadiene (L with zinc dichloride. Both compounds have the same repeating unit consisting of a distorted tetrahedral Zn(II center coordinated by two chlorides and two pyridyl nitrogen atoms of two bridging bismonodentate L ligands, however, different structural conformations have been found, one forming a helical chain and the other producing a square-wave chain. The intermolecular C−H···Cl hydrogen bonds in 1 and 2 play important roles in the formation of three-dimensional coordination polymers. Compound 1 crystallized in an orthorhombic space group Pna21 with a = 7.9652(3, b = 21.4716(7, c = 8.2491(3Å, V = 1410.81(9 Å 3 and Z = 4. Compound 2 crystallized in a monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 9.1752(3, b = 14.5976(4, c = 10.3666(3 Å , β = 98.231(2°, V = 1374.16(7 Å 3 and Z = 4.

  13. Uptake of one and two molecules of 1,3-butadiene by platinum bis(dithiolene): a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li; Ni, Shao Fei; Hall, Michael B; Brothers, Edward N

    2014-09-15

    Platinum bis(dithiolene) complexes have reactivity toward alkenes like nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes. We examined the uptake of 1,3-butadiene by platinum bis(dithiolene) [Pt(tfd)2] (tfd = S2C2(CF3)2) via a density functional theory study; both 1,2- and 1,4-additions of 1,3-butadiene to the ligands of Pt(tfd)2 to form both interligand and intraligand adducts were studied. For single 1,3-butadiene addition, direct 1,4-addition on interligand S-S, 1,2-addition on intraligand S-S, and 1,4-addition on intraligand S-C are all feasible at room temperature and are controlled by the symmetry of the highest occupied molecular orbital of 1,3-butadiene and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of Pt(tfd)2. However, the formation of the interligand S-S adduct through 1,4-addition of one molecule of cis-1,3-butadiene is the most favorable route, with a reaction barrier of 9.3 kcal/mol. The other two addition processes cannot compete with this one due to both higher reaction barriers and unstable adducts. Other possible pathways, such as formation of cis-interligand S-S adduct from 1,2-addition of one molecule of 1,3-butadiene via a twisted trans-interligand S-S adduct, have higher barriers. Our calculated results show that 1,4-addition of a single molecule of 1,3-butadiene on the interligand S-S gives the kinetically stable product by a one-step pathway. But of at least equal importance is the apofacial 1,4-addition of two molecules of 1,3-butadiene on the intraligand S-C of the same ligand on Pt(tfd)2, which yields the thermodynamically stable product, obtained via a short lifetime intermediate, the 1:1 intraligand S-C adduct, being formed through several pathways. The calculated results in this study well explain the experimental observation that 1:1 interligand S-S adduct was formed in a short time, and the intraligand S-C adduct from two molecules of cis-1,3-butadiene was accumulated in 20 h at 50° and characterized by X-ray crystallography. PMID:25184506

  14. Characterisation of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Denise; Saron, Clodoaldo

    2015-06-01

    Polymeric materials constitute a considerable fraction of waste computer equipment and polymers acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are the main thermoplastic polymeric components found in waste computer equipment. Identification, separation and characterisation of additives present in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene are fundamental procedures to mechanical recycling of these polymers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for identification of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment in Brazil, as well as their potential for mechanical recycling. The imprecise utilisation of symbols for identification of the polymers and the presence of additives containing toxic elements in determinate computer devices are some of the difficulties found for recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene from waste computer equipment. However, the considerable performance of mechanical properties of the recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and high-impact polystyrene when compared with the virgin materials confirms the potential for mechanical recycling of these polymers.

  15. Mutations induced by 1,3-butadiene metabolites, butadiene diolepoxide, and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane at the Hprt locus in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Jo; Rhee, Seung Keun; Yoon, ByoungSu; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Lee, Chong-Soon

    2002-12-31

    Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial chemical that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Butadiene diolepoxide (BDE) and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) are metabolites of carcinogenic BD and contain the DNA-reactive one and two epoxides, respectively. In this study, the mutation frequencies and mutation spectra that are induced by BDE and DEB have been investigated at the hprt locus in CHO-K1 cells. The BDE- and DEB-treated CHO-K1 cells were allowed to grow for several days, then seeded in a medium that contained 6-thioguanine in order to select the hprt mutants. BDE exhibited the mutagenic activity at concentrations that were approximately 100-times higher than DEB. The mutation spectra for BDE and DEB were determined by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of hprt mRNA, which was followed by automatic DNA sequencing of the PCR products. The mutational spectrum for BDE was exon deletions (16/41), G x C --> A x T transitions (11/41), and A x T --> G x C transitions (5/41). The mutational spectrum for DEB was exon deletions (15/39), G x C --> A x T transitions (11/39), and A x T --> T x A transversions (5/39). The most common base substitution that was induced by both BDE and DEB was G x C --> A x T transitions. The sites of the single base substitutions that were induced by BDE and DEB were guanine and adenine, which was consistent with the DNA adduct profiles. The high frequencies of the exon deletions by each metabolite occurred in the regions of exons 2, 3, or 4. These data indicate that BDE and DEB are mutagenic carcinogens by forming DNA adducts at the site of adenine and guanine, and inducing large exon deletions and single base substitutions. PMID:12521305

  16. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies of 1,3-butadiene in the rat: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats during and following 6 hours/day, whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200, and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female rats (Ns = 24 to 28), which had mated with unexposed males, were exposed to the chemical from 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 20 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11, 16 and 20 dg; the rats were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. There were no significant differences among treatment groups in maternal body weights or extragestational weights of rats exposed to 1,3-butadiene concentrations of 40 or 200 ppM, but, in animals exposed to 1000 ppM, significantly depressed body weight gains were observed during the first 5 days of exposure and extragestational weight gains tended to be lower than control values. These results, and the absence of clinical signs of toxicity, were considered to indicate that there was no maternal toxicity at exposure levels of 200 ppM or lower. The percentage of pregnant animals and the number of litters with live fetuses were unaffected by treatment. Under the conditions of this exposure regimen, there was no evidence for a teratogenic response to 1,3-butadiene exposure.

  17. Reduction of Noise from Disc Brake Systems Using Composite Friction Materials Containing Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohsen; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Nazockdast, Hossein

    2006-09-01

    Attempts have been made for the first time to prepare a friction material with the characteristic of thermal sensitive modulus, by the inclusion of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) as viscoelastic polymeric materials into the formulation in order to the increase the damping behavior of the cured friction material. Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS) and nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (NBR/PVC) blend system were used as TPE materials. In order to evaluate the viscoelastic parameters such as loss factor (tan δ) and storage modulus (E‧) for the friction material, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) were used. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of friction material and brake disc were determined by modal analysis. However, NBR/PVC and SEBS were found to be much more effective in damping behavior. The results from this comparative study suggest that the damping characteristics of commercial friction materials can be strongly affected by the TPE ingredients. This investigation also confirmed that the specimens with high TPE content had low noise propensity.

  18. STUDY ON STYRENE-BUTADIENE BLOCK COPOLYMER FOR THE MODIFICATION OF TIRE TREAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; CHEN Weijie; MU Ruifeng; WANG Yongwei; YU Fengnian; LIU Qing

    1996-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the design and synthesis of a novel styrene-butadiene block copolymer. When this copolymer is used in the tread portion of tyres, it can improve wet skid resistance and reduce rolling resistance without sacrificing its general physicalmechanical properties. The visco-elastic curve of tire tread using the novel copolymer as its rubber portion was showed. Reactivity ratios for two monomers in the polymerizing system were calculated. The diagrams of differential, integral and finite difference calculi throughout the whole molecular chain were presented. The influence of the micro- and macro-structure of the copolymer chain on wet skid resistance and rolling resistance was discussed.

  19. Reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber with lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, P.; He, H; Jiang, C; Wang, D; Jia, Y.; Zhou, L.; D. M. Jia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks were fabricated in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, SBR/lignin compounds were co-coagulated by SBR latex and lignin aqueous solution. Then the novolac epoxy resin (F51) was added in the SBR/lignin compounds by melt compounding method. F51 was directly cured by lignin via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups of F51 and OH groups (or COOH groups) of lignin during the cu...

  20. Analysis and optimization of nitrile butadiene rubber sealing mechanism of ball valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Guan SONG; Lin WANG; Young-Chul PARK

    2009-01-01

    An approach for analyzing and optimizing sealing mechanism of ball valve made of nitrile butadiene mbber(NBR) with finite element method was presented. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic material model was chosen to characterize NBR sealing, as it has been recommended in the similar applications. That is, NBR sealing was modeled as incompressible hyperelasticity, as well as the assumption of isotropic flow. The results illustrate the structural pressure and contact pressure on the contact surface, which shows that the NBR sealing mechanism is very suitable for sealing after dimension optimization.

  1. 1,3-Butadiene hydrogenation on pd-supported systems: geometric effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza P.R.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong metal support interaction (SMSI effect was observed on Pd/Nb2O5 and Pd/TiO2 catalysts, and it produces small, exposed Pd ensembles. A decrease in the trans/cis 2-butene ratio was observed after reduction at 773 K. Selectivity changes were ascribed to the decoration model. Theoretical models were developed based on semi-empirical molecular-orbital calculations for 1,3-butadiene and Pd n clusters. Experimental results are in agreement with our theoretical model, which proposes a greater stabilization of the cisoid intermediate on small Pd ensembles.

  2. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86 wt.-%, respectively) in the two kinds of used PS-co-MA samples afforded a good compatibility between the PS phases of the two polymers. On the other hand, the presence of polar anhydride groups allo...

  3. Reinforcement of hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HXNBR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared. The dispersion of MWCNT in HXNBR matrix was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. HXNBR/MWCNT composite had shorter scorch time and optimum curing time compared with that of unfilled HXNBR. The tensile strength and modulus of HXNBR/MWCNT composites increased with increasing MWCNT content. Mooney-Rivlin equation was used to describe the stress-strain behavior of unfilled HXNBR and the strain amplification factor was taken into account for HXNBR/MWCNT composites. The Mullins effect and dynamic mechanical properties of HXNBR/MWCNT composite were also investigated.

  4. Self-Assembled Poly(butadiene)-b-Poly(ethylene oxide) Polymersomes as Paclitaxel Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuliang; Byrne, Belinda; Welsh, JoEllen; Palmer, Andre F.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, self-assembled poly(butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) polymersomes (polymer vesicles) and worm micelles were evaluated as paclitaxel carriers. Paclitaxel was successfully incorporated into PB-PEO polymersomes and worm micelles. The loading capacity of paclitaxel inside PB-PEO colloids ranged from 6.7-13.7% w/w, depending on the morphology of copolymer colloids and the molecular weight of diblock copolymer. Paclitaxel loaded OB4 (PB219-PEO121) polymersome formulations we...

  5. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite dispersed within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipara, M; Skomski, R; Ali, N; Hui, D; Sellmyer, D J

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposite materials obtained by dispersing barium ferrite nanoparticles within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer, in the temperature range, 300 to 500 K are reported. The temperature dependence of the magnetization at saturation, averaged uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and coercive field of thick films are analyzed. A "matrix effect" was noticed within the glass transition range of the hard component (polystyrene) of the polymeric matrix. The reported modifications of the magnetic properties were assigned to the competition between the magnetic and mechanical reorientation of nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix. Such modifications were not observed in barium ferrite dispersed in cement. PMID:19504902

  6. Study Tensile Strength and Wear Rate for Unsaturated Polyester Resin and Nitrile butadiene Rubber Polymer Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entihaa G. Daway

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary polymer blend was prepared by mechanical mixing method of unsaturated polyester resin with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR with different weight ratios (0, 5, 10 and 15 % of (NBR. Tensile characteristics and wear rates of these blends were studied for all mixing ratios. The microstructure of fracture surfaces of the prepared samples were investigated by optical microscope. The results were showed that strain rates of the resin material increase after blending it with rubber while the ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus values of it will decrease. It is also noticed that the wear rate of resin decreases with increasing of (NBR content.

  7. Studies on Macro—kinetics of Gas Phase Polymerization of Butadiene with Rare—earch Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGDonyu; SUNJianzhong; 等

    2002-01-01

    The study of the kinetics of gas phase polymerization of butadiene with heterogeneous catalyst based on neodymium(Nd) was carried out.The effects of reaction temperature,reaction pressure,dispersing medium, and types of catalyst on kinetics of polymerization were investigated .A kinetic model with two kinds of active sites was proposed.The results show that the effects of the reaction temperature and the types of dispersing medium and catalyst on the kinetic performance of polymerization are significant,and that the combined model of first and second order decay of active site of catalyst can be used to describe the phenomena.

  8. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  9. Electromechanical responses of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR and blends of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/ acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, P3TAA/NBR, were fabricated, and the electrorheological properties, dielectric, and electrical conductivities were investigated . The electrorheological properties were determined under an oscillatory shear mode in a frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s at various electric field strengths, from 0 to 2 kV/mm, at a fixed 27°C to observe the effects of acrylonitrile content (ACN in the rubber systems and the conductive particle concentration in the blends. For the pure rubber systems, the storage modulus response (ΔG′ is linearly dependent on its dielectric constant (ε′, and increases with the ACN content. For the NBR/P3TAA blends, the storage modulus response varies nonlinearly with the dielectric constant. The bending responses of the rubbers and the blends were investigated in a vertical cantilever fixture. For the pure rubber system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary linearly with electric field strength. For the blend system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary nonlinearly with electric field strength.

  10. Thermodynamic calculations for molecules with asymmetric internal rotors--application to 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bryan M; Raman, Sumathy

    2007-03-01

    We present quantum mechanical partition functions, free energies, entropies, and heat capacities of 1,3-butadiene derived from ab initio calculations. Our technique makes use of a reaction path-like Hamiltonian to couple all 23 vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion, which involves heavy asymmetric functional groups. Ab initio calculations were performed at the B3LYP, MP2, and CCSD(T) levels of theory and compared with experimental values as a reference case. By using the ab initio potentials and projected frequencies, simple perturbative expressions are presented for computing the couplings of all the vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion. The expressions are particularly suited for programming in the new STAR-P software platform which automatically parallelizes our codes with distributed memory via a familiar MATLAB interface. Using the efficient parallelization scheme of STAR-P, we obtain thermodynamic properties of 1,3-butadiene for temperatures ranging from 50 to 500 K. The free energies, entropies, and heat capacities obtained from our perturbative formulas are compared with conventional approximations and experimental values found in thermodynamic tables. PMID:17226834

  11. Quantum dynamics study of singlet-triplet transitions in s-trans-1,3-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Behnam; Köppel, Horst

    2016-05-01

    The intersystem crossing dynamics of s-trans-1,3-butadiene in its lowest singlet and triplet states is studied theoretically, employing a fully quantal approach for the first time. The electronic states 21Ag, 11Bu, 13Bu and 13Ag, which interact vibronically and via the spin-orbit coupling are treated in the calculation, thus covering the lowest spin-forbidden electronic transitions. Up to five nuclear degrees of freedom, including out-of-plane dihedral angles are included in our investigation. The calculation of potential energy surfaces relies on the CASPT2 method, and the evaluation of spin-orbit coupling matrix elements using the full two-electron Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian is performed by utilizing the MRCI wavefunction. The latter dependence on the nuclear coordinates is included for the first time. An electronic population transfer on the sub-picosecond time scale due to intersystem crossing is obtained, a mechanism that can contribute to the singlet-triplet transitions in the electron energy loss spectrum of s-trans-1, 3-butadiene. It is found that the dependence of the spin-orbit coupling on the out-of-plane coordinates plays a dominant role in these singlet-triplet transitions. The amount of population transfer to the 13Ag and 13Bu states is roughly of the same order of magnitude.

  12. Exfoliated sodium-montmorillonite in nitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposites with good properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG QingGuo; ZHANG XiaoHong; QIAO JinLiang

    2009-01-01

    We prepared and utilized a novel ultrafine fully-vulcanized powder nitrile butadiene rubber (UFPNBR)/ sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) nanocompound powder, in which nanoscale UFPNBR particles and nanoscale platelets of Na-MMT were isolated and stuck each other. When the UFPNBR/Na-MMT nano-compoud powder was mixed with crude nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), UFPNBR particles could be easily dispersed in NBR matrix because of good compatibility, and nanoscale Na-MMT was also dis-persed well in NBR matrix due to the carrier aidance of UFPNBR particle, thus the NBR/UFPNBPJNa-MMT ternary nanocomposites adapting to industry was fabricated. X-ray diffraction test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicated that nanoscale Na-MMT was dispersed well in NBR matrix. Compared with NBR/Na-MMT binary composites, NBR/UFPNBR/Na-MMT ternary nanocompo-sites have shorter vulcanization time and higher flame retardancy due to the exfoliated Na-MMT in NBR matrix.

  13. Performance Analysis of Styrene Butadiene Rubber-Latex on Cement Concrete Mixes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Kapil Soni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of concrete, polymers are mixed with concrete. It has been observed that polymer-modified concrete (PMC is more durable than conventional concrete due to superior strength and high durability. In this research, effect of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR latex on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been studied and also the optimum polymer (SBR-Latex content for concrete is calculated. This research was carried out to establish the effects of polymer addition on compressive and flexural strength using concrete with mix design of constant water-cement ratio at local ambient temperature. The mixes were prepared with Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR latex -cement ratio of 0 %, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Slump test was conducted on fresh concrete while compressive strength and flexural strength were determined at different age. A locally available Perma-Latex is used as SBR Latex. It has been observed that SBR latex has negative effect at early age while at 28 days, the addition of SBR latex in concrete results in enhancement of compressive strength and Flexural Strength. Based on the results of this study, latex modified concrete made using Perma-Latex may be recommended to be used with various types of concrete structures. However, for the mixes rich in cement, the dosage of SBR latex needs to be adjusted to maintain required workability of concrete.

  14. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section....

  15. Ethanol-to-Butadiene Conversion over SiO2-MgO Catalysts: Synthesis-Structure-Performance Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, C.

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this PhD Thesis provides new insights into the underlying reasons that make SiO2-MgO materials excellent catalysts for the ethanol-to-butadiene Lebedev process. In particular, the preparation technique of choice affects the structural properties of the resulting SiO2-MgO materi

  16. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE COMPOSITES REINFORCED BY DEFATTED SOY FLOUR AND CARBON BLACK CO-FILLER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboxylated styrene-butadiene (SB) composites reinforced by a mixture of defatted soy flour (DSF) and carbon black (CB) were investigated in terms of their dynamic mechanical properties. DSF is an abundant renewable commodity and has a lower cost than CB. DSF contains soy protein, soy carbohydrat...

  17. THE EFFECT OF ETHERS ON ALTERNATING COPOLYMERIZATION OF BUTADIENE AND PROPYLENE CATALYZED BY VANADIUM-ALUMINUM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dan; YU Dingsheng; HU Liping; JIAO Shuke

    1988-01-01

    The effect of five ethers on alternating copolymerization of butadiene and propylene were investigated. It was found that under appropriate conditions, by adding ether into reaction system, the conversion could be increased by 10-20% and the catalytic efficiency doubled at -45℃. The interaction between ether and active center was also studied.

  18. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-Butenes to 1,3-Butadiene over Bismuth Molybdate and Ferrite Catalysts: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Eunpyo

    2015-11-02

    1,3-Butadiene, an important raw material for a variety of chemical products, can be produced via the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butenes over multicomponent oxide catalysts based on bismuth molybdates and ferrites. In this review, the basic concept, reaction mechanism, and catalysts typically used in an ODH reaction are discussed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  19. Emissions of benzene, toluene, xylenes and 1,3-butadiene from a representative portion of the Australian car fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.; Ye, Y.; Weeks, I. A.; Galbally, I. E.

    The exhaust emissions of the air toxics benzene, toluene, total xylenes and 1,3-butadiene have been measured in the cold transient (CT), cold stabilised (CS) and hot transient (HT) phases of the Australian Design Rule (ADR) 37/00 Drive cycle for 19 pre-1986 non-catalyst-equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol, and 56 post-1985 catalyst-equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol. Per vehicle exhaust emissions, averaged over the 3 phases of the ADR 37/00 test, of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, and total xylenes for the older vehicles were about 19, 139, 240 and 164 mg km -1 respectively. The corresponding emissions for the better 46 of the 56 post-1985 vehicles tested were 1.7, 28.1, 36.4, and 27.0 mg km- 1 respectively. The remaining 10 high polluting post-1985 vehicles had emission rates comparable to those vehicles not equipped with catalytic converters, suggesting that about 20% of post-1985 vehicles have malfunctioning or poorly operating catalysts. For the non-catalyst-equipped, pre-1986 vehicles, CS and HT emissions were about 60% of the CT emissions. For the better 46 post-1985 vehicles, average emissions during the CS and HT phases were about 20-25%, 12-16%, 11-14%, and 7-13% of the CT emissions for benzene, toluene, the xylenes, and 1,3-butadiene, respectively. The emissions from a small number (9) of non-catalyst-equipped, pre-1986 vehicles were determined using unleaded and leaded petrol. The emissions of all four target compounds were found to be significantly lower when unleaded petrol was substituted for leaded petrol. The greatest percentage emission reductions were observed for the CT phase, ranging from 25% for 1,3-butadiene to 35% for toluene. Emissions averaged over the 3 phases were reduced by 10% for 1,3-butadiene and by 16-18% for the aromatic compounds. Per vehicle total (heat build and hot soak) evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes from pre-1985 vehicles during the Sealed Housing Evaporative

  20. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  1. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  2. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanotubes produced from pyrolysis/combustion of styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joner O.; Zhuo, Chuanwei; Levendis, Yannis A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tenorio, Jorge A.S. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Polytechnic School. Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination for wastes produced from SBR. Pellets of this rubber were controlled burned at temperature of 1000 deg C, and a catalyst system was used to synthesize the nanomaterials. CNTs are materials with a wide range of potential applications due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Produced materials were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the hydrocarbons emissions were measured using GC. Results showed that materials with diameters of 30-100 nm and lengths of about 30 {mu}m were formed. That materials presented similar structures of multi-walled CNTs. Therefore, the use of SBR to produce carbon nanotubes showed quite satisfactory and an interesting field for future investments. (author)

  3. Fluorescence Efficiency and Visible Re-emission Spectrum of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Films at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Gehman, V M; Rielage, K; Hime, A; Sun, Y; Mei, D -M; Maassen, J; Moore, D

    2011-01-01

    A large number of current and future experiments in neutrino and dark matter detection use the scintillation light from noble elements as a mechanism for measuring energy deposition. The scintillation light from these elements is produced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, from 60 - 200 nm. Currently, the most practical technique for observing light at these wavelengths is to surround the scintillation volume with a thin film of Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) to act as a fluor. The TPB film absorbs EUV photons and reemits visible photons, detectable with a variety of commercial photosensors. Here we present a measurement of the re-emission spectrum of TPB films when illuminated with 128, 160, 175, and 250 nm light. We also measure the fluorescence efficiency as a function of incident wavelength from 120 to 250 nm.

  4. Fluorescence efficiency and visible re-emission spectrum of tetraphenyl butadiene films at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehman, V. M.; Seibert, S. R.; Rielage, K.; Hime, A.; Sun, Y.; Mei, D.-M.; Maassen, J.; Moore, D.

    2011-10-01

    A large number of current and future experiments in neutrino and dark matter detection use the scintillation light from noble elements as a mechanism for measuring energy deposition. The scintillation light from these elements is produced in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, from 60 to 200 nm. Currently, the most practical technique for observing light at these wavelengths is to surround the scintillation volume with a thin film of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) to act as a fluor. The TPB film absorbs EUV photons and re-emits visible photons, detectable with a variety of commercial photosensors. Here we present a measurement of the re-emission spectrum of TPB films when illuminated with 128, 160, 175, and 250 nm light. We also measure the fluorescence efficiency as a function of incident wavelength from 120 to 250 nm.

  5. Conversion of far ultraviolet to visible radiation: absolute measurements of the conversion efficiency of tetraphenyl butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Robert E.; Coplan, Michael A.; Clark, Charles W.

    Far ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation of noble gases is used in dark matter and neutrino research and in neutron detection. Upon collisional excitation, noble gas atoms recombine into excimer molecules that decay by FUV emission. Direct detection of FUV is difficult. Another approach is to convert it to visible light using a wavelength-shifting medium. One such medium, tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) can be vapor-deposited on substrates. Thus the quality of thin TPB films can be tightly controlled. We have measured the absolute efficiency of FUV-to-visible conversion by 1 μm-thick TPB films vs. FUV wavelengths between 130 and 300 nm, with 1 nm resolution. The energy efficiency of FUV to visible conversion varies between 1% and 5%. We make comparisons with other recent results. Work performed at the NIST SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility,.

  6. Tetraphenyl-butadiene films: VUV-Vis optical characterization from room to liquid argon temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, R.; Montereali, R. M.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Canci, N.; Segreto, E.; Cavanna, F.; Di Pompeo, F.; Carbonara, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Perfetto, F.

    2013-09-01

    A thin film of Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) deposited onto the surface delimiting the active volume of the detector and/or onto the photosensor's optical window is the most common solution to down convert argon VUV scintillation light in current and planned liquid argon based experiments for dark matter searches and neutrino physics. Characterization of the main features of TPB coatings on different, commonly used substrates is reported, as a result of measurements at the specialized optical metrology labs of ENEA and University of Tor Vergata. Measured features include TPB emission spectra with lineshape and relative intensity variation recorded as a function of the film thickness and for the first time down to LAr temperature, as well as optical reflectance and transmittance spectra of the TPB coated substrates in the wavelength range of the TPB emission.

  7. Wavelength Shifting Efficiency of Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) at Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Christopher; Orebi Gann, Gabriel; Gehman, Victor

    2015-10-01

    Tetraphenyl Butadiene (TPB) is a commonly used wavelength shifter (WLS) in neutrino and dark matter liquid noble gas scintillator detectors. Thin films of wavelength shifters are used to shift ultraviolet scintillation light into the visible spectrum for event reconstruction. The wavelength shifting efficiency of TPB is a function of the incident ultraviolet photon wavelength and is an important parameter for detector design, simulation and reconstruction. The wavelength shifting efficiency and emission spectrum has been previously measured down to 120 nm [Gehman et al., 2011]. To build liquid noble gas scintillator detectors with lighter elements (Ne, He) that use TPB as a WLS medium, the wavelength shifting efficiency must be known closer to 80 nm. This talk will present the current status and preliminary results from a set of measurements that will improve the precision of the efficiency of 120 nm, and extend the data to wavelengths as low as 45 nm.

  8. An ab initio potential function for the ν13 vibrational mode of 1,3-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, M. L.

    1995-06-01

    The restricted potential of the ν13 torsional mode of 1,3-butadiene has been determined from ab initio calculations. The relative energy and geometry of the second rotamer were calculated with the optimized couple cluster method with double substitutions. This ab initio level provides that the second stable structure attaches to a gauche form situated at 140.8°. The potential energy function was obtained by fitting to a symmetry-adapted Fourier series the total electronic energies of several selected conformations. These energies were calculated by the Möller-Plesset perturbation theory up to the second order (MP2) with full and partial optimization of the geometry. Torsional Raman band positions and fundamental frequencies were determined from the periodic potentials with a good agreement with experimental data. The convenience of performing fully optimized calculations to determine the restricted function is also refuted.

  9. Preparing cellulose nanocrystal/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites using the master-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Yujie; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Wang, Siqun

    2015-07-10

    The master-batch method provides a simple way to apply cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcement in a hydrophobic matrix. The two-stage process includes making high-CNC content (70 wt%) master batch pellets, then mixing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene with the master batch pellets to prepare the ABS/CNC nanocomposite in extruder. SEM image indicates that self-assembled CNC nanosheets disperse evenly throughout the polymer matrix. The improved mechanical properties shown in tensile and DMA tests reveal that the CNC combines well with the ABS. TGA results show that the thermal degradation temperature of CNC in the master batch increases because of the protection of the ABS coating. This approach not only improves the dispersion ability and the thermal stability of CNC, but it is also applicable to use with other hydrophobic thermoplastics in industrial scale production. PMID:25857992

  10. Experimental thermal transport evolution of silane activated nano-clay reinforced styrene butadiene elastomeric nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S. S.; Iqbal, N.; Jamil, T.; Bashir, A.; Shahid, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, silane activated nanoclay was reinforced in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) to enhance the thermal resistance/stability and mechanical properties of SBR. silane activated nanoclay with variant concentrations was impregnated in the rubber matrix to fabricate polymer nanocomposites under control processing conditions. Experimental thermal transport, thermal oxidation, phase transition study, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite specimens were carried out. Thermal insulation, thermal stability, and heat flow response were remarkably enhanced with the addition of nanokaolinite in the polymer matrix. Phase transition temperatures, their corresponding enthalpies, tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and hardness of the rubber composites were positively influenced with the filler incorporation into the host matrix. The Even dispersion of nanoreinforcements, morphological and compositional analyses of the thermal transport tested specimens were performed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively.

  11. The influence of carbon black on curing kinetics and thermal aging of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers based on a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (NBR have excellent oil resistance but are very sensitive for degradation at very high temperatures. The aim of this applicative contribution was to determine the effect of high abrasion furnace carbon black with primary particle size 46 nm on aging properties of elastomeric materials based on NBR as network precursor. The curing kinetics was determined using the rheometer with an oscillating disk, in which the network formation process is registered by the torque variation during time. The vulcanizates were obtained in a hydraulic press at 150 °C. The mechanical properties of elastomeric composites were determined before and after thermal aging in an air circulating oven. The reinforcing effect of the filler particles was assessed according to mechanical properties before and after aging.

  12. Modification of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) [SBS] with phosphorus containing fire retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Jomaas, Grunde;

    2015-01-01

    of the Psingle bondH containing fire retardants to a double bonds of poly(butadiene) block of SBS were found, affording varied degree of the modification (0.2–21 mol%). Alternatively, a two-step procedure based on an epoxidation step followed by hydrolysis of the epoxides with phosphoric acid was developed......An elaborate survey of the chemical modification methods for endowing highly flammable SBS with increased fire resistant properties by means of chemical modification of the polymer backbone with phosphorus containing fire retardant species is presented. Optimal conditions for free radical addition...... application of the H3PO4 modified SBS as a fire retardant additive for bitumen material, in combination with synergetic melamine species, offered 25% better self-extinguishing properties of such formulation already at a low loading level of the fire retardant components (3.5 wt.%)....

  13. Structures and Properties Characterization of Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/Organo-palygorskite Clay Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; CHANG Ying; XU Jian; WU Zhancui; MA Hengchang; LEI Ziqiang

    2012-01-01

    Palygorskite (PGS) and vinyl tris-(2-methoxyethoxy) silane (KH-172) modified palygorskite (OPGS) were used to prepare acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/clay composites.Thermal stability of the composites was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The morphology of the fractured surface and the degree of dispersion of the clay in the ABS matrix were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results showed the variation of the crystal structure.Measurements of the tensile properties of the ABS/clay composites proved that the ABS/OPGS composited material represented the most excellent tensile property,because of good compatibility and dispersion of ABS with OPGS.

  14. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  15. Flame Retardant Effects of Nano-Clinoptilolite on AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS Nano-Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, intumescent technology has found a place in polymer science as a method of providing flame retardance to polymeric materials. On heating, fire-retardant intumescent material restricts the action of the heat flux or flame. The proposed mechanism is based on charred layer acting as physical barrier, which slows down heat and mass transfer between the gas and the condensed phases. In this paper, the flammability of intumescent fire-retardant acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS matrix composites consisting of hydromagnesite (HMg as an acid source and blowing agent, pentaerythritol (PER as a carbonisation agent and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite rich, Kansar Shargh as a synergistic agent were examined. The flammability of composites was characterized by limiting oxygen index (LOI measurement and horizontal burning tests. A synergistic effect in flame retardancy was observed when natural zeolites were used in combination with HMg and PER.

