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Sample records for butadiene rubber sbr

  1. Adhesion properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based adhesives in the presence of phenol formaldehyde resin

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    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion properties, i. e. viscosity, tack and peel strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied using phenol formaldehyde resin as the tackifying resin. Toluene was used as the solvent throughout the experiment. SBR composition in SBR/SMR L blend used was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%. Three different resin loadings, i. e. 40, 80 and 120 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr were used in the adhesive formulation. The viscosity of adhesive was determined by a HAAKE Rotary Viscometer whereas loop tack and peel strength of paper/polyethylene terephthalate (PET film were measured using a Lloyd Adhesion Tester operating at 30 cm/min. Results indicate that the viscosity of adhesive decreases with increasing % SBR whereas loop tack passes through a maximum value at 20% SBR for all resin loadings. Except for the control sample (without resin, the peel strength shows a maximum value at 60% SBR for the three modes of peel tests. For a fixed % SBR, adhesive sample containing 40 phr phenol formaldehyde resin always exhibits the highest loop tack and peel strength, an observation which is associated to the optimum wettability of adhesive on the substrate.

  2. Thermal Stability and Flammability of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber-Based (SBR Ceramifiable Composites

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    Rafał Anyszka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramifiable styrene-butadiene (SBR-based composites containing low-softening-point-temperature glassy frit promoting ceramification, precipitated silica, one of four thermally stable refractory fillers (halloysite, calcined kaolin, mica or wollastonite and a sulfur-based curing system were prepared. Kinetics of vulcanization and basic mechanical properties were analyzed and added as Supplementary Materials. Combustibility of the composites was measured by means of cone calorimetry. Their thermal properties were analyzed by means of thermogravimetry and specific heat capacity determination. Activation energy of thermal decomposition was calculated using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. Finally, compression strength of the composites after ceramification was measured and their micromorphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of a ceramification-facilitating system resulted in the lowering of combustibility and significant improvement of the thermal stability of the composites. Moreover, the compression strength of the mineral structure formed after ceramification is considerably high. The most promising refractory fillers for SBR-based ceramifiable composites are mica and halloysite.

  3. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  4. Biodegradation behavior of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) reinforced with modified coconut shell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, M. P.; Balan, Aparna K.; Shaniba, V.; Jinitha, T. V.; Subair, N.; Purushothaman, E.

    2017-06-01

    Biodegradation behavior of styrene butadiene rubber composites reinforced with natural filler, coconut shell powder (CSP), with different filler loadings were carried out under soil burial conditions for three to six months. The extent of biodegradation of the composites was evaluated through weight loss, tensile strength and hardness measurements. It was observed that the permanence of the composites was remarkably dependent on filler modification, size of the filler particle and filler content. Composites containing silane modified filler were found to be more resistant to attack by the microbes present in the soil. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, Young's modulus and hardness were decreased after soil burial testing due to the microbial attack onto the samples.

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of natural rubber (NR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshaie, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri Khorasani, S., E-mail: saied@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanbani Veshare, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei Abadchi, M. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, physico-mechanical properties of NR/SBR blends cured by electron beam irradiation and sulfur were compared. The NR/SBR blends were prepared using a two-roll mill. Electron beam irradiations of 100-400 kGy were applied to cure the blends and changes in physico-mechanical properties were studied as a function of irradiation. Also, oil resistance and the effect of thermal ageing on mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. The results show that the irradiated blends have better mechanical properties than those cured by sulfur system. The irradiation cured samples also exhibited better heat stability than the sulfur cured samples. The blend cured by the highest dose shows the lowest swelling and high oil resistance compared with the other samples cured by irradiation.

  6. Best Practice for the Devulcanization of Sulfur-cured SBR Rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, special attention will be devoted to thermo-chemical devulcanization of sulfur-cured styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) using diphenyldisulfide (DPDS) as devulcanization aid. SBR is the main component in whole passenger car tire rubber and, at the same time, the most critical one

  7. The evaluation of tetrabutylamonium bis(4-ethylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) efficiency as a reclaiming agent for styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Pedro H.H.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V.; Tavares, Eder C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the production of rubber waste has been reported as a serious environmental problem. The chemical structure of rubbers (crosslinked, insoluble and infusible polymers) makes its reprocessing very difficult, unlike thermoplastics. The most common methods to treat rubber waste are of thermal, mechanical and chemical nature, wherein the chemical methods the purpose is to regenerate the rubber. Early studies with tetrabutylamonium bis(4-methylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) point to its ability as an accelerator in the rubber curing process. In this work, this zinc complex was evaluated as a chemical regeneration agent. ZNIBU was synthesized and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ("1"3C NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The mixture of virgin SBR with vulcanization ingredients was performed in a two-roll mill, and the composition was then vulcanized and molded on a hydraulic press. The synthesized ZNIBU was then mixed with the vulcanized rubber and devulcanization was observed. Finally, the devulcanized elastomeric composition was revulcanized. The revulcanization of SBR regenerated with ZNIBU led to the formation of a rubber with maximum torque near the maximum torque of the virgin vulcanized rubber. After adjusting the optimal conditions of regeneration, mechanical tests will be carried out (tensile strength, tear strength and hardness) for the specimens of both vulcanized and revulcanized rubbers in order to compare their mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Carbon nanotubes as reinforcement of styrene-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, Alejandro; Goyanes, Silvia; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.; Mondragon, Inaki; Marzocca, Angel

    2007-01-01

    This study reports an easy technique to produce cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites with a sulphur/accelerator system at 150 deg. C. Significant improvement in Young's modulus and tensile strength were achieved by incorporating 0.66 wt% of filler without sacrificing SBR elastomer high elongation at break. A comparison with carbon black filled SBR was also made. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate dispersion and fracture surfaces. Results indicated that the homogeneous dispersion of MWCNT throughout SBR matrix and strong interfacial adhesion between oxidized MWCNT and the matrix are responsible for the considerable enhancement of mechanical properties of the composite

  9. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Moustafa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of natural rubber (NR with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR with varying ratios have been prepared. Vulcanization of the prepared blends has been induced by irradiation of gamma rays with varying doses up to 250 kGy. Mechanical properties, namely tensile strength, tensile modulus at 100% elongation, elongation at break have been followed up as a function of irradiation dose as well as blend composition. Physical properties, namely gel fraction and swelling number have been followed up using benzene as a solvent. Thermal measurements namely thermogravimetric analysis were carried out. The results indicated that the addition of NR has improved the properties of NR / SBR blends. Also NR/SBR blend is thermally stable than NR alone.

  11. Morphological and mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber/nano copper nanocomposites

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    Maryam Hadizadeh Harandi

    Full Text Available In this research, rubber based nanocomposites with presence of nanoparticle has been studied. Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/nanocopper (NC composites were prepared using two-roll mill method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed proper dispersion of NC in the SBR matrix without substantial agglomeration of nanoparticles. To evaluate the curing properties of nanocomposite samples, swelling and cure rheometric tests were conducted. Moreover, the rheological studies were carried out over a range of shear rates. The effect of NC particles was examined on the thermal behavior of the SBR using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Furthermore, tensile tests were employed to investigate the capability of nanoparticles to enhance mechanical behavior of the compounds. The results showed enhancement in tensile properties with incorporation of NC to SBR matrix. Moreover, addition of NC increased shear viscosity and curing time of SBR composites. Keywords: Nanocopper, Rubber, Curing behavior, Rheological properties, Thermal stability, Tensile characteristics

  12. Tear energy and strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber/styrene-butadiene rubber blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, F; Akabori, K; Yamamoto, Y; Kawahara, S; Kawazura, T

    2009-01-01

    Strain-induced crystallization of natural rubber (NR), dispersed in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), was investigated in relation to dimensional feature of a dispersoid and crosslink density of NR by measuring tear energy (G) of crosslinked NR/SBR blends. The crosslinked NR/SBR blends in ratios of 1/9 and 3/7 by weight were prepared by mixing masticated NR and SBR with an internal mixer at a rotor speed of 30 rpm, followed by crosslinking with dicumyl peroxide on a hot press at 444 K for 60 min. The G, measured in wide-ranges of temperature and tear rate, was superposed into a master curve with a Williams-Landel-Ferry shift factor. The G of the NR/SBR(3/7) blend abruptly decreased to a level comparable to that of SBR at about melting temperature of NR crystals formed on straining. The temperature, at which the dramatic decrease in the G occurred, was associated with the dimensional feature of the NR dispersoid and the crosslink density.

  13. Morphological and mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber/nano copper nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Maryam Hadizadeh; Alimoradi, Fakhrodin; Rowshan, Gholamhussein; Faghihi, Morteza; Keivani, Maryam; Abadyan, Mohamadreza

    In this research, rubber based nanocomposites with presence of nanoparticle has been studied. Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/nanocopper (NC) composites were prepared using two-roll mill method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed proper dispersion of NC in the SBR matrix without substantial agglomeration of nanoparticles. To evaluate the curing properties of nanocomposite samples, swelling and cure rheometric tests were conducted. Moreover, the rheological studies were carried out over a range of shear rates. The effect of NC particles was examined on the thermal behavior of the SBR using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, tensile tests were employed to investigate the capability of nanoparticles to enhance mechanical behavior of the compounds. The results showed enhancement in tensile properties with incorporation of NC to SBR matrix. Moreover, addition of NC increased shear viscosity and curing time of SBR composites.

  14. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanotubes produced from pyrolysis/combustion of styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joner O.; Zhuo, Chuanwei; Levendis, Yannis A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tenorio, Jorge A.S. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Polytechnic School. Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination for wastes produced from SBR. Pellets of this rubber were controlled burned at temperature of 1000 deg C, and a catalyst system was used to synthesize the nanomaterials. CNTs are materials with a wide range of potential applications due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Produced materials were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the hydrocarbons emissions were measured using GC. Results showed that materials with diameters of 30-100 nm and lengths of about 30 {mu}m were formed. That materials presented similar structures of multi-walled CNTs. Therefore, the use of SBR to produce carbon nanotubes showed quite satisfactory and an interesting field for future investments. (author)

  15. Development of SBR-Nano clay Composites with Epoxidized Natural Rubber as Compatibilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, R.; Das, Ch.K.; Gert Heinrich, G.; Das, A.

    2009-01-01

    The significant factor that determines the improvement of properties in rubber by the incorporation of nano clay is its distribution in the rubber matrix. The simple mixing of nonpolar rubber and organically modified nano clay will not contribute for the good dispersion of nano filler in the rubbery matrix. Hence a polar rubber like epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) can be used as a compatibilizer in order to obtain a better dispersion of the nano clay in the matrix polymer. Epoxidized natural rubber and organically modified nano clay composites (EC) were prepared by solution mixing. The nano clay employed in this study is Cloisite 20A. The obtained nano composites were incorporated in styrene butadiene-rubber (SBR) compounds with sulphur as a curing agent. The morphology observed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) shows that the nano clay is highly intercalated in ENR, and further incorporation of EC in SBR matrix leads to partial exfoliation of the nano clay. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed an increase in storage modulus and lesser damping characteristics for the compounds containing EC loading in SBR matrix. In addition, these compounds showed improvement in the mechanical properties.

  16. Enhancing mechanical and thermal properties of styrene-butadiene rubber/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber blend by the usage of graphene oxide with diverse oxidation degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaodong; Yin, Qing; Jia, Hongbing; Zhang, Xuming; Wen, Yanwei; Ji, Qingmin; Xu, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) with various oxidation degrees were prepared through a modified Hummer's method by varying the dosage of oxidizing agent. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)/GO nanocomposites were fabricated by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloidal dispersion with SBR latex and a small loading of XNBR latex, followed by co-coagulation. Effects of GO oxidation degree on the morphology, structure, mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposites were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the mechanical strength of nanocomposites were enhanced with the increase of oxidation degree of GO. Especially, when the weight ratio of KMnO4 to graphite was 15/5, the tensile strength, tear strength and thermal conductivity of SBR/XNBR/GO filled with 3 phr (parts per hundred rubber) GO increased by 255.3%, 141.5% and 22.8%, respectively, compared to those of neat SBR/XNBR blend. In addition, the thermal stability and the solvent resistance of the nanocomposites were also improved significantly. This work suggested that GO with higher oxidation degree could effectively improve the properties of SBR/XNBR blend.