  16. Dielectric study of Poly(styrene- co -butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay

    KAUST Repository

    Vo, Loan T.

    2011-08-09

    Dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure polymer relaxation in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites. In addition to the bulk polymer relaxation, the SBR nanocomposites also exhibit a slower relaxation attributed to polymer relaxation at the polymer-nanoparticle interface. The glass transition temperature associated with the slower relaxation is used as a way to quantify the interaction strength between the polymer and the surface. Comparisons were made among composites containing nanoclay, silica, and carbon black. The interfacial relaxation glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites is more than 80 °C higher than the SBR bulk glass transition temperature. An interfacial mode was also observed for SBR-silica nanocomposites, but the interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-silica nanocomposite is somewhat lower than that of clay nanocomposites. An interfacial mode is also seen in the carbon black filled system, but the signal is too weak to analyze quantitatively. The interfacial polymer relaxation in SBR-clay nanocomposites is stronger compared to both SBR-carbon black and SBR-silica composites indicating a stronger interfacial interaction in the nanocomposites containing clay. These results are consistent with dynamic shear rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis measurements showing a more pronounced reinforcement for the clay nanocomposites. Comparisons were also made among clay nanocomposites using different SBRs of varying styrene concentration and architecture. The interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites increases as the amount of styrene in SBR increases indicating that styrene interacts more strongly than butadiene with clay. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Evaluation of tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-steps modified styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared with epoxidation, ring opening reaction with maleated ionomer and layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte technique. The tri-steps modified SBS membrane was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). The structures of the modified SBS membranes were identified with methylene blue and azocarmine G. The content of amino group on the surface of the modified membrane was calculated from uptake of an acid dye. The values of the contact angle, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate and the adsorption of fibronectin on the membranes were determined. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the tri-steps modified SBS membrane, the cytotoxicity, antibacterial and growth profile of the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane were evaluated. The bactericidal activity was found on the modified SBS. From the cell culture of 3T3 fibroblasts on the membrane, it revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the tri-steps modified SBS membranes. As the membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent allowing wound checks, they can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates. - Highlights: ► Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) was modified with tri-steps. ► The tri-steps are epoxidation, ring opening reaction and layer-by-layer assembly. ► Modified SBS membrane for wound dressing is evaluated. ► Membranes are sterile semipermeable with bactericidal activity and transparent. ► Membranes can be considered for shallow wound with low exudates.

  18. Designing zeolite catalysts for size- and shape-selective reactions: Selective hydrogenation of acetylene in the presence of butadiene and ethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Abrams, L.; Bonifaz, C. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Wilmington, DE (USA))

    1989-02-01

    In the production of ethylene from the steam cracking of natural gas, small amounts of acetylene and butadiene are produced. Downstream, acetylene can present a hazard in a cryogenic separation process while nonselective hydrogenation removes acetylene as well as valuable ethylene and butadiene. With the aid of adsorption measurements, a selective hydrogenation catalyst has been designed. Small-pore zeolites, which serve as catalytic supports and provide reactant selective control, were ion-exchanged with Ni{sup 2+} and subsequently reduced. Compared to a commercial catalyst in which 60% of butadiene and all of the acetylene are hydrogenated, these new catalysts totally hydrogenate acetylene with only 10-20% hydrogenation of the butadiene and almost no hydrogenation of ethylene. To achieve selective hydrogenation, poisoning of the metal sites on the external zeolite surface is essential in order to obtain a product spectrum dominated by catalytic sites within the zeolite framework.

  19. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on platinum-copper alloys at the single-atom limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, Felicia R; Liu, Jilei; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Yang, Ming; Allard, Lawrence F; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Sykes, E Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Platinum is ubiquitous in the production sectors of chemicals and fuels; however, its scarcity in nature and high price will limit future proliferation of platinum-catalysed reactions. One promising approach to conserve platinum involves understanding the smallest number of platinum atoms needed to catalyse a reaction, then designing catalysts with the minimal platinum ensembles. Here we design and test a new generation of platinum-copper nanoparticle catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene,, an industrially important reaction. Isolated platinum atom geometries enable hydrogen activation and spillover but are incapable of C-C bond scission that leads to loss of selectivity and catalyst deactivation. γ-Alumina-supported single-atom alloy nanoparticle catalysts with <1 platinum atom per 100 copper atoms are found to exhibit high activity and selectivity for butadiene hydrogenation to butenes under mild conditions, demonstrating transferability from the model study to the catalytic reaction under practical conditions. PMID:26449766

  20. Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Experimental study of the structure of rich premixed 1,3-butadiene/CH4/O2/Ar flame

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a laminar rich premixed 1,3-C4H6/CH4/O2/Ar flame have been investigated. 1,3-Butadiene, methane, oxygen and argon mole fractions are 0.033; 0.2073; 0.3315, and 0.4280, respectively, for an equivalent ratio of 1.80. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa (50 Torr). The concentration profiles of stable species were measured by gas chromatography after sampling with a quartz probe. Quantified species included carbon monoxide and dioxide, methane, oxygen, hydrogen, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propyne, allene, propene, cyclopropane, 1,3-butadiene, butenes, 1-butyne, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, C5 compounds, benzene, and toluene. The temperature was measured thanks to a thermocouple in PtRh (6%)-PtRh (30%) settled inside the enclosure and ranged from 900 K close to the burner up to 2100 K.

  2. Quantitative characterization of the sequential mers distribution in styrene-butadiene copolymers by {sup 13} C; Caracterizacao quantitativa da distribuicao sequencial dos meros em copolimeros de estireno e butadieno por RMN de {sup 13} C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canevarolo, Sebastiao [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    1996-06-01

    Various types and grades of styrene-butadiene co-polymers were analysed by {sup 13} C-NMR: random SBR, blocked SSBR (a styrene block is introduced in the random SBR chain) and SBS triblock copolymers. It was determined the styrene content (%), the styrene-butadiene mers distribution in terms of the S-B and B-S-B sequences content (characteristics of the random portions of the chain) and also the isomers content in the butadiene phase. (author)

  3. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  4. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  5. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  6. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  7. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    H. F. Xie; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, C. S.; H. Y. Yin; Wang, L.L.; R. S. Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs) as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN). The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg), mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOH...

  8. Morphology and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol-A Toughened with Carboxyl-Terminated Butadiene-Acrylonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S. D.; Chung, S. Y.; Fedors, R. F.; Moacanin, J.; Gupta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fracture toughness of an incorporation of a carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) elastomer in diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin was investigated. Measurements of dynamic mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering were carried out to characterize the state of cure, morphology and particle size and size distribution of the neat resins and their graphite fiber reinforced composites.

  9. Atmospheric oxidation of isoprene and 1,3-butadiene: influence of aerosol acidity and relative humidity on secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lewandowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acidic seed aerosols on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA have been examined in a number of previous studies, several of which have observed strong linear correlations between the aerosol acidity (measured as nmol H+ per m3 air sample volume and the percent change of secondary organic carbon (SOC. The measurements have used several precursor compounds representative of different classes of biogenic hydrocarbons including isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes. To date, isoprene has displayed the most pronounced increase in SOC, although few measurements have been conducted with anthropogenic hydrocarbons. In the present study, we examine several aspects of the effect of aerosol acidity on the secondary organic carbon formation from the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene, as well as extending the previous analysis of isoprene. The photooxidation products measured in the absence and presence of acidic sulfate aerosols were generated either through photochemical oxidation of SO2 or by nebulizing mixtures of ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid into a 14.5 m3 smog chamber system. The results showed that, like isoprene and β-caryophyllene, 1,3-butadiene SOC yields linearly correlate with increasing acidic sulfate aerosol. The observed acid sensitivity of 0.11% SOC increase per nmol m−3 increase in H+ was approximately a factor of three less than that measured for isoprene. The results also showed that the aerosol yield decreased with increasing humidity for both isoprene and 1,3-butadiene, although to different degrees. Increasing the absolute humidity from 2 to 12 g m−3 reduced the 1,3-butadiene yield by 45% and the isoprene yield by 85%.

  10. Analysis of recycled poly (styrene-co-butadiene) sulfonation: a new approach in solid catalysts for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Garnica, Efrén; Paredes-Casillas, Mario; Herrera-Larrasilla, Tito E; Rodríguez-Palomera, Felicia; Ramírez-Arreola, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of solid waste is a serious problem worldwide that is made worse in developing countries due to inadequate planning and unsustainable solid waste management. In Mexico, only 2% of total urban solid waste is recycled. One non-recyclable material is poly (styrene-co-butadiene), which is commonly used in consumer products (like components of appliances and toys), in the automotive industry (in instrument panels) and in food services (e.g. hot and cold drinking cups and glasses). In ...

  11. VAPOR-PHASE CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF ETHANOL INTO 1,3-BUTADIENE ON Cr-Ba/MCM-41 CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. La-Salvia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAl-MCM-41, 16%Ba/Al-MCM-41 and 1.4%Cr-16%Ba/Al-MCM-41 were used as catalysts in the vapor-phase catalytic conversion of ethanol. Physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and the effect of barium and chromium on the Al-MCM-41 activity and 1,3-butadiene yield were studied. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 physisorption (BET method, CO2chemisorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. When ethanol was completely converted on Al-MCM-41 and 16%Ba/Al-MCM-41, the reaction products showed a high selectivity for ethylene (90-98%. However, on the 1.4%Cr-16%Ba/Al-MCM-41 catalyst, a greater number of reaction products were obtained such as ethylene, acetaldehyde, diethyl ether and 1,3-butadiene. The maximum 1,3-butadiene yield obtained from ethanol reaction was 25% at 723 K and W/FEtOH = 15 g h mol-1. The latter result was obtained in a single step and without addition of reaction promoters (e.g., acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, hydrogen in the feed stream to the reactor.

  12. High-Temperature Measurements and a Theoretical Study of the Reaction of OH with 1,3-Butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasu, Subith [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zador, J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, David F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hanson, Ronald K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Golden, David [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Miller, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-07-27

    The reaction of hydroxyl (OH) radicals with 1,3-butadiene (C4H6) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range 1011-1406 K and at pressures near 2.2 atm. OH radicals were produced by shock-heating tert-butyl hydroperoxide, (CH3)3-CO-OH, and were monitored by narrow line width ring dye laser absorption of the well-characterized R1(5) line of the OH A-X (0,0) band near 306.7 nm. OH time histories were modeled using a comprehensive 1,3-butadiene oxidation mechanism, and rate constants for the reaction of OH with 1,3-butadiene were extracted by matching modeled and measured OH concentration time histories. Detailed error analyses yielded an uncertainty estimate of ±13% at 1200 K for the rate coefficient of the target reaction. The current data extends the temperature range of the only previous high-temperature study for this reaction. The rate coefficient and the branching fractions for the H-abstraction channels of the target reaction were also calculated over the temperature range 250-2500 K using variational transition-state theory based on QCISD(T)/cc-pV∞Z//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) quantum chemistry. The calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results above 1200 K.

  13. Delayed light emission of Tetraphenyl-butadiene excited by liquid argon scintillation light. Current status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreto, E.; Machado, A. A.; Araujo, W.; Teixeira, V.

    2016-02-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene is the wavelength shifter most widely used in combination with liquid argon. The latter emits scintillation photons with a wavelength of 127 nm that need to be downshifted to be detected by photomultipliers with glass or quartz windows. Tetraphenyl-butadiene has been demonstrated to have an extremely high conversion efficiency, possibly higher than 100% for 127 nm photons, while there is no precise information about the time dependence of its emission. It is usually assumed to be exponentially decaying with a characteristic time of the order of one ns, as an extrapolation from measurements with exciting radiation in the near UV . This work shows that tetraphenyl-butadiene, when excited by 127 nm photons, re-emits photons not only with a very short decay time, but also with slower ones due to triplet states de-excitations. This fact can strongly contribute to clarifying the anomalies in liquid-argon scintillation light reported in the literature since the 1970s. Precision measurements of the properties of TPB, when excited by Vacuum Ultra Violet photons are being carried on at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas (State of São Paulo).

  14. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  15. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  16. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  17. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  18. EFFECTS OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE ON STIFFNESS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE AT DIFFERENT TRAFFIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHOLAMALI SHAFABAKHSH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The previous studies have explored the effects of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS as the most prevalent modifier for asphalt mixtures. The current study intends to compare stiffness modulus of control and SBS modified asphalt mixtures under different traffic loadings. To this end, resilient modulus tests were performed on both conventional and SBS modified specimens. Tests were conducted at 5, 25 and 40°C with loading times of 50, 100, 300, 600 and 1000 milliseconds and 4, 9 and 30 as ratio of rest periods (between loading pulses to loading times (R/L. Using these test parameters and haversine and square loading pulses that represent vertical stress distribution at different depths within an asphalt layer, a variety of traffic densities and vehicle speeds were simulated and their effects on stiffness of asphalt concrete were determined. Results indicated that SBS modification provide higher stiffness under haversine pulse with long loading time at 40°C, so that it was about 3 times of unmodified mixture stiffness. The effect of traffic density that represented by R/L was significant only in long loading time (1000 ms especially under haversine pulse.

  19. Devulcanization of styrene butadiene rubber by microwave energy: Effect of the presence of ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seghar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR was devulcanized using microwave irradiation. In particular, effect of ionic liquid (IL, pyrrolidinium hydrogen sulfate [Pyrr][HSO4], on the devulcanization performance was studied. It was observed that the evolution of the temperature reached by rubber powder exposed to microwave irradiation for different energy values was favored by the presence of ionic liquid [Pyrr][HSO4] significantly over the whole range of the microwave energy values. Beyond the threshold point of 220 Wh/kg, the soluble fraction after devulcanization sharply increased with increasing devulcanization microwave energy. For the powder mixed with [Pyrr][HSO4], the increase was more significant. Furthermore, the crosslink density was observed to decrease slowly with the microwave energy up to 220 Wh/kg, beyond which the crosslink density decreased significantly for the rubber impregnated with IL. For the rubber with IL, significant and continuous increase in Tg with microwave energy values was observed in comparison with the SBR where no change in transition temperature was observed. Mechanical shearing of rubber gums in the two-roll mill favored the devulcanization process, which indicated that the combination of mechanical loading with microwave energy and IL is an efficient procedure allowing an optimal devulcanization of rubbers.

  20. Bond Characteristics of Macro Polypropylene Fiber in Cementitious Composites Containing Nanosilica and Styrene Butadiene Latex Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woong Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the bond properties of polypropylene (PP fiber in plain cementitious composites (PCCs and styrene butadiene latex polymer cementitious composites (LCCs at different nanosilica contents. The bond tests were evaluated according to JCI SF-8, in which the contents of nanosilica in the cement were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt%, based on cement weight. The addition of nanosilica significantly affected the bond properties between macro PP fiber and cementitious composites. For PCCs, the addition of 0–2 wt% nanosilica enhanced bond strength and interface toughness, whereas the addition of 4 wt% or more reduced bond strength and interface toughness. The bond strength and interfacial toughness of LCCs also increased with the addition of up to 6% nanosilica. The analysis of the relative bond strength showed that the addition of nanosilica affects the bond properties of both PCC and LCC. This result was confirmed via microstructural analysis of the macro PP fiber surface after the bond tests, which revealed an increase in scratches due to frictional forces and fiber tearing.

  1. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (ML and maximum torque (MH of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2 cure time (tc90, compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF BUTADIENE AND CYCLOPENTADIENE ADDUCTS OF METHANDROSTENOLONE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAZEL SHAMSA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the reactivity of methandrostenolone or [(17b-17-hydroxy-17-methylandrosta-1, 4-diene-3-one], as a dienophil in a Diels-Alder type cycloaddition reaction was investigated. The purpose of this approach was to investigate whether the 1-dehydro position of methandrostenolone 1 undergoes a cycloaddition reaction with dienes, such as 1, 3 butadiene or cyclopentadiene, and to investigate the biological behavior of the reaction adducts, i.e, compound 3 {(17b-17-hydroxy-17-methyl androsta [1a, 2a] cyclohex 3’, 4-diene-3-one} and compound 4 {(17b-17-hydroxy-17-methyl androsta [1a, 2a] cyclohex (2’,5’ methylene 3’, 4-diene-3-one}, relative to compound 1. The results indicated that thedDiels-Alder reactionddid notpproceed under the usual circumstances of high pressure and temperature, but could proceed in the presence of a Lewis acid (AlCl3. The structures of compounds 3 and 4 were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. The androgenic behavior of compounds 3 and 4 in comparison to compound 1 in the apomorphine test indicated that both compounds were almost devoid of androgenic activity, but prevented apomorphine mediated penile erection in male rats in a similar manner as cyproterone acetate.

  3. Degradation of Hydrogenated Nitrile-butadiene Rubber in Aqueous Solutions of H2S or HCl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Chuan-bo; CUI Can-can; MENG Xiao-yu; LU Shao-jie; ZHOU Qiong

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene rubber(HNBR) soaped in aqueous solutions of H2S and HCl was investigated.The samples unexposed and exposed to different solutions were characterized by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance(13C NMR),X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopies.In contrast to those of unexposed samples and samples soaped in HCl solution,the mechanical properties of samples exposed to H2S solution significantly deteriorated,in which the new groups of C(=O)-NH2,C-S-C and C=S emerged.The mechanism of C=S and C-S-C formation was speculated,except for that of the formation of group C(=O)-NH2,which was widely discussed in acidic condition such as HC1 solution.The formation of C-S-C was due to radical reaction initiated by mercapto radical and that of C=S was due to nucleophilic reaction initiated by mercapto cations.This finding is helpful to understanding the seal failure of HNBR in working environment containing H2S.

  4. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shul, Yong-Gun; Shin, Junhwa

    2013-12-01

    Several crosslinked poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  5. Microstrueture and Properties of Fluoroelastomer/Butadiene-Acrylonitrile Rubber Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chunming; XIONG Chuanxi; YANG Jian; DONG Lijie

    2008-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks(IPNs)based on fluoroelastomer/butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber(FKM/NBR)by molten blending at a high temperature and chemical cross-linking of two components were prepared.The influence of the two networks component on the mechanical properties and thermostabilities was studied.The experimental results show that the mechanical properties of the IPNs are superior to those of the individual FKM and NBR networks due to forming the case of interpenetrating and intercross-linking between the two networks,the mechanical properties and thermal resistance exhibit higher values when 80/20(w/w)FKM and NBR is blended and respectively cured simultaneously.The co-continuous morphology of the IPNs in the blends of 80/20(w/w)FKM/NBR is found by transmission electron microscopy(TEM),the differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)determination shows that the blends of 80/20(w/w)FKM/NBR have better compatibility,and the glass transition temperature of the elastomer is -21.5℃.

  6. Crack initiation and propagation on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Domínguez Almaraz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation and propagation have been investigated on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing. Three controlled actions were implemented in order to carry out fatigue tests at very high frequency on this material of low thermal conductivity, they are: a The applying load was low to limit heat dissipation at the specimen neck section, b The dimensions of testing specimen were small (but fitting the resonance condition, in order to restraint the temperature gradient at the specimen narrow section, c Temperature at the specimen neck section was restrained by immersion in water or oil during ultrasonic fatigue testing. Experimental results are discussed on the basis of thermo-mechanical behaviour: the tail phenomenon at the initial stage of fatigue, initial shear yielding deformation, crazed development on the later stage, plastic strain on the fracture surface and the transition from low to high crack growth rate. In addition, a numerical analysis is developed to evaluate the J integral of energy dissipation and the stress intensity factor K, with the crack length

  7. Carbon nanotube buckypaper reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gascón, David

    2013-11-27

    Novel acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites reinforced with pristine or functionalized single- or multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) sheets were manufactured via hot-compression and vacuum infiltration. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the infiltration process leads to better BP impregnation than the hot-press technique. BPs made from functionalized or short nanotubes form compact networks that hamper the penetration of the matrix chains, whereas those composed of pristine tubes possess large pores that facilitate the polymer flow, resulting in composites with low degree of porosity and improved mechanical performance. Enhanced thermal and electrical properties are found for samples incorporating functionalized BPs since dense networks lead to more conductive pathways, and a stronger barrier effect to the diffusion of degradation products, thus better thermal stability. According to dynamic mechanical analysis these composites exhibit the highest glass transition temperatures, suggesting enhanced filler-matrix interactions as corroborated by the Raman spectra. The results presented herein demonstrate that the composite performance can be tailored by controlling the BP architecture and offer useful insights into the structure-property relationships of these materials to be used in electronic applications, particularly for EMI shielding and packaging of integrated circuits. PMID:24171494

  8. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  9. The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misman, M A; Azura, A R; Hamid, Z A A

    2015-09-01

    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ΔT was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade. PMID:26005134

  10. Synthesis of DNA Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Site-Specific 1,3-Butadiene- Deoxyadenosine Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Susith; Seiler, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Post-oligomerization synthesis is a useful technique for preparing site-specifically modified DNA oligomers. This approach involves site-specific incorporation of inherently reactive halogenated nucleobases into DNA strands using standard solid phase synthesis, followed by post-oligomerization nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reactions with carcinogen-derived synthons. In these reactions, the inherent reactivities of DNA and carcinogen-derived species are reversed: the modified DNA nucleobase acts as an electrophile, while the carcinogen-derived species acts as a nucleophile. In the present protocol, we describe the use of the post-oligomerization approach to prepare DNA strands containing site- and stereospecific N6-adenine and N1, N6-adenine adducts induced by epoxide metabolites of the known human and animal carcinogen, 1,3-butadiene (BD). The resulting oligomers containing site specific, structurally defined DNA adducts can be used in structural and biological studies to reveal the roles of specific BD adducts in carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. PMID:26344227

  11. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol functional group to enhance their dispersion in SBR matrix. Surface functionalization of the CNTs was carried out using acid treatment and FTIR technique was utilized so as to ascertain the presence of phenol functional group. This was followed with the dispersion of the functionalized CNTs into a polymer solution and a subsequent evaporation of the solvent. This study has demonstrated the inherent capability of CNTs as reinforcing filler as demonstrated by the substantial improvement in Young\\'s Modulus, tensile strength and energy of absorption of the nanocomposites. The tensile strength increased from 0.17 MPa (SBR) to 0.48 MPa while the Young\\'s Modulus increased from 0.25 MPa to 0.83 MPa when 10wt% functionalized CNTs was added. With the addition of 1wt% reinforcement-a peak value of 4.1 KJ energy absorption was obtained. The homogenous dispersion of CNT-Phenol is thought to be responsible for the considerable enhancement in the reported properties. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  12. FRACTAL CHARACTER OF PHASE MORPHOLOGY OF HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE/POLY(cis-BUTADIENE) RUBBER BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-yan Li; Yun-ping Han; Jing Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Evolution and fractal character of the phase morphology of high impact polystyrene/poly(cis-butadiene) rubber (HIPS/PcBR) blends during melting and mixing were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic length L was defined as the size of particles of the dispersed phase in blends. Different fractal dimensions, Df and Dm, were introduced to study the distribution width of phase dimensions in the dimensionless region and the uniformity of the spatial distribution of particles, respectively. The results showed that the average characteristic length Lm and Df increase as the volume fraction of the dispersed phase increases, when the volume fraction of the dispersed phase is lower than 50%. In other words, the size of particles increases and their distribution in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the uniformity of the spatial distribution becomes more perfect as the volume fraction increases. At a certain composition, Lm decreases in the initial stage of the mixing and levels off in the late stage. In the initial stage, Df becomes large rapidly with the process of blending, which means that the distribution of L in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution tends to be ideal rapidly in the early stage and fluctuates in a definite range in the late stage of the mixing.

  13. Viscoelastic properties of hydroxyl-terminated poly(butadiene based composite rocket propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzić Saša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the viscoelastic response of three composite solid propellants based on hydroxyl-terminated poly(butadiene, ammonium perchlorate and aluminum has been investigated. The investigation was surveyed by dynamic mechanical analysis over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The mechanical properties of these materials are related to the macromolecular structure of the binder as well as to the content and nature of solid fillers. The storage modulus, loss modulus, loss factor and glass transition temperature for each propellant sample have been evaluated. The master curves of storage (log G' vs log ω and loss modulus (log G'' vs log ω were generated for each propellant. A comparison of logaT vs temperature curves for all propellants indicate conformance to Williams-Landel-Ferry equation. Choosing the glass transition as the reference temperature, WLF equation constants are determined. Fractional free volume at the glass transition temperature and thermal coefficient of free volume expansion values are in accordance with the consideration that Al is reinforcing filler.

  14. THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND FLAMMABILITY OF ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-fang Tong; Hai-yun Ma; Zheng-ping Fang

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and flammability properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS) with the addition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were studied. ABS/MWNTs composites were prepared via melt blending with the MWNTs content varied from 0.2% to 4.0% by mass. Thermogravimetry results showed that the addition of MWNTs accelerated the degradation of ABS during the whole process under air atmosphere, and both onset and maximum degradation temperature were lower than those of pure ABS. The destabilization effect of MWNTs on the thermal stability of the composites became unobvious under nitrogen, and the addition of MWNTs could improve the maximum degradation temperature. The heat release rate and time of ignition (tign) for the composites reduced greatly with the addition of MWNTs especially when the concentration of nanotubes was higher than 1.0%. The accumulation of carbon nanotubes with a network structure was observed and the char layer became thicker with increasing nanotubes concentration. Results from Raman spectra showed a higher degree of graphitization for the residues of ABS/MWNTs composites.

  15. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, M.A., E-mail: mmansilla@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marzocca, A.J. [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  16. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baochun [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn; Lei Yanda; Chen Feng; Liu Xiaoliang; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2008-12-30

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through ZDMA and MAA intermediated linkages. ZDMA connects SBR and HNTs via grafting/complexation mechanism. MAA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA was achieved. Effects of MAA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of MAA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  17. MORPHOLOGY, INTERFACIAL INTERACTION AND PROPERTIES OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER/MODIFIED HALLOYSITE NANOTUBE NANOCOMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xin Jia; Yuan-fang Luo; Shu-yan Yang; Bao-chun Guo; Ming-liang Du; De-min Jia

    2009-01-01

    A natural nanotubular material, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was introduced to prepare styrene-butadiene rubber/modified halloysite nanotube (SBR/m-HNT) nanocomposites. Complex of resorcinol and hexamethylenetetramine (RH) was used as the interracial modifier. The structure, morphology and mechanical properties of SBR/m-HNT nanocomposites, especially the interfacial interactions, were investigated. SEM and TEM observations showed that RH can not only facilitate the dispersion and orientation of HNTs in SBR matrix at nanometer scale, but also enhance the interracial combination between HNTs and rubber matrix. FTIR and XPS investigations confirmed that a number of hydrogen bonds were formed between the phenol hydroxyl groups in resorcinol-formaldehyde resin derived from RH and the oxygen atoms in Si-O bonds or hydroxyl groups on HNTs surfaces. The m-HNTs modified with RH have significant reinforcing effect on SBR vulcanizates. RH as a good interfacial modifier can remarkably improve mechanical properties of SBR/HNT composites. The substantial improvement of comprehensive properties for SBR/m-HNT nanocomposites can be attributed to good dispersion and orientation of HNTs in SBR matrix at nanometer scale and the enhanced interracial interaction between HNTs and rubber matrix.

  18. Thermal Stability and Flammability of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber-Based (SBR Ceramifiable Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Anyszka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramifiable styrene-butadiene (SBR-based composites containing low-softening-point-temperature glassy frit promoting ceramification, precipitated silica, one of four thermally stable refractory fillers (halloysite, calcined kaolin, mica or wollastonite and a sulfur-based curing system were prepared. Kinetics of vulcanization and basic mechanical properties were analyzed and added as Supplementary Materials. Combustibility of the composites was measured by means of cone calorimetry. Their thermal properties were analyzed by means of thermogravimetry and specific heat capacity determination. Activation energy of thermal decomposition was calculated using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. Finally, compression strength of the composites after ceramification was measured and their micromorphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of a ceramification-facilitating system resulted in the lowering of combustibility and significant improvement of the thermal stability of the composites. Moreover, the compression strength of the mineral structure formed after ceramification is considerably high. The most promising refractory fillers for SBR-based ceramifiable composites are mica and halloysite.

  19. Application of Composite Powders Recycled from Graphite Tailings in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Yun; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng; Qin, Faxiang; Mei, Lefu; Wei, Yaozu

    2015-11-01

    With styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) as matrix and composite powders recycled from graphite tailings as fillers, the influence of the particle size and content of the composite powders on the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the composite powder-filled SBR were studied. The results showed that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings could reinforce SBR, whose tensile strength was significantly increased with reducing the particle size of the composite powder, but it had little effect on the conductivity of the system. With composite powders as fillers in conjunction with conductive carbon black, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of the system were greatly improved. The maximum tensile strength of the SBR filled with composite powder and conductive carbon black increased by 47% compared to that of the single composite powder-filled SBR. When the filling content of conductive carbon black was 10 phr and that of composite powder was above 30 phr, the volume resistivity of SBR showed a sharp decline, reaching a minimum about 106 Ω cm at 40 phr. All the results indicated that composite powder recycled from graphite tailings can be applied effectively as filler in SBR. It has great economic and environmental benefits.

  20. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  1. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  2. Effect of water on hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene over Au (1 1 1): A joint theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Weida; Zhao, Liang, E-mail: Liangzhao@cup.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Jinsen; Xu, Chunming

    2014-01-15

    The effect of water on the hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene over Au (1 1 1) was investigated based on density functional theory calculations and the results were compared with experimental study on the same reaction over Au/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by different methods. All possible adsorption sites and geometry structures of hydrogen, water and 1,3-butadiene on Au (1 1 1) were considered in the adsorption energy calculations to obtain the optimized adsorption modes. The hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene was found to be only feasible with dissociated H atoms adsorbed over Au (1 1 1). Our adsorption calculations suggest that H{sub 2}O tended to block the active sites and inhibited the adsorption step, fully consistent with the rapid 1,3-butadiene conversion drop from above 40% to below 10% at low water concentration (<1200 ppm) in experiments. The transition state calculations indicate that water had little impact on the reaction step given slight change of energy barrier from 0.62 eV to 0.55 eV for the major route. This result validated the experimental finding that the conversion of 1,3-butadiene on Au/γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts had only a slight decrease in a high water concentration range.

  3. 丙烯酰氯偶联活性丁苯共聚物%Coupling reaction of living butadiene-styrene copolymers coupled with acryloyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐日炜; 焦书科; 余鼎声; 张兴英; 侯元雪; 张洪敏

    2002-01-01

    以n-BuLi为引发剂,四氢呋喃(THF)为调节剂,环己烷为溶剂,采用丙烯酰氯为偶联剂对丁二烯-苯乙烯阴离子共聚体系进行偶联反应,详细考察了影响偶联反应的各种因素,如偶联剂用量、分子量、偶联反应时间、偶联反应温度、THF用量、末端基团、单体浓度等.结果表明,制备有较高相对臂数和偶联效率的溶液丁苯(SSBR)的偶联反应条件为[AC]/[BuLi]=0.7~5 (摩尔比),反应温度在50~60 ℃,反应时间60 min,THF/Li≤50(摩尔比),单体含量为12%(质量分数).

  4. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  5. Analysis of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and related compounds in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene (4-VC) in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide and an internal standard were added in a sealed headspace vial. The vial was incubated for 1 h at 90 degrees C and the headspace gas was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The recovery rates of the analytes were 93.3-101.8% and the coefficients of variation were 0.3-6.5%. In ABS copolymers, the levels were 0.3-50.4 microg/g for AN, ND-4.5 microg/g for PN, 0.06-1.58 microg/g for 1,3-BD, and 1.1-295 microg/g for 4-VC. The highest level was found for 4-VC, which is a dimer of 1,3-BD, and the next highest was for AN, which is one of the monomers of the ABS copolymer. Furthermore, the method was also applied to acrylonitrile-styrene (AS) copolymers and polystyrenes (PS) for kitchen utensils, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves. In AS copolymers, AN and PN were detected at 16.8-54.5 and 0.8-6.9 microg/g, respectively. On the other hand, the levels in PS and NBR samples were all low. PMID:21313827

  6. Synthesis and catalytic property of 1,3-butadiene of calixarene neodynium complex%杯芳烃钕配合物的合成及其催化丁二烯聚合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪旭峰; 张一烽; 沈之荃; 陶骏

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of calixarene neodynium complexes(C[4]NdCl,C[6]NdCl,C[8]Nd2Cl2) were synthesized. Polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with binary catalytic systems composed of calixarene neodynium/triisobutyl-aluminum and ternary catalytic system composed of calixarene neodynium, triisobutyl-aluminum, and a Lewis acid (Al2Et3Cl3 or Al(i-Bu)2Cl or PhCH2Cl) as the third component was studied. The binary catalysts were found to be active even in the absence of halogen source, the sequence of catalytic activity of calixarene neodynium complexes is C[8]Nd2Cl2>C[6]NdCl>C[4]NdCl. While the ternary system has higher activity especially using Al2Et3Cl3.as the third component, and the polymer obtained has higher cis-1,4 content. The effect of chloride sort and catalyst preparation mode, Cl/Nd ratio, and the reaction temperature on polymerization and polymer microstructure of ternary system use C[8]Nd2Cl2 was investigated. It was found that when Al2Et3Cl3 as the third component and Cl/Nd=1, the catalytic system has highest activity to polymerization of 1,3-butadiene. The cis-1,4 content of polybutadiene is decreased with the increase of reaction temperature. High cis-polybutadiene(96%) formed when polymerization was carried out at 5 ℃.%首次应用新型配体——杯芳烃.钕配合物与三异丁基铝构成催化体系催化丁二烯聚合。研究发现杯[6,8]芳烃钕/Al(i-Bu)3/汽油体系中,当Al/Nd=40~100,50℃时具有中等催化聚合活性,所制得聚丁二烯的粘均分子量为10~20万,顺-1,4结构含量为89%左右。添加适量Al2Et3Cl3,或Al(i-Bu)2Cl能提高催化活性。但不能提高顺-1,4结构含量。降低聚合反应温度,5℃聚合所得产物的顺-1,4结构含量可达96%。

  7. Synthesis of Ethylene or Propylene/1,3-Butadiene Copolymers Possessing Pendant Vinyl Groups with Virtually No Internal Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Michiue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymerizations provides copolymers possessing both pendant vinyls and vinylenes as olefinic moieties. We, at MCI, studied the substituent effects of C2-symmetric zirconocene complexes, rac-[Me2Si(Indenyl’2]ZrCl2 (Indenyl’ = generic substituted indenyl, after activation on the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes of the resultant copolymers. Complexes examined in this study were rac-dimethylsilylbis (1-indenylzirconium dichloride (1, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-methyl-4,5-benzoindenyl] zirconium dichloride (2, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-methyl -4-phenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (3, rac-dimethy1si1y1- bis(2-ethyl-4-phenylindenyl zirconium dichloride (4, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl -4-(1-naphthylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (5, rac-dimethylsilyl-[1-(2-ethyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [a]naphthalenylindenyl][1-(2-n-propyl-4-(5-(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a] naphthalenylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (6, rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[1-(2-ethyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (7, and rac-dimethylsilyl-bis[l-(2-n-propyl-4-(9-phenanthrylindenyl]zirconium dichloride (8. We found that the ratio of the pendant vinyls and vinylenes is strongly affected by the bulkiness of the substituent on the complexes examined. The vinyl content increased linearly in the following order, 8 > 7 > 6 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2 > 1. Notably, complex 8/DMAO formed ethylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers possessing predominant vinyl groups, which can be crucial precursors for functionalized polyolefins. Likewise, complex 8/DMAO afforded propylene/1,3-butadiene copolymers with predominant vinyl groups.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Polymersomes Composed of Poly(Butadiene-Ethylene Oxide); Healthy versus Tumor-Bearing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; de Kruijff, R M; Abou, D; Ramos, N; Mendes, E; Franken, L E; Wolterbeek, H T; Denkova, A G

    2016-02-01

    Vesicles composed of block copolymers (i.e., polymersomes) are one of the most versatile nano-carriers for medical purposes due to their tuneable physicochemical properties and the possibility to encapsulate simultaneously hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, allowing, for instance, the combination of therapy and imaging. In cancer treatment, these vesicles need to remain long enough in the blood stream to be sufficiently taken up by tumors. Here, we have investigated the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics of polymersomes, composed of poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) having dimensions around 80 nm. The polymersomes have been radiolabeled with ¹¹¹In via the so-called active loading method achieving a loading efficiency of 92.9 ± 0.9% with radionuclide retention in mouse serum of more than 95% at 24 h. The optimized ¹¹¹In containing polymersomes have been intravenously administered in healthy and tumor bearing mice for pharmacokinetic determination using microSPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). In healthy mice these polymersomes have been found to exhibit relatively long blood circulation (> 6 h), low liver uptake (6 ± 1.5%ID/g, 48 h p.i.) and elevated spleen uptake (188 ± 30%ID/g). The blood circulation in tumor bearing mice is dramatically reduced (< 1.5 h) most likely due to elevated splenic filtration, clearly indicating the importance of in vivo studies in diseased mice. Finally, the polymersomes have been injected subcutaneously in tumor bearing mice revealing retention of 77% in the mice, primarily accumulated at the site of injection, up to 48 hours after administration. PMID:27305765

  9. Glass Transition and Molecular Mobility in Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Modified Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz, Fardin; Khare, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Asphalt, a soft matter consisting of more than a thousand chemical species, is of vital importance for the transportation infrastructure, yet it poses significant challenges for microscopic theory and modeling approaches due to its multicomponent nature. Polymeric additives can potentially enhance the thermo-mechanical properties of asphalt, thus helping reduce the road repair costs; rational design of such systems requires knowledge of the molecular structure and dynamics of these systems. We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the volumetric, structural, and dynamic properties of the neat asphalt as well as styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt systems. The volume-temperature behavior of the asphalt systems exhibited a glass transition phenomenon, akin to that observed in experiments. The glass transition temperature, room temperature density, and coefficient of volume thermal expansion of the neat asphalt systems so evaluated were in agreement with experimental data when the effect of the high cooling rate used in simulations was accounted for. While the volumetric properties of SBR modified asphalt were found to be insensitive to the presence of the SBR additive, the addition of SBR led to an increase in the aggregation of asphaltene molecules. Furthermore, addition of SBR caused a reduction in the mobility of the constituent molecules of asphalt, with the reduction being more significant for the larger constituent molecules. Similar to other glass forming liquids, the reciprocal of the diffusion coefficient of the selected molecules was observed to follow the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) behavior as a function of temperature. These results suggest the potential for using polymeric additives for enhancing the dynamic mechanical properties of asphalt without affecting its volumetric properties. PMID:26451630

  10. Interaction of Chloroprene and Nitrile- Butadiene Rubber with Lubricating Greases and Base Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present communication addresses compatibility of two synthetic rubber types, chloroprene and nitrilebutadiene ones, with a number of base oils of petroleum origin and lubricating greases produced thereof. Four base oils,including three naphthenic products with varying degrees of refining and one paraffinic product,were compared with each other in terms of their effect on the rubbers. Degenerative changes occurring in the rubbers on contact with the oils and greases were studied using accelerated ageing tests. Alterations in rubber parameters, such as hardness, weight and glass transition temperature, caused by interaction with oil were monitored. The main physicochemical mechanisms standing behind the changes observed in the rubber properties were found to be (i) migration of plasticizer from rubber into the oil phase, (ii) absorption of oil by rubber,and (iii) oxidation of rubber. An increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) of rubber aged in a base oil or grease was considered as an indirect indication that the plasticizer had migrated out of rubber;the plasticizer accumulation in the oil phase being directly confirmed by gas chromatography. In order to suppress the plasticizer migration, oil additivation with dioctyl adipate (DOA), a common plasticizer used in rubber formulations, was attempted. However, the BOA-additivated oils, while reducing plasticizer migration, were found to cause more swelling than the original oils in the case of chloroprene rubber. As an alternative, replacement of BOA by an alkylated aryl phosphate in nitrile- butadiene rubber formulations was considered, but it did not solve the problem either.The results of this study suggest conclusively that the type of rubber, the plasticizer, and the base oil are all the crucial parameters that should be considered when matching rubber with oil in real- life applications. Interaction of rubber with base oils and with greases produced thereof is largely controlled by (i) solvency of the

  11. Mechanical performance of styrene-butadiene-rubber filled with carbon nanoparticles prepared by mechanical mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatchi, M.M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaei, A., E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We compare influence of carbon blacks and carbon nanotube on properties of SBR. {yields} We model mechanical behavior of SBR nanocomposites by the micromechanical model. {yields} Mechanical properties of carbon black/SBR is greatly dominated by bound rubber. {yields} Mechanical properties of SBR/nanotube is governed by big aspect ratio of nanotube. - Abstract: Reinforcement of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) was investigated using two different carbon blacks (CBs) with similar particle sizes, including highly structured CB and conventional CB, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) prepared by mechanical mixing. The attempts were made to examine reinforcing mechanism of these two different classes of carbon nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurement were used to investigate morphology. Tensile, cyclic tensile and stress relaxation analyses were performed. A modified Halpin-Tsai model based on the concept of an equivalent composite particle, consisting of rubber bound, occluded rubber and nanoparticle, was proposed. It was found that properties of CB filled SBR are significantly dominated by rubber shell and occluded rubber in which molecular mobility is strictly restricted. At low strains, these rubber constituents can contribute in hydrodynamic effects, leading to higher elastic modulus. However, at higher strains, they contribute in stress hardening resulting in higher elongation at break and higher tensile strength. These elastomeric regions can also influence stress relaxation behaviors of CB filled rubber. For SBR/MWCNT, the extremely great inherent mechanical properties of nanotube along with its big aspect ratio were postulated to be responsible for the reinforcement while their interfacial interaction was not so efficient.

  12. Measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in a single puff of cigarette smoke using lead-salt tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thweatt, W. Dave; Harward, Charles N., Sr.; Parrish, Milton E.

    2007-05-01

    Acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in cigarette smoke generally are measured using two separate analytical methods, a carbonyl derivative HPLC method for acrolein and a volatile organic compound (VOC) GC/MS method for 1,3-butadiene. However, a single analytical method having improved sensitivity and real-time per puff measurement will offer more specific information for evaluating experimental carbon filtered cigarettes designed to reduce the smoke deliveries of these constituents. This paper describes an infrared technique using two lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDLs) operating with liquid nitrogen cooling with emissions at 958.8 cm -1 and 891.0 cm -1 respectively for the simultaneous measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene, respectively, in each puff of mainstream cigarette smoke in real time. The dual TDL system uses a 3.1 l volume, 100 m astigmatic multiple pass absorption gas cell. Quantitation is based on a spectral fit that uses previously determined infrared molecular line parameters generated in our laboratory, including line positions, line strengths and nitrogen-broadened half-widths for these species. Since acrolein and ethylene absorption lines overlap and 1,3-butadiene, ethylene and propylene absorption lines overlap, the per puff deliveries of ethylene and propylene were determined since their overlapping absorption lines must be taken into account by the spectral fit. The acrolein and 1,3-butadiene total cigarette deliveries for the 1R5F Kentucky Reference cigarette were in agreement with the HPLC and GC/MS methods, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) for 1,3-butadiene and acrolein was 4 ng/puff and 24 ng/puff, respectively, which is more than adequate to determine at which puff they break through the carbon filter. The retention and breakthrough behavior for the two primary smoke constituents depend on the cigarette design and characteristics of the carbon filter being evaluated.

  13. Ethanol-to-Butadiene Conversion over SiO2-MgO Catalysts: Synthesis-Structure-Performance Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Angelici, C.

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this PhD Thesis provides new insights into the underlying reasons that make SiO2-MgO materials excellent catalysts for the ethanol-to-butadiene Lebedev process. In particular, the preparation technique of choice affects the structural properties of the resulting SiO2-MgO materials considerably and therefore the distribution, i.e. nature and amount, of acidic-basic sites. Given the complex cascade of elementary steps required, striking a precise balance in the latter is k...

  14. Stepwise Swelling of a Thin Film of Lamellae-Forming Poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in Cyclohexane Vapor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di, Zhenyu; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.;

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after each...... normal has a sharp maximum. These observations point to the formation of new lamellae. During the subsequent swelling steps, the lamellar thickness overshoots only weakly. The behavior thus resembles qualitatively our previous results on a similar thin film during swelling in saturated vapor...

  15. VAPOR-PHASE CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF ETHANOL INTO 1,3-BUTADIENE ON Cr-Ba/MCM-41 CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    N. La-Salvia; J. J. Lovón-Quintana; G.P. VALENÇA

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAl-MCM-41, 16%Ba/Al-MCM-41 and 1.4%Cr-16%Ba/Al-MCM-41 were used as catalysts in the vapor-phase catalytic conversion of ethanol. Physical-chemical properties of the catalysts and the effect of barium and chromium on the Al-MCM-41 activity and 1,3-butadiene yield were studied. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption (BET method), CO2chemisorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). When ethanol was completely converted on Al-MCM-41...

  16. Influence of acid-base properties on the Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process catalyzed by SiO2-MgO materials

    OpenAIRE

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E. Z.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process entails a complex chain of reactions that require catalysts to possess a subtle balance in the number and strength of acidic and basic sites. SiO2-MgO materials can be excellent Lebedev catalysts if properly prepared, as catalyst performance has been found to depend significantly on the synthesis method. To assess the specific requirements for butadiene production in terms of active sites and to link their presence to the specific preparation method ap...

  17. Comparison between phosphine and NHC-modified Pd catalysts in the telomerization of butadiene with methanol – a kinetic study combined with model-based experimental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hopf, Lisa; Recker, Sebastian; Niedermaier, Matthias; Kiermaier, Stephan; Strobel, Vinzent; Maschmeyer, Dietrich; Cole-Hamilton, David; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Wasserscheid, Peter; Haumann, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The authors thank the European Community within its project SYNFLOW (FP7; grant agreement n8 NMP2-LA-2010-246461) for financial support. The telomerization of butadiene with methanol was investigated in the presence of different palladium catalysts modified either with triphenylphosphine (TPP) or 1,3-dimesityl-imidazol-2-ylidene (IMes) ligand. When pure butadiene was used as substrate, a moderate selectivity for the Pd-TPP catalyst toward the desired product 1-methoxy-2,7-octadiene (1-Mode...

  18. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  20. Low-temperature 1 3-butadiene Hydrogenation over Supported Pt/3d/gamma-Al2O3 Bimetallic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Lonergan; X Xing; R Zheng; S Qi; B Huang; J Chen

    2011-12-31

    Low-temperature 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation is used as a probe reaction to investigate the hydrogenation activity over several {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Pt/3d (3d = Co, Ni, Cu) bimetallic catalysts. Batch and flow reactor studies are employed to quantify the kinetic activity and steady-state conversion, respectively, of each catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is utilized to characterize particle sizes and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements are performed to verify the Pt-3d bimetallic bond formation. Pulse carbon monoxide chemisorption measurements are also performed to characterize the number of active sites. Additionally, density functional theory (DFT) calculations are included to determine the binding energies of 1,3-butadiene and atomic hydrogen on the corresponding model surfaces. The binding energies of the adsorbates are found to correlate with the hydrogenation activity, allowing for use of such correlation to potentially predict hydrogenation catalysts with enhanced activity based on the binding energies of the adsorbates of interest.

  1. Analysis of recycled poly (styrene-co-butadiene) sulfonation: a new approach in solid catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Garnica, Efrén; Paredes-Casillas, Mario; Herrera-Larrasilla, Tito E; Rodríguez-Palomera, Felicia; Ramírez-Arreola, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of solid waste is a serious problem worldwide that is made worse in developing countries due to inadequate planning and unsustainable solid waste management. In Mexico, only 2% of total urban solid waste is recycled. One non-recyclable material is poly (styrene-co-butadiene), which is commonly used in consumer products (like components of appliances and toys), in the automotive industry (in instrument panels) and in food services (e.g. hot and cold drinking cups and glasses). In this paper, a lab-scale strategy is proposed for recycling poly (styrene-co-butadiene) waste by sulfonation with fuming sulfuric acid. Tests of the sulfonation strategy were carried out at various reaction conditions. The results show that 75°C and 2.5 h are the operating conditions that maximize the sulfonation level expressed as number of acid sites. The modified resin is tested as a heterogeneous catalyst in the first step (known as esterification) of biodiesel production from a mixture containing tallow fat and canola oil with 59% of free fatty acids. The preliminary results show that esterification can reach 91% conversion in the presence of the sulfonated polymeric catalyst compared with 67% conversion when the reaction is performed without catalyst. PMID:24098857

  2. Inhalation toxicity studies with 1,3-butadiene 3 two year toxicity/carcinogenicity study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.E.; Glaister, J.R.; Gaunt, I.F.; Pullinger, D.H.

    1987-05-01

    Groups of 110 male and 110 female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were exposed to atmospheres containing 0 (control), 1000 or 8000 ppm v/v butadiene for 6 hr/day and 5 days/week. Ten of each sex from each group were killed at 52 weeks. The study was terminated when it was predicted that survival would drop to 20% to 25%. High dose rats had wet, ruffled fur and showed slight incoordination during the first exposure each week. During the second year, mortality in both treated female groups was increased because of humanitarian sacrifice of animals with large subcutaneous masses, while increased mortality in the high dose males was accompanied by an increase of the severity of nephropathy. Body weight was slightly lower than controls in both sexes at the high dose, but statistically significant only over the first 12 weeks. There were no effects in hematological analyses or tests of neuromuscular function that definitely could be associated with treatment. Liver weights at both doses were increased in both sexes with no associated pathological change. Kidney weight was increased in males at the high dose, together with an increase in the severity of nephrosis. There were increases in the incidences of pancreatic exocrine adenoma; uterine sarcoma; Zymbal gland carcinoma; mammary tumors; thyroid follicular cell tumors; and testis Leydig-cell tumors. These data suggest the butadiene is a weak oncogen to the rat under the conditions of exposure used in this study.

  3. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  4. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  5. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Gai-Fei Peng; Nai-Qian Feng; Qi-Ming Song

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage...

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  7. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  8. Inner Stucture of Thin Films of Lamellar Poly(styrene-b-butadiene) Diblock Copolymers as revealed by Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias;

    2007-01-01

    The lamellar orientation in supported, thin films of poly(styrene-b-butadiene) (P(S-b-B)) depends on block copolymer molar mass. We have studied films from nine block copolymer samples with molar masses between 13.9 and 183 kg/mol using grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and ...

  9. Influence of acid-base properties on the Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process catalyzed by SiO2-MgO materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E. Z.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process entails a complex chain of reactions that require catalysts to possess a subtle balance in the number and strength of acidic and basic sites. SiO2-MgO materials can be excellent Lebedev catalysts if properly prepared, as catalyst performance has been found to

  10. EFFECT OF AMPHIPHILIC POLY (STYRENE-B-ETHYLENE OXIDE) DIBLOCK COPOLYMER INTERCALATED LAYERED SILICATE AS FILLER ON ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Tianying; Zhang Jie; Hao Guangjie; Song Moudao; Zhang Banghua

    2003-01-01

    The diblock copolymers intercalated layered silicate was prepared via a melt dispersion technique. Then the effect of intercalated hybrid as filler on acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene resin was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, stress-strain measurements in elongation.

  11. Reaction pathways by quantum Monte Carlo: Insight on the torsion barrier of 1,3-butadiene, and the conrotatory ring opening of cyclobutene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barborini, Matteo; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2012-12-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are used to investigate the intramolecular reaction pathways of 1,3-butadiene. The ground state geometries of the three conformers s-trans, s-cis, and gauche, as well as the cyclobutene structure are fully optimised at the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) level, obtaining an excellent agreement with the experimental results and other quantum chemistry high level calculations. Transition state geometries are also estimated at the VMC level for the s-trans to gauche torsion barrier of 1,3-butadiene and for the conrotatory ring opening of cyclobutene to the gauche-1,3-butadiene conformer. The energies of the conformers and the reaction barriers are calculated at both variational and diffusional Monte Carlo levels providing a precise picture of the potential energy surface of 1,3-butadiene and supporting one of the two model profiles recently obtained by Raman spectroscopy [Boopalachandran et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 8920 (2011), 10.1021/jp2051596]. Considering the good scaling of QMC techniques with the system's size, our results also demonstrate how variational Monte Carlo calculations can be applied in the future to properly investigate the reaction pathways of large and correlated molecular systems.

  12. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  13. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  14. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  15. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  16. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Y.; Graaf, de D.B.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference electr

  17. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  18. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  19. Pathway and Surface Mechanism Studies of 1,3-butadiene Selective Oxidation Over Vanadium-Molybdenum-Oxygen Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William David Schroeder

    2002-05-27

    The partial oxidation of 1,3-butadiene has been investigated over VMoO catalysts synthesized by sol-gel techniques. Surface areas were 9-14 m{sup 2}/g, and compositions were within the solid solution regime, i.e. below 15.0 mol % MoO{sub 3}/(MoO{sub 3} + V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). Laser Raman Spectroscopy and XRD data indicated that solid solutions were formed, and pre- and post-reaction XPS data indicated that catalyst surfaces contained some V{sup +4} and were further reduced in 1,3-butadiene oxidation. A reaction pathway for 1,3-butadiene partial oxidation to maleic anhydride was shown to involve intermediates such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, crotonaldehyde, furan, and 2-butene-1,4-dial. The addition of water to the reaction stream substantially increased catalyst activity and improved selectivity to crotonaldehyde and furan at specific reaction temperatures. At higher water addition concentrations, furan selectivity increased from 12% to over 25%. The catalytic effects of water addition were related to competitive adsorption with various V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based surface sites, including the vanadyl V=O, corner sharing V-O-V and edge sharing V-O oxygen. Higher levels of water addition were proposed to impose acidic character by dissociative adsorption. In addition, a novel combinatorial synthesis technique for VMoO was used to investigate the phase transitions of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, solid solutions of Mo in V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, V{sub 9}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 40}, and other reduced VMoO compounds, characterized by laser Raman spectroscopy. The natural composition gradient imposed by the sputter deposition apparatus was used to create VMoO arrays containing 225 samples ranging from 7.0-42 mol% MoO{sub 3}/(V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + MoO{sub 3}), determined by EDS analysis.

  20. Carbon Nanotube-thermally Reduced Graphene Hybrid/Styrene Butadiene Rubber Nano Composites: Mechanical, Morphological and Dielectric Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Styrene Butadiene Rubber composites with mixture of carbon nanotube and thermally reduced graphene were prepared and morphological, mechanical and dielectric properties of the composites were studied. Aim of this study is to understand the dispersion and reinforcement behaviour of hybrid filler in rubber matrix. Improved mechanical properties in the presence of graphene are due to the good dispersion and improved compatibility with the matrix. The formation of a mixed filler network showed a synergistic effect on the improvement of electrical as well as various mechanical properties. This method provides a simple route to enhance the dispersion of carbon nanotubes and to improve the electrical property of the polymer composites. It is concluded that introduction of thermally reduced graphene to CNT-SBR composites can improve the mechanical properties of the composites up to an optimum concentration of the graphene after that performance will be diminished due to the agglomeration of graphene.

  1. Processing of styrene butadiene rubber-carbon black nanocomposites with gradation of crosslink density: Static and dynamic mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of sulfur and accelerator were varied in the nanocomposites of carbon black (CB)-filled styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix to introduce the gradation of the crosslink density. These curatives were varied from 1 to 11 phr (per hundred rubber) along the span of 3-mm thick sheet using the construction-based layering method. The static and dynamic mechanical characterizations of these functionally graded polymeric nanocomposites (FGPNCs) were carried out. With increasing crosslink density along thickness, hardness and modulus increase while the ultimate properties like tensile strength and elongation at break droop down. The dynamic mechanical analysis of FGPNCs exhibits the increment in the storage modulus than the uniformly dispersed polymeric nanocomposites (UDPNCs) employing the same average amount of curatives. The peak position of tan δmax remains at the same temperature while the value mitigates in FGPNCs. In FGPNCs, tan δ peak intimates the broadness in the transition region

  2. Processing of styrene butadiene rubber-carbon black nanocomposites with gradation of crosslink density: Static and dynamic mechanical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahankari, S.S. [Advanced Nano Engineering Materials Laboratory, Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Kar, Kamal K. [Advanced Nano Engineering Materials Laboratory, Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Advanced Nano Engineering Materials Laboratory, Materials Science Programme and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)], E-mail: kamalkk@iitk.ac.in

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of sulfur and accelerator were varied in the nanocomposites of carbon black (CB)-filled styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix to introduce the gradation of the crosslink density. These curatives were varied from 1 to 11 phr (per hundred rubber) along the span of 3-mm thick sheet using the construction-based layering method. The static and dynamic mechanical characterizations of these functionally graded polymeric nanocomposites (FGPNCs) were carried out. With increasing crosslink density along thickness, hardness and modulus increase while the ultimate properties like tensile strength and elongation at break droop down. The dynamic mechanical analysis of FGPNCs exhibits the increment in the storage modulus than the uniformly dispersed polymeric nanocomposites (UDPNCs) employing the same average amount of curatives. The peak position of tan {delta}{sub max} remains at the same temperature while the value mitigates in FGPNCs. In FGPNCs, tan {delta} peak intimates the broadness in the transition region.

  3. Comparison of nano CaCO{sub 3} and flyash filled with styrene butadiene rubber on mechanical and thermal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Mishra; N.G. Shimpi

    2005-10-01

    Different particle sizes (21, 15, 9 nm) of CaCO{sub 3} were synthesized by in-situ deposition technique and confirmed by X-ray diffraction method. The nano CaCO{sub 3} was added from 0.1 wt % to 0.5 wt % in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). Rubber nanocomposties were compounded on two-roll mill and molded in compression molding machine. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus at 300 % elongation, hardness, specific gravity, swelling index, flame retardency and abrasion resistance were studied. These results were compared with flyash filled SBR. There was an improvement in properties of rubber nanocomposites because of uniform dispersion of nano CaCO{sub 3} particles in the matrix that intercalates the rubber chains. Hence degree of crosslinking increases multifold in comparison to commercial CaCO{sub 3} and flyash.

  4. Study of the reinforcement of rubber styrene-butadiene with mesoporous silices by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge about the interaction rubber/filler for the rubber reinforced with carbon black of silica is important to understand the physical properties, which determine the reinforcement. This paper presents a comparative study of the interactions between styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silica for a silica Ultrasil type and mesoporous silica MCM-41 type prepared by different procedures, based on solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: 1H MAS NMR; 13C MAS NMR, 13C CP/MAS, 29Si MAS and 29Si CP/MAS NMR. Mesoporous silica synthesized under certain specific conditions showed better interaction with the rubber than the ultrasil VN3 silica, commonly used as a reinforcement load. Mechanical tests for the SBR vulcanised with this silica indicate an important increase for values of elongation and tearing resistance, but an increase in the vulcanization time in it is compared with the SBR vulcanise with Ultrasil

  5. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  6. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  7. OSHA's approach to risk assessment for setting a revised occupational exposure standard for 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1990-06-01

    In its 1980 benzene decision [Industrial Union Department, ALF-CIO v. American Petroleum Institute, 448 U.S. 607 (1980)], the Supreme Court ruled that "before he can promulgate any permanent health or safety standard, the Secretary [of Labor] is required to make a threshold finding that a place of employment is unsafe--in the sense that significant risks are present and can be lessened by a change in practices" (448 U.S. at 642). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has interpreted this to mean that whenever possible, it must quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to a toxic substance at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL). If OSHA determines that there is significant risk to workers' health at its current standard, then it must quantify the risk associated with a variety of alternative standards to determine at what level, if any, occupational exposure to a substance no longer poses a significant risk. For rulemaking on occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene, there are two studies that are suitable for quantitative risk assessment. One is a mouse inhalation bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the other is a rat inhalation bioassay conducted by Hazelton Laboratories Europe. Of the four risk assessments that have been submitted to OSHA, all four have used the mouse and/or rat data with a variety of models to quantify the risk associated with occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. In addition, OSHA has performed its own risk assessment using the female mouse and female rat data and the one-hit and multistage models.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2401254

  8. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  9. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used......In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...

  10. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  11. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata;

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  12. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  13. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  14. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  15. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  16. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  17. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  18. Influência do agente de cloração do catalisador à base de veodímio e da razão molar Cl: Nd na polimerização do butadieno Influence of the chlorinating agent of neodymium based catalysts and Cl: Nd molar ratio on butadiene polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia N. Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizado um sistema catalítico composto por hidreto de diisobutilalumínio (DIBAH, versatato de neodímio (NdV e um agente de cloração para avaliar a influência da fonte de cloro e da razão molar Cl:Nd nas características da reação de polimerização (conversão e constante de velocidade de propagação e do polibutadieno (massa molecular e microestrutura. Os agentes de cloração estudados foram cloreto de t-butila (t-BuCl, sesquicloreto de etilalumínio (EASC e cloreto de dietilalumínio (DEAC. As razões molares Cl:Nd utilizadas foram: 1:1, 3:1 e 5:1 para o t-BuCl; 0,5:1, 1:1 e 3:1 para o EASC e 1:1, 1,5:1, 3:1 e 5:1 para o DEAC. Foi observada a existência, para cada agente de cloração, de um valor ótimo de razão molar Cl:Nd para o qual a conversão foi máxima. O DEAC apresentou uma maior conversão em relação aos outros agentes de cloração; em contrapartida, o t-BuCl produziu polibutadienos com maior teor de unidades 1,4-cis e maior massa molecular (n e wIn this work catalyst systems consisting of diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAH, neodymium versatate (NdV and a chlorinating agent were employed to study the influence of the chloride source and Cl:Nd molar ratio on 1,3-butadiene polymerization and polybutadiene's characteristics (molecular weight and microstructure. The chloride sources studied were t-butyl chloride, ethylaluminium sesquichloride (EASC and diethylaluminium chloride (DEAC. The Cl:Nd molar ratios used were 1:1, 3:1 e 5:1 for t-butyl chloride; 0.5:1, 1:1 and 3:1 for EASC and 1:1, 1.5:1, 3:1 and 5:1 for DEAC. A maximum value of Cl:Nd molar ratio exists. Moreover, DEAC showed to be more reactive than EASC and t-BuCl but t-BuCl produced higher molecular weight and cis-1,4 units contents.