  17. The evaluation of tetrabutylamonium bis(4-ethylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) efficiency as a reclaiming agent for styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR); Avalicao da eficiencia do bis(4-metilfenilsulfonilditiocarbimato)zincato(II) de tetrabutilamonio (ZNIBU) como agente de regeneracao para borracha de butadieno-estireno (SBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Pedro H.H.; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Pacheco, Elen B.A.V., E-mail: pedro_hhm@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Eder C. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the production of rubber waste has been reported as a serious environmental problem. The chemical structure of rubbers (crosslinked, insoluble and infusible polymers) makes its reprocessing very difficult, unlike thermoplastics. The most common methods to treat rubber waste are of thermal, mechanical and chemical nature, wherein the chemical methods the purpose is to regenerate the rubber. Early studies with tetrabutylamonium bis(4-methylphenylsulphonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II) (ZNIBU) point to its ability as an accelerator in the rubber curing process. In this work, this zinc complex was evaluated as a chemical regeneration agent. ZNIBU was synthesized and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The mixture of virgin SBR with vulcanization ingredients was performed in a two-roll mill, and the composition was then vulcanized and molded on a hydraulic press. The synthesized ZNIBU was then mixed with the vulcanized rubber and devulcanization was observed. Finally, the devulcanized elastomeric composition was revulcanized. The revulcanization of SBR regenerated with ZNIBU led to the formation of a rubber with maximum torque near the maximum torque of the virgin vulcanized rubber. After adjusting the optimal conditions of regeneration, mechanical tests will be carried out (tensile strength, tear strength and hardness) for the specimens of both vulcanized and revulcanized rubbers in order to compare their mechanical properties. (author)

  18. The use of styrene-butadiene rubber waste as a potential filler in nitrile rubber: order of addition and size of waste particles

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    D. A. Baeta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR has large applications in the shoe industry, especially as expanded sheets used to produce insoles and inner soles. According to TG analysis, the rubber content in SBR residues (SBR-r was found to be around 26-wt%. Based on that data, a cost-effective technique for the reuse of SBR-r in Nitrile rubber (NBR was developed. Later, the effect of SBR-r on the cure behavior, mechanical performance, swelling, and crosslink density of reused rubber was investigated, with more emphasis placed on the effect of both particle size and loading of waste filler. Cure characteristics such as optimum cure time and scorch time were then reduced by the increasing amount of SBR-r filler. Owing to the reinforced nature of the largest particle size SBR-r, the best results for the mechanical properties of NBR were those in which SBR-r was added at the end of the cure process. The study has thus shown that SBR residue (SBR-r can be used as an economical alternative filler in NBR.

  19. Mechanical performance of styrene-butadiene-rubber filled with carbon nanoparticles prepared by mechanical mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatchi, M.M. [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaei, A., E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We compare influence of carbon blacks and carbon nanotube on properties of SBR. {yields} We model mechanical behavior of SBR nanocomposites by the micromechanical model. {yields} Mechanical properties of carbon black/SBR is greatly dominated by bound rubber. {yields} Mechanical properties of SBR/nanotube is governed by big aspect ratio of nanotube. - Abstract: Reinforcement of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) was investigated using two different carbon blacks (CBs) with similar particle sizes, including highly structured CB and conventional CB, as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) prepared by mechanical mixing. The attempts were made to examine reinforcing mechanism of these two different classes of carbon nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurement were used to investigate morphology. Tensile, cyclic tensile and stress relaxation analyses were performed. A modified Halpin-Tsai model based on the concept of an equivalent composite particle, consisting of rubber bound, occluded rubber and nanoparticle, was proposed. It was found that properties of CB filled SBR are significantly dominated by rubber shell and occluded rubber in which molecular mobility is strictly restricted. At low strains, these rubber constituents can contribute in hydrodynamic effects, leading to higher elastic modulus. However, at higher strains, they contribute in stress hardening resulting in higher elongation at break and higher tensile strength. These elastomeric regions can also influence stress relaxation behaviors of CB filled rubber. For SBR/MWCNT, the extremely great inherent mechanical properties of nanotube along with its big aspect ratio were postulated to be responsible for the reinforcement while their interfacial interaction was not so efficient.

  20. Influence of different curing systems on the physico-mechanical properties and stability of SBR and NR rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, A.A. E-mail: abasfar@kacst.edu.sa; Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Mofti, S

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of radiation, sulfur and peroxide-cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber (NR) were compared. The dependence of the mechanical properties of the radiation-vulcanized SBR and NR on the coagent concentration and radiation dose was studied. The effect of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of the different rubber formulations was discussed. The radiation-cured formulations of SBR have superior mechanical properties and thermal stability compared with those of the chemically vulcanized compounds. Whereas, the radiation-cured formulations of NR have similar mechanical properties but superior thermal stability (based on the % change in E after thermal aging), when compared with those of the sulfur-vulcanized compounds and slightly better than those of the peroxide-vulcanized compounds.

  1. A molecular dynamics study on Young's modulus and tribology of carbon nanotube reinforced styrene-butadiene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raj; Sharma, Sumit

    2018-03-18

    Styrene-butadiene rubber is a copolymer widely used in making car tires and has excellent abrasion resistance. The Young's modulus and tribology of pure styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) polymer and carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism of enhanced tribology properties using carbon nanotube has been studied and discussed. The obtained Young's modulus shows the enhancement in mechanical properties of SBR polymer when carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcement. The concentration, temperature and velocity profiles, radial distribution function, frictional stresses, and cohesive energy density are calculated and analyzed in detail. The Young's modulus of SBR matrix increases about 29.16% in the presence of the 5% CNT. The atom movement velocity and average cohesive energy density in the friction area of pure SBR matrix was found to be more than that of the CNT/SBR composite. Graphical abstract Initial and final conditions of (a) pure SBR matrix and (b) CNT/SBR matrix subjected toshear loading and frictional stresses of top Fe layers of both pure SBR and CNT/SBR composite.

  2. Reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber with lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks were fabricated in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR matrix by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, SBR/lignin compounds were co-coagulated by SBR latex and lignin aqueous solution. Then the novolac epoxy resin (F51 was added in the SBR/lignin compounds by melt compounding method. F51 was directly cured by lignin via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups of F51 and OH groups (or COOH groups of lignin during the curing process of rubber compounds, as was particularly evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies and maximum torque of the curing analysis. The existence of lignin-F51 networks were also detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The structure of the SBR/lignin/F51 was also characterized by rubber process analyzer (RPA, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and determination of crosslinking density. Due to rigid lignin-F51 networks achieved in SBR/lignin/F51 composites, it was found that the hardness, modulus, tear strength, crosslinking density, the temperature of 5 and 10% weight-loss were significantly enhanced with the loading of F51.

  3. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  4. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, M.A.; Marzocca, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  5. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, M.A., E-mail: mmansilla@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marzocca, A.J. [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  6. Effect of the Compatibilizer Upon the Properties of Styrene-butadiene Rubber Organoclay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tavakoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite vulcunizates based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, organoclay and a conventional sulfur curing system were prepared by melt blending process in an internal mixer. In order to study the effects of the type of interfacial compatibilizer on the properties of SBR and clay nanoparticles,three types of compatibilizers, maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM-g-MAH, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR50 have been used. The nanocomposites have been compared together from view point of their curing behavior, rheological and mechanical properties. The developed microstructure and dynamics of the macromolecular chains in proximity of the clay nanolayers have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and melt rheo-mechanical spectroscopy (RMS. Curing behavior of the prepared nanocomposites has been evaluated using a rubber curing rheometer. EPDM-g-MAH and ENR50 showed to enhance the interactions between SBR chains into clay tactoids much stronger than NBR as a compatibilizer. These were consistent with the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA data as well as macroscale mechanical properties tested on the samples.

  7. Study of the reinforcement of rubber styrene-butadiene with mesoporous silices by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Ligia; Lopez, Betty; Pena, Bibiana; Rios, Juan Esteban; Castano, Nelson

    2001-01-01

    The knowledge about the interaction rubber/filler for the rubber reinforced with carbon black of silica is important to understand the physical properties, which determine the reinforcement. This paper presents a comparative study of the interactions between styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silica for a silica Ultrasil type and mesoporous silica MCM-41 type prepared by different procedures, based on solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: 1H MAS NMR; 13C MAS NMR, 13C CP/MAS, 29Si MAS and 29Si CP/MAS NMR. Mesoporous silica synthesized under certain specific conditions showed better interaction with the rubber than the ultrasil VN3 silica, commonly used as a reinforcement load. Mechanical tests for the SBR vulcanised with this silica indicate an important increase for values of elongation and tearing resistance, but an increase in the vulcanization time in it is compared with the SBR vulcanise with Ultrasil

  8. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  9. Physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermoset nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber/phenolic resin blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaei, Akbar, E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, Morteza [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Effect of organoclay (OC) on the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/phenolic resin (PH) blend prepared by two-roll mill was investigated. The influence of OC content ranging between 2.5 and 30 phr on the performance of SBR/PH was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interfacial energy analysis, tensile, dynamic mechanical, swelling, cure rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the OC is mainly localized in the SBR phase of SBR/PH blend through the kinetically favored mechanism relevant to rubber chains. The results also demonstrated the positive role of PH on the dispersion of OC. Both PH and OC showed accelerating role on the cure rate of SBR and increased the crosslinking density of the rubber phase. Additionally, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR were influenced by incorporation of both PH and OC. TGA showed that the OC improves thermal stability of SBR vulcanizate, while it exhibits a catalytic role in presence of PH.

  10. Physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermoset nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber/phenolic resin blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaei, Akbar; Faghihi, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Effect of organoclay (OC) on the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/phenolic resin (PH) blend prepared by two-roll mill was investigated. The influence of OC content ranging between 2.5 and 30 phr on the performance of SBR/PH was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interfacial energy analysis, tensile, dynamic mechanical, swelling, cure rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the OC is mainly localized in the SBR phase of SBR/PH blend through the kinetically favored mechanism relevant to rubber chains. The results also demonstrated the positive role of PH on the dispersion of OC. Both PH and OC showed accelerating role on the cure rate of SBR and increased the crosslinking density of the rubber phase. Additionally, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR were influenced by incorporation of both PH and OC. TGA showed that the OC improves thermal stability of SBR vulcanizate, while it exhibits a catalytic role in presence of PH.

  11. Investigation of surface halide modification of nitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The investigation is devoted to the novel technology of surface halide modification of rubber samples based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). 1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichlorethane was used as halide modifier. The developed technology is characterized by production stages reduction to one by means of treating the rubber compound with a halide modifier. The surface halide modification of compounds based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was determined to result in increase of resistance to thermal oxidation and aggressive media. The conducted research revealed the influence of modification time on chemical resistance and physical-mechanical properties of rubbers under investigation.

  12. Devulcanization of styrene butadiene rubber by microwave energy: Effect of the presence of ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seghar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR was devulcanized using microwave irradiation. In particular, effect of ionic liquid (IL, pyrrolidinium hydrogen sulfate [Pyrr][HSO4], on the devulcanization performance was studied. It was observed that the evolution of the temperature reached by rubber powder exposed to microwave irradiation for different energy values was favored by the presence of ionic liquid [Pyrr][HSO4] significantly over the whole range of the microwave energy values. Beyond the threshold point of 220 Wh/kg, the soluble fraction after devulcanization sharply increased with increasing devulcanization microwave energy. For the powder mixed with [Pyrr][HSO4], the increase was more significant. Furthermore, the crosslink density was observed to decrease slowly with the microwave energy up to 220 Wh/kg, beyond which the crosslink density decreased significantly for the rubber impregnated with IL. For the rubber with IL, significant and continuous increase in Tg with microwave energy values was observed in comparison with the SBR where no change in transition temperature was observed. Mechanical shearing of rubber gums in the two-roll mill favored the devulcanization process, which indicated that the combination of mechanical loading with microwave energy and IL is an efficient procedure allowing an optimal devulcanization of rubbers.

  13. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin, E-mail: zxjia@scut.edu.cn; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Vulcanization accelerant was used to modify halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). • The modified HNTs reduced the activation energy of vulcanization. • Strong filler–rubber interaction was achieved in rubber/modified HNTs composites. • The modified HNTs exhibited excellent reinforcement effect on rubber. - Abstract: Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  14. Surface modification of halloysite nanotubes by vulcanization accelerator and properties of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites with modified halloysite nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Bangchao; Jia, Zhixin; Hu, Dechao; Luo, Yuanfang; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Vulcanization accelerant was used to modify halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). • The modified HNTs reduced the activation energy of vulcanization. • Strong filler–rubber interaction was achieved in rubber/modified HNTs composites. • The modified HNTs exhibited excellent reinforcement effect on rubber. - Abstract: Vulcanization accelerant N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide (CZ) was used as a surface modifier and chemically grafted on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) to obtain CZ-functionalized HNTs (HNTs-s-CZ). It was found that HNTs-s-CZ could be homogeneously dispersed into styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grafted CZ molecules, exactly located at the filler-rubber interface, reduced the activation energy of vulcanization of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ compounds. Besides, the density of chain segments introduced by the interfacial phase of SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites was higher than the other nanocomposites with silane-modified HNTs (m-HNTs) or pristine HNTs, manifesting an indication of enhanced filler-rubber interfacial interaction in SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites. Consequently, SBR/HNTs-s-CZ nanocomposites showed excellent mechanical properties. The tensile strength could be enhanced by as much as 38.6% and 102.5% compared to those of SBR/m-HNTs and SBR/HNTs nanocomposites, respectively, though containing equivalent accelerant component. The value of this work lies in the fact that apparent properties improvement of elastomer composites has been achieved by the incorporation of vulcanization accelerant-functionalized HNTs, which may be fruitful for the rational design of filler surface treatment and offer new scientific and technological opportunities for the preparation of high performance elastomer composites.