  19. Single-Atom Pd₁/Graphene Catalyst Achieved by Atomic Layer Deposition: Remarkable Performance in Selective Hydrogenation of 1,3-Butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huan; Cheng, Hao; Yi, Hong; Lin, Yue; Yao, Tao; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Junjie; Wei, Shiqiang; Lu, Junling

    2015-08-26

    We reported that atomically dispersed Pd on graphene can be fabricated using the atomic layer deposition technique. Aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy both confirmed that isolated Pd single atoms dominantly existed on the graphene support. In selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene, the single-atom Pd1/graphene catalyst showed about 100% butenes selectivity at 95% conversion at a mild reaction condition of about 50 °C, which is likely due to the changes of 1,3-butadiene adsorption mode and enhanced steric effect on the isolated Pd atoms. More importantly, excellent durability against deactivation via either aggregation of metal atoms or carbonaceous deposits during a total 100 h of reaction time on stream was achieved. Therefore, the single-atom catalysts may open up more opportunities to optimize the activity, selectivity, and durability in selective hydrogenation reactions. PMID:26268551

  20. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  1. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  2. VUV-Vis optical characterization of Tetraphenyl-butadiene films on glass and specular reflector substrates from room to liquid Argon temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Francini, R.; Montereali, R. M.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Canci, N.; Segreto, E.; F. Cavanna; Di Pompeo, F.; Carbonara, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Perfetto, F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of efficient wavelength-shifters from the vacuum-ultraviolet to the photosensor's range of sensitivity is a key feature in detectors for Dark Matter search and neutrino physics based on liquid argon scintillation detection. Thin film of Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) deposited onto the surface delimiting the active volume of the detector and/or onto the photosensor optical window is the most common solution in current and planned experiments. Detector design and response can be evaluated...

  3. Synthesis of oxa-bridged derivatives from Diels–Alder bis-adducts of butadiene and 1,2,3,4-tetrahalo-5,5-dimethoxycyclopentadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmed Khan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis-adducts of 1,2,3,4-tetrahalo-5,5-dimethoxycyclopentadiene and 1,3-butadiene, generated in situ from 3-sulfolene, have been synthesized in excellent yield. Ruthenium catalyzed oxidation of the bis-adducts followed by a one-pot transformation of the resulting α-diketone furnished oxa-bridged compounds. Unambiguous stereochemical assignments of both diastereomeric series are reported.

  4. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  5. Production,research and development of oil-extended styrene-butadiene rubber%充油丁苯橡胶生产及研发现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉光; 王玉瑛; 李树丰

    2011-01-01

    充油丁苯橡胶具有加工性能好、生热低、低温挠屈性好等特点,尤其用于胎面胶时,具有优异的牵引性能和耐磨耗性,在乳聚丁苯橡胶(ESBR)的生产中占据重要位置.本文概述了目前国内充油丁苯橡胶的生产及消费情况,并对国内充油丁苯橡胶的研发现状进行了小结,对充油丁苯橡胶的发展提出了建议.%Oil-extended styrene-butadiene rubber is a leading rubber during ESBR production because of its good processability, low heat generation, cold flexibility, especially excellent traction and abrasion loss as tread rubber. This paper briefly describes production, consumption, research and development of oil-extended styrene-butadiene rubber in China, and proposes some advices on oil-extended styrene-butadiene rubber development.

  6. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  7. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  8. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  9. Vibrational quasi-degenerate perturbation theory with optimized coordinates: applications to ethylene and trans-1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kiyoshi; Otaki, Hiroki

    2014-02-28

    A perturbative extension to optimized coordinate vibrational self-consistent field (oc-VSCF) is proposed based on the quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT). A scheme to construct the degenerate space (P space) is developed, which incorporates degenerate configurations and alleviates the divergence of perturbative expansion due to localized coordinates in oc-VSCF (e.g., local O-H stretching modes of water). An efficient configuration selection scheme is also implemented, which screens out the Hamiltonian matrix element between the P space configuration (p) and the complementary Q space configuration (q) based on a difference in their quantum numbers (λpq = ∑s|ps - qs|). It is demonstrated that the second-order vibrational QDPT based on optimized coordinates (oc-VQDPT2) smoothly converges with respect to the order of the mode coupling, and outperforms the conventional one based on normal coordinates. Furthermore, an improved, fast algorithm is developed for optimizing the coordinates. First, the minimization of the VSCF energy is conducted in a restricted parameter space, in which only a portion of pairs of coordinates is selectively transformed. A rational index is devised for this purpose, which identifies the important coordinate pairs to mix from others that may remain unchanged based on the magnitude of harmonic coupling induced by the transformation. Second, a cubic force field (CFF) is employed in place of a quartic force field, which bypasses intensive procedures that arise due to the presence of the fourth-order force constants. It is found that oc-VSCF based on CFF together with the pair selection scheme yields the coordinates similar in character to the conventional ones such that the final vibrational energy is affected very little while gaining an order of magnitude acceleration. The proposed method is applied to ethylene and trans-1,3-butadiene. An accurate, multi-resolution potential, which combines the MP2 and coupled-cluster with singles

  10. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  11. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  12. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrohydroxyalkylation of Butadiene: The Role of the Formyl Hydrogen Bond in Stereochemical Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Matthew N.; Krische, Michael J.; Houk, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    The catalyst generated in situ from RuH2(CO)(PPh3)3, (S)-SEGPHOS, and a chiral phosphoric acid promotes asymmetric hydrohydroxyalkylation of butadiene and affords enantioenriched α-methyl homoallylic alcohols. The observed diastereo- and enantioselectivities are determined by both the chiral phosphine and chiral phosphate ligands. Density functional theory calculations (M06/SDD-6-311G(d,p)-IEFPCM(acetone)//B3LYP/SDD-6-31G(d)) predict that the product distribution is controlled by the kinetics of carbon-carbon bond formation, and this process occurs via a closed-chair Zimmerman-Traxler-type transition structure (TS). Chiral phosphate-dependent stereoselectivity arising from this TS is enabled through a hydrogen bond between the phosphoryl oxygen and the aldehyde formyl proton present in TADDOL-derived catalysts. This interaction is absent in the corresponding BINOL-derived systems and the opposite sense of attack on the aldehyde occurs. Additional factors influencing stereochemical control are determined. PMID:26107070

  13. Plane-interface-induced lignin-based nanosheets and its reinforcing effect on styrene-butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lignin was viewed as a spherical microgel in aqueous alkali. While spread out in a monolayer or adsorbed on a surface, lignin was made up of flexible, disk-like molecules with approximately the same thickness of 2 nm. According to this principle, we employed the lamina of montmorillonite (MMT as a plane template to anchor cationic lignin (CL on its two sides, resulting in the formation of CL-MMT hybrid materials (CLM. The isotherm adsorption behavior and structure characteristics of CLM were studied. The results showed that CLM was individually dispersed nanosheets with a thickness of about 5 nm when the mass ratio of CL to MMT is more than 2:1 and prepared at acidic or neutral pH. Compared to the cocoagulation of lignin and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, CLM obviously accelerated the coagulation rate, due to the reduction of surface activity of CL restricted by MMT. The nanoscale dispersion of CLM in SBR matrix significantly improved the tensile strength of CLM/SBR nanocomposites to 14.1 MPa by adding only 10 phr CLM and cardanol glycidyl ether (CGE as compatibilizer. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA showed that the glass transition temperature of SBR/CLM nanocomposites decreased with increasing CLM loading. Correspondingly, a special interfacial structure was proposed.

  14. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  15. Characterization on the phase separation behavior of styrene-butadiene rubber/polyisoprene/organoclay ternary blends under oscillatory shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianggui; Dong, Xia; Liu, Wei; Xing, Qian; Zou, Fasheng; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin; Liang, Aimin; Li, Chuanqing; Xie, Ximing

    2015-09-01

    The present work investigated the influence of organoclay (organo-montmorillonite, OMMT) on the phase separation behavior and morphology evolution of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR)/low vinyl content polyisoprene (LPI) blends with rheological methodology. It was found that the incorporation of OMMT not only reduced the droplet size of the dispersion phase, slowed down the phase separation kinetics, also enlarged the processing miscibility window of the blends. The determination on the wetting parameters indicated that due to the oscillatory shear effect, the OMMT sheets might localize at the interface between the two phases and act as compatibilizer or rigid barrier to prevent domain coarsening, resulting in slow phase separation kinetics, small droplet size, and stable morphology. The analysis of rheological data by the Palierne model provided further confirmation that the addition of OMMT can decrease the interfacial tension and restrict the relaxation of melt droplets. Therefore, a vivid "sea-fish-net" model was proposed to describe the effect of OMMT on the phase separation behavior of SSBR/LPI blends, in which the OMMT sheets acted as the barrier (net) to slow down the domain coarsening/coalescence in phase separation process of SSBR/LPI blends.

  16. Stepwise swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b- butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Zhenyu

    2012-06-26

    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after each step were followed in situ using time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). During the first step, the lamellar thickness increases strongly, before it decreases again. At the same time, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the diffuse Bragg reflection along the film normal has a sharp maximum. These observations point to the formation of new lamellae. During the subsequent swelling steps, the lamellar thickness overshoots only weakly. The behavior thus resembles qualitatively our previous results on a similar thin film during swelling in saturated vapor of cyclohexane; however, it deviates from earlier theoretical predictions. We propose a theory that is quantitatively correct for the description of the dependence of the lamellar thickness on the polymer volume fraction in the late stage of the swelling steps. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Isolation of the {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.-C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Shalu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chunchin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw; Lee, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2007-06-25

    {epsilon}-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate {epsilon}-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating {epsilon}-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539 mg/l {epsilon}-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete {epsilon}-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences.

  18. Isolation of the epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Lee, Chi-Mei

    2007-06-25

    epsilon-Caprolactam has high COD and toxicity, so its discharge to natural water and soil systems may lead to an adverse environmental effect on water quality, endangering public health and welfare. This investigation attempts to isolate epsilon-caprolactam denitrifying bacteria from a wastewater treatment system manufactured with acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin. The goal is to elucidate the effectiveness of isolated pure strain and ABS mixed strains in treating epsilon-caprolactam from synthetic wastewater. The results reveal that Paracoccus versutus MDC-3 was isolated from the wastewater treatment system manufactured with ABS resin. The ABS mixed strains and P. versutus MDC-3 can consume up to 1539mg/l epsilon-caprolactam to denitrify from synthetic wastewater. Complete epsilon-caprolactam removal depended on the supply of sufficient electron acceptors (nitrate). Strain P. versutus MDC-3, Hyphomicrobium sp. HM, Methylosinus pucelana and Magnetospirillum sp. CC-26 are related closely, according to the phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences. PMID:17161908

  19. Reclamation of post-consumer plastics for development of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene based nanocomposites with nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicans, Janis; Meri, Remo Merijs; Ivanova, Tatjana; Berzina, Rita; Saldabola, Ruuta; Maksimov, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Suitability of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (R-ABS) and recycled polycarbonate (R-PC) for the development of polymer matrix nanocomposites with organically modified nanoclay (OMMT) is evaluated in comparison to virgin polymers (V-ABS and V-PC) based systems. The influence of OMMT content on the structure as well as calorimetric, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin and recycled polymers containing systems is revealed. Increase in stiffness and strength of virgin and recycled polymers based systems is observed along with rising nanoclay content. However, it is observed that reinforcing efficiency of clays on the R-ABS containing systems is reduced to certain extent in comparison to those, based on virgin polymers. It is shown, that in the presence of OMMT approximation of glass transition temperatures of both polymeric components is observed, which can testify about certain improvement of compatibility between PC and ABS. Increment of the modulus of elasticity and yield strength of the nanocomposites is associated with anisodiametric shape of OMMT, as well as with intercalation of polymer within the interlaminar space of the clay nanoparticles. It is also demonstrated that addition of nanoclay improves thermogravimetric behavior of the investigated compositions. Consequently, it is suggested that nanoclays can be used as promising functional additives and replace halogenated flame-retardants, without reducing mechanical properties of the composites.

  20. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neha; Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E.

    2016-05-01

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS2) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS2 and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS2 and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  1. Trans-1,4 selective polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with symmetry pincer chromium complexes activated by MMAO

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-09-01

    Tridentate chromium complexes (Cr1-Cr7) incorporated with symmetrical pincer ligand bis(arylimino)pyridine and bis(pyrzaolyl)pyridine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyis, FT-IR as well as ESI-MS. X-ray diffraction reveals solids-state structures of Cr2, Cr4 and Cr6 all adopt pseudo-octahedral coordination environment with respect to metal center. All complexes have been tested in stereoregulated polymerization of butadiene under various polymerization conditions. The trans-1,4 and cis-1,4 enchainment of resultant polymer are found to be dependent on the structure of ligand and amount of activator used. Under the optimized condition, free ortho-substitutes Cr catalysts Cr1, Cr3, Cr4 and Cr6 are capable of initiating high trans-1,4 selectivity (trans-1,4: 89.2%-92.0%) with good polymer yields (71.5%-78.0%), while counterparts with ortho-positioned alkyl groups Cr2, Cr5 and Cr7 display mixed selectivities with moderate polymer yields. The sterical effect of ligand and amount of MMAO on the catalytic performance, in particular, the stereoselectivity and polymer yield, has been also elucidated by conjugated diene polymerization mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Wavelength-shifting materials for the use in RICH detectors - p-terphenyl and tetraphenyl-butadiene revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Koczon, P; Joram, C; Solevi, P; D¨urr, M; H¨ohne, C

    2010-01-01

    P-terphenyl (PT) and tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) in form of thin films have been investigated as possible wavelength shifting material for application in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. Films of dierent thickness were evaporated onto borosilicate windows of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and the quantum eciency of the modified PMTs was determined as a function of wavelength. Gain factors for the number of measured photoelectrons in dependence on the cuto wavelength (energy) for application in Cherenkov counters were established. Using PT, a strong increase in quantum eciency between 200 nm and 300 nm was observed leading to gain factors as high as 1.71 ± 0.11 for a cutoff energy of 6.2 eV. Due to strong absorption in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 400 nm, TPB shows inferior results. No significant thickness dependence was observed for films thicker than 600 nm. Film morphology and wavelength dependent fluorescence was measured to back the results. Simulations encourage the use on flat panel mu...

  3. Fluorescence Efficiency and Stability of Radio-Pure Tetraphenyl-butadiene Based Coatings for VUV Light Detection in Cryogenic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Baudis, Laura; Dressler, Rugard; Piastra, Francesco; Usoltsev, Ilya; Walter, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The detection of VUV scintillation light, e.g. in (liquid) argon detectors, commonly includes a reflector with a fluorescent coating, converting UV photons to visible light. The light yield of these detectors depends directly on the conversion efficiency. Several coating/reflector combinations were produced using VM2000, a specular reflecting multi layer polymer, and Tetratex, a diffuse reflecting PTFE fabric, as reflector foils. The efficiency of these coatings was optimised and has been measured in a dedicated liquid argon setup built at the University of Zurich. It employs a small, 1.3 kg LAr cell viewed by a 3-inch, low radioactivity PMT of type R11065-10 from Hamamatsu. The cryogenic stability of these coatings was additionally studied. The optimum reflector/coating combination was found to be Tetratex dip coated with Tetraphenyl-butadiene with a thickness of 0.9 mg/cm$^2$ resulting in a 3.6 times higher light yield compared to uncoated VM2000. Its performance was stable in long term measurements, ran up...

  4. Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matanoski, G.M.; Santos-Burgoa, C.; Schwartz, L. (Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81) compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs.

  5. Physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermoset nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber/phenolic resin blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaei, Akbar, E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, Morteza [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Effect of organoclay (OC) on the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/phenolic resin (PH) blend prepared by two-roll mill was investigated. The influence of OC content ranging between 2.5 and 30 phr on the performance of SBR/PH was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interfacial energy analysis, tensile, dynamic mechanical, swelling, cure rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the OC is mainly localized in the SBR phase of SBR/PH blend through the kinetically favored mechanism relevant to rubber chains. The results also demonstrated the positive role of PH on the dispersion of OC. Both PH and OC showed accelerating role on the cure rate of SBR and increased the crosslinking density of the rubber phase. Additionally, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR were influenced by incorporation of both PH and OC. TGA showed that the OC improves thermal stability of SBR vulcanizate, while it exhibits a catalytic role in presence of PH.

  6. Transport properties of carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)-nanoclay composites; a promising material for protective gloves in occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei Aliabadi, Mostafa; Naderi, Ghasem; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Forushani, Abbas Rahimi; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Jahangiri, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in response to one of the research needs of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), i.e. the application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in the field of occupational safety and health. In order to fill this important knowledge gap, the equilibrium solubility and diffusion of carbon tetrachloride and ethyl acetate through carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)-clay nanocomposite, as a promising new material for chemical protective gloves (or barrier against the transport of organic solvent contaminant), were examined by swelling procedure. Near Fickian diffusion was observed for XNBR based nanocomposites containing different amounts of nanoclay. Decontamination potential is a key factor in development of a new material for reusable chemical protective gloves applications, specifically for routine or highly toxic exposures. A thermal decontamination regime for nanocomposite was developed for the first time. Then, successive cycles of exposure/decontamination for nanocomposite were performed to the maximum 10 cycles for the first time. This result confirms that the two selected solvents cannot deteriorate the rubber-nanoclay interaction and, therefore, such gloves can be reusable after decontamination. PMID:24581248

  7. The filler-rubber interface in styrene butadiene nanocomposites with anisotropic silica particles: morphology and dynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadiello, L; D'Arienzo, M; Di Credico, B; Hanel, T; Matejka, L; Mauri, M; Morazzoni, F; Simonutti, R; Spirkova, M; Scotti, R

    2015-05-28

    Silica-styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites were prepared by using shape-controlled spherical and rod-like silica nanoparticles (NPs) with different aspect ratios (AR = 1-5), obtained by a sol-gel route assisted by a structure directing agent. The nanocomposites were used as models to study the influence of the particle shape on the formation of nanoscale immobilized rubber at the silica-rubber interface and its effect on the dynamic-mechanical behavior. TEM and AFM tapping mode analyses of nanocomposites demonstrated that the silica particles are surrounded by a rubber layer immobilized at the particle surface. The spherical filler showed small contact zones between neighboring particles in contact with thin rubber layers, while anisotropic particles (AR > 2) formed domains of rods preferentially aligned along the main axis. A detailed analysis of the polymer chain mobility by different time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) techniques evidenced a population of rigid rubber chains surrounding particles, whose amount increases with the particle anisotropy, even in the absence of significant differences in terms of chemical crosslinking. Dynamic measurements demonstrate that rod-like particles induce stronger reinforcement of rubber, increasing with the AR. This was related to the self-alignment of the anisotropic silica particles in domains able to immobilize rubber. PMID:25899456

  8. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  9. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  10. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  11. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  12. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...

  13. Determination of chloride in uranium solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danse, A.; Stoch, H.; Steele, T.W.

    1967-05-15

    Thiocyanate is first removed by precipitation with a small excess of a copper solution, and the cations are removed by passing the filtrate through a cation-exchange resin. The chloride is determined in the eluate by a potentiometric titration in which silver nitrate solution is used.

  14. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  15. Gebromeerde vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sinds begin 2008 worden in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeder Choline Chloride monsters (= diervoeder additief) gevonden waarbij de DR CALUX screenings-assay een sterk verdacht signaal geeft, maar bij de GC-HRMS geen dioxines en dl-PCB's worden gevonden. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van nader ond

  16. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  17. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  18. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  19. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  20. COPOLYMERIZATION OF BUTADIENE AND ISOPRENE CATALYZED BY V(acac)3 -Al(i-Bu)2 Cl-Al2Et3Cl3 CATALYST AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhenya; WEI Jinzhu; YANG Jipo; LI Xiaoyan

    1984-01-01

    Copolymerization of butadiene and isoprene catalyzed by the catalyst system V(acac)3-Al(i-Bu)2Cl-Al2Et3Cl3 has been studied. Composition, microstructure, crystallinity and melting point of the copolymer obtained were determined by PGC, IR, X-ray diffraction and DSC methods respectively. The results revealed that the product was a copolymer and not a blend. The butadiene units presented in the copolymer were of trans-1,4-configuration, while the isoprene units were of both trans-1,4- and 3,4- forms. The melting point and crystallinity of the copolymer decreased with increase of molar ratio of isoprene to butadiene.

  1. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  2. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  3. Structure Sensitivity in Pt Nanoparticle Catalysts for Hydrogenation of 1,3-Butadiene: In Situ Study of Reaction Intermediates Using SFG Vibrational Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Michalak, William D.

    2013-01-31

    The product selectivity during 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation on monodisperse, colloidally synthesized, Pt nanoparticles was studied under reaction conditions with kinetic measurements and in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. SFG was performed with the capping ligands intact in order to maintain nanoparticle size by reduced sintering. Four products are formed at 75 C: 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and n-butane. Ensembles of Pt nanoparticles with average diameters of 0.9 and 1.8 nm exhibit a ∼30% and ∼20% increase in the full hydrogenation products, respectively, as compared to Pt nanoparticles with average diameters of 4.6 and 6.7 nm. Methyl and methylene vibrational stretches of reaction intermediates observed under working conditions using SFG were used to correlate the stable reaction intermediates with the product distribution. Kinetic and SFG results correlate with previous DFT predictions for two parallel reaction pathways of 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation. Hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene can initiate with H-addition at internal or terminal carbons leading to the formation of 1-buten-4-yl radical (metallocycle) and 2-buten-1-yl radical intermediates, respectively. Small (0.9 and 1.8 nm) nanoparticles exhibited vibrational resonances originating from both intermediates, while the large (4.6 and 6.7 nm) particles exhibited vibrational resonances originating predominately from the 2-buten-1-yl radical. This suggests each reaction pathway competes for partial and full hydrogenation and the nanoparticle size affects the kinetic preference for the two pathways. The reaction pathway through the metallocycle intermediate on the small nanoparticles is likely due to the presence of low-coordinated sites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Actinide-to-carbon bonds in Cp2An(alkyl)2, -(butadiene), -(metallacyclopentadiene), and -(cyclobutadiene) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of actinide bis(cyclopentadienyl)dialkyl, -butadiene, -metallacyclopentadiene, and -cyclobutadiene complexes is examined. Some Cp*2Th(alkyl)2 complexes display an interesting structural deformation in which a Th-C-C(alkyl) angle (α) opens up considerably. A molecular orbital analysis of Cp2Th(C2H5)2 traces the deformation to the characteristic shape of the d/sub σ/ fragment orbital of Cp2Th(C2H5)+. The potential energy curve for the ethyl pivoting was found to be very soft, with a shallow minimum at α ∼ 1600. Nonrigidity of the ethyl orientation indicates that not only an α hydrogen but also a β hydrogen can come close to Th without a loss of Th-C bond strength; the discussion should provide a theoretical basis for understanding important aspects of C-H activation chemistry involving actinide centers. The Cp2An(s-cis-C4H6) complex was calculated to be 0.74 eV (Th) or 0.42 eV (U) more stable than its s-trans-C4H6 isomer, in contrast to the analogous Cp2Zr(C4H6) complex where the stability of the two geometrical isomers was well-balanced. The σ2,π character of the s-cis-C4H6 coordination to An is somewhat less pronounced than that in the Zr congener, in harmony with the X-ray structures, while highly negative charges are accumulated on the s-cis-C4H6 terminal carbons

  5. Effect of magnetic and thermal properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves are one of the most important personal protective equipments but they are possible to tear off and contaminate food or pharmaceutical and healthcare products during manufacturing and packaging process. High tendency of torn glove remaining in food or products due to white or light flesh-coloured glove is not easy to be detected by naked eyes. In this paper, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) selected as additive for NBR to improve its detectability by mean of magnetic properties. IONs synthesized via precipitation method and compounded with NBR latex before casting on petri dish. The properties of IONs were investigated by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Meanwhile NBR/IONs composites were studied by Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It observed that, synthesized IONs shows of 25.28 nm crystallite with 25.86 nm semipherical (changed as) shape. Meanwhile, Magnetite and maghemite phase are found in range of 670 cm−1 and 700 cm−1 respectively, which it contributes magnetization saturation of 73.96 emu/g at 10,000 G by VSM. Thermal stability and magnetic properties were increased with incorporating IONs into NBR latex up to 20 phr. NBR/IONs 5 phr has the optimum thermal stability, lowest glass transition temperature (−14.83 °C) and acceptable range of magnetization saturation (3.83 emu/g at 10,000 G) to form NBR gloves with magnetic detectability. - Highlights: • We synthesized IONs with high magnetization saturation (Ms). • High Ms of IONs were incorporated into NBR latex in order to induce magnetic properties in the NBR composite. • Introduction of IONs into NBR latex would improve thermal properties. • The produced NBR/IONs 5 phr composite exceeded the minimum magnetic moment sensor of the detector. • They have high potential for the

  6. Effect of magnetic and thermal properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hun Tiar; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Boondamnoen, O.; Tai, Mun Foong

    2015-12-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves are one of the most important personal protective equipments but they are possible to tear off and contaminate food or pharmaceutical and healthcare products during manufacturing and packaging process. High tendency of torn glove remaining in food or products due to white or light flesh-coloured glove is not easy to be detected by naked eyes. In this paper, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) selected as additive for NBR to improve its detectability by mean of magnetic properties. IONs synthesized via precipitation method and compounded with NBR latex before casting on petri dish. The properties of IONs were investigated by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Meanwhile NBR/IONs composites were studied by Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It observed that, synthesized IONs shows of 25.28 nm crystallite with 25.86 nm semipherical (changed as) shape. Meanwhile, Magnetite and maghemite phase are found in range of 670 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 respectively, which it contributes magnetization saturation of 73.96 emu/g at 10,000 G by VSM. Thermal stability and magnetic properties were increased with incorporating IONs into NBR latex up to 20 phr. NBR/IONs 5 phr has the optimum thermal stability, lowest glass transition temperature (-14.83 °C) and acceptable range of magnetization saturation (3.83 emu/g at 10,000 G) to form NBR gloves with magnetic detectability.

  7. Water-responsive mechanically adaptive nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber and cellulose nanocrystals--processing matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Pratheep K; Dagnon, Koffi L; Monemian, Seyedali; Foster, E Johan; Rowan, Stuart J; Weder, Christoph

    2014-01-22

    Biomimetic, stimuli-responsive polymer nanocomposites based on a hydrophobic styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix and rigid, rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) isolated from cotton were prepared by three different approaches, and their properties were studied and related to the composition, processing history, and exposure to water as a stimulus. The first processing approach involved mixing an aqueous SBR latex with aqueous CNC dispersions, and films were subsequently formed by solution-casting. The second method utilized the first protocol, but films were additionally compression-molded. The third method involved the formation of a CNC organogel via a solvent exchange with acetone, followed by infusing this gel, in which the CNCs form a percolating network with solutions of SBR in tetrahydrofuran. The thermomechanical properties of the materials were established by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). In the dry state, all nanocomposites show much higher tensile storage moduli, E', than the neat SBR or the SBR latex. E' increases with the CNC content and depends strongly on the processing method, which appears to influence the morphology of the SBR nanocomposites produced. The highest E' values were observed for the solution cast samples involving an SBR latex, where E' increased from 3 MPa for the neat SBR to ca. 740 MPa for the nanocomposite containing 20% v/v CNCs. Upon submersion in deionized water, a dramatic reduction of E' was observed, for example from 740 to 5 MPa for the solution-cast nanocomposite containing 20% v/v CNCs. This change is interpreted as a disengagement of the percolating CNC network, on account of modest aqueous swelling and competitive hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the CNCs. It is shown that the method of preparation also influenced the swelling behavior and kinetics of modulus switching, consistent with different arrangements of the CNCs, which serve as channels for water absorption and transport within the

  8. Synthesis of mixed-ligand cobalt complexes and their applications in high cis-1,4-selective butadiene polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Wen

    2015-08-03

    Incomplete oxidation of (N-di-tert-butylphosphino)-6-(2-methyl-2’H-benzoimidazole)-2-aminepyridine dichlorocobalt (PN3CoCl2) in DMF results in a unique co-crystal I formed with three parts including DMF, unit A and unit B complex with Co1 and Co2, respectively, (PN3 ligand in unit A: (N-di-tert-butylphosphino)-6-(2’-methyl-2’H-benzoimidazole)-2-aminepyridine, and O=PN3 ligand in unit B: (N-di-tert-butylphosphinoxide)-6-(2’-methyl-2’H-benzoimidazole)-2-aminepyridine) with 1:1:1 molar ratio. Co1 and Co2 complexes both display a five-coordinated distorted-square-pyramidal geometry around the metal center. The Co1 center is coordinated with PN3 ligand via two N atoms from pyridine, benzoimidazole moiety as well as one P atom, and the Co2 center is coordinated with the oxidized ligandO=PN3 via two N atoms from pyridine, benzoimidazole moiety as well as one O atom from DMF molecule, while the oxidized phosphine moiety (O=P) being excluded from the coordination sphere. Activated with AlEt2Cl, the co-crystallized complexes I are able to actively convert butadiene to polybutadiene, affording cis-1,4 polybutadiene with cis-1,4 unit up to 95.5-97.8% and number average molecular weight of cal. 105g/mol. The high cis-1,4 selectivity and monomodal GPC curve of resultant polymer imply that the identical active species generated from two distinctive cobalt centers.

  9. Enhancement of Compatibility between Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Particles and Butadiene.Nitrile Rubber Matrix with Nanoscale Ceramic Particles and Characterization of Evolving Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrinov, Nikolay V.; Sokolova, Marina D.; Cho, Jinho [Institute of Oil and Gas Issues, Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Okhlopkova, A. A. [North-Eastern Federal Univ., Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Lee, Jungkeun; Jeong, Daeyong [Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This article examines the modification of surface properties of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with nanoscale ceramic particles to fabricate an improved composite with butadiene.nitrile rubber (BNR). Adhesion force data showed that ceramic zeolite particles on the surface of UHMWPE modulated the surface state of the polymer and increased its compatibility with BNR. Atomic force microscopy phase images showed that UHMWPE made up the microphase around the zeolite particles and formed the evolving layer with a complex interface. The complex interface resulted in improvements in the mechanical properties of the composite, especially its low-temperature resistance coefficients, thereby improving its performance in low-temperature applications.

  10. STUDY ON THE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER BY 13C-NMR METHOD Ⅲ. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEQUENCE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaonong; HU Liping; YAN Baozhen; JIAO Shuke

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative description of the sequence structure of emulsion-processed SBR and solution-processed SBR (by lithium catalyst)was carried out based on their spectral data of 13C-NMR.The calculating formulae which could be used to obtain diad concentration from the peak intensities of carbon spectra, average block length, average number of block, and the microstructure composition of the molecular chain were derived. The quantitative result showed that on the molecular chain styrene unit had the tendency to attach to trans-1,4 butadiene unit. The calculated result of the microstructure was in good agreement with that obtained through IR measurement.

  11. Revised Model of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Bridge by Considering Complex Action of Load and Chloride Binding Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Yiqiang; Guo, DongMei

    2014-01-01

    Coastal concrete bridges will suffer from deterioration of RC structural performance and resistance attenuation because of the chloride penetration and other environment factors. This article discusses current different chloride diffusion models and puts forward the revised model of chloride diffusion in concrete bridge by considering the complex action of load influence and chloride-binding capacity. Comparison of numerical predicted values and relative experimental tests show the presented ...

  12. 二甲基甲酰胺法萃取精馏生产1,3-丁二烯的模拟计算%Simulation of 1,3-Butadiene Production Process by Dimethylfomamide Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小健; 殷绚; 欧阳平凯

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, extractive distillation is the main technique to produce 1,3-butadiene. This study simulated the 1,3-butadiene production process with DMF extractive distillation by Aspen Plus. The solvent ratio is the most important parameter to the extractive distillation process. The article has given out the proper solvent ratios, reflux ratios, distillate ratios, and bottom product ratios of the columns. It also discusses the thermal loads of several columns. The results of simulation are consequently compared with the plant data, which shows good accordance with each other.

  13. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  14. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  15. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete mixtures aretested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures.Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP wa...

  16. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  17. Electrodeposition of Zinc from Chloride Solution

    OpenAIRE

    NAIK, Yanjerappa Arthoba; VENKATESHA, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2002-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in the presence of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy benzaldehyde from a chloride bath. The bath constituents are optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density are also optimized. The current efficiency and throwing power are measured at different current densities. Polarization study is carried out under galvanostatic conditions. Corrosion resistance test indicated good protection of steel by the ...