  15. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Baochun; Lei Yanda; Chen Feng; Liu Xiaoliang; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin

    2008-01-01

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through ZDMA and MAA intermediated linkages. ZDMA connects SBR and HNTs via grafting/complexation mechanism. MAA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA was achieved. Effects of MAA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of MAA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs

  16. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by methacrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baochun [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn; Lei Yanda; Chen Feng; Liu Xiaoliang; Du Mingliang; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2008-12-30

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed interaction mechanisms of MAA and the in situ formed zinc methacrylate (ZDMA) were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and porosity analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through ZDMA and MAA intermediated linkages. ZDMA connects SBR and HNTs via grafting/complexation mechanism. MAA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA was achieved. Effects of MAA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of MAA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and MAA or ZDMA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  17. Effect of carbon black composition with sludge palm oil on the curing characteristic and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Huzaifah, M.

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of utilizing sludge palm oil (SPO) as processing oil, with various amount of carbon black as its reinforcing filler, and its effects on the curing characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) compound. Rubber compound with fixed 15 pphr of SPO loading, and different carbon black loading from 20 to 50 pphr, was prepared using two roll mills. The cure characteristics and mechanical tests that have been conducted are the scorch and cure time analysis, tensile strength and tear strength. Scorch time (ts5) and cure time (t90) of the compound increases with the increasing carbon black loading. The mechanical properties of NR/SBR compound viz. the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain and tear strength were also improved by the increasing carbon black loading.

  18. Enhanced interfacial interaction and antioxidative behavior of novel halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid supported antioxidant in styrene-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Luo, Yuanfang; Zhong, Bangchao; Hu, Dechao; Jia, Zhixin; Jia, Demin

    2018-05-01

    A novel antioxidant (HS-s-RT) to improve the mechanical properties and anti-aging performance of styrene-butadiene (SBR) composites was prepared by antioxidant intermediate p-aminodiphenylamine (RT) grafting on the surface of halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid (HS) via the linkage of silane coupling agent. The analysis of SEM and rubber processing analyzer (RPA) demonstrated HS-s-RT was uniformly dispersed in SBR, and stronger interfacial interaction between HS-s-RT and SBR was formed. Consequently, SBR/HS-s-RT composites have improving mechanical properties. Furthermore, the test of the retention of mechanical properties, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), and oxidation induction time (OIT) showed HS-s-RT can effectively improve the anti-aging effect of SBR composites than corresponding low molecular-weight antioxidant N-isopropyl-N‧-phenyl-4-phenylenediamin (4010NA). Then, the mechanism of thermo-oxidative aging of SBR/HS composites was also investigated, and the superior antioxidative efficiency is attributed to the uniform dispersion and excellent migration resistance of HS-s-RT. Hence, this novel antioxidant might open up new opportunities for the fabrication of high-performance rubber composites due to its superior anti-aging effect and reinforcement.

  19. Fast and robust method for the determination of microstructure and composition in butadiene, styrene-butadiene, and isoprene rubber by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Franck; Dussap, Claude; Coste, Nathalie

    2006-06-01

    In the tire industry, synthetic styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), butadiene rubber (BR), and isoprene rubber (IR) elastomers are essential for conferring to the product its properties of grip and rolling resistance. Their physical properties depend on their chemical composition, i. e., their microstructure and styrene content, which must be accurately controlled. This paper describes a fast, robust, and highly reproducible near-infrared analytical method for the quantitative determination of the microstructure and styrene content. The quantitative models are calculated with the help of pure spectral profiles estimated from a partial least squares (PLS) regression, using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as the reference method. This versatile approach allows the models to be applied over a large range of compositions, from a single BR to an SBR-IR blend. The resulting quantitative predictions are independent of the sample path length. As a consequence, the sample preparation is solvent free and simplified with a very fast (five minutes) hot filming step of a bulk polymer piece. No precise thickness control is required. Thus, the operator effect becomes negligible and the method is easily transferable. The root mean square error of prediction, depending on the rubber composition, is between 0.7% and 1.3%. The reproducibility standard error is less than 0.2% in every case.

  20. A new mechanism for selective adsorption of rubber on carbon black surface caused by nano-confinement in SBR/NBR solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Masayuki

    A novel mechanism of selective adsorption of rubber molecules onto carbon black surface in a binary immiscible rubber blend solution has been proposed in this dissertation. The phenomenon leads to uneven distribution of carbon black to the specific polymer in the blend and the obtained electrically conductive composite showed drastic reduction of percolation threshold concentration (PTC). The mechanism and the feature of conductive network formation have much potential concerning both fundamental understanding and industrial application to improve conductive polymer composites. In chapter I, carbon black filled conductive polymer composites are briefly reviewed. Then, in chapter II, a mechanism of rubber molecular confinement into carbon black aggregate structure is introduced to explain the selective adsorption of a specific rubber onto carbon black surface in an immiscible rubber solution blend (styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) with toluene or chloroform). Next, in chapters III and IV, polymers with various radius of gyration (Rg) and carbon blacks with various aggregate structure are examined to verify the selective adsorption mechanism. Finally, in chapter V, the novel mechanism was applied to create unique meso-/micro-unit conductive network in carbon black dispersed SBR/NBR composites.

  1. Styrene-butadiene rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites modified by sorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Baochun, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Feng; Lei Yanda; Liu Xiaoliang; Wan Jingjing; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-05-30

    Sorbic acid (SA) was used to improve the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanocomposites by direct blending. The detailed mechanisms for the largely improved performance were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), porosity analysis and crosslink density determination. The strong interfacial bonding between HNTs and rubber matrix is resulted through SA intermediated linkages. SA bonds SBR and HNTs through grafting copolymerization/hydrogen bonding mechanism. Significantly improved dispersion of HNTs in virtue of the interactions between HNTs and SA was achieved. Formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) was revealed during the vulcanization of the composites. However, in the present systems, the contribution of ZDS to the reinforcement was limited. Effects of SA content on the vulcanization behavior, morphology and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Promising mechanical properties of SA modified SBR/HNTs nanocomposites were obtained. The changes in vulcanization behavior, mechanical properties and morphology were correlated with the interactions between HNTs and SA and the largely improved dispersion of HNTs.

  2. SBR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and granular activated sludge-SBR ...... chromium (III) from tannery wastewater using activated carbon from sugar industrial ... Nutrient removal performance of a sequencing batch reactor as a ...

  3. Characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber/silica/Nanoprene compounds for application in tire tread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byeongho; Kang, Jonghyub; Jang, Sukhee; Kang, Yonggu; Kim, Wonho

    2013-03-01

    Nanoprene is made from chemically cross-linked rubber particles, and has many hydroxyl groups on the surface of the particles. It is speculated that the Nanoprene could reduce the silica-silica network formation by introducing hydrogen bonding between the silanol group of silica and the hydroxyl group of Nanoprene. In this study, the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/silica compounds with two types of the Nanoprene (BM75OH, BM15OH) were evaluated and it could be well explained by the concept of the volume fraction of filler or the volume fraction of rubber. If the Nanoprene applied to the compound is considered as a kind of filler, the minimum torque values and bound rubber contents of the un-vulcanized compounds, the swelling ratio and the stress-strain relationship of the vulcanized compounds could be well explained by the volume fraction of filler (phi(F)). If Nanoprene is considered as a kind of rubber such as SBR, the properties such as peak tan delta, Payne effect, tan delta at 0 degrees C and 60 degrees C, and abrasion resistance could be well explained by the volume fraction of rubber (phi'(R)). However, the improvement of silica dispersion by addition of the Nanoprene particles in the compounds was not significant. The application of BM75OH as a polymer to the tread compound will be suitable for winter tires. In addition, the compound with BM15OH as an additive will be suitable as a tread compound for summer tires.

  4. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber - Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Laoui, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) with functionalized carbon nanotubes on the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were functionalized with phenol functional group to enhance their dispersion in SBR matrix. Surface functionalization of the CNTs was carried out using acid treatment and FTIR technique was utilized so as to ascertain the presence of phenol functional group. This was followed with the dispersion of the functionalized CNTs into a polymer solution and a subsequent evaporation of the solvent. This study has demonstrated the inherent capability of CNTs as reinforcing filler as demonstrated by the substantial improvement in Young\\'s Modulus, tensile strength and energy of absorption of the nanocomposites. The tensile strength increased from 0.17 MPa (SBR) to 0.48 MPa while the Young\\'s Modulus increased from 0.25 MPa to 0.83 MPa when 10wt% functionalized CNTs was added. With the addition of 1wt% reinforcement-a peak value of 4.1 KJ energy absorption was obtained. The homogenous dispersion of CNT-Phenol is thought to be responsible for the considerable enhancement in the reported properties. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  5. Fracture behavior of rubber powder modified rubber blends applied for conveying belt top covers

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Stocek, Radek; Gehde, Michael; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang; Kipscholl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is concentrated on the experimental investigation of wear resistance of rubber powder modified rubber blends. Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) blends applied for conveying belt top covers have been modified by ground rubber (rubber powder) based on SBR. We theoretically described the rubber wear mechanism due to loading conditions occurring at conveyor belts in the field, to simulate wear behavior of top cover rubber materials. An own developed testing equipment based on g...

  6. SBR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-04

    . ... LSD, least significant difference; MLSS, mixed liquor suspend- ded solids; SBR, sequencing batch reactor; .... of influent and effluent, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and sludge volume index (SVI) of the system ...

  7. Contribution made by multivariate curve resolution applied to gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared data for an in-depth characterization of styrene-butadiene rubber blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckebusch, C; Vilmin, F; Coste, N; Huvenne, J P

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate the contribution made by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) for resolving gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared (GPC-FT-IR) data collected on butadiene rubber (BR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blends in order to access in-depth knowledge of polymers along the molecular weight distribution (MWD). In the BR-SBR case, individual polymers differ in chemical composition but share almost the same MWD. Principal component analysis (PCA) gives a general overview of the data structure and attests to the feasibility of modeling blends as a binary system. MCR-ALS is then performed. It allows resolving the chromatographic coelution and validates the chosen methodology. For SBR-SBR blends, the problem is more challenging since the individual elastomers present the same chemical composition. Rank deficiency is detected from the PCA data structure analysis. MCR-ALS is thus performed on column-wise augmented matrices. It brings very useful insight into the composition of the analyzed blends. In particular, a weak change in the composition of individual SBR in the MWD's lowest mass region is revealed.

  8. Pathway for high-quality reclaim by thermal treatment of sulfur-vulcanized SBR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    De-vulcanization of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) is a challenge, as the broken polymer chains tend to re-arrange. This influences the properties of the reclaimed and re-vulcanized rubber, and reduces the quality of the recycled material. Within this study, the breakdown of sulfur-cured SBR in a

  9. Improved ozone resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Silverman, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) studies performed in this work indicate that high ozone resistance of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) formulations cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation is associated with unusually high vinyl concentration. On the other hand, sulfur cured SBR formulations with low vinyl concentration have poor ozone resistance. Curing with peroxides which involves chemistry similar to that of radiation curing, also leads to high vinyl concentration (relative to sulfur curing) and high ozone resistance. Increasing the absorbed dose in sulfur-radiation cured samples decreased the high vinyl content to a point where the ozone resistance declined greatly. Carbon black was shown to reduce the absorption of both the transvinylene and the vinyl unsaturation groups, but not to the same extent in all formulations. Also, the carbon black seems to play a greater role in the absorption of the unsaturation as sulfur increases. (Author)

  10. Improved ozone resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Silverman, J.

    1995-01-01

    Fourier Transform (FTIR) studies performed in this work indicate that high ozone resistance of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) formulations cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation is associated with unusually high vinyl concentration. On the other hand, sulfur cured SBR formulations with low vinyl concentration have poor ozone resistance. Curing with peroxides which involves chemistry similar to that of radiation curing, also leads to high vinyl concentration (relative to sulfur curing) and high ozone resistance. Increasing the absorbed dose in sulfur-radiation cured samples decreased the high vinyl content to a point where the ozone resistance declined greatly. Carbon black was shown to reduce the absorption of both the transvinylene and the vinyl unsaturation groups, but not to the same extent in all formulations. Also, the carbon black seems to play a greater role in the absorption of the unsaturation as sulfur increases. (Author)

  11. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Short Nylon Fibers and Nanoclay Reinforced NR/SBR Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Andideh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR reinforced with short nylon fibers along with nanoclay (Cloisite 15A hybrid composites were prepared in an internal and a two roll-mill mixer by a three-step mixingprocess. The effects of fiber content at a constant loading of 3 wt% nanoclay were studied on the microstructure, mechanical and morphological properties of the prepared nanocomposites. The adhesion between the fiber and the rubber was enhanced by the addition of a dry bonding system consisting of resorcinol, hexamethylene tetramine and hydrated silica (HRH. The curing characteristics of the composites were determined and subsequently vulcanized at 150°C using a hot press. It was observed that the cure time and swelling index of the composites decreased while maximum torque, and cure rate increased with increasing of short fiber and nanoclay contents. Thestructure and fracture surface morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction results of nanocomposites indicated that the interlayer distance of silicate layers increased. The mechanical properties (tensile, tear strength, elongation-at-break and hardness ofnanocomposites containing virgin and waste fibers in the longitudinal direction are compared.