  18. (tert-Butyl(2-hydroxyethylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100.

  19. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 500C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  20. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS. PMID:10624900

  1. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  2. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature.

  3. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  4. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  5. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... antagonist diltiazem (10(-6) mol/L) abolished K+-induced contractions. Bicarbonate did not modify the sensitivity to chloride. Norepinephrine (10(-6) mol/L) induced full contraction in depolarized vessels even in the absence of chloride. Iodide and nitrate were substituted for chloride with no inhibitory...

  6. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  7. The Diels-Alder Cycloaddition Reaction of Substituted Hemifullerenes with 1,3-Butadiene: Effect of Electron-Donating and Electron-Withdrawing Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Mojica

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder (DA reaction provides an attractive route to increase the number of six member rings in substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. The density functional theory (DFT B3LYP method has been used in this work to inquire if the substitution of H over the edge of triindenetriphenylene (pristine hemifullerene 1 and pentacyclopentacorannulene (pristine hemifullerene 2, could improve the DA cycloaddition reaction with 1,3-butadiene. The substituents tested include electron-donating (NH2, OMe, OH, Me, i-Pr and electron-withdrawing groups (F, COOH, CF3, CHO, CN, NO2. The electronic, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the DA reactions of the substituted hemifullerenes with 1,3-butadiene have been analyzed. The most promising results were obtained for the NO2 substituent; the activation energy barriers for reactions using this substituent were lower than the barriers for the pristine hemifullerenes. This leads us to expect that the cycloadditions to a starting fullerene fragment will be possible.

  8. Low-Temperature 1,3-Butadiene Hydrogenation over Supported Pt/3d/gamma-Al2O3 Bimetallic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonergan, William W; Xing, X; Zheng, Renyang; Qi, Suitao; Huang, B; Chen, Jingguang

    2011-02-02

    Low-temperature 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation is used as a probe reaction to investigate the hydrogenation activity over several γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Pt/3d (3d = Co, Ni, Cu) bimetallic catalysts. Batch and flow reactor studies are employed to quantify the kinetic activity and steady-state conversion, respectively, of each catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is utilized to characterize particle sizes and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements are performed to verify the Pt–3d bimetallic bond formation. Pulse carbon monoxide chemisorption measurements are also performed to characterize the number of active sites. Additionally, density functional theory (DFT) calculations are included to determine the binding energies of 1,3-butadiene and atomic hydrogen on the corresponding model surfaces. The binding energies of the adsorbates are found to correlate with the hydrogenation activity, allowing for use of such correlation to potentially predict hydrogenation catalysts with enhanced activity based on the binding energies of the adsorbates of interest.

  9. Methoxy Silane in Styrene-butadiene Synthetic Resin%甲氧基硅烷在丁苯合成树脂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 舒畅; 蓝晓; 钟凤清

    2012-01-01

    The star styrene-butadiene copolymerization were synthesized by using styrene and butadiene as monomers, n-BuLi as initiator, Methyl-trimethoxy-silane as coupling agent and cyclohexane as solvent by anionic polymerization. The effect of quantity of coupling agent, feed stock times, polymerization temperature and polymerization time on the coupling efficiency(CE%) and average branching number(BN) were investigated.%以苯乙烯、丁二烯为单体,N—BuLi为引发剂,环己烷为溶剂,甲基三甲氧基硅烷为偶联剂,通过负离子聚合和偶联反应,制备含有多种嵌段水平的星形r苯透明抗冲树脂。并初步探讨了偶联剂加入量、加料次数、温度、时间和基峰分子量与偶联效率、支化度(臂数)的关系。

  10. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene from crude C{sub 4} cracker stream with a solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer (SCILL). DSC and solubility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangartz, T.; Korth, W.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In petroleum as well as in fine chemical industry, selective catalytic hydrogenation is an important reaction. The selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene (BD) to butene (trans-,1- and cis-butene) from the crude C4 steam cracker fraction represents one example, but under today's technical conditions undesired butane forms inevitably in relevant amounts. To increase the butene yield, the concept of Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL) was employed. The SCILL catalyst, in contrast to the uncoated catalyst, yielded a remarkably high selectivity to butenes (S{sub butenes} > 99 %) even at high residence times or at high hydrogen partial pressure. Nearly no butane (S{sub butane} {approx} 0 %) was analytically detected. We expected that due to different solubility, the poorer soluble compounds discharged from the ionic liquid and, thus, caused the shift in selectivity to a great extent. Temperature dependent solubility measurements in the used ionic liquid ([DMIM][DMP]) revealed that the order of increasing solubility is 1,3-butadiene > butenes > butane which matches the assumption. However, since differences in solubility cannot explain this SCILL effect satisfyingly, ionic liquids are expected to affect the surface of the catalyst (side-specific ligand-type effect). Investigations using spectroscopic methods (e.g. FTIR) confirmed this suggestion. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of butadiene-1,3 and octene-1 copolymer prepared by a Ziegler-Natta catalyst based on neodymium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of octene-1 incorporation in the polybutadiene chain on the polymerization reaction and polymer characteristics. Thus, copolymerization of butadiene-1,3 with octene-1 using a Ziegler-Natta ternary catalyst based on neodymium was performed. The weight ratios of butadiene-1,3/α-olefin 100/0, 99/1, 97/3, 95/5, 90/10, 80/20 and 70/30 were evaluated. The copolymers were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The results showed that the degradation temperature (Tmax was not affected by the addition of alpha-olefin, while the thermal behavior has undergone significant changes. The polymer microstructure was not influenced by the increasing of octene-1 content. However, a tendency to molecular mass increase was observed with the increasing of octene-1 content. It was also observed a trend in reduction of the polymerization conversion as the octene-1 content increased.

  12. Theoretical Investigation into Electronic Structures and Charge Transfer Properties of π-Conjugated System with Different Combinations of Thiophene and Vinyl/Butadiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春梅; 李春荣; 马妍; 赵蔡斌; 王文亮

    2012-01-01

    A series of combinations of thiophene and vinyl/butadiene were investigated by ab initio and DFT methods to explore their electronic structures and charge transfer properties. The results show that increasing thiophene ring and vinyl number is a rational strategy to raise the HOMO energy levels and lower the LUMO energy levels. Mov- ing the vinyl from the periphery to the core has the slight effect on the HOMO and LUMO energy levels. Further- more, replacing the middle vinyl and end-capped vinyl of 3b (T5V4) with the butadiene can lower LUMO energy levels and then facilitate the electron injection. Above all, the close hole and electron reorganization energies (2h and λ-e) are observed from these compounds. However, the λes are smaller than their respective λhs in some com- pounds, which is relatively rare in organic materials. Especially, the promising ambipolar material 3c (T5B4) is recommended theoretically for possessing the equivalent minimum Ah (0.24 eV) and 2e (0.24 eV). The absorption wavelengths exhibit red shifts with the increasing of the thiophene ring and the vinyl number under the same con- figuration, which correspond to the reverse order of AEH_L and Eg. The linear relationships are found between experimental lowest singlet excited energies (Eexp) with theoretical values AEH-L and Eg.

  13. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  14. Anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility of a green high performance concrete admixture in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongbao; LIU Xinrong; LIU Dongyan; CHEN Jiangong; HUANG Xiongjun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of green high performance concrete (GHPC) admixture on the anti-chloride permeability and anti- chloride corrodibility of concrete are studied by a series of experiments designed on the basis of the diffusion principle and electrochemical principle. The GHPC admixture consists of fly ash, gangue, slag, red mud, etc., of which the mass fraction of industrial residues is over 96 %. The anti-permeabilities and anti-corrodibilities of the tested GHPC and normal concrete (NC) are evaluated by the Diffusion Coefficients of chloride which was obtained by measuring the concentration of chloride in the tested systems by the voltage difference method. It is found that the adoption of GHPC admixture greatly improves the anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility by modifying the inner structure and contracting the porosity of concrete to the reduce considerably the diffusion rate of chloride. The admixture is desirable regarding its engineering performances as well as economical and environmental interests.

  15. Effect of reactive compatibilization on the morphology and physical properties of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Gregg Stephen

    1998-11-01

    An amine functional styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN-amine) polymer is proposed as a reactive compatibilizer for bisphenol-A-polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) blends. This polymer is miscible with the styrene/acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer matrix of ABS materials, and the pendant secondary amine groups react with PC at the carbonate linkage to form a SAN-g-PC copolymer. The graft copolymer molecules reside at the PC/ABS interface and provide improved morphological stability at elevated temperatures by suppressing phase coalescence. The synthesis of this reactive compatibilizer and its reaction with carbonate moieties is described. Characterization of this reaction was done by NMR and GPC using model secondary amine and carbonate containing compounds. A technique was developed for the quantitative measurement of the kinetics of dispersed phase particle coalescence in these blends; the morphology was examined using TEM. While uncompatibilized PC/SAN blends showed an increase in particle size from approximately 1 mum to 2 mum (depending on PC viscosity) in less than five minutes at 270sp°C; compatibilized blends containing as little as 1% SAN-amine exhibited no change in morphology after 20 minutes. The effects of dispersed phase concentration, viscosity ratio and interfacial compatibilization using the SAN-amine compatibilizer on the process induced morphology of PC/SAN blends were also examined. Dispersed phase particle size increased significantly with SAN concentration and, although the morphology of uncompatibilized PC/SAN blends mixed in a Brabender mixer, single and twin screw extruders were quite similar, the twin screw extruder produced significantly finer morphologies in blends containing SAN-amine. The average particle size for blends compatibilized with the SAN-amine polymer was approximately half that of uncompatibilized blends and was relatively independent of viscosity ratio and dispersed phase composition. The fracture of thin (3.18 mm

  16. Effect of magnetic and thermal properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hun Tiar; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd, E-mail: sharifahbee@um.edu.my; Boondamnoen, O.; Tai, Mun Foong

    2015-12-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves are one of the most important personal protective equipments but they are possible to tear off and contaminate food or pharmaceutical and healthcare products during manufacturing and packaging process. High tendency of torn glove remaining in food or products due to white or light flesh-coloured glove is not easy to be detected by naked eyes. In this paper, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) selected as additive for NBR to improve its detectability by mean of magnetic properties. IONs synthesized via precipitation method and compounded with NBR latex before casting on petri dish. The properties of IONs were investigated by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Meanwhile NBR/IONs composites were studied by Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It observed that, synthesized IONs shows of 25.28 nm crystallite with 25.86 nm semipherical (changed as) shape. Meanwhile, Magnetite and maghemite phase are found in range of 670 cm{sup −1} and 700 cm{sup −1} respectively, which it contributes magnetization saturation of 73.96 emu/g at 10,000 G by VSM. Thermal stability and magnetic properties were increased with incorporating IONs into NBR latex up to 20 phr. NBR/IONs 5 phr has the optimum thermal stability, lowest glass transition temperature (−14.83 °C) and acceptable range of magnetization saturation (3.83 emu/g at 10,000 G) to form NBR gloves with magnetic detectability. - Highlights: • We synthesized IONs with high magnetization saturation (M{sub s}). • High M{sub s} of IONs were incorporated into NBR latex in order to induce magnetic properties in the NBR composite. • Introduction of IONs into NBR latex would improve thermal properties. • The produced NBR/IONs 5 phr composite exceeded the minimum magnetic moment sensor of the detector. • They have high

  17. 1,3-Butadiene, styrene and lymphohematopoietic cancer among male synthetic rubber industry workers--Preliminary exposure-response analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiakumar, Nalini; Brill, Ilene; Leader, Mark; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    We updated the mortality experience of North American synthetic rubber industry workers to include follow-up from 1944 through 2009, adding 11 years of mortality data to previous investigations. The present analysis used Cox regression to examine the exposure-response relationship between 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene (STY) parts per million (ppm)-years and leukemia (N = 114 deaths), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (N = 89) and multiple myeloma (MM) (N = 48). A pattern of largely monotonically increasing rate ratios across deciles of BD ppm-years and a positive, statistically significant exposure-response trend were observed for BD ppm-years and leukemia. Using continuous, untransformed BD ppm-years the regression coefficient (β) adjusted only for age was 2.6 × 10(-4) (p race and plant was 2.9 × 10(-4) (p separate effects of these two agents could not be estimated. For NHL, a pattern of approximately monotonically increasing rate ratios across deciles of exposure was seen for STY but not for BD; the test of trend was statistically significant in one of five models that used different STY exposure metrics and adjusted for age and other covariates. BD ppm-years and STY ppm-years were not associated with MM. The present analyses indicated a positive exposure-response relationship between BD cumulative exposure and leukemia. This result along with other research and biological information support an interpretation that BD causes leukemia in humans. STY exposure also was positively associated with leukemia, but its independent effect could not be delineated because of its strong correlation with BD, and there is no external support for a STY-leukemia association. STY, but not BD, was associated positively with NHL. The interpretation of this result is uncertain because the exposure-response data were statistically imprecise and because consistent support for causality from other studies is lacking. The current study provides no support for an association

  18. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  20. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  1. Interactions between chloride ingress and carbonation in cementitious materials

    OpenAIRE

    SAILLIO, Mickael; BARBERON, Fabien; BAROGHEL BOUNY, Véronique; GEGOUT, Philippe; PLATRET, Gérard; D'ESPINOSE DE LA CAILLERIE, JB

    2011-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride attacks are the major causes of reinforced concrete (RC) structure deterioration by initiation of steel rebar corrosion. These attacks are usually studied separately in the literature. Chloride-induced corrosion takes place mainly in marine environment or in the case of contact with deicing salts, while carbonation is systematically present in all RC structures at a variable degree. Since carbonation leads to significant microstructure changes, the effect of chloride ...

  2. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  3. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  4. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  5. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  6. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  7. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  8. On Barium Oxide Solubility in Barium-Containing Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-08-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl2-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl2-MCl systems.

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  10. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well......Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  11. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene and 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one, two alternative metabolites of 1,3-butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Fang-Mao; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, Xin-Yu, E-mail: xyzhang999@shu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Elfarra, Adnan A., E-mail: elfarra@svm.vetmed.wisc.edu [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), a known in vitro metabolite of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene, have not previously been investigated. Because CHB can be bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenases to yield 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a bifunctional alkylating agent that caused globin-chain cross-links in erythrocytes, in the present study we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CHB and CBO in human normal hepatocyte L02 cells using the MTT assay, the relative cloning efficiency assay and the comet assay. We also investigated the mutagenic potential of these compounds with the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA1535 and TA1537. The results provide clear evidence for CHB and CBO being both cytotoxic and genotoxic with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. Interestingly, CHB generated both single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites on DNA, whereas CBO produced only alkali-labile sites. CHB did not directly result in DNA breaks, whereas CBO was capable of directly generating breaks on DNA. Interestingly, both compounds did not induce DNA cross-links as examined by the comet assay. The Ames test results showed that CHB induced point mutation but not frameshift mutation, whereas the toxic effects of CBO made it difficult to reliably assess the mutagenic potential of CBO in the two strains. Collectively, the results suggest that CHB and CBO may play a role in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. - Highlights: • 1-Chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) is cytotoxic and genotoxic in human liver cells. • The CHB metabolite, 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is ∼ 100-fold more toxic than CHB. • CHB and CBO cause DNA alkali-labile sites, but only CBO directly causes DNA breaks. • CHB is mutagenic in the Ames test, but CBO is too toxic in the assay. • The results suggest a role for CHB in 1,3-butadiene genotoxicity and mutagenicity.

  12. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene and 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one, two alternative metabolites of 1,3-butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), a known in vitro metabolite of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene, have not previously been investigated. Because CHB can be bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenases to yield 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a bifunctional alkylating agent that caused globin-chain cross-links in erythrocytes, in the present study we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CHB and CBO in human normal hepatocyte L02 cells using the MTT assay, the relative cloning efficiency assay and the comet assay. We also investigated the mutagenic potential of these compounds with the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA1535 and TA1537. The results provide clear evidence for CHB and CBO being both cytotoxic and genotoxic with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. Interestingly, CHB generated both single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites on DNA, whereas CBO produced only alkali-labile sites. CHB did not directly result in DNA breaks, whereas CBO was capable of directly generating breaks on DNA. Interestingly, both compounds did not induce DNA cross-links as examined by the comet assay. The Ames test results showed that CHB induced point mutation but not frameshift mutation, whereas the toxic effects of CBO made it difficult to reliably assess the mutagenic potential of CBO in the two strains. Collectively, the results suggest that CHB and CBO may play a role in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. - Highlights: • 1-Chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB) is cytotoxic and genotoxic in human liver cells. • The CHB metabolite, 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO) is ∼ 100-fold more toxic than CHB. • CHB and CBO cause DNA alkali-labile sites, but only CBO directly causes DNA breaks. • CHB is mutagenic in the Ames test, but CBO is too toxic in the assay. • The results suggest a role for CHB in 1,3-butadiene genotoxicity and mutagenicity

  13. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  14. Compatibilization of blends of low density polyethylene and poly(vinyl chloride) by segmented EB(SAN-block-EB)(n) block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogenated segmented poly[butadiene-block-((styrene-co-acrylonitrile)-block-butadiene)(n)] block copolymers, which were developed by use of the polymeric iniferter technique, were tested for their compatibilizing capacities for (10/90) LDPE/PVC blends. The acrylonitrile content of the SAN blocks o

  15. Comparative study of the monomer grafting: ethylene, acetylene, 1,3-butadiene and estyrene in the matrix of recycled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study it is used the recycled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), that with the gamma radiation under inert atmosphere or in presence of air, it is obtained free radicals and a posterior the monomer grafting (ethylene, acetylene, styrene or 1.3 butadiene), obtaining the copolymer polytetrafluoroethylene-g-monomer. It is studied the obtention of the polymer by two methods: by direct way, via grafting, where the polymer is irradiated in presence of monomer, and via grafting when the polymer is irradiated in absence of monomer and under inert or air. The characterization of the copolymer was performed by the techniques of infrared region absorption spectroscopy with Fourier transformation (FTIR), thermogravimetric (TGA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and percentage of mass grafting (DOG)

  16. Temperature dependence of alpha-induced scintillation in the 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene wavelength shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Veloce, L M; Di Stefano, P C F; Noble, A J; Boulay, M G; Nadeau, P; Pollmann, T; Clark, M; Piquemal, M; Schreiner, K

    2015-01-01

    Liquid noble gas based particle detectors often use the organic wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) which shifts UV scintillation light to the visible regime, facilitating its detection, but which also can scintillate on its own. Dark matter searches based on this type of detector commonly rely on pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for background mitigation. Alpha-induced scintillation therefore represents a possible background source in dark matter searches. The timing characteristics of this scintillation determine whether this background can be mitigated through PSD. We have therefore characterized the pulse shape and light yield of alpha induced TPB scintillation at temperatures ranging from 300 K down to 4 K, with special attention given to liquid noble temperatures. We find that the pulse shapes and light yield depend strongly on temperature. In addition, the significant contribution of long time constants above ~50 K provides an avenue for discrimination between alpha decay events ...

  17. VUV-VIS optical characterization of Tetraphenyl-butadiene films on glass and specular reflector substrates from room to liquid Argon temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Francini, R; Nichelatti, E; Vincenti, M A; Canci, N; Segreto, E; Cavanna, F; Di Pompeo, F; Carbonara, F; Fiorillo, G; Perfetto, F

    2013-01-01

    The use of efficient wavelength-shifters from the vacuum-ultraviolet to the photosensor's range of sensitivity is a key feature in detectors for Dark Matter search and neutrino physics based on liquid argon scintillation detection. Thin film of Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) deposited onto the surface delimiting the active volume of the detector and/or onto the photosensor optical window is the most common solution in current and planned experiments. Detector design and response can be evaluated and correctly simulated only when the properties of the optical system in use (TPB film + substrate) are fully understood. Characterization of the optical system requires specific, sometimes sophisticated optical methodologies. In this paper the main features of TPB coatings on different, commonly used substrates is reported, as a result of two independent campaigns of measurements at the specialized optical metrology labs of ENEA and University of Tor Vergata. Measured features include TPB emission spectra with lineshap...

  18. Radiation-induced copolymerization of styrene/ n-butyl acrylate in the presence of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Peng, Jing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Wei, Genshuan; Qiao, Jinliang

    2007-11-01

    Styrene (St)/ n-butyl acrylate (BA) copolymers were prepared by two-stage polymerization: St/BA was pre-polymerized to a viscous state by bulk polymerization with initiation by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) followed by 60Co γ-ray radiation curing. The resultant copolymers had higher molecular weight and narrower molecular weight distribution than conventional methods. After incorporation of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) with a particle size of 100 nm in the monomer, the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of St-BA copolymer increased at low rubber content. Both the St-BA copolymer and the St-BA copolymer/UFSBR composites had good transparency at BA content below 40%.

  19. Variation of long periodicity in blends of styrene butadiene, styrene copolymer/polyaniline using small angle X-ray scattering data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B G Soares; Fernando G Souza Jr; A Manjunath; H Somashekarappa; R Somashekar; Siddaramaiah

    2007-09-01

    Small angle X-ray scattering data have been recorded for the blends of styrene butadiene, styrene copolymer/polyaniline using the beamline of the LNLS (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz sincroton-Campinas, Brazil). Employing one-dimensional Hosemann's paracrystalline model, we have simulated the meridional reflections of these blends in order to compute the long periodicity and hence to find the variation with concentrations of the blends. Within the region of available experimental data we observe that there is a linear relationship between long periodicity and concentration of blends. These parameters are compared with physical measurements like tensile strength to find the structure–property relation in these blends.

  20. Studies on blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin with varying concentrations of carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer I: Thermal and morphological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Tripathi; Deepak Srivastava

    2009-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy (CAE) resin toughened with liquid elastomer such as carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) have been carried out. Exothermal heat of reaction due to cross linking of the resin in the presence of diamino diphenyl sulphone (DDS, an amine hardener) showed a decreasing trend with increasing rubber concentration. Enhancement of thermal stability as well as lower mass loss of the epoxy–rubber blends with increasing rubber concentration have been observed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Dynamic mechanical properties reflected a monotonic decrease in the storage modulus (′) with increasing rubber concentration. The loss modulus (″) and the loss tangent (tan ) values, however, showed an increasing trend with rise of temperature up to a maximum (peak) followed by a gradual fall in both cases.

  1. Principais aspectos da polimerização do 1,3-butadieno Principles aspects of butadiene 1,3 polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise S. S. Nunes

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, há uma grande demanda pelo polibutadieno com alto teor de unidades 1,4-cis, devido às suas excelentes propriedades físicas, tais como alta resistência à abrasão, baixo desenvolvimento de calor, baixa resistência ao rolamento, maior resistência à tensão, alta resistência à fadiga, baixa histerese e alta resistência à fratura. Tais características fazem com que esse elastômero seja cada vez mais utilizado na indústria pneumática. Assim, este trabalho apresenta uma breve revisão sobre a polimerização do 1,3-butadieno com diferentes sistemas catalíticos, sendo os sistemas à base de lantanídeos o principal foco desta revisão, pois esses sistemas são os mais estereoespecíficos para a polimerização 1,4-cis do butadieno.Nowadays, there is a great demand for polybutadiene with high contents of cis groups owing to its excellent physical properties, such as high abrasion resistance and low heat build up. These characteristics make this elastomer one of the most used in pneumatic industry. Thus, this paper presents a brief review about the 1,3-butadiene polymerization by different catalysts systems, with the systems based on lanthanides being the main focus, as they are the most stereospecific for cis-1,4 polymerization of butadiene.

  2. Preparation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber by soap-free emulsion polymerization%无皂乳液聚合制备丁二烯-丙烯腈橡胶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂强; 梁琨; 钟启林; 马朋高; 张元寿; 王真琴

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,soap-free acrylonitrile butadiene rubber was prepared using sulfate polymerisable emulsifier KD SE-10 by emulsion copolymerization at low temperature. The article studied the influence of the amount of polymerisable emulsifier on mooney viscosity, bound acrylonitrile content, the gel ratio, tensile strength and molecular weight. And the amount of KD SE-10 was determined as 2. 7%~3.0wt%. Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber prepared has the remarkable characteristics of high-strength,excellent oil resistance and narrow molecular weight distribution.%采用硫酸盐类可聚合乳化剂烯丙氧基壬基苯氧基丙醇聚氧乙烯醚硫酸铵(KD SE-10)通过低温乳液聚合法制备无皂丁腈橡胶.详细考察了可聚合乳化剂用量对门尼粘度、结合丙烯腈含量、凝胶量、拉伸强度、相对分子质量的影响情况,并确定了KD SE-10用量为2.7%~3.0%(质量分数).制得的无皂丁腈橡胶相比普通丁腈橡胶具有显著的高强度、更优良的耐油性、相对分子质量分布窄的特点.

  3. Study of the molecular structure, ionization spectrum, and electronic wave function of 1,3-butadiene using electron momentum spectroscopy and benchmark Dyson orbital theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, M. S.; Knippenberg, S.

    2006-09-01

    The scope of the present work is to reconcile electron momentum spectroscopy with elementary thermodynamics, and refute conclusions drawn by Saha et al. in J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124315 (2005) regarding fingerprints of the gauche conformational isomer of 1,3-butadiene in electron momentum distributions that were experimentally inferred from gas phase (e,2e) measurements on this compound [M. J. Brunger et al., J. Chem. Phys. 108, 1859 (1998)]. Our analysis is based on thorough calculations of one-electron and shake-up ionization spectra employing one-particle Green's function theory along with the benchmark third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme. Accurate spherically averaged electron momentum distributions are correspondingly computed from the related Dyson orbitals. The ionization spectra and Dyson orbital momentum distributions that were computed for the trans-conformer of 1,3-butadiene alone are amply sufficient to quantitatively unravel the shape of all available experimental (e,2e) electron momentum distributions. A comparison of theoretical ADC(3) spectra for the s-trans and gauche energy minima with inner- and outer-valence high-resolution photoelectron measurements employing a synchrotron radiation beam [D. M. P. Holland et al., J. Phys. B 29, 3091 (1996)] demonstrates that the gauche structure is incompatible with ionization experiments in high-vacuum conditions and at standard temperatures. On the other hand, outer-valence Green's function calculations on the s-trans energy minimum form and approaching basis set completeness provide highly quantitative insights, within ˜0.2eV accuracy, into the available experimental one-electron ionization energies. At last, analysis of the angular dependence of relative (e,2e) ionization intensities nicely confirms the presence of one rather intense π-2 π*+1 satellite at ˜13.1eV in the ionization spectrum of the s-trans conformer.

  4. High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock; Le, Chap; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2015-11-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air. The major urinary metabolites of BD in humans are 2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-ene (MHBMA), 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA), and 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (THBMA), which are formed from the electrophilic metabolites of BD, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethyl vinyl ketone (HMVK), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), respectively. In the present work, a sensitive high-throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of MHBMA and DHBMA in small volumes of human urine (200 μl). The method employs a 96 well Oasis HLB SPE enrichment step, followed by isotope dilution HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS analysis on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The validated method was used to quantify MHBMA and DHBMA in urine of workers from a BD monomer and styrene-butadiene rubber production facility (40 controls and 32 occupationally exposed to BD). Urinary THBMA concentrations were also determined in the same samples. The concentrations of all three BD-mercapturic acids and the metabolic ratio (MHBMA/(MHBMA+DHBMA+THBMA)) were significantly higher in the occupationally exposed group as compared to controls and correlated with BD exposure, with each other, and with BD-hemoglobin biomarkers. This improved high throughput methodology for MHBMA and DHBMA will be useful for future epidemiological studies in smokers and occupationally exposed workers. PMID:25727266

  5. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  6. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  7. COUPLING REACTION OF LIVING BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER WITH ACRYLOYL CHLORIDE%丙烯酰氯对丁苯共聚物活性链偶联反应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐日炜; 焦书科; 余鼎声; 张兴英; 侯元雪; 张洪敏

    2002-01-01

    以n-BuLi为引发剂,四氢呋喃(THF)为调节剂,抽余油为溶剂,采用丙烯酰氯为偶联剂对丁二烯-苯乙烯阴离子共聚体系进行偶联反应,研究了影响偶联反应的各种因素,如偶联剂用量、相对分子质量、偶联反应时间、偶联反应温度、THF用量、末端基团、单体浓度等;确定了偶联剂用量与聚合物相对臂数之间的关系及其偶联效率.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion propagati

  9. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete as protection against chloride penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Hydrophobic treatment was studied as a protection agninst chloride penetration from deicing salts. Test methods were designed. Nine hydrophobic products were tested, of which three complied to the requirements on fin

  10. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  11. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K;

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...

  12. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl2, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al2O3.CaCl2) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl2. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl2.

  13. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    OpenAIRE

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A.; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epi...

  14. Monte Carlo calculation of chloride diffusion in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coefficient of chloride diffusion is calculated by applying the Fick's second law of diffusion to a chloride concentration profile. Then from the signal strength for various chlorine gamma-ray energies was then calculated at the detector of the portable D-D neutron generator based PGNAA setup. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 Tmelting). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ dk with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author)

  17. Behavior and products of mechano-chemical dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride and poly (vinylidene chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Zeng, Zigao; Xiao, Songwen

    2008-02-28

    The mechano-chemical (MC) dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) was performed by mechanical milling PVC/PVDC powder with zinc powder in a planetary ball mill, and the products of dechlorination were characterized by Infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results show that PVC/PVDC can be easily dechlorinated by milling with zinc powder, and formed various kinds of inorganic and organic products. Inorganic compounds included Zn2OCl(2).2H2O, Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O etc., and organic products involved diamond-like carbon, carbyne fragment, polyacetylene etc. Organic products formed following the paths of dechlorination, dehydrochlorination, crosslink, and oxidation. The mechano-chemical dechlorination process of PVC/PVDC may be an effective approach for carbyne synthesizing in the appropriate condition.

  18. PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE TERNARY SYSTEM VINYL CHLORIDE-CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE-POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Jianfeng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1991-01-01

    Swelling capacity of vinyl chloride (VC) in chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) with 25- 40 wt% Cl at temperature 30- 57 ℃ was studied and their relationships were correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. A ternary phase diagram for VC-CPE-PVC was also established.In-situ polymerization conditions of CPE-g -VC were proposed and CPE content control was analyzed for the manufacturing process of CPE-g-VC graft product based on results of phase equilibrium study.