  12. Mechanical properties of styrene-butadiene rubber cured by ionizing radiation in the presence of sulfur and polyfunctional agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Al-Harithy, F.A.; Abdel-Aziz, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) samples cured by a combination of sulfur and ionizing radiation in the presence of polyfunctional crosslinking agent were studied. SBR formulations containing various concentrations of trimethyl propane triacrylate (TMPTA) were irradiated at absorbed doses in the range of 35-200 kGy. The influence of TMPTA on the mechanical properties, solubility % and swelling % were investigated. The various formulations were compared at the same crosslink density as determined by 200% modulus (i.e. tensile strength at 200% elongation). The increase in TMPTA concentration has led to the decrease in the absorbed dose required to achieve full-cure conditions. Another set of SBR formulations containing partial levels of sulfur in the presence of the same TMPTA concentrations as the earlier formulations were irradiated at the same absorbed dose range. The presence of sulfur has further decreased the absorbed dose required to achieve full-cure conditions. Thermal stability of the two sets of SBR formulations as studied by Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) remained unchanged over the entire range of absorbed dose

  13. Plane-interface-induced lignin-based nanosheets and its reinforcing effect on styrene-butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lignin was viewed as a spherical microgel in aqueous alkali. While spread out in a monolayer or adsorbed on a surface, lignin was made up of flexible, disk-like molecules with approximately the same thickness of 2 nm. According to this principle, we employed the lamina of montmorillonite (MMT as a plane template to anchor cationic lignin (CL on its two sides, resulting in the formation of CL-MMT hybrid materials (CLM. The isotherm adsorption behavior and structure characteristics of CLM were studied. The results showed that CLM was individually dispersed nanosheets with a thickness of about 5 nm when the mass ratio of CL to MMT is more than 2:1 and prepared at acidic or neutral pH. Compared to the cocoagulation of lignin and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR, CLM obviously accelerated the coagulation rate, due to the reduction of surface activity of CL restricted by MMT. The nanoscale dispersion of CLM in SBR matrix significantly improved the tensile strength of CLM/SBR nanocomposites to 14.1 MPa by adding only 10 phr CLM and cardanol glycidyl ether (CGE as compatibilizer. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA showed that the glass transition temperature of SBR/CLM nanocomposites decreased with increasing CLM loading. Correspondingly, a special interfacial structure was proposed.

  14. Particle reinforced composites from acrylamide modified blend of styrene-butadiene and natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blends of styrene-butadiene rubber and natural rubber that provide balanced properties were modified with acrylamide and reinforced with soy protein particles. The rubber composites show improved mechanical properties. Both modified rubber and composites showed a faster curing rate. The crosslinking...

  15. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jang, H. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, B. H. [Dongguk Universty, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, C. [Chungbuk University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break.

  16. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jang, H. K.; Ryu, B. H.; Lee, C.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break

  17. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-06

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work.

  18. Pengaruh Penggunaan Nitril Butadiene Rubber Dan Pale Crepe Pada Pembuatan Sol Karet Untuk Sepatu Pengaman

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniari, Arum

    2010-01-01

    Rubber sole for safety shoes was different on physical specification with general sole, especially on abrasion resistance and oil resistance. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of nitril butadiene rubber and pale crepe on physical properties of vulcanized rubber sole for safety shoes. Rubber sole for safety shoes was produced by blending pale crepe and nitril butadiene rubber with ratio of : 50/50; 60/40; 70/30 and 80/20 phr, respectively. Carbon black as filler was also v...

  19. Pengaruh penggunaan nitril butadiene rubber dan pale crepe pada pembuatan sol karet untuk sepatu pengaman

    OpenAIRE

    Arum Yuniari

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Rubber sole for safety shoes was different on physical specification with general sole, especially on abrasion resistance and oil resistance. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of nitril butadiene rubber and pale crepe on physical properties of vulcanized rubber sole for safety shoes. Rubber sole for safety shoes was produced by blending pale crepe and nitril butadiene rubber with ratio of : 50/50; 60/40; 70/30 and 80/20 phr, respectively. Carbon black as fill...

  20. Novel Polyvinyl Alcohol/Styrene Butadiene Rubber Latex/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Nanocomposites Reinforced with Modified Halloysite Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/styrene butadiene rubber (SBR latex/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs nanocomposites were successfully prepared through physical blending. The as-obtained PVA/SBR/CMC/HNTs nanocomposites were coated on the surface of old corrugated container (OCC-based paper in an effort to improve the mechanical properties of paper. To improve the dispersion of HNTs and enhance the compatibility between HNTs and polymer matrix, HNTs were modified with titanate coupling agent (TCA. FT-IR, together with TGA, confirmed that TCA was grafted onto the surface of HNTs successfully. XRD demonstrated that the crystal structures of HNTs remained almost unchanged. TEM showed that modified HNTs exhibited good dispersion and possessed nanotubular structures with an outer diameter of around 50 nm and an inner diameter of about 20 nm. SEM gave an indication that modified HNTs were dispersed more uniformly than unmodified HNTs within PVA/SBR/CMC matrix. Rheological measurement exhibited that surface modification process enhanced the compatibility between HNTs and polymer matrix, thus resulting in the decreased viscosity of nanocomposites. In comparison with unmodified HNTs, modified HNTs were found to contribute more to the enhancement in mechanical properties, which might be attributed to the better dispersion and compatibility of modified HNTs evidenced by TEM, SEM, and rheological measurement.

  1. Ultrasonic degradation of butadiene, styrene and their copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiskumar, P S; Madras, Giridhar

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic degradation of commercially important polymers, styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber, acrylonitrile-butadiene (NBR) rubber, styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), polybutadiene rubber and polystyrene were investigated. The molecular weight distributions were measured using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A model based on continuous distribution kinetics approach was used to study the time evolution of molecular weight distribution for these polymers during degradation. The effect of solvent properties and ultrasound intensity on the degradation of SBR rubber was investigated using different pure solvents and mixed solvents of varying volatility and different ultrasonic intensities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates.

  3. Development of Polythiophene/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubbers for Artificial Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipdech, Pacharavalee; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2007-03-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) can respond to the applied electrical field by an extension or a retraction. In this work, we are interested in using an elastomeric blend for electroactive applications, acrylonitirle-butadiene rubber (NBR) containing a conductive polymer (Poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid, PTAA); the latter can be synthesized via oxidative polymerization. FT-IR, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ^1H-NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, and SEM are used to characterize the conductive polymer. Electrorheological properties are measured and investigated in terms of acrylonitrile content, blending ratio, doping level, and temperature. Experiments are carried out under oscillatory shear mode and with applied electric field strength varying from 0 to 2 kV/mm. Dielectric properties, conductivities are measured and correlated with the storage modulus responses. The storage modulus sensitivity, δG'G'0of the pure rubbers increases with increasing electric field strength. They attain the maximum values of about 30% and become constant at electric strength at and above 1000 V/mm.

  4. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  5. [Identification of migrants from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Wakui, Chiseko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are restricted for food contact use. In their place, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used in contact with foodstuffs. Some unknown substances were found to migrate into n-heptane from NBR gloves. By GC/MS, HR-MS and NMR, their chemical structures were confirmed to be 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (used as a plasticizer), 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol), a mixture of styrenated phenols consisting of 2-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 4-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,6-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,4-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol and 2,4,6-tri(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol (used as antioxidants), and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which seems to a degradation product of antioxidant. Migration levels of these compounds were 1.68 micrograms/cm2 of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 2.80 micrograms/cm2 of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate, 46.08 micrograms/cm2 of styrenated phenols and 4.22 micrograms/cm2 of 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol) into n-heptane, respectively. The content of total styrenated phenols was 6,900 micrograms/g in NBR gloves.

  6. Molecular Simulation of Gas Solubility in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, M; Sutton, A P; Mostofi, A A

    2017-01-12

    Molecular simulation is used to compute the solubility of small gases in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) with a Widom particle-insertion technique biased by local free volume. The convergence of the method is examined as a function of the number of snapshots upon which the insertions are performed and the number of insertions per snapshot and is compared to the convergence of the unbiased Widom insertion technique. The effect of varying the definition of local free volume is also investigated. The acrylonitrile content of the polymer is altered to examine its influence on the solubility of helium, CO 2 , and H 2 O, and the solubilities of polar gases are found to be enhanced relative to those of nonpolar gases, in qualitative agreement with experiment. To probe this phenomenon further, the solubilities are decomposed into contributions from the neighborhoods of different atoms, using a Voronoi cell construction, and a strong bias is found for CO 2 and H 2 O in particular to be situated near nitrogen sites in the elastomer. Temperature is shown to suppress the solubility of CO 2 and H 2 O but to increase that of helium. Increasing pressure is found to suppress the solubility of all gases but at different rates, according to a balance between their molecular sizes and electrostatic interactions with the polymer. These results are relevant to the use of NBR seals at elevated temperatures and pressures, such as in oil and gas wells.

  7. High performance light-colored nitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanda; Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenyou; Jia, Demin

    2011-12-01

    High mechanical performance nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with light color was fabricated by the method of in situ formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) or magnesium disorbate (MDS). The in situ formed ZDS and its polymerization via internal mixing was confirmed by X-ray diffaraction. The mechanical properties, ageing resistance, morphology and the dynamic mechanical analysis were fully studied. It was found that with increasing loading of metallic disorbate both the curing rate and the ionic crosslink density was largely increased. The modulus, tensile strength and tear strength were largely increased. With a comparison between internal mixing and opening mixing, the mechanical performance for the former one was obviously better than the latter one. The high performance was ascribed to the finely dispersion nano domains with irregular shape and obscure interfacial structures. Except for the NBR vulcanizate with a high loading of MDS, the others' ageing resistance with incorporation of these two metallic disorbate was found to be good. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that, with increasing loading of metallic disorbate, the highly increased storage modulus above -20 degrees C, the up-shifted glass transition temperature (Tg) and the reduced mechanical loss were ascribed to strengthened interfacial interactions.

  8. Natural rubber/nitrile butadiene rubber/hindered phenol composites with high-damping properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New natural rubber (NR/nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/hindered phenol (AO-80 composites with high-damping properties were prepared in this study. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, polarized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA, and a tensile tester. Each composite consisted of two phases: the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase. There was partial compatibility between the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase, and the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite exhibited a co-continuous morphology. Strain-induced crystallization occurred in the NR phase at strains higher than 200%, and strain-induced orientation appeared in the NBR/AO-80 phase with the increase of strain from 100% to 500%. The composites had a special stress–strain behavior and mechanical properties because of the simultaneous strain-induced orientation and strain-induced crystallization. In the working temperature range of a seismic isolation bearing, the composites (especially the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite presented a high loss factor, high area of loss peak (TA, and high hysteresis energy. Therefore, the NR/NBR/AO-80 rubber composites are expected to have important application as a high-performance damping material for rubber bearing.

  9. Innovative Application of Biopolymer Keratin as a Filler of Synthetic Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber NBR

    OpenAIRE

    Prochoń, Mirosława; Przepiórkowska, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The current investigations show the influence of keratin, recovered from the tanning industry, on the thermal and mechanical properties of vulcanizates with synthetic rubber acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber NBR. The addition of waste protein to NBR vulcanizates influences the improvement of resistance at high temperatures and mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness. The introduction of keratin to the mixes of rubber previously blended with zinc oxide (ZnO) before vulcanization ...

  10. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    OpenAIRE

    Pornprasit, Rattapol; Pornprasit, Philaiwan; Boonma, Pruet; Natwichai, Juggapong

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-...

  11. Degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomers in rapeseed biodiesel and hydrogenated vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaghi, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) are currently viewed by the transportation sector as the most viable alternative fuels to replace petroleum-based fuels. The use of biodiesel has, however, been limited by the deteriorative effect of biodiesel on rubber parts in automobile fuel systems. This work therefore aimed at investigating the degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and fluoroelastomers (FKM) on exposure to biodiesel and HVO at different temperatures and oxygen ...