  19. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  20. Studies on Hypokalemia Induced by Trimethyltin Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To determine the possible relationship between plasma potassium concentration and severity of acute trimethyltin chloride (TMT) poisoning and to assess the mechanism of TMT induced hypokalemia. Methods SD rats were treated with various dosages of TMT (ip). All the indices were measured and analysed for determing their possible relations with plasma K+. Results With increase of dosage, the plasma K+ level dropped rapidly, and deaths appeared more quickly. The LDs0 of TMT (ip) was 14.7 mg/kgbw. In the low dosage group (10 mg/kgbw), the plasma K+ level dropped slowly with the lowest dosage on day 6 (4.85 mmol/L). It rose again on day 11 (5.06 mmol/L), and recoverd on day 28. The poisoning signs corresponded with decline of the span of K+ level. The plasma Na+ level dropped half an hour after TMT treatment, but recovered 24 h later. In the high dosage group (46.4 mg/kgbw), the levels of plasma K+ and Na+ fell rapidly within half an hour (P<0.05), the intracellular potassium concentration of RBC did not decrerase obviously (P>0.05), the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase in RBC membrane were depressed remarkably (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), the plasma aldosterone concentrations rose as high as tenfold (P<0.01), the arterial blood pH fell from 7.434 to 7.258 (P<0.01),pCO2 was raised from 29.62 to 45.33 mmHg (P<0.01). In the 24 h urine test, when rats were treated with TMT (21.5 mg/kgbw, ip), urine volume, urinary potassium, sodium and chloride increased significantly in comparison with those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion TMT could induce hypokalemia in SD rats. The available evidence suggests that TMT can induce acute renal leakage of potassium. At the same time, a significant rise of plasma aldosterone may play an important role in promoting potassium leakage from kidney to result in severe hypokalemia with inhaling acid-base abnormalities produced, which aggravate the poisoning symptoms. In the end the rats would die of respiratory

  1. Redetermination of 1-carboxycyclohexan-1-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa González

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H14NO2+·Cl−, was reported previously [Chacko, Srinivasan & Zand (1975. J. Cryst. Mol. Struct. 5, 353–357] from Weissenberg photographic data with R = 0.113. It has now been redetermined, providing a significant increase in the precision of the derived geometric parameters, viz. mean σ(C—C = 0.003 Å in the present work compared with 0.021 Å for the previous work. The complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirrror symmetry, with three C atoms, two O atoms and the N atom lying on the reflecting plane; the chloride anion also has m site symmetry. The crystal structure is established by a two-dimensional network of O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating C12(4 and C12(7 chains, and R24(8 and R24(14 rings.

  2. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  3. NQR in tert-butyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Aldo H.

    2004-03-01

    Tert-butyl chloride has been broadly studied experimentally through various techniques such as X-ray crystallography, DTA, and NMR. It was also studied experimentally through nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), but this study was limited and incomplete. In this paper, we present a more detailed study of TBC through the NQR of 35Cl. Our results show that near 120 K, the onset of the CH 3 groups semirotations around symmetry axis C3 takes place with an activation energy U=16.1 kJ mol -1. This intramolecular movement produces a T1 minimum near 148 K and is the dominant mechanism of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in phase III of this compound. In phase II of TBC, we show that there are not only methyl groups semirotations, but also semirotations of the whole molecule around a different axis from the symmetry axis C' 3 (C-Cl bond) with an activation energy of E=10.4 kJ mol -1.

  4. (Cyclopentadienylamine)scandium(2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene) : A 1,3-diene complex of scandium with Sc(I)- and Sc(III)-like reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetstra, D.J.; Meetsma, A.; Hessen, B.; Teuben, J.H

    2003-01-01

    The scandium 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene complex [eta(5),eta(1)-C5H4(CH2)(2)NMe2]Sc(C6H10) (2) reacts with PhCN via initial nitrile insertion into the Sc-diene bond to give a dimeric mu(2)-imido species, but with a 2,2'-bipyridine via the elimination of the free diene. The latter shows that 2 can be

  5. Thermal [4 + 2] Cycloadditions of 3-Acetyl-, 3-Carbamoyl-, and 3-Ethoxycarbonyl-Coumarins with 2,3-Dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under Solventless Conditions: A Structural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzia I. Padilla-Martínez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal [4+2] cycloadditions of 3-acetyl-, 3-carbamoyl, and 3-ethoxycarbonylcoumarins with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under solvent free conditions are reported, as well as the epoxidation reactions of some adducts. Discussion is focused on the structural features of the Diels-Alder adducts and their epoxides, based upon NMR, X-ray, and mass spectral data, and supported by ab initio theoretical calculations.

  6. 纤维素纳米纤维-丁苯胶乳复合材料的制备与表征%Preparation and characterization of cellulose-nanoifbers/styrene-butadiene latex (NFs/SBL) composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冰; 石勇; 陆海龙; 马金霞; 周小凡

    2016-01-01

    采用共混法制备不同纤维素纳米纤维含量的纤维素纳米纤维-丁苯胶乳复合材料,并通过拉伸性能、扫描电镜、热重分析以及红外光谱检测该复合材料的相关性能。分析结果表明:纤维素纳米纤维能均匀分散在丁苯胶乳溶液中,对丁苯胶乳有较好的补强效果;和丁苯胶乳相比,制得复合材料的裂断伸长率增大,弹性变好;但纤维素纳米纤维的加入对丁苯胶乳热稳定性的影响不明显。%Cellulose-nanofibers/styrene-butadiene latex(NFs-SBL) composites were prepared by blending different amount of cellulose nanofibers with styrene-butadiene latex(SBL), through the tensile properties testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis and infrared spectrometric analysis(FT-IR). The result showed that NFs are dispersed uniformly in styrene-butadiene latex and showed a good reinforcing effect on SBL, composite material breaking elongation increased and elastic becoming good. However, the addition of NFs had a less impact on thermal stability of styrene-butadiene latex.

  7. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  8. Calcium chloride in stabilised soil roads and runways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Vardhan

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available Mudless, dustless, hard and all weather driving surfaces is a serious requirement of the forces.  surfacing by mixtures of definite amounts of locally available stone, gravel, sand, clay and Silt to which calculated amount of calcium chloride is added quickly compact and ultimately harden like concrete. This provides an easy, quick and economic- means of meeting the requirement.  Necessity of such surfaces, use and action of calcium chloride and resulting effects are discussed. Different methods of construction and application of calcium chloride are briefly related.

  9. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LuFeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions for durability analysis of subway station in chloride environment were also proposed.

  10. The ionic product of water in concentrated tetramethylammonium chloride solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, P; Bódi, I; May, P M; Hefter, G T

    1997-04-01

    The ionic product of water, pK(w) = - log[H(+)][OH(-)] has been determined in aqueous solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride over the concentration range of 0.1-5.5 M at 25 degrees C using high-precision glass electrode potentiometric titrations. pK(w) data relating to aqueous potassium and sodium chlorides at ionic strengths up to 5 M are markedly lower than the tetramethylammonium chloride results. These differences are almost certainly due to weak associations between potassium and (especially) sodium and hydroxide ions.

  11. Ionometric determination of chloride ion in circulating and waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebeshko, G.I.; Afanas' eva, V.I.; Danielova, I.I.; Dmitriev, M.A.; Radchenko, A.F.

    1986-09-01

    The authors attempt to develop selective ionometric methods to determine chloride ion in waste and circulating waters from technological ore processing, containing significant amounts of sulfide ion and various flotation reagents. These waters contain practically no cations that form hard to dissolve compounds with chloride ion such as Ag/sup +/, Cu/sup +/, Hg/sup +/ or Pb/sup 2 +/. The chloride ion concentration in water varies between 10 and 100 mg/liter. Information is shown on the concentration of the main anions and flotation reagents in waters that were analyzed.

  12. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by stochastic fields. The paper contains a description of the parameters to be included in a stochastic model and a proposal for the information needed to obtain values for the parameters in order to be ab le to perform reliability investigations...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...

  13. Applicability of boron-doped diamond electrode to the degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free dye wastewaters was investigated on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with that on a dimensionally stable anode (DSA), and the applicability of BDD electrode to the degradation of these two kinds of wastewaters was explored. In chloride-free wastewater, the electrochemical degradation efficiency of dye on BDD electrode was much higher than that on DSA, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 100% and 26% for BDD and DSA, respectively. In chloride-mediated dye wastewater, COD removal was faster than that in chloride-free wastewater on both BDD and DSA electrodes with COD removal efficiencies higher than 95%, whereas the rate of COD removal on DSA was faster than that on BDD electrode. The investigation indicates that DSA is more suitable than BDD electrode in degradation of originally chloride contained dye wastewaters for the sake of energy and time saving. However, for chloride-free dye wastewaters, with the aim of environmental protection, BDD electrode is more appropriate to realize complete mineralization. At the same time, the secondary pollution can be avoided

  14. Adsorption of Tetradecylpyridinium Chloride on Aqueous Surfaces of Sodium Chloride Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fujio, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Surface tension of aqueous NaCl solutions of tetradecylpyridinium chloride (TPC) has been measured by the drop weight method at different NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1.000 mol dm−3 at 25◦C. Surface excess densities of tetradecylpyridinium ion (TP+), Cl− and Na+ have been obtained as functions of TPC concentration at different NaCl concentrations by applying the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to the surface tension data below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of TPC. Surface excess densiti...

  15. Adsorption of Dodecylpyridinium Chloride on Aqueous Surfaces of Sodium Chloride Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fujio, Katsuhiko; TAKEUCHI, Kumiko; Suzuki, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Surface tension of aqueous NaCl solutions of dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPC) has been measured by the drop weight method at different NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1.000 mol dm-3 at 25℃. Applying the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to the surface tension data at DPC concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess densities of dodecylpyridinium ion (DP+), Cl- and Na+ have been obtained as functions of DPC concentration at different NaCl concentrations. Surface excess d...

  16. Nickel Chloride Promoted Glaser Coupling Reaction in Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Hua LI; Lei WANG; Min WANG; Jin Can YAN

    2004-01-01

    A Glaser coupling reaction of terminal alkynes in the presence of nickel chloride without any organics and bases in hot water has been developed, which produces the corresponding homo-coupling products in good yields.

  17. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  18. Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Saraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

  19. Thermodynamic calculation of self-diffusion in sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Li, Chengbo; Shan, Shuangming

    2016-05-01

    Using the available pressure-volume-temperature equation of state of sodium chloride, we show that the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium and chloride in sodium chloride as a function of temperature and pressure can be successfully reproduced in terms of bulk elastic and expansivity data. We use a thermodynamic model that interconnects point-defect parameters with bulk properties. Our calculated diffusion coefficients and point-defect parameters, including activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume, well agree with reported experimental results when uncertainties are considered. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity of sodium chloride inferred from our predicted diffusivities of sodium through the Nernst-Einstein equation is compared with previous experimental data.

  20. Catalytic Decomposition of Methylene Chloride by Sulfated Titania Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic decomposition of methylene chloride in air below 300℃ was studied.Sulfated titania was very effective in converting 959ppm methylene chloride selectively to CO,CO2 and HCl.Complete decomposition of methylene chloride was achieved at low temperature(275℃).It was found that the acidic property of catalyst was a determinant factor for the catalytic activity.The presence of water vapor in the feed stream remarkably reduced the catalytic activity,which could be due to the blockage of acidic sites on the surface of catalyst by water molecules.A bifunctional catalyst comprising copper oxide was developed to improve the selectivity of catalytic oxidation,which indicated that copper oxide can promote the deep oxidation of methylene chloride.The crystal form of TiO2 imposes an important influence upon the catalytic oxidation.

  1. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications. PMID:21922094

  2. Purification and reconstitution of chloride channels from kidney and trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride channels mediate absorption and secretion of fluid in epithelia, and the regulation of these channels is now known to be defective in cystic fibrosis. Indanyl-oxyacetic acid 94 (IAA-94) is a high-affinity ligand for the chloride channel, and an affinity resin based on that structure was developed. Solubilized proteins from kidney and trachea membranes were applied to the affinity matrix, and four proteins with apparent molecular masses of 97, 64, 40, and 27 kilodaltons were eluted from the column by excess IAA-94. A potential-dependent 36Cl- uptake was observed after reconstituting these proteins into liposomes. Three types of chloride channels with single-channel conductances of 26, 100, and 400 picosiemens were observed after fusion of these liposomes with planar lipid bilayers. Similar types of chloride channels have been observed in epithelia

  3. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...... concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by stochastic fields. The paper contains a description of the parameters to be included in a stochastic model and a proposal for the information needed to obtain values for the parameters in order to be able to perform reliability investigations...

  4. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications.

  5. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  6. Reinforcement corrosion in alkaline chloride media with reduced oxygen concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly considered that the corrosion of steel in concrete is controlled by the oxygen content of the pore solution and there are service life models that relate the corrosion rate to the amount of oxygen. It is also commonly believed that in water saturated conditions the oxygen content in the pores is negligible and that underwater there is no risk of depassivation and the corrosion rate is very low. However, the available data on corrosion rates in immersed conditions do not indicate such performance; on the contrary corrosion develops when sufficient chloride reaches the reinforcement. In the present paper, results are presented for tests performed in alkaline chloride solutions that were purged with nitrogen to reduce the oxygen content. The results indicate that at very low oxygen concentrations, corrosion may develop in the presence of chlorides. The presence or absence of corrosion is influenced by the amount of chloride, the corrosion potential and the steel surface condition. (authors)

  7. 丁二烯橡胶门尼粘度比对与统计分析%The Comparison and Statistical Analysis of Butadiene Rubber Mooney Viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑萍; 黄世英; 汤妍雯; 曹帅英

    2015-01-01

    CNAS-RL02:2012《能力验证规则》中规定,申请认可和已获认可的实验室,根据检验领域和项目,选择1次/1年或1次/2年的周期参加相关项目的能力验证或测量审核,没有能力验证计划的项目可选择与权威机构进行比对,也可以选择参加权威机构组织的实验室间比对,证明其检验项目在该领域的检验能力。为此,国家合成橡胶质量监督检验中心策划组织46家合成橡胶行业所属的实验室,开展了丁二烯橡胶门尼粘度的比对工作。丁二烯橡胶门尼粘度实验室间的比对,比对结果统计与分析采用稳健统计技术,Z值绝对值平均值均小于0.87,满意结果在95%以上,有2个离群结果,占样本总数的4.4%,各实验室的测试水平较以往有大幅度提升。%《The ability to verify the rules》 of CNAS-RL02:2012 specifies:The laboratory ask for recognition and accredited laboratory,according to the test area and project,could select once a year or 2 years to participate in the ability verification or measurement audit of relevant projects,the labs without proof test projects can prove their test capacity through comparison with authority laboratories organized by authority. Therefore,national quality supervi-sion and inspection center of synthetic rubber planned and organized 46 laboratories in synthetic rubber industry, carried out the butadiene rubber Mooney viscosity comparison work. Comparison of butadiene rubber Mooney vis-cosity between the laboratories,each participating laboratory used Mooney viscometer calibrated with standard mate-rial,the average of Z absolute values was below 0. 87,satisfactory results exceeded 95%,two results deviated from the group,accounting for 4. 4% of the total number of samples,the laboratory test level has been increased greatly than in the past.

  8. Volume shrinkage and rheological studies of epoxidised and unepoxidised poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) triblock copolymer modified epoxy resin-diamino diphenyl methane nanostructured blend systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sajeev Martin; Puglia, Debora; Kenny, Josè M; Parameswaranpillai, Jyotishkumar; Vijayan P, Poornima; Pionteck, Jűrgen; Thomas, Sabu

    2015-05-21

    Styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS) copolymers epoxidised at different epoxidation degrees were used as modifiers for diglycidyl ether of the bisphenol A-diamino diphenyl methane (DGEBA-DDM) system. Epoxy systems containing modified epoxidised styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (eSBS) triblock copolymer with compositions ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared and the curing reaction was monitored in situ using rheometry and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis. By controlling the mole percent of epoxidation, we could generate vesicles, worm-like micelles and core-shell nanodomains. At the highest mole percent of epoxidation, the fraction of the epoxy miscible component in the triblock copolymer (epoxidised polybutadiene (PB)) was maximum. This gave rise to core-shell nanodomains having a size of 10-15 nm, in which the incompatible polystyrene (PS) becomes the core, the unepoxidised PB becomes the shell and the epoxidised PB interpenetrates with the epoxy phase. On the other hand, the low level of epoxidation gave rise to bigger domains having a size of ∼1 μm and the intermediate epoxidation level resulted in a worm-like structure. This investigation specifically focused on the importance of cure rheology on nanostructure formation, using rheometry. The reaction induced phase separation of the PS phase in the epoxy matrix was carefully explored through rheological measurements. PVT measurements during curing were carried out to understand the volume shrinkage of the blend, confirming that shrinkage behaviour is related to the block copolymer phase separation process during curing. The volume shrinkage was found to be maximum in the case of blends with unmodified SBS, where a heterogeneous morphology was observed, while a decrease in the shrinkage was evidenced in the case of SBS epoxidation. It could be explained by two effects: (1) solubility of the epoxidised block copolymer in the DGEBA leads to the formation of nanoscopic domains upon

  9. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  10. Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

  11. Optical Studies on Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Nithyaja, B; Nampoori, P.N V; P. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Optical characterization of lead chloride crystals prepared by sol-gel method is reported. The relevant sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of PbCl2 samples with five different types. In this paper, we report the absorption and fluorescence behaviour of pure, UV& IR irradiated and electric & magnetic field applied lead chloride crystal samples in solution phase at two different concentrations. Optical bandgap and emission studies of these crystals are also done.

  12. Macrocycle Synthesis by Chloride-Templated Amide Bond Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Centelles, Vicente; Burguete, M Isabel; Luis, Santiago V

    2016-03-01

    A new family of pseudopeptidic macrocyclic compounds has been prepared involving an anion-templated amide bond formation reaction at the macrocyclization step. Chloride anion was found to be the most efficient template in the macrocyclization process, producing improved macrocyclization yields with regard to the nontemplated reaction. The data suggest a kinetic effect of the chloride template, providing an appropriate folded conformation of the open-chain precursor and reducing the energy barrier for the formation of the macrocyclic product. PMID:26820908

  13. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  14. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  15. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For Americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  16. Effect of kaolin treatment temperature on mortar chloride permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Puertas, F.; Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.; J. Torres

    2007-01-01

    The present paper discusses the results of chloride resistance tests conducted on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortars containing a Colombian kaolin pre-treated at temperatures of from 600 to 800 ºC. The resulting metakaolin (MK) was added to OPC mortar mixes in proportions of 10 and 20% by cement weight. The mortars were compared for physical and chemical properties, including capillary absorption, chloride permeability and pore microstructure as assessed by mercury porosimetry....

  17. Extraction and immobilization of simulated pyrometallurgical chloride waste in Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeolites are effective media for the removal and immobilization of fission products waste from pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear fuels. In the present study, equilibration experiments between zeolite 4A and a simulated: pyrometallurgical chloride waste were carried out. Several batches of equilibration were carried out by varying the zeolite to salt (Z/S) ratio. The effects of Z/S on the extraction behaviour of the waste chloride salts were explored. (author)

  18. The effect of chloride and sulfate on Completely Recyclable Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Arvaniti, E.; De Schepper, M.; De Belie, N.; De Buysser, K.; Van Driessche, I.

    2013-01-01

    Completely Recyclable Concrete (CRC) is intended to be recycled as raw material within the cement production from a predesign stage. However, concrete contributions that are exposed to aggressive environments (e.g. industrial and seaside buildings), could carry elements such as chlorides, sulfur and alkalis after demolition, which will end up in the recycled material. The aim of this study is to better understand the influence of chloride and sulfur in CRC on the final clinker properties. The...

  19. Hafnium extraction from acidic chloride solutions by Cyanex 923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ammouri, E.; Distin, P.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Hafnium extraction from hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride solutions into Cyanex 923 in kerosene has been studied. Variables investigated were hydrochloric acid, total chloride and hafnium concentrations in the aqueous phase, and extractant/modifier (isodecanol) levels in the organic phase. Hafnium is considered to load as the tetrachloride complex forming a disolvate with Cyanex 923. Results are compared with equivalent data for zirconium extraction. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Intracellular chloride concentration of the mouse vomeronasal neuron

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangseong; Ma, Limei; Unruh, Jay; McKinney, Sean; Yu, C. Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is specialized in detecting pheromone and heterospecific cues in the environment. Recent studies demonstrate the involvement of multiple ion channels in VNO signal transduction, including the calcium-activated chloride channels (CACCs). Opening of CACCs appears to result in activation of VNO neuron through outflow of Cl− ions. However, the intracellular Cl− concentration remains undetermined. Results We used the chloride ion quenching dye, MQAE, to measu...

  1. Computational modelling of chloride ion transport in reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, S.J.H.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.; De Borst, R.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to a saline environment is a major threat with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ions, which are present in seawater and de-icing salts, are able to penetrate the concrete up to the depth of the reinforcement. They can eventually trigger a pitting corrosion process. The assessment of a corrosion-free service life of concrete structures is of paramount economic interest. However, the modelling of the ingress of chloride ions is complicated due t...

  2. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Rajarao; Badekai Ramachandra Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe) as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental ef...

  3. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang LuFeng; Yu Bo; Hong Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions ...

  4. Influence of cracks on chloride penetration in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Audenaert, K.; Schutter, G. de; MARSAVINA, L

    2009-01-01

    Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is the main durability problem for concrete structures in a marine environment. If the chlorides reach the reinforcement steel, it will depassivate and start to corrode in presence of air and water. Since the corrosion products have a larger volume than the initial products, concrete stresses are induced, leading to spalling and degradation of the concrete structures. If cracks, caused by early drying, thermal effects, shrinkage movements or overstre...

  5. Chloride ion transport performance in slag mortar under fatigue loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CaiHui; SUN Wei; JIANG JinYang; HAN JianDe; YE BangTu

    2012-01-01

    The transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar was investigated experimentally.In the self-designed experiment,fatigue loading was coupled simultaneously with ion transportation process,the diffusion law of chloride ion was obtained by titration and the AE (acoustic emission) technique was employed to detect the real-time damage distribution in the mortar specimen.The results for fatigue stress levels of 0.3,0.4 and 0.5 and slag contents of 0,10%,30% and 50% showed that fatigue loading accelerated the diffusion of chloride ion in mortar and the acceleration effect increased with the increase in stress levels.Slag addition was found to improve anti-chloride ion erosion performance effectively with the best substitution level at 30%,because the inhibition effect of slag on chloride ion diffusion diminished when the slag content exceeded 30%.The comparative experiments indicated that dynamic load has a significant effect on the transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar.

  6. Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

    2011-06-15

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away.

  7. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  8. Stabilizing Plutonium oxide material containing Chloride salts at PFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PFP had over 900 items, weighing more than 1100 kg consisting of impure plutonium oxides referred to as high chloride content plutonium oxides. Tests were conducted to examine items for physical characteristics. After 17 years of storage, the inner food-pack cans maintained integrity with very little evidence of corrosion. Items were washed with water to remove chloride salts. Chloride was readily soluble with plutonium concentrations less than 0.05 g/L in wash solution from all but one of seven items. Washed material was calcined at 1000 C. The calcined material passed the storage test for less than 0.5% water. Unopened items were examined using gamma energy analysis to determine if a prompt gamma (n, x) interaction could be used to screen out items with low chloride concentrations. The prompt gamma was not measurable. A 2168 keV gamma from the (α, x) interaction with chloride correlated within 10% of the chloride concentration measured from washing the item with water

  9. Infrared absorption of trans-1-chloromethylallyl and trans-1-methylallyl radicals produced in photochemical reactions of trans-1,3-butadiene and C Script-Small-L {sub 2} in solid para-hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahou, Mohammed; Wu, Jen-Yu; Tanaka, Keiichi [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Rd., Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuan-Pern [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Rd., Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-28

    The reactions of chlorine and hydrogen atoms with trans-1,3-butadiene in solid para-hydrogen (p-H{sub 2}) were investigated with infrared (IR) absorption spectra. When a p-H{sub 2} matrix containing C Script-Small-L {sub 2} and trans-1,3-butadiene was irradiated with ultraviolet light at 365 nm, intense lines at 650.3, 809.0, 962.2, 1240.6 cm{sup -1}, and several weaker ones due to the trans-1-chloromethylallyl radical, Bullet (CH{sub 2}CHCH)CH{sub 2}C Script-Small-L , appeared. Observed wavenumbers and relative intensities agree with the anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers and IR intensities predicted with the B3PW91/6-311++g(2d, 2p) method. That the C Script-Small-L atom adds primarily to the terminal carbon atom of trans-1,3-butadiene is in agreement with the path of minimum energy predicted theoretically, but in contrast to the reaction of C Script-Small-L + propene in solid p-H{sub 2}[J. Amicangelo and Y.-P. Lee, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 2956 (2010)] in which the addition of C Script-Small-L to the central C atom is favored, likely through steric effects in a p-H{sub 2} matrix. A second set of lines, intense at 781.6, 957.9, 1433.6, 2968.8, 3023.5, 3107.3 cm{sup -1}, were observed when the UV-irradiated C Script-Small-L {sub 2}/trans-1,3-butadiene/p-H{sub 2} matrix was further irradiated with IR light from a SiC source. These lines are assigned to the trans-1-methylallyl radical, Bullet (CH{sub 2}CHCH)CH{sub 3}, produced from reaction of 1,3-butadiene with a H atom resulted from the reaction of C Script-Small-L atoms with solid p-H{sub 2} exposed to IR radiation.

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  11. A small synthetic molecule functions as a chloride-bicarbonate dual-transporter and induces chloride secretion in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Yun; Li, Shing-To; Shen, Fang-Fang; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Dan

    2016-05-31

    A C2 symmetric small molecule composed of l-phenylalanine and isophthalamide was found to function as a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) dual transporter and self-assemble into chloride channels. In Ussing-chamber based short-circuit current measurements, this molecule elicited chloride-dependent short-circuit current (Isc) increase in both Calu-3 cell and CFBE41o-cell (with F508del mutant CFTR) monolayers. PMID:27188496

  12. Ab initio Investigations of the Equilibria between Trichlorothioacetyl Chloride, Tetrachlorothiirane, and Trichloroethenesulfenyl Chloride, their Reactants and Decomposition Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Vestergaard; Christensen, Henrik; Shim, Irene;

    2004-01-01

    Trichlorothioacetyl chloride 1, tetrachlorothiirane 2, and trichloroethenesulfenyl chloride 3 and the equilibria between them have been investigated by ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) calculations, and by Gaussian-3 theory, G3(MP2). The transition state...... of the isomerization reactions have been identified. Also investigated were possible reactions leading to the isomers and their possible decomposition products. The results show that the unobserved isomerization reactions are feasible....

  13. Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; J. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur environmental risks and significant expense. There is therefore a strong motivation to find less hazardous alternatives. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previousl...

  14. Technical Note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; J. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur significant risks and expense. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously for freshwater samples. Here, we assess BAC as a less hazardous alterna...

  15. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... formation and purification: The concentration of vinyl chloride in each exhaust gas stream from any... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for vinyl chloride... for Vinyl Chloride § 61.63 Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of...

  16. Characterization of the lanthanum chloride scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports about the investigations on the performance of the new earth-rare halide Scintillator, the LaCl3:10%Ce, which has been discovered with attractive scintillation properties: fast, efficient, and high-energy resolution. The combination of good brightness and linear response has naturally resulted in a very good energy resolution, whereas the fast decay time promoted counting applications at very high rate and very fast timing resolution. Energy resolutions of (2.99±0.02) %, (8.66±0.02) %, and (2.05±0.01) % have been achieved by exciting the detector with 662 keV 137Cs, 122 keV 152Eu, and 1332.5 keV 60Co sources respectively, at room temperature. The variations of the resolution as a function of both shaping time and high voltage have been studied and found to be relatively linear. The timing resolution was also studied. The value of 1.07 ns FWHM has been recorded with LaCl3:10%Ce and BaF2 detectors operating in coincidence mode, using 1333.5 keV γ-ray 60Co peak. Compared to similar studies, this timing resolution was worse than expected even if the exciting radioactive sources used in the two experiments were different. The efficiency values of (0.24±0.01)%, (0.01±0.01)% and (0.09±0.01)% were obtained with laboratory 137Cs, 152Eu, 60Co isotopes respectively. These detector efficiency values were very low, due to the smaller detector sizes used in these earlier crystals and to the large detector-source-distance used in this experiment. The Lanthanum Chloride Scintillator detector is hygroscopic and relatively expensive compared to established scintillators. In addition, it carries internal contamination in 138La and 227Ac for larger thicknesses. Nevertheless, the energy resolution figures achieved, twice as good as that of NaI(Tl), are in good agreement with those reported elsewhere. They credit the scintillation detectors as good challengers of semiconductor-based detectors, allowing their application fields to be extended. (author)

  17. [Pulmonary manifestations of polyvinyl chloride exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süyür, Hüseyin; Bayram, Nazan; Aydın, Neriman; Uyar, Meral; Gündoğdu, Nevhiz; Elbek, Osman

    2011-01-01

    There is currently no national data on the effects of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) exposure on pulmonary function. In this study we recruited workers and administrative staff from two PVC plants between July 2008 and July 2009. A questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and peak flows were recorded. Particulate matter analyses were performed by the Adana Central Laboratory of the Directorate of Occupational Health and Safety. Data were analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software. Nine of the 147 subjects were female. The incidence of a cough was more common in the administrative group. Of the study population, 59.1% were smokers. Tobacco addiction significantly increased cough and dyspnea [OR= 1.10 (1.00-1.20, 95% CI) p= 0.007 and OR= 1.08 (1.02-1.14, 95% CI), p= 0.008, respectively]. Dust exposure was correlated with the incidence of a cough [OR= 0.20 (0.04-0.80, 95% CI) p= 0.008]. The period of work correlated with sputum production [OR= 1.00 (1.00-1.02, 95% CI) p= 0.044]. The FVC% was significantly higher in the administrative group, and FEV1/FVC and DLCO were higher in the exposed group. Tobacco addiction increased the risk of airflow limitation, as evaluated by FEV1/FVC < 70% and FEF25-75 < 50% [OR= 1.15 (1.06-1.25, 95% CI) p= 0.001 and OR= 1.09 (1.02-1.17, 95% CI) p= 0.010, respectively]. Tobacco addiction and increasing duration of work had a negative influence on DLCO in the exposed group (r= -0.270, p= 0.025 and r= -0.210, p= 0.037). In the exposed group PEF variability was significantly greater on workdays, compared with rest days. This study shows that tobacco consumption has a greater affect on the airways than PVC dust exposure. A median of 36 months exposure to PVC dust had no significant impact on pulmonary function parameters, except for DLCO and PEF variability.

  18. Effects of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APS) on tensile properties and morphology of polypropylene (PP), recycle acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Omar, Latifah; Zainal, Mustaffa; Ting, Sam Sung; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-07-01

    The performance of sugarcane baggase (SCB) treated with γ-APS filled polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) biocomposites were investigated. The composites with different filler loading ranging from 5 to 30 wt % were prepared using heated two roll mill by melt mixing at temperature of 180 °C. Tensile properties of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites which is tensile strength, Young Modulus and elongation at break were investigated. Increasing of treated SCB filler loading in PP/NBRr/SCB composites have increased the Young modulus however decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PP/NBRr/SCB composites. From the results, γ-APS treated SCB composites shown higher tensile strength and Young Modulus but lower elongation at break when compared to the untreated SCB composites. This is due to the stronger bonding between γ-APS treated SCB with PP/NBRr matrices. These findings was supported by micrograph pictures from morphological study. SCB filler treated with γ-APS has improved the adhesion as well as gave strong interfacial bonding between SCB filler and PP/NBRr matrices which results in good tensile strength of PP/NBRr/SCB composites.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Carboxyl-terminated Poly (butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)-epoxy Resin Prepolymers for Fusion-bonded-epoxy Powder Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingcheng; JIA Xiuli; ZHANG Shengwen; LIU Ren; LIU Xiaoya

    2012-01-01

    Liquid carboxyl-terminated poly(butadiene-co-acrylonitrile)(CTBN)-epoxy resin(EP)prepolymers were prepared with different contents of CTBN.The chemical reactions between EP and CTBN were characterized by Fourier ransform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).The scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of curing films showed phase separation,and the rubber particles were finely dispersed in the epoxy matrix.Mechanical properties analysis of curing films showed that impact strength and elongation at break increased significantly upon the addition of CTBN,indicating good toughness of the modified epoxy resins.Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the incorporation of CTBN had little effect on the thermal stability of EP.Fusion-bondedepoxy (FBE) powder coatings modified with CTBN-EP prepolymers were prepared.The experimental results demonstrate the ability of CTBN-EP prepolymers,toughening technology to dramatically enhance the flexibility and impact resistance of FBE coatings without compromising other key properties such as corrosion protection.