  12. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Goiania, Goiania -GO (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Vieira, Silvio L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias-UFG, Campus Samambaia, Goiania-GO (Brazil); Schimidt, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias-IFG,Campus Inhumas, Inhumas-GO (Brazil); Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the response to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)

  13. Influence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber on recyclability of blends prepared from poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sunil S; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    The current investigation deals with the recycling possibilities of poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Recycled blends of poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(methyl methacrylate) are successfully formed from the plastic constituents, those are recovered from waste computer products. However, lower impact performance of the blend and lower stability of the poly(vinyl chloride) phase in the recycled blend restricts its further usage in industrial purposes. Therefore, effective utilisation acrylonitrile butadiene rubber in a recycled blend was considered for improving mechanical and thermal performance. Incorporation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber resulted in the improvement in impact performance as well as elongation-at-break of the recycled blend. The optimum impact performance was found in the blend with 9 wt% acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, which shows 363% of enhancement as compared with its parent blend. Moreover, incorporated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber also stabilises the poly(vinyl chloride) phase present in the recycled blend, similarly Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the interactions of various functionalities present in the recycled blend and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. In addition to this, thermogravimetric analysis indicates the improvement in the thermal stability of the recycled blend after the addition of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber into it. The existence of partial miscibility in the recycled blend was identified using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Effects of Blend Ratio and SBR Type on Properties of Carbon Black-Filled and Silica-Filled SBR/BR Tire Tread Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongdhorn Sae-oui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at investigating the effects of blend ratio between styrene butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR and SBR type (E-SBR and S-SBR on properties of SBR/BR tire tread compounds. Influences of these parameters on properties of the tread compounds reinforced by 80 parts per hundred rubber (phr of carbon black (CB and silica were also compared. Results reveal that hardness, strengths, and wet grip efficiency were impaired whereas rolling resistance was improved with increasing BR proportion. Surprisingly, the presence of BR imparted poorer abrasion resistance in most systems, except for the CB-filled E-SBR system in which an enhanced abrasion resistance was observed. Obviously, S-SBR gave superior properties (tire performance compared to E-SBR, particularly obvious in the silica-filled system. Compared with CB, silica gave comparable strengths, better wet grip efficiency, and lower rolling resistance. Carbon black, however, offered greater abrasion resistance than silica.

  15. Pengaruh penggunaan nitril butadiene rubber dan pale crepe pada pembuatan sol karet untuk sepatu pengaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rubber sole for safety shoes was different on physical specification with general sole, especially on abrasion resistance and oil resistance. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of nitril butadiene rubber and pale crepe on physical properties of vulcanized rubber sole for safety shoes. Rubber sole for safety shoes was produced by blending pale crepe and nitril butadiene rubber with ratio of : 50/50; 60/40; 70/30 and 80/20 phr, respectively. Carbon black as filler was also variated with, 40 ; 50 and 60 phr. Compounding processing used two roll mill machine and vulcanized rubber sole was by using pressed use hydraulic press machine. The results showed that vulcanized rubber sole for safety shoes with good quality consist of pale crepe and NBR 80/20 phr and carbon black 40 phr, which was characterized by tensile strength 16.81 N/mm2, tear strength 11.68 N/mm, density 1.12 g/cm3, abrasion resistance 58.51 mm3, hardness 71.60 shore A, resistance to cut growth 30.000 times was 1.15 mm and oil resistance 65.44%, respectively. The quality parameters was complied with standard quality of SNI 0111 : 2009, for safety shoes from leather and vulcanized rubber sole that fulfill oil reistance parameter.

  16. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    OpenAIRE

    Le, H.H.; Parsaker, M.; Sriharish, M.N.; Henning, S.; Menzel, M.; Wiessner, S.; Das, A.; Do, Q.K.; Heinrich, G.; Radusch, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept) the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/butadiene rubber (BR)/natural rubber (NR) blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phos...

  17. Preparation and characterization of zinc sulphide nanocomposites based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Nihmath, A.; Francis, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Rubber composite based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) reinforced with nano zinc sulphide (ZnS) have been prepared via vulcanization process and characterized by several techniques. Processing characteristics such as scorch time, optimum cure time decreases with increase in concentration of nano filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Mechanical properties such as tensile and tear strength increases with increase in concentration of nano filler up to 7 phr of loading thereafter the value decreases, whereas hardness, and flame resistance increases with the dosage of fillers. These enhanced properties are due to the homogenous dispersion of nano fillers in NBR matrix, which is evidenced from the structure that evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Hal?sz, Istv?n Zolt?n; B?r?ny, Tam?s

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity cha...

  19. Electromechanical responses of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR and blends of poly(3-thiopheneacetic acid/ acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, P3TAA/NBR, were fabricated, and the electrorheological properties, dielectric, and electrical conductivities were investigated . The electrorheological properties were determined under an oscillatory shear mode in a frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s at various electric field strengths, from 0 to 2 kV/mm, at a fixed 27°C to observe the effects of acrylonitrile content (ACN in the rubber systems and the conductive particle concentration in the blends. For the pure rubber systems, the storage modulus response (ΔG′ is linearly dependent on its dielectric constant (ε′, and increases with the ACN content. For the NBR/P3TAA blends, the storage modulus response varies nonlinearly with the dielectric constant. The bending responses of the rubbers and the blends were investigated in a vertical cantilever fixture. For the pure rubber system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary linearly with electric field strength. For the blend system, the bending angle and the dielectrophoresis force vary nonlinearly with electric field strength.

  20. Detection of hydrogen dissolved in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin; Fujiwara, Hirotada

    2012-01-01

    Rubber materials, which are used for hydrogen gas seal, can dissolve hydrogen during exposure in high-pressure hydrogen gas. Dissolved hydrogen molecules were detected by solid state 1H NMR of the unfilled vulcanized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Two signals were observed at 4.5 ppm and 4.8 ppm, which were assignable to dissolved hydrogen, in the 1H NMR spectrum of NBR after being exposed 100 MPa hydrogen gas for 24 h at room temperature. These signals were shifted from that of gaseous hydrogen molecules. Assignment of the signals was confirmed by quantitative estimation of dissolved hydrogen and peak area of the signals.

  1. Novel in situ coordinated cerium salt/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jianjun [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lu, Haifeng, E-mail: lhf@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Shengyu, E-mail: fsy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2012-09-14

    A novel rubber composite of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) filled with cerium salt particles was vulcanized via in situ coordination for the first time. The resulting materials exhibit good mechanical properties. Curing characteristics analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, tensile testing, and an equilibrium swelling method were used for the characterization of the composite. The results in this paper indicate that the composite is a kind of elastomer based on the in situ coordination crosslinking interactions between the nitrile groups (-CN) of NBR and cerium ions. The mechanical properties of vulcanized cerium salt/ NBR rubber are altered when changing the sorts of cerium salt. Moreover, these materials show good irradiation resistance because of the introduction of the cerium salt. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium salts were firstly used to vulcanize the acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium salts act as not only crosslink agents but also reinforcing fillers in the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These materials show good irradiation resistance and mechanical properties at same time.

  2. Novel in situ coordinated cerium salt/acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jianjun; Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Shengyu

    2012-01-01

    A novel rubber composite of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) filled with cerium salt particles was vulcanized via in situ coordination for the first time. The resulting materials exhibit good mechanical properties. Curing characteristics analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, tensile testing, and an equilibrium swelling method were used for the characterization of the composite. The results in this paper indicate that the composite is a kind of elastomer based on the in situ coordination crosslinking interactions between the nitrile groups (–CN) of NBR and cerium ions. The mechanical properties of vulcanized cerium salt/ NBR rubber are altered when changing the sorts of cerium salt. Moreover, these materials show good irradiation resistance because of the introduction of the cerium salt. -- Highlights: ► Cerium salts were firstly used to vulcanize the acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. ► Cerium salts act as not only crosslink agents but also reinforcing fillers in the matrix. ► These materials show good irradiation resistance and mechanical properties at same time.

  3. Evaluation of the modified nanoclay effect on the vulcanization of SBR through rheometric curve and DSC;Avaliacao do efeito de nanoargila modificada na vulcanizacao de SBR atraves da curva reometrica e DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Maria Madalena C.; Brito, Karin J.S., E-mail: mmcforte@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Gheller Junior, Jordao [SENAI, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros

    2009-07-01

    Rubber nanocomposites with nanoclays organically modified by quaternary ammonium salts may have the curing features modified significantly, since the salts may act on the rubber cure system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influences of an organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) on the curing reaction of an SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) with sulfur. The SBR/OMMT nanocomposites were prepared by co-coagulating SBR latex and Cloisite{sup R} 20A aqueous suspension at different nanoclay concentrations. The OMMT effect on the sulfur curing reaction was evaluated by the rheometric curve using a rheometer type RPA (Rubber Process Analyzer) and the heat of vulcanization (DELTAH{sub v}) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The evaluation of the clay nanolayers dispersion in the SBR matrix was accomplished by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. (author)

  4. Innovative Application of Biopolymer Keratin as a Filler of Synthetic Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber NBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Prochoń

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigations show the influence of keratin, recovered from the tanning industry, on the thermal and mechanical properties of vulcanizates with synthetic rubber acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber NBR. The addition of waste protein to NBR vulcanizates influences the improvement of resistance at high temperatures and mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness. The introduction of keratin to the mixes of rubber previously blended with zinc oxide (ZnO before vulcanization process leads to an increase in the cross-linking density of vulcanizates. The polymer materials received including addition of proteins will undergo biodecomposition in natural conditions. After soil test, vulcanizates with keratin especially keratin with ZnO showed much more changes on the surface area than vulcanizates without protein. In that aerobic environment, microorganisms, bacteria, and fungus digested better polymer materials containing natural additives.

  5. Hardness and swelling behaviour of epoxidized natural rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (ENR 50/NBRr) blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hazwani Syaza; Ismail, Hanafi; Rashid, Azura A.

    2017-07-01

    This recent work is to investigate the hardness and swelling behaviour of epoxidized natural rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (ENR 50/NBRr) blends. ENR 50/NBRr blends were prepared by two-roll mills with five different loading of NBRr from 5 to 35 phr. Results indicated that the hardness of ENR 50/NBRr blends increased as recycled NBR increased due to the improvement in crosslink density of the blends. Increasing NBRr content gives ENR 50/NBRr blends better resistance towards swelling. Higher degree of crosslinking will increase the swelling resistance and reduce the penetration of toluene into the blends. The presence of polar group in ENR 50 and NBRr give better hardness properties and swelling behaviour of the ENR 50/NBRr blends compared to the NR/NBRr blends.

  6. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Falco, A. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Lamanna, M. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Fisica, LPyMC, Pabellon I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); D' Accorso, N.B. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Fascio, M.L., E-mail: mfascio@qo.fcen.uba.ar [Universidad de Buenos Aires, FCEyN, Depto. de Quimica Organica, Centro de Investigaciones en Hidratos de Carbono (CIHIDECAR) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  7. Thermomechanical behavior of SBR reinforced with nanotubes functionalized with polyvinylpyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, A.; Lamanna, M.; Goyanes, S.; D'Accorso, N.B.; Fascio, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal behavior of composites consisting on a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix with a sulphur/accelerator system and multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly-4-vinylpyridine (MWCNT-PVP) as reinforcement, were studied. The materials were tested with stress-strain tensile tests, DMTA and DSC for thermal properties. A strong increase in the plastic behavior with slight decrease of its elastic Modulus and Tg led to unexpected results.

  8. Carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber/hybrid filler composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of the OSW and NLS are measured with the dynamic contact-angle technique. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS of the OSW reveals that the OSW possesses various reactive functional groups namely hydroxyl groups (OH. Hybrid filler from NLS and OSW were incorporated into carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR to produce XNBR hybrid composites. The reaction of OH groups from the OSW with COOH of the XNBR is checked by attenuated total reflectance spectra (ATR-IR of the composites. The degree of curing ΔM (maximum torque-minimum torque as a function of hybrid filler as derived from moving die rheometer (MDR is reported. The stress-strain behavior of the hybrid composites as well as the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is studied. Bonding quality and dispersion of the hybrid filler with and in XNBR are examined using scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM in SEM.

  9. A comparison between the effects of gamma radiation and sulfur cure system on the microstructure and crosslink network of (styrene butadiene rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer) blends in presence of nanoclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Aida; Jalali-Arani, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Rubber blends based on (styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR)/ethylene–propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)) with and without organoclay (OC) were prepared through a melt mixing process. The concentration ratio of the rubber phases (EPDM/SBR; 50/50 wt%) and the amount of the OC were kept constant. The samples were then vulcanized by means of gamma radiation using a Co-60 gamma source as well as sulfur cure system. The effect of absorbed dose on the formation of the crosslinks was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of absorbed dose, sulfur cure system and OC on the gel content, and crosslink density were evaluated by the chemical tests. Applying the Charlesby–Pinner equation to estimate the radiation chemical yield, revealed that the use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. Employing the swelling test data, some thermodynamic parameters were determined. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate microstructure of the samples revealed a more homogeneous structure and also an increase in compatibility of the blend components in the sample cured by the irradiation in comparison to that cured by the sulfur curing system. - Highlights: • SBR/EPDM and SBR/EPDM/OC samples were prepared and irradiated by gamma radiation. • Increasing the absorbed dose and using OC enhanced gel content and crosslink density. • The increase in the absorbed dose resulted in an increase in ΔS and decrease in ΔG. • The use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. • In compare to sulfur cure sample the irradiated one showed more homogeneous structure

  10. Elastomer Nanocomposites Based on Butadiene Rubber, Nanoclay and Epoxy-Polyester Hybrid: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sepideh Zoghi; Ghasem Naderi; Gholam Reza Bakhshandeh; Morteza Ehsani; Shirin Shokoohi

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on butadiene rubber (BR), (0, 3, 5 and 7 phr) organoclay (Cloisite 15A) and (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 phr) powder coating wastes, i.e., epoxypolyester hybrid (EPH) were prepared using a laboratory-scale internal mixer in order to study the effect of organoclay and EPH content on the mechanical and morphological properties of the nanocomposite samples. Cure characteristics of the prepared compounds including optimum cure time (t90) and scorch time (t5) depicted a decrease in both...

  11. Research and application of fuzzy subtractive clustering model on tensile strength of radiation vulcanization for nitrile-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Duwen; Wang Hong; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    By use of fuzzy subtractive clustering model, the relationship between tensile strength of radiation vulcanization of NBRL (Nitrile-butadiene rubber latex) and irradiation parameters have been investigated. The correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.8222 in the comparison of experimental data to the predicted data. It was obvious that fuzzy model identification method is not only high precision with small computation, but also easy to be used. It can directly supply the evolution of tensile strength of NBR by fuzzy modeling method in radiation vulcanization process for nitrile-butadiene rubber. (authors)

  12. Studies for methods to improve thermostability of the functionalized butadiene styrene rubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Rumyantseva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the tire performance properties can deteriorate in the processes of production, processing, storage and operation. One of the reasons for that is a series of processes occurring in the polymer under the influence of different factors: thermal, mechanical or chemical. This problem is particularly relevant for functionalized polymers, as functional groups can interact with each other, causing side cross linking reactions that lead to a deterioration of consumer properties of the products. The main purpose of this work was to study influence of several key factors on the thermostability of functionalized rubbers in order to find a solution: different types of antioxidants, rubber polymerizate stripping conditions and rubber processing. In accordance with the problem, solutions were found and work was carried out in several directions: changing the pH of the medium in the rubber stripping and using antioxidants containing carbonyl groups located in ?-positions to methylene groups, namely Irganox 1520 and Irganox 1076. As an evaluation factor, thermal treatment was selected in two modes: at 100 °C for 48 hours and after extruder at 130 °C for 5 minutes + 100 °C for 48 hours. At the same time, the following parameters were determined: molecular weight characteristics and Mooney viscosity of the starting polymers and after thermal aging. During the experiments, it was found that the acidity of the medium in the water degasser does not affect the crosslinking of the functionalized rubber during storage. In addition, a study was made of the effect of the type of antioxidant and its quantity on the thermal stability of functionalized styrene butadiene rubbers, as well as the study of the effect of the content of the modifying agent on the thermal stability of the product. It has been found that the use, as antioxidants, of carbonyl compounds containing a methylene group at the ?-position, leads to inhibition of the cross

  13. Effect of grafting cellulose acetate and methylmethacrylate as compatibilizer onto NBR/SBR blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalf, A.I.; Nashar, D.E.El.; Maziad, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Compatibilizer is used for improving of processability, interfacial interaction and mechanical properties of polymer blends. In this study acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blends were compatibilized by a graft copolymer of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with cellulose acetate (CA) i.e. (NBR-g-CA) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with methylmethacrylate i.e. (NBR-g-MMA). Compatibilizers were prepared by gamma radiation induced grafting of NBR with cellulose acetate (CA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) were added with different ratios to NBR/SBR (50/50) blend. The compatibilized blends were evaluated by rheometric characteristics, physico-mechanical properties, swelling behavior, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal analysis. The results showed that, the blends with graft copolymer effect greatly on the rheological characteristics [optimum cure time (Tc 90 ), scorch time (Ts 2 ), and the cure rate index (CRI)]. The physico-mechanical properties of the investigated blends were enhanced by the incorporation of these graft copolymers, while the resistance to swelling in toluene became higher. SEM photographs confirm that, these compatibilizers improve the interfacial adhesion between NBR/SBR (50/50) blend which induce compatibilization in the immiscible blends. The efficiency of the compatibilizer was also evaluated by studying the thermogravimetric analysis.

  14. A comparison between the effects of gamma radiation and sulfur cure system on the microstructure and crosslink network of (styrene butadiene rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer) blends in presence of nanoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoushtari Zadeh Naseri, Aida; Jalali-Arani, Azam

    2015-10-01

    Rubber blends based on (styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)) with and without organoclay (OC) were prepared through a melt mixing process. The concentration ratio of the rubber phases (EPDM/SBR; 50/50 wt%) and the amount of the OC were kept constant. The samples were then vulcanized by means of gamma radiation using a Co-60 gamma source as well as sulfur cure system. The effect of absorbed dose on the formation of the crosslinks was confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of absorbed dose, sulfur cure system and OC on the gel content, and crosslink density were evaluated by the chemical tests. Applying the Charlesby-Pinner equation to estimate the radiation chemical yield, revealed that the use of OC in the blend caused 20% reduction in the degradation/crosslinking ratio. Employing the swelling test data, some thermodynamic parameters were determined. Using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to investigate microstructure of the samples revealed a more homogeneous structure and also an increase in compatibility of the blend components in the sample cured by the irradiation in comparison to that cured by the sulfur curing system.

  15. Effects of interfacial interaction on the properties of poly(vinyl chloride)/styrene-butadiene rubber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuihan

    PVC/SBR blends---new thermoplastic elastomer material---were developed. They have potential applications due to low costs and low-temperature elasticity. A unique compatibilization method was employed to enhance the mechanical properties of the materials a compatibilizer miscible with one of the blend components can react chemically with the other component(s). Improvements in tensile and impact behavior were observed as a result of the compatibilization. A novel characterization technique to study the interface of PVC/SBR blends was developed. This technique involves the observation of the unstained sample under electron beam irradiation by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). An enrichment of rubber at the interface between PVC and SBR was detected in the compatiblized PVC/SBR blends. Magnetic relaxation measurements show that the rubber concentration in the proximity of PVC increases with the degree of covulcanization between NBR and SBR. The interface development and the rheological effect during processing were investigated. The interfacial concentration profile and the interfacial thickness were obtained by grayscale measurements on TEM micrographs, evaluation of SIMS images, and measurements of micromechanical properties.

  16. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  17. 40 CFR 63.500 - Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-end process provisions-carbon disulfide limitations for styrene butadiene rubber by emulsion processes. 63.500 Section 63.500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR...

  18. Development of compatibilized SBR and EPR nanocomposites containing dual filler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekar, R.; Nayak, G.C.; Malas, A.; Das, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoclay is dispersed in non-polar rubbers by utilizing a polar compatibilizer. ► Effect of dual fillers [nanoclay and carbon black] on the rubber properties. ► Comparison of the results of single and dual filler containing rubber compounds. -- Abstract: The study described in this paper is an analysis of the role of a compatibilizer for dispersing organically modified nanoclay in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) matrices. The normal mixing of non-polar rubbers and organically modified nanoclay may not lead to improved distribution of the nanofiller in the rubbery matrix. Hence, a polar rubber such as epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) can be used as a compatibilizer for dispersing nanoclay in the non-polar rubber matrices. ENR–organically modified nanoclay composites (EC) were prepared by solution mixing. The nanoclay used in this study is Cloisite 20A. The obtained ENR–nanoclay composites were incorporated in SBR and EPR matrices along with carbon black. The morphological studies proved the intercalation of nanoclay platelets in ENR and further incorporation of EC in SBR and EPR matrices leads to partial exfoliation of nanoclay platelets. A curing study demonstrated faster scorch time, cure time and increased maximum torque for the compatibilized SBR and EPR nanocomposites containing a dual filler system compared to the control. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed increase in storage modulus for the SBR and EPR compounds containing dual fillers compared to rubber compounds containing pure and single filler. The same compounds show substantial improvement in mechanical properties. The tensile fractured surface of the rubber compounds containing single and dual filler observed by scanning electron microscopy, (SEM) showed highly rough and irregular fracture paths, which proved the physical interaction between filler and rubber.

  19. Microstructure evolution and tribological properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber surface modified by atmospheric plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming-xue; Zhang, Zhao-xiang; Peng, Xu-dong; Lin, Xiu-zhou

    2017-09-01

    For the purpose of prolonging the service life for rubber sealing elements, the frictional behavior of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) surface by dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatments was investigated in this paper. Surface microstructure and chemical composition were measured by atomic force microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Water contact angles of the modified rubber surface were also measured to evaluate the correlation between surface wettability and tribological properties. The results show that plasma treatments can improve the properties of the NBR against friction and wear effectively, the surface microstructure and roughness of plasma-modified NBR surface had an important influence on the surface tribological behavior, and the wear depth first decreased and then increased along with the change of plasma treatment time. It was found that the wettability of the modified surface was gradually improved, which was mainly due to the change of the chemical composition after the treatment. This study suggests that the plasma treatment could effectively improve the tribological properties of the NBR surface, and also provides information for developing wear-resistant NBR for industrial applications.

  20. Determination of Crosslink Concentration by Mooney-Rivlin Equation for Vulcanized NR/ SBR Blend and its Influence on Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreen Izzati Dzulkifli; Che Mohd Som Said; Han, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crosslink concentration is an important property affecting the major characteristic of cured rubber. The crosslink concentration was determined using Mooney-Rivlin equation due to its simple and reliable method. Cured natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber blend (NR/SBR) with different crosslink concentrations were obtained with different blend ratios of 100/0, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 0/100. The crosslink concentrations were determined using Mooney-Rivlin Equation and its influence on International Rubber Hardness Tester (IRHD), tensile strength and rebound resilience of NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates was investigated. The results showed different blend ratios had an influence on the crosslink concentration of the NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates. Obtained data showed that high NR content in NR/ SBR blend increased the crosslink concentration. The highest crosslink concentration recorded was for 100/0 blend ratio which was 0.0498 mol kg"-"1 RH while the lowest was 0.0295 mol kg"-"1 RH for 0/100 blend ratio. The study on the influence of crosslink concentration on IRHD, tensile strength and rebound resilience of NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates showed that the mechanical properties increased linearly with the crosslink concentration. High NR content in NR/ SBR blends resulted in higher crosslink concentration which improved the performance of mechanical properties for NR/ SBR blend. (author)

  1. Experimental study on behaviors of dielectric elastomer based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kuangjun; Chuc, Nguyen Huu; Kwon, Hyeok Yong; Phuc, Vuong Hong; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Youngkwan; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol

    2010-04-01

    Previously, the dielectric elastomer based on Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), called synthetic elastomer has been reported by our group. It has the advantages that its characteristics can be modified according to the requirements of performances, and thus, it is applicable to a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we address the effects of additives and vulcanization conditions on the overall performance of synthetic elastomer. In the present work, factors to have effects on the performances are extracted, e.g additives such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP), barium titanium dioxide (BaTiO3) and vulcanization conditions such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP), cross-linking times. Also, it is described how the performances can be optimized by using DOE (Design of Experiments) technique and experimental results are analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of variance).

  2. Prediction of the lifetime of nitrile-butadiene rubber by FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Toshio

    2005-12-01

    A quantitative measurement method with FT-IR was proposed for a thermal degradation analysis of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR). An NBR film was prepared as a model sample on a barium fluoride (BaF2) crystal plate, which was subjected to a heat treatment. The absorbances of various functional groups were measured directly by FT-IR after thermal degradation at high temperatures. By measuring the absorbances, it was possible to readily determine quantitatively each of the functional groups after the degradation of NBR. By assuming that the NBR lifetime was the point at which the absorbance of a carbon-carbon double bond reaches 45% of that prior to thermal treatment, a method for predicting the lifetime of NBR heated below 150 degrees C was proposed, by using an Arrhenius plot of the heating time versus heating temperature.

  3. Optimization of mechanical performance of oxidative nano-particle electrode nitrile butadiene rubber conducting polymer actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Chul; Park, S J; Cho, M S; Lee, Y; Nam, J D; Choi, H R; Koo, J C

    2009-12-01

    Present work delivers a systematical evaluation of actuation efficiency of a nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator fabricated based on Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Attempts are made for maximizing mechanical functionality of the nano-particle electrode conducting polymer actuator that can be driven in the air. As the conducting polymer polypyrrole of the actuator is to be fabricated through a chemical oxidation polymerization process that may impose certain limitations on both electrical and mechanical functionality of the actuator, a coordinated study for optimization process of the actuator is necessary for maximizing its performance. In this article actuation behaviors of the nano-particle electrode polypyrrole conducting polymer is studied and an optimization process for the mechanical performance maximization is performed.