  20. Enhancement of light yield and stability of radio-pure tetraphenyl-butadiene based coatings for VUV light detection in cryogenic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Dressler, R.; Piastra, F.; Usoltsev, I.; Walter, M.

    2015-09-01

    The detection of VUV scintillation light in (liquid) argon (LAr) detectors commonly includes a reflector with a fluorescent coating, converting UV photons to visible light. The light yield of these detectors depends directly on the conversion efficiency. Several coating/reflector combinations were produced using VM2000, a specular reflecting multi-layer polymer, and Tetratex®, a diffuse reflecting PTFE fabric, as reflector foils. The light yield of these coatings was optimised and has been measured in a dedicated liquid argon setup built at the University of Zurich. It employs a small, 1.3 kg LAr cell viewed by a 3-inch, low radioactivity PMT of type R11065-10 from Hamamatsu. The cryogenic stability of these coatings was additionally studied. The optimum reflector/coating combination was found to be Tetratex® dip-coated with Tetraphenyl-butadiene with a thickness of 0.9 mg/cm2, resulting in a 3.6 times higher light yield compared to uncoated VM2000. Its performance was stable in long-term measurements, performed up to 100 days in liquid argon. This coated reflector was also investigated concerning radioactive impurities and found to be suitable for current and upcoming low-background experiments. Therefore it is used for the liquid argon veto in Phase II of the GERDA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment.

  1. Iminopyridine-Based Cobalt(II and Nickel(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Their Catalytic Behaviors for 1,3-Butadiene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanquan Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of iminopyridine ligated Co(II (1a–7a and Ni(II (1b–7b complexes were synthesized. The structures of complexes 3a, 4a, 5a, 7a, 5b, and 6b were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Complex 3a formed a chloro-bridged dimer, whereas 4a, 5a, and 7a, having a substituent (4a, 5a: CH3; 7a: Br at the 6-position of pyridine, producing the solid structures with a single ligand coordinated to the central metal. The nickel atom in complex 5b features distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with one THF molecule ligating to the metal center. All the complexes activated by ethylaluminum sesquichloride (EASC were evaluated in 1,3-butadiene polymerization. The catalytic activity and selectivity were significantly influenced by the ligand structure and central metal. Comparing with the nickel complexes, the cobalt complexes exhibited higher catalytic activity and cis-1,4-selectivity. For both the cobalt and nickel complexes, the aldimine-based complexes showed higher catalyst activity than their ketimine counterparts.

  2. Temperature dependence of alpha-induced scintillation in the 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene wavelength shifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloce, L. M.; Kuźniak, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Noble, A. J.; Boulay, M. G.; Nadeau, P.; Pollmann, T.; Clark, M.; Piquemal, M.; Schreiner, K.

    2016-06-01

    Liquid noble based particle detectors often use the organic wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) which shifts UV scintillation light to the visible regime, facilitating its detection, but which also can scintillate on its own. Dark matter searches based on this type of detector commonly rely on pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for background mitigation. Alpha-induced scintillation therefore represents a possible background source in dark matter searches. The timing characteristics of this scintillation determine whether this background can be mitigated through PSD. We have therefore characterized the pulse shape and light yield of alpha induced TPB scintillation at temperatures ranging from 300 K down to 4 K, with special attention given to liquid noble gas temperatures. We find that the pulse shapes and light yield depend strongly on temperature. In addition, the significant contribution of long time constants above ~50 K provides an avenue for discrimination between alpha decay events in TPB and nuclear-recoil events in noble liquid detectors.

  3. VUV-Vis optical characterization of Tetraphenyl-butadiene films on glass and specular reflector substrates from room to liquid Argon temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, R.; Montereali, R. M.; Nichelatti, E.; Vincenti, M. A.; Canci, N.; Segreto, E.; Cavanna, F.; Di Pompeo, F.; Carbonara, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Perfetto, F.

    2013-09-01

    The use of efficient wavelength-shifters from the vacuum-ultraviolet to the photo-sensor's range of sensitivity is a key feature in detectors for Dark Matter search and neutrino physics based on liquid argon scintillation detection. Thin film of Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) deposited onto the surface delimiting the active volume of the detector and/or onto the photosensor optical window is the most common solution in current and planned experiments. Detector design and response can be evaluated and correctly simulated only when the properties of the optical system in use (TPB film + substrate) are fully understood. Characterization of the optical system requires specific, sometimes sophisticated optical methodologies. In this paper the main features of TPB coatings on different, commonly used substrates is reported, as a result of two independent campaigns of measurements at the specialized optical metrology labs of ENEA and University of Tor Vergata. Measured features include TPB emission spectra with lineshape and relative intensity variation recorded as a function of the film thickness and for the first time down to LAr temperature, as well as optical reflectance and transmittance spectra of the TPB coated substrates in the wavelength range of the TPB emission.

  4. Utilizing carbon dioxide as a reaction medium to mitigate production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the thermal decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Castaldi, Marco J

    2012-10-01

    The CO(2) cofeed impact on the pyrolysis of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled to online gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The direct comparison of the chemical species evolved from the thermal degradation of SBR in N(2) and CO(2) led to a preliminary mechanistic understanding of the formation and relationship of light hydrocarbons (C(1-4)), aromatic derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), clarifying the role of CO(2) in the thermal degradation of SBR. The identification and quantification of over 50 major and minor chemical species from hydrogen and benzo[ghi]perylene were carried out experimentally in the temperature regime between 300 and 500 °C in N(2) and CO(2). The significant amounts of benzene derivatives from the direct bond dissociation of the backbone of SBR, induced by thermal degradation, provided favorable conditions for PAHs by the gas-phase addition reaction at a relatively low temperature compared to that with conventional fuels such as coal and petroleum-derived fuels. However, the formation of PAHs in a CO(2) atmosphere was decreased considerably (i.e., ∼50%) by the enhanced thermal cracking behavior, and the ultimate fates of these species were determined by different pathways in CO(2) and N(2) atmospheres. Consequently, this work has provided a new approach to mitigate PAHs by utilizing CO(2) as a reaction medium in thermochemical processes. PMID:22950720

  5. Flame retardancy mechanisms of bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) in combination with zinc borate in bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) with and without bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) and 5 wt.% zinc borate (Znb) were investigated. The pyrolysis was studied by thermogravimetry (TG), TG-FTIR and NMR, the fire behaviour with a cone calorimeter applying different heat fluxes, LOI and UL 94. Fire residues were examined with NMR. BDP affects the decomposition of PC/ABS and acts as a flame retardant in the gas and condensed phases. The addition of Znb results in an additional hydrolysis of PC. The fire behaviour is similar to PC/ABS, aside from a slightly increased LOI and a reduced peak heat release rate, both caused by borates improving the barrier properties of the char. In PC/ABS + BDP + Znb, the addition of Znb yields a borate network and amorphous phosphates. Znb also reacts with BDP to form alpha-zinc phosphate and borophosphates that suppress the original flame retardancy mechanisms of BDP. The inorganic-organic residue formed provides more effective flame retardancy, in particular at low irradiation in the cone calorimeter, and a clear synergy in LOI, whereas for more developed fires BDP + Znb become less effective than BDP in PC/ABS with respect to the total heat evolved.

  6. The use of styrene-butadiene rubber waste as a potential filler in nitrile rubber: order of addition and size of waste particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Baeta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR has large applications in the shoe industry, especially as expanded sheets used to produce insoles and inner soles. According to TG analysis, the rubber content in SBR residues (SBR-r was found to be around 26-wt%. Based on that data, a cost-effective technique for the reuse of SBR-r in Nitrile rubber (NBR was developed. Later, the effect of SBR-r on the cure behavior, mechanical performance, swelling, and crosslink density of reused rubber was investigated, with more emphasis placed on the effect of both particle size and loading of waste filler. Cure characteristics such as optimum cure time and scorch time were then reduced by the increasing amount of SBR-r filler. Owing to the reinforced nature of the largest particle size SBR-r, the best results for the mechanical properties of NBR were those in which SBR-r was added at the end of the cure process. The study has thus shown that SBR residue (SBR-r can be used as an economical alternative filler in NBR.

  7. Co-recycling of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards to manufacture reproduction composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixing; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) waste plastic and nonmetal particles from waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) to manufacture reproduction composites (RC), with the aim of co-recycling these two waste resources. The composites were prepared in a twin-crew extruder and investigated by means of mechanical testing, in situ flexural observation, thermogravimatric analysis, and dimensional stability evaluation. The results showed that the presence of nonmetal particles significantly improved the mechanical properties and the physical performance of the RC. A loading of 30 wt% nonmetal particles could achieve a flexural strength of 72.6 MPa, a flexural modulus of 3.57 GPa, and an impact strength of 15.5 kJ/m2. Moreover, it was found that the application of maleic anhydride-grafted ABS as compatilizer could effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between the ABS plastic and the nonmetal particles. This research provides a novel method to reuse waste ABS and WPCB nonmetals for manufacturing high value-added product, which represents a promising way for waste recycling and resolving the environmental problem.

  8. Adhesion properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based adhesives in the presence of phenol formaldehyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion properties, i. e. viscosity, tack and peel strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied using phenol formaldehyde resin as the tackifying resin. Toluene was used as the solvent throughout the experiment. SBR composition in SBR/SMR L blend used was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%. Three different resin loadings, i. e. 40, 80 and 120 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr were used in the adhesive formulation. The viscosity of adhesive was determined by a HAAKE Rotary Viscometer whereas loop tack and peel strength of paper/polyethylene terephthalate (PET film were measured using a Lloyd Adhesion Tester operating at 30 cm/min. Results indicate that the viscosity of adhesive decreases with increasing % SBR whereas loop tack passes through a maximum value at 20% SBR for all resin loadings. Except for the control sample (without resin, the peel strength shows a maximum value at 60% SBR for the three modes of peel tests. For a fixed % SBR, adhesive sample containing 40 phr phenol formaldehyde resin always exhibits the highest loop tack and peel strength, an observation which is associated to the optimum wettability of adhesive on the substrate.

  9. Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range using 3-D multi-coincidence ion momentum imaging spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghbaie, Shabnam; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Laksman, Joakim; Månsson, Erik P; Sankari, Anna; Sorensen, Stacey L

    2015-09-21

    Dissociative double-photoionization of butadiene in the 25-45 eV energy range has been studied with tunable synchrotron radiation using full three-dimensional ion momentum imaging. Using ab initio calculations, the electronic states of the molecular dication below 33 eV are identified. The results of the measurement and calculation show that double ionization from π orbitals selectively triggers twisting about the terminal or central C-C bonds. We show that this conformational rearrangement depends upon the dication electronic state, which effectively acts as a gateway for the dissociation reaction pathway. For photon energies above 33 eV, three-body dissociation channels where neutral H-atom evaporation precedes C-C charge-separation in the dication species appear in the correlation map. The fragment angular distributions support a model where the dication species is initially aligned with the molecular backbone parallel to the polarization vector of the light, indicating a high probability for double-ionization to the "gateway states" for molecules with this orientation. PMID:26395707

  10. Water soluble styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose binder for ZnFe2O4 anode electrodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongyu; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Dong; Qiu, Hailong; Fu, Qiang; Na, Hui; Guo, Zhendong; Du, Fei; Chen, Gang; Wei, Yingjin

    2015-07-01

    ZnFe2O4 nano particles as an anode material for lithium ion batteries are prepared by the glycine-nitrate combustion method. The mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (SBR/CMC) with the weight ratio of 1:1 is used as the binder for ZnFe2O4 electrode. Compared with the conventional polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) binder, the SBR/CMC binder is much cheaper and environment benign. More significantly, this water soluble binder significantly improves the rate capability and cycle stability of ZnFe2O4. A discharge capacity of 873.8 mAh g-1 is obtained after 100 cycles at the 0.1C rate, with a very little capacity fading rate of 0.06% per cycle. Studies show that the SBR/CMC binder enhances the adhesion of the electrode film to the current collector, and constructs an effective three-dimensional network for electrons transport. In addition, the SBR/CMC binder helps to form a uniform SEI film thus prohibiting the formation of lithium dendrite. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SBR/CMC binder lowers the ohmic resistance of the electrode, depresses the formation of SEI film and facilitates the charge transfer reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. These advantages highlight the potential applications of SBR/CMC binder in lithium ion batteries.

  11. Henry’s constant of carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride/ethylene glycol, choline chloride/glycerol, choline chloride/malonic acid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new set of Henry’s constant for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvents were measured. • The DESs used were: ethaline, glyceline, and maline. • The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. -- Abstract: In this study, we present a new set of Henry’s constant data for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (DES) (20 to 80 wt% DES) at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The DESs used were choline chloride-based: ethaline (choline chloride/ethylene glycol), glyceline (choline chloride/glycerol), and maline (choline chloride/malonic acid). A differential Henry’s coefficient model was used to describe the behaviour of Henry’s constant, and correlate it with temperature and concentration of DES in the aqueous DES solution. The correlation was found satisfactory such that the proposed model can be used in engineering calculations with reasonable accuracy

  12. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Joon Woo Park; Ki Yong Ann; Chang-Geun Cho

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS) mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added ...

  13. Simulation of Chloride Diffusion in Cracked Concrete with Different Crack Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Yong Wang; Li-Na Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion of steel rebar is one of the primary durability problems for reinforced concrete structures in marine environment. Furthermore, if the surfaces of concrete structures have cracks, additional chloride can penetrate into concrete through cracked zone. For chloride ingression into cracked concrete, former researches mainly focus on influence of crack width on chloride diffusion coefficients. Other crack characteristics, such as chloride depth, crack shape (equal-width ...

  14. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  15. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  16. Effect of n-tetradecanol on the extraction of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides with tri-n-dodecylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equations are proposed to describe the reduction in the partition coefficients of metal chlorides in amine extractant systems following the addition of alcohols. The equations include two empirical factors: solvation parameters for amine chloride and the compound undergoing extraction. These parameters can be found from independent data. The equations have been used to describe the extraction of micro amounts of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides by tridodecylammonium chloride in the presence of n-tetradecanol

  17. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  18. Efeito do envelhecimento de catalisadores Ziegler-Natta à base de neodímio sobre a polimerização de 2-metil, 1,3-butadieno Effect of aging time of Ziegler-Natta catalysts based on neodimium for 2-methyl, 1,3-butadiene polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Carneiro Simões

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do tempo de envelhecimento natural do sistema catalítico versatato de neodímio/hidreto de di-isobutilalumínio/cloreto de t-butila sobre a polimerização de 2-metil, 1,3-butadieno (isopreno. Foram avaliadas a atividade catalítica e conversão, além da massa molar, distribuição de massa molar e microestrutura dos polímeros. Foi objetivo estudar também as características micro e macroestruturais do poli-1,4-cis-isopreno ao longo da polimerização. Os catalisadores envelhecidos apresentaram tempos mais curtos ao longo da polimerização e uma conversão mais alta em relação ao catalisador não envelhecido. Estes resultados em conjunto com a menor atividade catalítica nos catalisadores envelhecidos sugerem a provável desativação de alguns sítios ativos mais sensíveis. Não foi observada influência do envelhecimento do catalisador sobre a microestrutura do polímero. Houve também aumento da massa molar e estreitamento na polidispersão conforme o aumento da conversão.The goal of this work was to study the aging effects of the catalytic system neodymium versatate/diisobutylaluminium hydride/t-butyl chloride on 2-methyl, 1.3-butadiene (isoprene polymerization. The catalytic activity, conversion and polymer characteristics (molar mass, molar mass distribution and microstructure were evaluated. The macro and microstructural characteristics of poly-1.4-cis-isoprene along the polymerization were also studied. The aged catalysts have shorter times along the polymerization and a higher conversion than the non-aged catalyst. Together with the lower catalytic activity for aged catalysts, these results point to possible disabling of the most sensitive active sites. Aging of the catalyst did not affect the polymer microstructure. As the conversion progressed, the molar mass increased with a narrowing in the molecular weight distribution.

  19. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nuaaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR-AMS to refractory chloride species (i.e., NaCl and non refractory chloride species (i.e., NH4Cl, HCl, etc.. Using the HR-AMS, the aerosol chloride signal is typically quantified using ion signals for 35Cl+, H35Cl+, 37Cl+ and H37Cl+ (HxCl+. During this study, the highest aerosol chloride signal was observed during sea sweep experiments when the source of the aerosol chloride was NaCl present in artificially generated sea salt aerosols even though the HR-AMS has significantly lower sensitivity to such refractory species. Other prominent ion signals that arise from NaCl salt were also observed at m/z 22.99 for Na+ and m/z 57.96 for Na35Cl+ during both sea sweep experiments and during periods of ambient measurements. Thus, refractory NaCl contributes significantly to the HxCl+ signal, interfering with attempts to quantify non sea salt chloride (nssCl. It was found that during ambient aerosol measurements, the interference in the HxCl+ signal from sea salt chloride (ssCl was as high as 89%, but with a study wide average of 10%. The Na35Cl+ ion signal was found to be a good tracer for NaCl. We outline a method to establish nssCl in the ambient aerosols by subtracting the sea salt chloride (ssCl signal from the HxCl+ signal. The ssCl signal is derived from the Na35Cl+ ion tracer signal and the HxCl+ to Na35Cl+ ratio established from the sea sweep experiments. Ambient submicron concentrations of ssCl were also established using the

  20. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide......-170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  1. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  2. Novel vanadium chloride/polyhalide redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    This paper describes a novel redox flow cell which employs a polyhalide solution in the positive half-cell electrolyte and a vanadium(II)/vanadium(III) chloride redox couple as the negative half-cell electrolyte. During charging, the bromide ions in the positive half-cell are considered to undergo oxidation to the polyhalide ion Br 2Cl -; the formal potential of this couple is about 0.8 V versus the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). When combined with a formal potential of around -0.5 V versus SCE for the V(III)/V(III) coupled in the chloride supporting electrolyte, an overall cell potential of approximately 1.3 V would be expected for the vanadium chloride/polyhalide redox flow cell.

  3. Chloride channels of platelets%血小板氯通道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琳; 尹松梅

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channels distribute widely in the body, and participate in many physiological actions and regulatory processes. Based on their physiological roles and molecular structures, six kinds of chloride channels have been identified: (1) The chloride channels family; (2) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; (3) Swelling-activated chloride channels; (4) Calcium-activated chloride channels; (5) The p64 (CLIC) gene family; (6) γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors. The chloride channels do exist in platelets, and their appearances are dependent on the presence of intracellular calcium. Blocking agents of chloride channels inhibit the thrombin-activated platelet aggregation and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that chloride channels play a role in the activation of platelets. In addition, chloride channels act on both the cell volume regulation and the intracellular pH regulation in platelets.

  4. Microreactor Technology for On-Site Production of Methyl Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S A.; Vajglová, Z. (Zuzana); Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Y.; Salmi, T

    2014-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two stainless steel microreactors [gas-phase microreactor (GPMR)-mix from the Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz (IMM)] coupled in series was used for production of methyl chloride by hydrochlorination of methanol. The catalyst was γ-alumina on microreactor platelets. The influence of temperature on the methanol conversion and methyl chloride selectivity was investigated. A maximum conversion of 97.6% and a selectivity of 98.8% were reached at 340°C, which is c...

  5. Inhibitory effects of beryllium chloride on rat liver microsomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C F; Yasaka, W J; Silva, L F; Oshiro, T T; Oga, S

    1990-04-30

    A single i.v. dose (0.1 mmol Be2+/kg) of beryllium chloride prolonged the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, in rats. The effects are correlated with changes of the pharmacokinetic parameters and with the in vitro inhibition of both aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation of pentobarbital and zoxazolamine. In vitro N-demethylation of meperidine and aminopyrine was partially inhibited while O-demethylation of quinidine was unaffected by liver microsomes of rats pretreated with beryllium salt. The findings give clues that beryllium chloride inhibits some forms of cytochrome P-450, especially those responsible for hydroxylation of substrates, like pentobarbital and zoxazolamine.

  6. Venous uptake of /sup 201/Tl as thallous chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberstein, E.B.; Thomas, S.R. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Coll. of Medicine); Robbins, P.J.; Fortman, D.L. (Office of Science and Technology, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Food and Drug Administration, Nuclear Medicine Lab.); Sill, P.

    1984-05-01

    Thallium-201, injected as thallous chloride, has been found to adhere to or be taken up by the vein into which it is injected, permitting images to be obtained of human veins up to 4 h following injection. A digoxin-insensitive rat vein model also retained /sup 201/Tl but for shorter periods of time. /sup 201/Tl uptake is independent of the solution into which it is introduced, whether 5% dextrose or 0.9% sodium chloride. This technique permits multiple delayed views of normal veins to be obtained but is of uncertain value in the evaluation of thrombophlebitis of the calf because of rather poor resolution and high cost.

  7. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  8. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Svend; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a 1reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORMISORM-analysis....

  9. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  10. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  11. Application of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber 2557-A in tire%溶聚丁苯橡胶2557-A在轮胎中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燕; 孙举涛; 徐文清; 张萍; 孙学红

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the pure carbon black formula, solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber ( SSBR, grade 2557-A) and emulsion styrene-butadiene rubber(ESBR, grade 1712) were applied to crown rubbers of all-steel and semi-steel radial tires seperately, their application results were compared, and the acceptable crown rubber formula of SSBR 2557-A was achieved. The all-steel and semi-steel radial tires were trial-produced, and their performances were tested. The results showed that compared to ESBR 1712 all-ateel crown vulcanizate. The tensile strength, modulus at 100% and 300% , abrasion resistance ( Akron) , compression heat built-up as well as the balance between wet skid resistance and rolling resistance of the equivalent SSBR 2557-A crown vulcani- zate increased, but abrasion resistance ( DIN ) decreased- And compared to ESBR 1712 semi-stell crown vulcanizate, the equivalent SSBR 2557-A also improved semi-steel crown vulcanizate in skid resistance without changing any other performances. The trial tire based on SSBR 2557-A all-steel crown rubber formula passed endurance test, and the tire based on SSBR 2557-A semi-steel crown rubber formula met the national standard in outer dia, strength, unseating resistance, highspeed performance and durability, in addition, it had substantial high wet skid resistance and noise performance.%按照纯炭黑配方,将溶聚丁苯橡胶(SSBR,牌号为2557 -A)同乳聚丁苯橡胶(ESBR,牌号为1712)对比应用于全钢和半钢子午线轮胎胎冠胶配方中,确定了合适的胎冠胶配方,且进行了轮胎的试制和性能检测.结果表明,与ESBR 1712全钢胎冠胶相比,同等用量SSBR 2557 -A的胎冠胶拉伸强度、定伸应力、Akron磨耗性能和压缩生热等性能均得到提高,但DIN磨耗性能有所下降,且具有更优的抗湿滑性和更低的滚动阻力;与ESBR 1712半钢胎冠胶相比,SSBR 2557 -A胎冠胶具有优异的抗湿滑性能,而其他性能相差不大;采用SSBR 2557 -A

  12. Thermodynamic Calculation and Analysis of Converting Butene to Butadiene by Oxidative Dehydrogenation%丁烯氧化脱氢制丁二烯体系的热力学计算与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮亮; 黄剑锋; 马应海

    2015-01-01

    In the reaction system of converting butene to butadiene by oxidative dehydrogenation, the standard enthalpy, the gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constants of each reaction were calculated. The equilibrium composition of the reaction system was calculated by the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization. The results show that the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction and the complete oxidation reaction can both proceed completely, but the yield of butadiene can be limited by the thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, in order to improve the yield of butadiene, it is crucial to develop catalysts with high performance, and the generation reaction of COx can be completely inhibited by kinetically controlling.%计算了正丁烯氧化脱氢制丁二烯体系中各反应的标准摩尔反应焓、标准摩尔吉布斯自由能、平衡常数,并利用 Gibbs 自由能最小法计算了反应体系的热力学平衡组成。结果表明,正丁烯的氧化脱氢与完全氧化反应在热力学上均可完全进行,但是丁二烯的产率受热力学平衡限制。因此,提高丁二烯产率的关键在于开发高性能的催化剂,从动力学上角度充分抑制 COx的生成反应。

  13. Polymerization of 1,3-butadiene catalyzed by pincer cobalt(II) complexes derived from 2-(1-arylimino)-6-(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine ligands

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2013-08-01

    A new class of air stable and structurally well-defined cobalt complexes with unsymmetrical pincer type ligands ([2-(ArNCMe)-6-(Py)C5H 3N]CoCl2) (Ar = C6H5, Py = pyrazol-1-yl, 5a; Ar = 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, Py = pyrazol-1-yl, 5b; Ar = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, Py = pyrazol-1-yl, 5c; Ar = C6H5, Py = 3,5-Me 2pyrazol-1-yl, 5d; Ar = 2,4,6-Me3C6H 2, Py = 3,5-Me2pyrazol-1-yl, 5e; Ar = 2,6- iPr2C6H3, Py = 3,5-Me 2pyrazol-1-yl, 5f; Ar = 2,6-iPr2C 6H3, Py = 3,5-iPr2pyrazol-1-yl, 5g and [2-(OCMe)-6-(3,5-diphenylpyrazol-1-yl)C5H3N]CoCl 2 5h) were prepared and the molecular structures of 5a, 5c and 5f were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Upon activation by methylaluminoxane (MAO) in toluene at room temperature, all complexes initiate polymerization of 1,3-butadiene (polymer yields: 65-99%), affording polybutadiene with excellent cis-1,4 regularity (97.5-98.7%). The polymer yields and properties in terms of molecular weight and distribution are well controlled by the substituents on iminoaryl rings and pyrazole rings. Selectivity switch from cis-1,4 to syndio-1,2 was also achievable by adding phosphine as microstructure regulator. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid Vesicles Based on Linear Poly(Dimethylsiloxane-b-Ethylene Oxide and Poly(Butadiene-b-Ethylene Oxide Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Gaspard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide (PDMS-PEO and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide (PBd-PEO are two block copolymers which separately form vesicles with disparate membrane permeabilities and fluidities. Thus, hybrid vesicles formed from both PDMS-PEO and PBd-PEO may ultimately allow for systematic, application-specific tuning of vesicle membrane fluidity and permeability. However, given the relatively low strength previously noted for comb-type PDMS-PEO vesicles, the mechanical robustness of the resulting hybrid vesicles must first be confirmed. Toward this end, we have characterized the mechanical behavior of vesicles formed from mixtures of linear PDMS-PEO and linear PBd-PEO using micropipette aspiration. Tension versus strain plots of pure PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles revealed a non-linear response in the high tension regime, in contrast to the approximately linear response of pure PBd33-PEO20 vesicles. Remarkably, the area expansion modulus, critical tension, and cohesive energy density of PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles were each significantly greater than for PBd33-PEO20 vesicles, although critical strain was not significantly different between these vesicle types. PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles generally displayed graded responses in between that of the pure component vesicles. Thus, the PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles retained or exceeded the strength and toughness characteristic of pure PBd-PEO vesicles, indicating that future assessment of the membrane permeability and fluidity of these hybrid vesicles may be warranted.

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid Vesicles Based on Linear Poly(Dimethylsiloxane-b-Ethylene Oxide) and Poly(Butadiene-b-Ethylene Oxide) Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Jeffery; Casey, Liam M; Rozin, Matt; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J; Silas, James A; Hahn, Mariah S

    2016-01-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide) (PDMS-PEO) and poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (PBd-PEO) are two block copolymers which separately form vesicles with disparate membrane permeabilities and fluidities. Thus, hybrid vesicles formed from both PDMS-PEO and PBd-PEO may ultimately allow for systematic, application-specific tuning of vesicle membrane fluidity and permeability. However, given the relatively low strength previously noted for comb-type PDMS-PEO vesicles, the mechanical robustness of the resulting hybrid vesicles must first be confirmed. Toward this end, we have characterized the mechanical behavior of vesicles formed from mixtures of linear PDMS-PEO and linear PBd-PEO using micropipette aspiration. Tension versus strain plots of pure PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles revealed a non-linear response in the high tension regime, in contrast to the approximately linear response of pure PBd33-PEO20 vesicles. Remarkably, the area expansion modulus, critical tension, and cohesive energy density of PDMS12-PEO46 vesicles were each significantly greater than for PBd33-PEO20 vesicles, although critical strain was not significantly different between these vesicle types. PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles generally displayed graded responses in between that of the pure component vesicles. Thus, the PDMS12-PEO46/PBd33-PEO20 hybrid vesicles retained or exceeded the strength and toughness characteristic of pure PBd-PEO vesicles, indicating that future assessment of the membrane permeability and fluidity of these hybrid vesicles may be warranted. PMID:26999148

  16. From Sugars to Wheels: The Conversion of Ethanol to 1,3-Butadiene over Metal-Promoted Magnesia-Silicate Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylesh, Sankaranarayanapillai; Gokhale, Amit A; Scown, Corinne D; Kim, Daeyoup; Ho, Christopher R; Bell, Alexis T

    2016-06-22

    1,3-Butadiene (1,3-BD) is a high-value chemical intermediate used mainly as a monomer for the production of synthetic rubbers. The ability to source 1,3-BD from biomass is of considerable current interest because it offers the potential to reduce the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impact associated with 1,3-BD production from petroleum-derived naphtha. Herein, we report the development and investigation of a new catalyst and process for the one-step conversion of ethanol to 1,3-BD. The catalyst is prepared by the incipient impregnation of magnesium oxide onto a silica support followed by the deposition of Au nanoparticles by deposition-precipitation. The resulting Au/MgO-SiO2 catalyst exhibits a high activity and selectivity to 1,3-BD and low selectivities to diethyl ether, ethylene, and butenes. Detailed characterization of the catalyst shows that the desirable activity and selectivity of Au/MgO-SiO2 are a consequence of a critical balance between the acidic-basic sites associated with a magnesium silicate hydrate phase and the redox properties of the Au nanoparticles. A process for the conversion of ethanol to 1,3-BD, which uses our catalyst, is proposed and analyzed to determine the life-cycle GHG impact of the production of this product from biomass-derived ethanol. We show that 1,3-BD produced by our process can reduce GHG emissions by as much as 155 % relative to the conventional petroleum-based production of 1,3-BD. PMID:27198471

  17. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms of DNA Repair Genes and Chromosomal Damage for 1,3-Butadiene-Exposed Workers in a Matched Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and chromosomal damage of 1,3-butadiene- (BD- exposed workers. The study was conducted in 45 pairs of occupationally exposed workers in a BD product workshop and matched control workers in an administrative office and a circulatory water workshop in China. Newly developed biomarkers (micronuclei, MNi; nucleoplasmic bridges, NPBs; nuclear buds, NBUDs in the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN cytome assay were adopted to detect chromosomal damage. PCR and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP are adopted to analyze polymorphisms of DNA repair genes, such as X-ray repair cross-complementing Group 1 (XRCC1, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerases (ADPRT, and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases (APE1. The BD-exposed workers exhibited increased frequencies of MNi and NPBs when compared to subjects in the control group. The results also show that the BD-exposed workers carrying XRCC1 diplotypes TCGA-CCGG (4.25±2.06‰ (FR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.03–4.28 and TCGG-TCGA (5.80±3.56‰ (FR=2.75, 95% CI: 0.76–2.65 had statistically higher NBUD frequencies than those who carried diplotype TCGG-TCGG (1.89±1.27‰. Our study suggests that polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene may influence chromosomal damage in BD-exposed workers.