  4. Stretchable Fluorescent Polyfluorene/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber Blend Electrospun Fibers through Physical Interaction and Geometrical Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ching; Chen, Jung-Yao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Bera, Debaditya; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-03-01

    Stretchable light-emitting polymers are important for wearable electronics; however, the development of intrinsic stretchable light-emitting materials with great performance under large applied strain is the most critical challenge. Herein, this study demonstrates the fabrication of stretchable fluorescent poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)]/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PFN/NBR) blend nanofibers using the uniaxial electrospinning technique. The physical interaction of PFN with NBR and the geometrical confinement of nanofibers are employed to reduce PFN aggregation, leading to the high photoluminescence quantum yield of 35.7%. Such fiber mat film shows stable blue emission at the 50% strain for 200 stretching/release cycles, which has potential applications in smart textiles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Tensile, swelling and morphological properties of bentonite-filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Muhamad Nadhli Amin; Ismail, Hanafi; Othman, Nadras

    2017-10-01

    Tensile, swelling and morphological properties of bentonite filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/Bt) composites were studied. The experiments were conducted at room temperature by using two rolled mill, universal testing machine (INSTRON), and American Standard Testing Method (ASTM) D471 for compounding, tensile testing, and swelling test, respectively. Results obtained indicated that a better tensile strength, elongation at break and tensile modulus were recorded as compared to the pure NBR particularly up to 90 phr of Bt loading. However, swelling (%) exhibited the opposite trend where the liquid uptake by the composites was indirectly proportional with the increasing of Bt loading. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used on the tensile fractured surface of the NBR/Bt composites have shown that the fillers were well embedded in the NBR matrix, for Bt loading up to 90 phr. The agglomeration of fillers occurred for Bt loading exceeding 90 phr.

  6. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves.

  7. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  8. Investigation of friction in rectangular Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR) hydraulic rod seals for defence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaumik, Shankar; Guruprasad, S.; Bhandari, P. [R and DE , Dighi (India); Kumaraswamy, A. [Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Girinagar (India)

    2015-11-15

    Contact based FE simulations have been carried out to estimate the contact pressure distribution at seal/rod interface at sealed oil pressures of 10, 20 and 30 MPa and constant rod velocity of 0.12 m/s. Oil film thickness at the interface was then computed analytically at various combinations of oil pressures and rod velocities. Seal contact pressure and oil film thickness data along with surface roughness, intermolecular interaction between seal/rod interfaces has been perused to estimate the friction in Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR) rectangular hydraulic rod seals using theoretical models such as Inverse hydrodynamic lubrication (IHL), Greenwood-Williamson (GW) and Wassink's models. The friction at seal/rod interface was also measured experimentally using a specially designed test rig. The comparison of theoretical and experimental data revealed that, friction computed from GW and Wassink's models had good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Synthesis of styrene/isoprene/butadiene integrated rubber with wide glass transition temperature by reactive extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianhua; Zheng, Anna; Zhan, Pengfei; Shi, Han; Li, Xiang; Guan, Yong; Wei, Dafu

    2018-05-01

    In this work, styrene/isoprene/butadiene integrated rubber (SIBR) was synthesized with n-butyllithium as the initiator and tetrahydrofuran as structure modifier in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. The content of diene in these terpolymers reached a surprising 70 wt% by feeding the monomers in two different sites of the twin-screw extruder. 1H-NMR, GPC and TEM results showed that the molecular structures of terpolymers changed with the variation of feeding site. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the vulcanized SIBR showed that the terpolymer had a wide glass transition region, which assured an excellent combination of high antiskid properties and low rolling resistance. Different from traditional solution polymerization, the present work provides a green approach to prepare the SIBR via bulk polymerization without solvent.

  10. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Prepared via Living/Controlled Radical Polymerization (RAFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Brandau, Sven; Klimpel, Michael; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2010-09-15

    In the current work we present results on the controlled/living radical copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and 1,3-butadiene (BD) via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization techniques. For the first time, a solution polymerization process for the synthesis of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) via the use of dithioacetate and trithiocarbonate RAFT agents is described. It is demonstrated that the number average molar mass, $\\overline M _{\\rm n} $, of the NBR can be varied between a few thousand and 60 000 g · mol(-1) with polydispersities between 1.2 and 2.0 (depending on the monomer to polymer conversion). Excellent agreement between the experimentally observed and the theoretically expected molar masses is found. Detailed information on the structure of the synthesized polymers is obtained by variable analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Natural Rubber Modification For Upper Layer Of Rubberized Asphalt Paving Block AS Shock Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin, Nasruddin

    2017-01-01

    The research of rubber compounding modification for upper layer of rubberized asphalt paving block as shock absorber using natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as synthetic rubber, fly ash as filler and also vegetable oil as plasticizer has been conducted. The research design was varying the filler Si-69, fly ash and palm oil. The five formulas A, B, C, D, and E designed by varying the amount of Si-69 (48.5; 50.75; 53.00; 55.25; and 57.50) phr; coal fly ash (4.75, 7.00, 9.25, 11.50 ...

  12. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  13. Radiation vulcanization of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    An abstract of the radiation process of polymer materials and the polymer reaction by radiation is explained. Main radiation is 250 keV to 10 MeV of electron rays in the industry. Radiation cross-linked rubber has less the tensile strength than that by sulfur and organic peroxide crosslinking. The main origins of low tensile strength are caused by cut of backbone chain and ozone depend on radiation. Acceleration of crosslinking and short time of radiation are necessary to improve these defects. To accelerate crosslinking, we used crosslinking accelerators, for example, three poly-functional monomers (PFM). The maximum tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) not added crosslinking accelerators showed 3 MPa at 110 kGy, but SBR added A-TMMT (tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate) showed 5.5 MPa at 110 kGy. Radiation crosslinking of many kinds of rubber: isoprene (IR), SBR, CR, nitrile rubber (NBR), hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR), butyl rubber (IIR), chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR), EPM and TPE are explained. (S.Y.)

  14. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2015-11-01

    Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE) compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR) were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr) was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (M L) and maximum torque (M H) of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2) cure time (tc90), compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties.

  15. An investigation on chloroprene-compatibilized acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/high density polyethylene (NBR/HDPE compatibilized by Chloroprene rubber (CR were prepared. A fixed quantity of industrial waste such as marble waste (MW, 40 phr was also included. The effect of the blend ratio and CR on cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling properties of MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends was investigated. The results showed that the MW-filled NBR/HDPE blends revealed an increase in tensile strength, tear, modulus, hardness and cross-link density for increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The minimum torque (ML and maximum torque (MH of blends increased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE while scorch time (ts2 cure time (tc90, compression set and abrasion loss of blends decreased with increasing weight ratio of HDPE. The blends also showed a continuous reduction in elongation at break as well as swelling coefficient with increasing HDPE amount in blends. MW filled blends based on CR provided the most encouraging balance values of overall properties.

  16. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Short Nylon Fiber Reinforced Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Mohseniyan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR composites are prepared from waste nylon 66 short fiber using a two-roll mill mixer. The effects of fiber content and bonding agent on the mechanical and morphological properties of the composites are studied. The curing characteristics of the composites have been studied by using cure rheometer. The cure and scorch time of the composites decrease while cure rate is increased when short fiber content is increased. The mechanical properties of the composites show improvement in both longitudinal and transverse directions with increase in short fiber content. The adhesion between the fiber and rubber is enhanced by using a dry bonding system consisting of resorcinol, xamethylenetetramine and hydrated silica (HRH. The swelling behavior of the composites in N,N-dimethylformamide is tested to find the effect of bonding agent on adhesion strength of the matrix and fibers. Fracture surface morphology of composites is studied by scanning electron microscopy. The restriction to swelling is higher for composites containing bonding agent, especially, in the longitudinal direction. The morphology of the fracture surface shows less fiber pull out when the bonding agent is introduced.

  17. The role of carbon nanotubes in promoting the properties of carbon black-filled natural rubber/butadiene rubber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshan Gao

    Full Text Available 80/20 natural rubber (NR/butadiene rubber (BR blends in which the carbon black (CB was replaced partially by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs according to the ratios m (CNTs: m (decreasing amount of CB = 1: X (X was varied from 1 to 6, was prepared by blending of internal mixer and the two-roll mill at the mill opening of 0.5 mm for 10 times. SEM and TEM were used to investigate the filler networks and the good dispersion of fillers. The compounds containing 5 phr CNTs/27.5 phr CB exhibited the best abrasion resistance which was increased by 12.69% compared that without CNTs. 3D morphology images of wear surfaces and tensile fracture surfaces being similar to the layered map of the geography, which match the abrasion resistance and tensile properties, were observed by 3D measuring laser microscope. The uncured blend with 5 phr CNTs/35 phr CB showed the shortest cure time, the highest modulus and level of crosslink density. Significant improvement in mechanical properties were achieved by incorporating 5 phr CNTs and 35 phr CB, and the tear strength, 100% and 300% modulus of the vulcanizate were enhanced by 36.36%, 61.29% and 31.63% compared with the composite with 0 phr CNTs/40 phr CB, respectively. Additionally, compared with the composite without CNTs, the thermal conductivity of the composites with 5 phr CNTs/35 phr CB is increased by an average of 6.15% at three different temperatures. These considerable reinforcements resulted from the synergistic effect of CNTs and CB. Keywords: Synergistic effect, Carbon nanotubes, DIN abrasion, Mechanical properties, Thermal conductivity, 3D measuring laser microscope

  18. Bonding properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber with polyamide mediated by a functional layer of silane coupling agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, J.; Aisawa, S.; Hirahara, H.; Mori, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study demonstrates that coating layers, expected to be formed as self-assembled monolayers, of silane coupling agents can act as adhesion layers as the hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and polyamide (PA6) plate interfaces. The resulting PA6/HNBR joints showed excellent adhesion properties with cohesive failure and the interfaces were jointed through chemical bonds, which were confirmed by swelling tests. The surfaces and bonding properties of rubber and PA6 were studied by means of peel tests, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nanoscale infrared microscopy and chemical imaging (AFM-IR). (authors)

  19. Various ways to reduce zinc oxide levels in S-SBR rubber compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, G.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Datta, Rabin; van Baarle, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Because of environmental concerns, the zinc content in rubber compounds has come under scrutiny. The research described in this article encompasses zinc-oxide, various zinc-complexes and alternative metal oxides as activators for sulphur vulcanisation. Regarding zinc complexes, it can be concluded

  20. Effect of organo clay on curing, mechanical and dielectric properties of NR/SBR blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, K.; Joseph, Reji; Ravichandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based elastomeric blends reinforced with organically modified Sodium bentonite clay were prepared by two roll mills. Vulcanization parameters such as minimum and maximum torque values scorch and cure times are measured by Oscillating Disc Rheometer. Mechanical properties such as Tensile strength, modulus at 100%, 200% and 300% elongation and elongation at break and Hardness were measured by Universal testing machine and Durometer Shore A hardness meter respectively. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (ε’), dissipation factor (tanδ) and volume resistivity (ρv) were measured at room temperature. The curing studies show that torque values are increasing in NR/SBR blends by increase NR content. The scorch and optimum cure time in NR/SBR blends reinforced organo modified clay was found through increase in the SBR content. This may be due to better processing safety of the NR/SBR blends reinforced with organo modified clay. Mechanical properties show that addition of SBR in blends, tensile strength, elongation modulus increases, but 100% modulus slightly increases and no change was observed in Hardness. Dielectric studies show that dielectric constant of NR and SBR rubbers are almost same, it may due to their non-polar nature. But addition of SBR in NR/SBR blend, dielectric constant gradually increases and maximum value observed at 50/50 ratio. But no considerable change was observed in dissipation factor. Frequency dependant resistivity shows that volume resistivity was not changed with respect to frequency up to 3.5 kHz and beyond that the frequency dependence resistivity was found.

  1. Hyundai plans rubber unit despite overcapacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyoungjin Kim.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the oversupply of synthetic rubber in South Korea, the government has granted approval to Hyundai Petrochemical (Seoul) to build the country's second synthetic rubber unit, to be located alongside its petrochemical complex at Daesan. The plant is due for startup during second-half 1995, when the local market is expected to be in better balance. Hyundai will use Goodyear Tire ampersand Rubber technology for the plant, which will have annual capacities for 40,000 m.t. of polybutadiene rubber (BR), 30,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and 12,000 m.t. of nitrile rubber (NBR). Styrene and butadiene requirements will be met from Hyundai's own production at Daesan. The current local producer of synthetic rubber is Korea Kumho Petrochemicals (Seoul), which has annual capacities for 150,000 m.t. of SBR, 95,000 m.t. of BR, and 10,000 m.t. of NBR. Korean SBR demand is about 141,000 m.t./year but is expected to increase to 161,000 m.t./year by 1996 and reach 194,000 m.t./year by the end of the decade

  2. Research of operational properties of compound based on high viscosity styrene-butadiene rubber SSBR-2560 TDAE HV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Falyakhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consider the influence of replacement of SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production on high viscosity SSBR-2560-TDAE HV in the tread recipe on the tire performance properties. Obtained samples were highly viscosity styrene butadiene rubber did not differ in the microstructure of the SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production. Increasing the molecular weight possible to increase the Mooney viscosity of the rubber, however, is known to one of adverse factors is the deterioration of processability of rubber compounds based on polymers. In this connection, investigated the behavior in the step mixing compound based on high viscosity SSBR rubber. We chose recipes tread of the tire with a high content of organic silicon filler. It is established that the equivalent replacement of the polymer in the tread recipe does not lead to significant changes in the basic parameters of rubber mixing. We observed a slight increase in the energy consumption for the preparation of the rubber compounds, as well as the discharge temperature at each stage. It was shown to improve the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix for the compound based on SSBR-2560 TDAE HV. The results showed that compound based on high viscosity SSBR improves rolling resistance and traction characteristics, while maintaining abrasion in comparison with the SSBR-2560-M27 batch production. Recommended use this brand in the production of rubber car tires.