  18. A preliminary regional PBPK model of lung metabolism for improving species dependent descriptions of 1,3-butadiene and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jerry; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Crowell, Susan; Gentry, Robinan; Kaden, Debra; Fiebelkorn, Stacy; Loccisano, Anne; Clewell, Harvey

    2015-08-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a volatile organic chemical (VOC), is used in synthetic rubber production and other industrial processes. It is detectable at low levels in ambient air as well as in tobacco smoke and gasoline vapors. Inhalation exposures to high concentrations of BD have been associated with lung cancer in both humans and experimental animals, although differences in species sensitivity have been observed. Metabolically active lung cells such as Pulmonary Type I and Type II epithelial cells and club cells (Clara cells)(1) are potential targets of BD metabolite-induced toxicity. Metabolic capacities of these cells, their regional densities, and distributions vary throughout the respiratory tract as well as between species and cell types. Here we present a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BD that includes a regional model of lung metabolism, based on a previous model for styrene, to provide species-dependent descriptions of BD metabolism in the mouse, rat, and human. Since there are no in vivo data on BD pharmacokinetics in the human, the rat and mouse models were parameterized to the extent possible on the basis of in vitro metabolic data. Where it was necessary to use in vivo data, extrapolation from rat to mouse was performed to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the human model. A kidney compartment and description of downstream metabolism were also included in the model to allow for eventual use of available urinary and blood biomarker data in animals and humans to calibrate the model for estimation of BD exposures and internal metabolite levels. Results from simulated inhalation exposures to BD indicate that incorporation of differential lung region metabolism is important in describing species differences in pulmonary response and that these differences may have implications for risk assessments of human exposures to BD. PMID:26079054

  19. Positron annihilation and relaxation dynamics from dielectric spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance: Cis-trans-1,4-poly(butadiene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoš, J.; Šauša, O.; Schwartz, G. A.; Alegría, A.; Alberdi, J. M.; Arbe, A.; Krištiak, J.; Colmenero, J.

    2011-04-01

    We report a joint analysis of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), dielectric spectroscopy (BDS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on cis-trans-1,4-poly(butadiene) (c-t-1,4-PBD). Phenomenological analysis of the orthopositronium lifetime τ3 - T dependence by linear fitting reveals four characteristic PALS temperatures: T_{b1} ^G = 0{.63}T_g^{PALS}, T_g^{PALS}, T_{b1} ^L = 1.22T_g^{PALS}, and T_{b2} ^L = 1.52T_g^{PALS}. Slight bend effects in the glassy and supercooled liquid states are related to the fast or slow secondary β process, from neutron scattering, respectively, the latter being connected with the trans-isomers. In addition, the first bend effect in the supercooled liquid coincides with a deviation of the slow effective secondary βeff relaxation related to the cis-isomers from low-T Arrhenius behavior to non-Arrhenius one and correlates with the onset of the primary α process from BDS. The second plateau effect in the liquid state occurs when τ3 becomes commensurable with the structural relaxation time τα(Tb2). It is also approximately related to its crossover from non-Arrhenius to Arrhenius regime in the combined BDS and NMR data. Finally, the combined BDS and NMR structural relaxation data, when analyzed in terms of the two-order parameter (TOP) model, suggest the influence of solidlike domains on both the annihilation behavior and the local and segmental chain mobility in the supercooled liquid. All these findings indicate the influence of the dynamic heterogeneity in both the primary and secondary relaxations due to the cis-trans isomerism in c-t-1,4-PBD and their impact into the PALS response.

  20. Transport characteristics of organic solvents through carbon nanotube filled styrene butadiene rubber nanocomposites: the influence of rubber-filler interaction, the degree of reinforcement and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jiji; Maria, Hanna J; George, Soney C; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2015-05-01

    The transport behaviour of some aromatic and aliphatic solvents through carbon nanotube filled styrene butadiene rubber composites has been investigated. The aim of the present work is to investigate the role of the sorption technique in analysing the compatibility and the reinforcing effect of MWCNTs as a filler in the SBR matrix. It also focuses on the investigation of the relationship between the dispersion of CNTs in the SBR matrix and its transport behaviour. The diffusion and transport of organic solvents through the membranes have been investigated in detail as a function of CNT content, nature of solvent and temperature in the range of 28-60 °C. Solvent uptake, diffusion, sorption and permeation constants were investigated and were found to decrease with the increase of CNT loading. Transport properties could be related to the morphology of the nanocomposites. At high concentration CNT particles form a local filler-filler network in the rubber matrix. As a result, the transport of solvent molecules through the polymer is hindered. The rubber-solvent interaction parameter, enthalpy and entropy of sorption have also been estimated from the transport data. The values of rubber-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the diffusion experiments have been used to calculate the molecular mass between the crosslinks of the network polymer. The better reinforcement at higher filler loading was confirmed from the cross-link density values. The extent of reinforcement was evaluated using Kraus and Cunneen and Russel equations. The Affine and Phantom models for chemical crosslinks were used to predict the mobility of the crosslinks. The Phantom model gave better fitting indicating that the chains can move freely through one another, i.e. the junction points fluctuate over time around their mean position without any hindrance from the neighbouring molecule. The diffusivity datas of the systems have shown dependence on the temperature and microstructure of the

  1. An electrochemical method for accelerated testing of chloride diffusivity in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. (Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials)

    1994-01-01

    In the present paper an electrochemical method for accelerated testing of chloride diffusivity in concrete is presented. The method is based on a theoretical relationship between chloride diffusivity and observed steady-state rate of chloride migration through the concrete. The concentration of the chloride source solution has a significant influence on the rate of chloride migration and, therefore, a correction factor for ionic interaction in the relationship is introduced. It is shown that the relationship can be used for calculation of chloride diffusivity under various testing conditions. Some experimental results are also presented.

  2. Butadiene-isoprene copolymerization with diglycoldimethyl ether as modifier%以二乙醇二甲醚(2 G)为调节剂的丁二烯-异戊二烯共聚合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳; 王玉荣; 张春庆; 刘海峰; 郑仰才; 任春晓

    2006-01-01

    @@ Polymerizations of conjugated diolefins are interesting topics in rubber and thermoplastic elastomer industries. Especially the copolymerization of butadiene(Bd) and isoprene (Ip) takes an important place in tire. Many investigations on rare earth catalysts system for the copolymerization have been reported, but rarely reported on that of using alkyllithium as initiator. In the research, it is reported a study on the copolymerization of Bd and Ip at 50 ℃ in the presence of diglycoldimethyl ether(2 G)and n-BuLi as initiator, cyclohexane as solvent.

  3. Principais copolímeros elastoméricos à base de butadieno utilizados na indústria automobilística The most important butadiene based elastomers employed in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C. J. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Copolímeros elastoméricos à base de butadieno são amplamente utilizados na indústria automobilística. Dentre esses destacam-se os copolímeros de butadieno-estireno (SBR e butadieno-acrilonitrila (NBR. O SBR apresenta maior importância comercial, devido a sua aplicação na produção de pneus. Quando SBR é utilizado juntamente com o homopolímero de butadieno BR-alto cis, excelentes propriedades são obtidas para sua aplicação na banda de rodagem de pneus. O copolímero elastomérico NBR é empregado em artefatos em que é necessária boa resistência a solventes orgânicos e a óleos. Nos últimos anos, as empresas automobilísticas e produtoras de pneumáticos vêm se preocupando com o meio-ambiente e, conseqüentemente, têm investido em novos processos de síntese, mais limpos, para a produção desses elastômeros. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão sobre dois importantes copolímeros elastoméricos à base de butadieno, SBR e NBR, abordando os processos de síntese, características principais, processamento e aplicações.Elastomer copolymers based on butadiene are widely applied in the automotive industry. Among those copolymers the most important ones are styrene-butadiene (SBR and nitrile-butadiene (NBR. SBR presents higher commercial interest, due to its application in the tire production. When SBR is mixed with high cis-1,4 polybutadiene, excellent properties are attained for application on the pneumatics treads. NBR can be used in a wide variety of application areas requiring oil, fuel, and chemical resistance. In the last years, the automotive and pneumatic industries have been increasingly concerned with environmental issues, and have invested in synthesis processes for elastomers that are less aggressive to the environment. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a review on two important butadiene elastomer copolymers, SBR and NBR, with emphasis on the polymerization processes. The main

  4. 稀土催化剂上丁二烯气相聚合的宏观动力学研究%Studies on Macro-kinetics of Gas Phase Polymerization of Butadiene with Rare-earth Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方东宇; 孙建中; 周其云; 冯博

    2002-01-01

    The study of the kinetics of gas phase polymerization of butadiene with heterogeneous catalyst based on neodymium (Nd) was carried out. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction pressure, dispersing medium,and types of catalyst on kinetics of polymerization were investigated. A kinetic model with two kinds of active sites was proposed. The results show that the effects of the reaction temperature and the types of dispersing medium and catalyst on the kinetic performance of polymerization are significant, and that the combined model of first and second order decay of active site of catalyst can be used to describe the phenomena.

  5. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer. PMID:21516171

  6. The Effect of Silver Chloride Formation on the Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Chloride Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hung; Payer, Joe

    2011-02-28

    The precipitation and growth of AgCl on silver in physiological NaCl solution were investigated. AgCl was found to form at bottom of scratches on the surface which may be the less effective sites for diffusion or the favorable sites for heterogeneous nucleation. Patches of silver chloride expanded laterally on the substrate until a continuous film formed. The ionic transport path through this newly formed continuous film was via spaces between AgCl patches. As the film grew, the spaces between AgCl patches closed and ion transport was primarily via micro-channels running through AgCl patches. The decrease of AgCl layer conductivity during film growth were attributed to the clogging of micro-channels or decrease in charge carrier concentration inside the micro-channels. Under thin AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of a micrometer, the dissolution of silver substrate was under mixed activation-Ohmic control. Under thick AgCl layer, i.e. on the order of tens of micrometers, the dissolution of silver substrate was mediated by the Ohmic resistance of AgCl layer.

  7. Toxic effects of mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride, and Emisan 6 (an organic mercurial fungicide) on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-12-01

    Mercurial toxicity in fishes has been focused mainly on tissue uptake and subcellular distribution, nephrotoxicity, development, hatching and survivability of young ones and teratology. Very few studies have been attempted to investigate Hg toxicity on gonadal activity of fishes throughout the breeding season. In a previous investigation the authors have studied the toxic effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/), methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) and emisan 6 (an alkoxyalkyl fungicide) on the survival and histology of the kidney of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. The present report deals with toxic effects of these mercurials on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish, an economically important species in the subcontinent.

  8. [Evaluation of professional exposure to chloride vinyl monomer and vinyl idene chloride for a pharmaceutical packaging worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, F; De Grandis, D; Laurelli, R; Narda, R; Pietrantonio, E; Scarlini, E; Soldati, P S

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted by Judicial Policy investigations of Prosecution's Office. The event was connected by a professional founded suspicion disease of a pharmaceutical worker. First information coming from the Authority indicated a chloride vinyl monomer (CVM) exposure. We applied a chemical risk assessment method to estimate real professional exposure. The method was based on the productive cycle, physical and chemical and toxicological properties. The method combined to environmental data permitted to formulate etiological hypothesis. The worker during drugs packaging was exposed to CVM and vinylidene chloride (CVDM) caused by blister warming and by glue deposition. We explain the evaluations by which we could consider the pollutant different distribution in workplaces.

  9. Maintenance Planning for Chloride Initiated Corrosion in Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can be initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In order to prevent the corrosion from reaching a stage where the load-bearing capacity of a given structure suffers a substantial decrease...

  10. Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, R; Kansky, A

    1985-01-01

    Out of 401 workers employed in a factory producing shoes from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) granulate, 388 were investigated. By patch testing with the standard tests and 4 phthalate compounds, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed in 11 of these. Six of them were sensitized to phthalates and 5 to coal tar.

  11. Reaction of uranium dioxide with copper-containing chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermet composition materials consisting of metallic copper and uranium dioxide can be used for manufacturing fuel rods of nuclear power reactors. Reprocessing of such irradiated fuel of dispersive type can be done employing non-aqueous pyrochemical methods and developing such technology requires information on interaction of uranium dioxide with chloride melts containing copper ions

  12. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride (Cl-) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO2 sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl- from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H+) and up to 5 M Cl-. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H+, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO3), facilitated by the presence of NO2, strongly affects the rate of Cl- removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl- salt solution without pre-heating the NO2 gas has minimal effect on Cl- removal rates when the contact times between NO2 and the salt solution are on the order of seconds

  13. Comment on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, Juha; Boron, Walter F; Jones, Stephen W; Hopfer, Ulrich; Payne, John A; Kaila, Kai

    2014-09-01

    Glykys et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 670) conclude that, rather than ion transporters, "local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration" and thereby determine "the magnitude and direction of GABAAR currents at individual synapses." If this were possible, perpetual ion-motion machines could be constructed. The authors' conclusions conflict with basic thermodynamic principles.

  14. 4-(1H-Tetrazol-5-ylpyridinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wei Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C6H6N5+·Cl−, the tetrazole and pyridine rings are nearly coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 5.58 (11°. The organic cations are linked to the chloride anions via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [110].

  15. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  16. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  17. A chronopotentiometric approach for measuring chloride ion concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions in aqueous solution. This sensor is based on the stimulus/response principle of chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with

  18. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  19. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. Preparation of pure uranyl chloride from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the preparation of pure uranyl chloride solution from crude yellow cake. The process involves dissolution of the latter in hydrochloric acid followed by uranium extraction using TBP-kerosene mixture. A series of experiments were carried out in order to determine the optimum conditions for both the dissolution and the extraction steps

  1. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen;

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea...

  2. Study on the Reaction Mechanism of Naphthalene with Oxalyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reaction of naphthalene with oxalyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 was investigated. The homolog of dinaphthyl methanone can be obtained mainly from this reaction. Naphthalene conversion does not have evident correlation with the amount of AlCl3. The results show that the reaction proceeds via carbon cation electrophilic substitution reaction-free radical substitution reaction pathway.

  3. Formaldoxime hydrogen bonded complexes with ammonia and hydrogen chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Barbara; Mucha, Małgorzata; Sałdyka, Magdalena; Barnes, Austin; Mielke, Zofia

    2015-02-01

    An infrared spectroscopic and MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) study of hydrogen bonded complexes of formaldoxime with ammonia and hydrogen chloride trapped in solid argon matrices is reported. Both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes between formaldoxime and ammonia, hydrogen chloride have been identified in the CH2NOH/NH3/Ar, CH2NOH/HCl/Ar matrices, respectively, their structures were determined by comparison of the spectra with the results of calculations. In the 1:1 complexes present in the argon matrices the OH group of formaldoxime acts as a proton donor for ammonia and the nitrogen atom acts as a proton acceptor for hydrogen chloride. In the 1:2 complexes ammonia or hydrogen chloride dimers interact both with the OH group and the nitrogen atom of CH2NOH to form seven membered cyclic structures stabilized by three hydrogen bonds. The theoretical spectra generally agree well with the experimental ones, but they seriously underestimate the shift of the OH stretch for the 1:1 CH2NOH⋯NH3 complex.

  4. (tert-Butyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas; Simón Hernández-Ortega; David Morales-Morales

    2014-01-01

    In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100).

  5. Using polyvinyl chloride dyed with bromocresol purple in radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattan, Munzer; al Kassiri, Haroun; Daher, Yarob

    2011-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dyed with bromocresol purple was investigated as a high-dose radiation dosimeter. The absorbance at 417 nm depends linearly on the dose below 50 kGy. The response depends neither on dose rate nor on the irradiation temperature. The effects of post-irradiation storage in the dark and in indirect sunlight are also discussed.

  6. A mathematical model for electrochemical chloride removal from marine cast iron artifacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhen OUYANG; Xia CAO; Ning WANG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to theoretically study diffusion and migration of chlo-ride ions during electrochemical chloride removal. The proposed model would enable optimization of its application by predicting the optimal treatment time and current combination. A mathematical model for simulating the transport behavior of chloride ions was developed by consideration of diffusion and migration of chloride ions when a constant DC current density was applied through the marine cast iron artifacts. The corresponding tests were conducted to validate the mathematical model. This model predicted the data of the extraction ratio of the chloride ion that correlated satisfac-torily with the experimental values. An important issue in electrochemical chloride removal was to understand how chloride ions moved, taking account of diffusion and migration of chloride ions and the release of binding chloride ions. The effects of the treatment time, externally applied current density, chloride diffusion coefficient, and rate constant of release of binding chloride ion on chloride removal are studied. The specific quantitative details applied to one-dimensional model were discussed here. This article has proposed a mathematical model for the first time, which was showed to be a useful tool that can reveal the ionic transport mechanism and optimize the application during electrochemical chloride removal.

  7. Chloride channels and the reactions of cells to topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobasnick G.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of rat epitenon cells to substratum topography on the micrometric and nanometric scale such as groove-ridge structures include cell extension, elongation and orientation reactions. In this paper we report that stretch-sensitive chloride channels may be involved in the earliest stages of these reactions in epitenon fibroblast-like cells. We report that rat epitenon-cells can develop appreciable lateral mechanical tension that could stretch both the force generating cells themselves and those nearby. We show that cells in medium in which more than 80% of the chloride has been replaced by nitrate show little reaction to topography. Spreading of the cells takes place but is much reduced along the direction of the groove-ridge topography but enhanced across the topography. The chloride channel inhibitors NPPB (5-Nitro-2- (3phenylpropylamino benzoicacid 4,4'-disothiocyanostilbene-2, 2' sulphonic acid (DIDS and Chlorotoxin produce similar results which are further accentuated when these inhibitors are presented in low chloride medium. An antibody against ClC3, which has close homology to ClC5/6 also, blocked reaction to topography. These treatments have no significant effect on cell spreading on planar surfaces nor do they lead to changes in internal pH in the cells. There is a slight inhibition of rates of cell movement . Experiments using antisense oligoribonucleotides to ClC-5 or ClC-6 channel m-RNA also inhibit topographic reactions, which provides further confirmation of the hypothesis. Since the ClC-3,4 and 5 share considerable sequence similarities in the genes and in their proteins it has not been possible to make an unambigous determination of which precise chloride channel(s is (are involved.

  8. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  9. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industr

  10. The chloride channel inhibitor NS3736 [corrected] prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats without changing bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Kim; Sveigaard, Christina;

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channel activity is essential for osteoclast function. Consequently, inhibition of the osteoclastic chloride channel should prevent bone resorption. Accordingly, we tested a chloride channel inhibitor on bone turnover and found that it inhibits bone resorption without affecting bone form...

  11. Acoustic and mechanical properties of recycled polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber composites

    OpenAIRE

    Colom Fajula, Xavier; Cañavate Ávila, Francisco Javier; Carrillo Navarrete, Fernando; Lis Arias, Manuel José

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide another way of reducing the stock of used tyres and polyvinyl chloride waste, a new material is developed and studied. Formulation includes a matrix constituted by a compound of recycled polyvinyl chloride with plasticized polyvinyl chloride and a reinforcement of ground tyre rubber. Acoustic and mechanical properties of different compositions of polyvinyl chloride/ground tyre rubber were tested in order to determine their suitability for applications fulfilling industry r...

  12. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  13. Cytogenetic Effects of Copper Chloride on the Root Tip Cells of Helianthus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    İNCEER, Hüseyin; AYAZ, Sema; BEYAZOĞLU, Osman; ŞENTÜRK, Emine

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetic effects of copper chloride on root tip cells of Helianthus annuus were investigated. Seeds were treated with 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L (ppm) of copper chloride for 24 h. It was found that copper chloride has a marked mitodepressive action on mitosis. Mitotic abnormalities were increased and the mitotic index was decreased depending on the concentration of the copper chloride applied.

  14. Electrical characterization of Calcium Aluminate (CA) in presence of chloride ions

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Luque, Marcela; Osma, Johann F.; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; BASTIDAS-ARTEAGA, Emilio; Schoefs, Franck

    2015-01-01

    International audience Chloride ingress is one of the major causes of reinforced concrete degradation. Chlorides accelerate the breaking of the protective layer of rebars favoring pitting corrosion; furthermore, corrosion products generate cracks in concrete, which further accelerate chloride ingress, increase porosity and reduce the strength. From a chemical perspective, the presence of chlorides and its diffusion into the reinforced concrete matrix is highly influenced by the content and...

  15. The Influence of Mineral Functional Materials on Chloride Ion Penetration of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hongmei; MA Baoguo

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of chloride ion penetration in high performance concrete was analyzed. The experimental results indicate that there are two important reasons that influence the anti-chloride penetration of high performance concrete. One is the function effect of mineral functional material, so that it increases concrete's capability to resist chloride ion penetration. The other is combined action of mineral functional material's original capability of binding the chloride ion (physical adsorption) and physicochemical adsorption after hydration.

  16. ENHANCEMENT OF CHLORIDE RESISTANCE OF PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE SHEET PILE BY BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    OpenAIRE

    Irmawaty, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion is one of the main mechanisms of deterioration affecting the long-term performance of concrete structures. In Japan, a large majority of structures are built either near the costal or indirect contact with seawater. The durability of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete structure depends on the resistance of concrete to chloride penetration. Naturally concrete provides physical and chemical protection to the reinforcing steel from chloride penetrating. The chloride ...

  17. Method Development and Validation for Determining 1,3-Butadiene in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Head-Space Gas Chromatography%Method Development and Validation for Determining1,3-Butadiene in Human Blood by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Head-Space Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Su-jing; SHEN Bao-hua; ZHUO Xian-yi

    2013-01-01

    To develop a simple,validated method for identifying and quantifying 1,3-butadiene (BD) in human blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and head-space gas chromatography (HS-GC).BD was identified by GC-MS and HS-GC,and quantified by HS-GC.The method showed that BD had a good linearity from 50 to 500 μg/mL (r>0.99).The limits of detection and quantification were 10 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL,respectively.Both the intra-day precision and inter-day precision were <6.08%,and the accuracy was 96.98%-103.81%.The method was applied to an actual case,and the concentration of BD in the case was 242 μg/mL in human blood.This simple method is found to be useful for the routine forensic analysis of acute exposure to BD.

  18. Treatment Process Transformation of Wastewater From Styrene Butadiene Rubber Production%丁苯橡胶生产废水整改的必要性及工艺路线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雍; 刘伟; 高勇

    2014-01-01

    The properties of wastewater from styrene butadiene rubber production were discussed as well as its influence on operation of wastewater treatment unit; the pilot of wastewater treatment and comparison of the water quality data were carried out by using a variety of techniques, the suitable process route for treating styrene butadiene rubber production wastewater was determined, the pretreated water can meet the biochemical system of sewage plant.%论述了某化工厂丁苯橡胶生产废水的特性及对厂区污水处理场运行的影响;通过采用各种工艺技术对该废水进行小试并对水质数据比对,得出适合丁苯橡胶生产废水改造的工艺路线,使经预处理后的水质不会对污水处理场生化系统造成冲击。

  19. Expression and cellular localisation of chloride intracellular channel 3 in human placenta and fetal membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Money, T. T.; King, R. G.; Wong, M.H.; Stevenson, J. L.; Kalionis, B.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Huisman, Marcel; Timmer, A.; Hiden, U.; Desoye, G.; Gude, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    Chloride channels regulate the movement of a major cellular anion and are involved in fundamental processes that are critical for cell viability. Regulation of intracellular chloride is achieved by multiple classes of channel proteins. One class of putative channels are the chloride intracellular ch

  20. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... China: Final Results of Expedited Third Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 74 FR 55814 (October 29... Barium Chloride From China, 75 FR 33824 (June 15, 2010), and Barium Chloride from China (Inv. No....

  1. [Activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rat organs under cobalt and mercury chloride injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rats under cobalt and mercury chloride injection was investigated. The calpains activity increase in the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys was revealed after 2 h cobalt chloride action. The mercury chloride gives a reliable increase of calcium-dependent neutral proteinases only in the kidneys. PMID:14574747

  2. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production. The final rules establish emission standards that apply at...

  3. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0037 (available at...

  4. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14... extend the public comment period for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and...

  5. 76 FR 29527 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal.... SUMMARY: EPA is proposing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride... pollutants from polyvinyl chloride and copolymers production located at major and area sources. The...

  6. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (hxy, hxxy, and hxyy) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients hxy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  7. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  8. 丁腈橡胶应力加速老化行为的研究%Study of Stress Accelerated Aging Behavior of Sulfured Nitrile-butadiene Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊英; 付宝强; 郭少云; 芦忠

    2012-01-01

    The storage life of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) was calculated according to Arrhenius equation by using high temperature accelerated aging method and the criterion of elongation. The aging behavior of NBR under different stress was studied and the aging mechanism was discussed. The results showed that stress has important impact on aging behavior of NBR; when there is no stress, NBR's storage life is over 19 years according to Arrhenius equation; its storage life reduces 50% under bending stress; its storage life is less than 2 years under tensile-bending stress. This is because stress will induce the orientation and deformation of NBR molecular chain, and change and restrain its bond lengths and bond angles, which also reduce the breaking activation energy of the molecular chain, accelerate the aging process, and shorten the storage life or the service life of NBR.%以丁腈橡胶为例,采用高温加速老化法,以拉伸断裂伸长率作为贮存寿命指标,通过Arrhenius方程对丁腈橡胶贮存寿命的推算,研究了不同应力作用下丁腈橡胶的老化行为,并初步探讨了应力作用下丁腈橡胶的老化机理.结果表明,应力作用对丁腈橡胶的老化行为有较大影响,当丁腈橡胶不承受任何应力作用时,采用Arrhenius方程推算其在常温下的贮存寿命超过19a;受弯曲应力作用时,其贮存寿命降低了50%;在拉伸应力和弯曲应力同时作用时,其贮存寿命小于2a.原因是在应力作用下丁腈橡胶的分子链发生取向变形,键长和键角发生改变并受到约束,分子链的断裂活化能降低、老化进程加快,寿命缩短.

  9. Laser transmission welding of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) using a tailored high power diode-laser optical fiber coupled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, E.; Quintana, I.; Etxarri, J.; Otaduy, D.; González, F.; Moreno, F.

    2012-06-01

    Laser transmission welding (LTW) of polymers is a direct bonding technique which is already used in different industrial applications sectors such as automobile, microfluidic, electronic and biomedicine. This technique offers several advantages over conventional methods, especially when a local deposition of energy and minimum thermal distortions are required. In LTW one of the polymeric materials needs to be transparent to the laser wavelength and the second part needs to be designed to be absorbed in IR spectrum. This report presents a study of laser weldability of ABS (acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene) filled with two different concentrations of carbon nanotubes (0.01% and 0.05% CNTs). These additives are used as infrared absorbing components in the laser welding process, affecting the thermal and optical properties of the material and, hence, the final quality of the weld seam. A tailored laser system has been designed to obtain high quality weld seams with widths between 0.4 and 1.0mm. It consists of two diode laser bars (50W per bar) coupled into an optical fiber using a non-imaging solution: equalization of the beam quality factor (M2) in the slow and fast axes by a pair of micro step-mirrors. The beam quality factor has been analyzed at different laser powers with the aim to guarantee a coupling efficiency to the multimode optical fiber. The power scaling is carried out by means of multiplexing polarization technique. The analysis of energy balance and beam quality is performed in two linked steps: first by means ray tracing simulations (ZEMAX®) and second, by validation. Quality of the weld seams is analyzed in terms of the process parameters (welding speed, laser power and clamping pressure) by visual and optical microscope inspections. The optimum laser power range for three different welding speeds is determinate meanwhile the clamping pressure is held constant. Additionally, the corresponding mechanical shear tests were carried out to analyze the

  10. [Evaluating risk of health disorders in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production (according to data collected by polls)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The authors represent data of automated system for quantitative risk evaluation of main pathologic syndromes in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production. Vinyl chloride and mercury levels at the investigation time corresponded with MAC. Relationship was seen between value of arterial hypertension risk and duration of contact with both vinyl chloride and mercury. Risk values for functional disorders of liver, endocrine system and nervous system were in weak correlation with length of exposure to mercury at work. Workers exposed to mercury appeared to have lower self-estimation of health state and higher dissatisfaction with the work.

  11. INTERACTION OF POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE WITH METAL CHLORIDE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan; Khaista Gul; Najeeb Ur Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with metal chlorides (MgCl2, CaCl2, KC1 and BaC12) have been investigated by viscometric and spectrophotometric techniques in aqueous solutions. Intrinsic viscosity [η] of (PVP) has shown a discontinuity with varying concentration of metal chlorides. The decreasing order of effectiveness of cation is K1+>Ca2+> Mg2+> Ba2+ for poly(vinylpyrrolidone) solution. Changes in the absorption spectra of the cosolutes were observed in the presence of PVP in the lower limit of the UV-visible region i.e. 200-210 nm. These changes were attributed to interaction of PVP molecules with the cosolute molecules. As the concentration of the cosolute increased, a red shift in the peaks was observed, indicating an increase in interaction between PVP and cosolutes.

  12. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  13. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  14. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... profiles for the Cl/Ca ratio predicted by the model and those determined experimentally on 0.45 water/powder ratio Portland cement pastes exposed to 650 mM NaCl for 70 days. This confirms the assumption of essentially instantaneous binding where quasi-equilibrium is established locally. This does not imply...

  15. Sodium chloride's effect on self-assembly of diphenylalanine bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junpyo; Lee, Myeongsang; Na, Sungsoo

    2016-07-15

    Understanding self-assembling peptides becomes essential in nanotechnology, thereby providing a bottom-up method for fabrication of nanostructures. Diphenylalanine constitutes an outstanding building block that can be assembled into various nanostructures, including two-dimensional bilayers or nanotubes, exhibiting superb mechanical properties. It is known that the effect of the ions is critical in conformational and chemical interactions of bilayers or membranes. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sodium chloride on diphenylalanine bilayer using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and calculated the bending Young's modulus and the torsional modulus by applying normal modal analysis using an elastic network model. The results showed that sodium chloride dramatically increases the assembling efficiency and stability, thereby promising to allow the precise design and control of the fabrication process and properties of bio-inspired materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241039

  16. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of chloride doped polyaniline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Pharhad Hussain; A Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Chloride doped polyaniline conducting polymer films have been prepared in a protic acid medium (HCl) by potentiodynamic method in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR techniques. The FTIR spectra confirmed Cl– ion doping in the polymers. The polymerization rate was found to increase with increasing concentration of aniline monomer. But the films obtained at high monomer concentration were rough having a nonuniform flaky polyaniline distribution. Results showed that the polymerization rate did not increase beyond a critical HCl concentration. Cyclic voltammetry suggested that, the oxidation-reduction current increased with an increase in scan rate and that the undoped polyaniline films were not hygroscopic whereas chloride doped polyaniline films were found to be highly hygroscopic.

  17. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  18. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis', and D ampersand D plans' were prepared in 1991. Physical D ampersand D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D ampersand D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred

  19. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.

    Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride......-initiated corrosion of the reinforcement, because experience has shown that in Denmark this is one of the most common destructive mechanisms. In order to ensure that a given reinforced concrete structure is able to fulfil its purpose extensive measurements are performed and on the basis of these measurements...... are costly, and careful planning is mandatory. The planning can be performed on the basis of classical decision theory (see e.g. Raiffa and Schlaifer). However, in order to use decision theory, it is necessary to formulate a probabilistic model of the considered problem....

  20. Model for calculation of benzene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations in ambient air from geographic information, including biofuel burning and traffic; Modell foer beraekning av bensen- och 1,3-butadienhalter i omgivningsluft utifraan geografisk information om bland annat biobraensleeldning och trafik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modig, Lars; Hagenbjoerk-Gustafsson, Annika; Jonsson, Lennart; Olsson, David; Forsberg, Bertil [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Stroemgren, Magnus [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Social Sciences, Dept. of Geography and Economic History, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply a type of statistical calculation model, 'Land Use Regression (LUR)', to predict the concentrations of air pollutants benzene and 1,3-butadiene in a number of urban areas with a high proportion of small-scale biofuel burning in and around Umeaa.