  3. Mechanical and tribological properties of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber filled with graphite and carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei Lei; Zhang, Li Qun; Tian, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graphite/carbon black/rubber micro- and nano-composites were prepared. ► Nanocomposites showed better mechanical properties and wear resistance. ► The effect of load and sliding speed on friction and wear is significant. ► Graphite lubricant film can reduce friction coefficient and wear rate. -- Abstract: In this work, acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (NBR)/expanded graphite (EG)/carbon black (CB) micro- and nanocomposites were prepared by two different methods, and the resulting mechanical and tribological properties were compared with those of NBR/CB composites. Meanwhile, the effects of graphite dispersion and loading content, as well as the applied load and sliding velocity on the tribological behavior of the above composites under dry friction condition were also evaluated. The worn surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to disclose wear mechanism. As expected, the better the dispersion of graphite, the more remarkable enhancement on tensile and dynamic mechanical properties, and the greater reduction in the coefficient of friction (COF) and specific wear rate (W s ). It was found that a small amount of EG could effectively decrease COF and W s of NBR/CB composites because of the formation of graphite lubricant films. The COF and W s of NBR/CB/EG composites show a decreasing trend with a rise in applied load and sliding velocity. NBR/CB/EG nanocomposite always shows a stable wearing process with relatively low COF and W s . It is thought that well-dispersed graphite nano-sheets were beneficial to the formation of a fine and durable lubricant film.

  4. Latex stage blending of multiwalled carbon nanotube in carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber: Mechanical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preetha Nair, K.; Thomas, Paulbert; Joseph, Rani

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MWCNT can act as a reinforcing filler in XNBR at very low concentration. ► SEM and XRD analysis confirm uniform distribution of nanotube in the matrix. ► Mechanical properties showed considerable improvement. ► Thermal stability of the composite is marginally improved. -- Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was dispersed in sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) by sonication. The dispersed MWCNT (0.05–0.3 gm) was incorporated in carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of these composites were studied. Mechanical properties of the composites increased up to an optimum concentration and then decreased. Dielectric properties of the composites were studied in the S band (frequency range 2–4 GHz) by Cavity Perturbation method. Direct current (DC) electrical conductivity shows a percolation behaviour and conductivity increased by about 10 orders of magnitude. Thermal studies were conducted using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). As expected with the very small concentration of multiwalled carbon nanotube, glass transition temperature (T g ) and thermal stability of the composite showed a marginal increase. Composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis.

  5. Influence Of Gamma Irradiation On Mechanical And Thermal Properties Of Waste Polyethylene / Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma irradiation radical-radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free and simple. In this study, a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma rays then mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behaviour by toluene solvent to emphasize the blend formation. The mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of non-irradiated ones. A relatively low radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≅ 50 kGy

  6. Effect of Graphene Oxide on Anti-aging Property of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The blends with higher damping performance was prepared based on nitrile butadiene rubber(NBR with addition of graphene oxide(GO and modified graphene oxide(MGO prepared by improved Hammer method. Meanwhile, the damping property and the anti-aging property of the blends were investigated by DMA, AFM, SEM and so forth. The results show that after the addition of the GO and MGO, the tangent of loss angle(tanδ increases and also the anti-aging property is improved. When adding less amount of GO in the matrix, the anti-aging property is better; when adding MGO in the matrix, the amount of addition is not obviously related with the anti-aging property of the blends. The dispersion of GO and MGO has positive correlation with its anti-aging property. By microscopic analysis, the main reason for the decrease of anti-aging property of the blends is the agglomeration of the GO. The interface effect formed by the addition of MGO and GO is the main reason for its high damping property and anti-aging property.

  7. Nanocomposites prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and organically modified montmorillonite with vinyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mijeong; Kim, Hoonjung; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposites were prepared from acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), vinyl groups containing organically modified montmorillonite and additives, such as zinc oxide, stearic acid, and sulfur. The organically modified montmorillonites used in these nanocomposites were prepared by ion exchange reactions of N,N'-dimethylalkyl-(p-vinylbenzyl)-ammonium chlorides (DAVBAs, alkyl = octyl, dodecyl, and octadecyl) with sodium montmorillonite (Na+-MMT). NBR nanocomposites were obtained by controlling both the mixing and vulcanization conditions, by using a Brabender mixer and hot-press process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that, depending on the amount of montmorillonite that is added, both exfoliated and intercalated nanocomposite structures are formed. The NBR/DAVBA-MMT nanocomposites exhibit much higher mechanical properties (e.g., tensile strength, Young's modulus, 300% modulus, and hardness) as well as gas barrier properties as compared to NBR Na+-MMT or NBR composites generated from modified montmorillonites without vinyl groups. Consistent with the results of XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the intercalation and exfoliation structures of the nanocomposites coexist and that the DAVBA-MMT layers are well dispersed in NBR.

  8. Predicting the solubility of gases in Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in extreme conditions using molecular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Musab; Molinari, Nicola; Sutton, Adrian; Mostofi, Arash

    In the oil and gas industry, elastomer seals play an important role in protecting sensitive monitoring equipment from contamination by gases - a problem that is exacerbated by the high pressures and temperatures found down-hole. The ability to predict and prevent such permeative failure has proved elusive to-date. Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a common choice of elastomer for seals due to its resistance to heat and fuels. In the conditions found in the well it readily absorbs small molecular weight gases. How this behaviour changes quantitatively for different gases as a function of temperature and pressure is not well-understood. In this work a series of fully atomistic simulations are performed to understand the effect of extreme conditions on gas solubility in NBR. Widom particle insertion is used to compute solubilities. The importance of sampling and allowing structural relaxation upon compression are highlighted, and qualitatively reasonable trends reproduced. Finally, while at STP it has previously been shown that the solubility of CO2 is higher than that of He in NBR, we observe that under the right circumstances it is possible to reverse this trend.

  9. Advanced Booster Composite Case/Polybenzimidazole Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Insulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steve; Taylor, Robert; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to examine processing sensitivities (e.g., cure temperature control/variance, debonds, density variations) of polybenzimidazole nitrile butadiene rubber (PBI-NBR) insulation, case fiber, and resin systems and to evaluate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and damage tolerance methods/models required to support human-rated composite motor cases. The proposed use of composite motor cases in Blocks IA and II was expected to increase performance capability through optimizing operating pressure and increasing propellant mass fraction. This assessment was to support the evaluation of risk reduction for large booster component development/fabrication, NDE of low mass-to-strength ratio material structures, and solid booster propellant formulation as requested in the Space Launch System NASA Research Announcement for Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction. Composite case materials and high-energy propellants represent an enabling capability in the Agency's ability to provide affordable, high-performing advanced booster concepts. The NESC team was requested to provide an assessment of co- and multiple-cure processing of composite case and PBI-NBR insulation materials and evaluation of high-energy propellant formulations.

  10. Novel blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and polyurethane-silica hybrid networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. P. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel blends of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR and polyurethane-silica (PU-SiO2 hybrid networks have been prepared by melt blending. The PU-SiO2 hybrid networks were formed via the reaction of NCO groups of NCO-terminated PU prepolymer and OH groups of SiO2 in the absence of an external crosslinking agent (i.e. alcohols and amines during the curing process of NBR. Both in the neat PU-SiO2 system and the NBR/(PU-SiO2 system, the NCO-terminated PU prepolymer could be crosslinked by SiO2 to form PU-SiO2 hybrid networks. The effects of PU-SiO2 introduction into the NBR, on the properties of the resulting blends were studied. It was found that the vulcanization was activated by the incorporation of PU-SiO2. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM studies indicated that the interpenetration and entanglement structures between NBR and PU-SiO2 increased with increasing PU-SiO2 content and the quasi-interpenetrating polymer networks (quasi-IPN structures were formed when the PU-SiO2 was 50 wt% in the NBR/(PU-SiO2 systems. The microstructures formed in the blends led to good compatibility between NBR and PU-SiO2 and significantly improved the mechanical properties, abrasion resistance and flex-fatigue life of the blends.

  11. Tribological properties and morphology of bimodal elastomeric nitrile butadiene rubber networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yin; Wang, Jiaxu; Li, Kang; Ding, Xingwu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bimodal elastomeric NBR as a new material was developed. • The structure of bimodal elastomeric NBR networks was determined. • The relationship between structure and mechanical properties was investigated. • The tribological properties and mechanisms of bimodal NBR were analyzed. • The benefits of bimodal NBR in the field of tribology were discussed. - Abstract: Bimodal nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was examined in this study. The molecular structure was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The relationship between the structure and the mechanical properties related to elastomeric tribological properties was investigated. The properties and the mechanisms of friction and wear of bimodal elastomeric NBR networks were also analyzed. The lubricating characteristics of bimodal NBR networks were revealed based on the mechanisms of friction and wear. Results show that bimodal NBR networks are similar to bimodal polydimethylsiloxane networks. The form and density of the network structure can be controlled from elastomeric networks to thermosetting resin networks. The mechanical properties of bimodal NBR networks, such as elasticity, elongation at break, fatigue characteristic, tensile strength, elastic modulus, and thermal stability can be precisely controlled following the variation in network structure. The friction, wear, and lubrication of bimodal NBR networks can be clearly described according to the principles of tribology. Common elastomers cannot simultaneously reduce friction and wear because of the different mechanisms of friction and wear; however, bimodal elastomer networks can efficiently address this problem

  12. Preparation and properties of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber/cellulose nanocrystals composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaodong; Xu, Chuanhui; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Yukun

    2013-01-30

    A series of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (XSBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) latex composites were successfully prepared. The vulcanization process, morphology, dynamic viscoelastic behavior, dynamic mechanical property, thermal and mechanical performance of the XSBR/CNs composites were investigated in detail. The results revealed that CNs were dispersed uniformly in the XSBR matrix and formed a strong filler-filler network. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of XSBR matrix was shifted from 48.45 to 50.64 °C with 3 phr CNs, but decreased from 50.64 to 46.28 °C when further increasing CNs content up to 15 phr. The composites exhibited a significant enhancement in tensile strength (from 16.9 to 24.1 MPa) and tear strength (from 43.5 to 65.2 MPa) with loading CNs from 0 to 15 phr. In addition, the thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the temperature at 5% weight loss of the XSBR/CNs composites decreased slightly with an increase of the CNs content. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elastomer Nanocomposites Based on Butadiene Rubber, Nanoclay and Epoxy-Polyester Hybrid: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Zoghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites based on butadiene rubber (BR, (0, 3, 5 and 7 phr organoclay (Cloisite 15A and (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 phr powder coating wastes, i.e., epoxypolyester hybrid (EPH were prepared using a laboratory-scale internal mixer in order to study the effect of organoclay and EPH content on the mechanical and morphological properties of the nanocomposite samples. Cure characteristics of the prepared compounds including optimum cure time (t90 and scorch time (t5 depicted a decrease in both mentioned factors with increasing nanoclay content and EPH loading.Intercalation of elastomer chains into the silicate layers was determined by d-spacing values calculated according to the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD results reveal the intercalation of elastomer chains into the clay galleries. This phenomenon was also confirmed according to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite samples which were observed to be improved with addition of nanoclay and EPH content.

  14. The Effect of Concentration of P-phenylenediamine Antioxidant on the Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber Seals under High Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazi, E.M.; Abd El-megeed, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Acrylonitrile- butadiene rubber (NBR) seals are one of the classified seals used in nuclear facilities. But at high irradiation doses the physical and mechanical properties of NBR are adversely affected due to the degradation induced by radiation and hence affect the sealing performance reducing their service life. The present work is focused on studying the effect of concentration of N-(1, 3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-p-phenylene diamine (6PPD) on the physical and mechanical properties of the NBR rubber at high doses of γ-irradiation up to 2 MGy. The physical properties, mechanical properties, hardness, and abrasion of the NBR rubber under γ-radiation were investigated. The optimum amount of 6PPD required to resist deterioration is also estimated. The results showed a remarkable increase in the physical and mechanical properties as the concentration of 6PPD was increased from 1 phr (part per hundred) to 3 phr in NBR samples

  15. Dielectric study of Poly(styrene- co -butadiene) Composites with Carbon Black, Silica, and Nanoclay

    KAUST Repository

    Vo, Loan T.

    2011-08-09

    Dielectric spectroscopy is used to measure polymer relaxation in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) composites. In addition to the bulk polymer relaxation, the SBR nanocomposites also exhibit a slower relaxation attributed to polymer relaxation at the polymer-nanoparticle interface. The glass transition temperature associated with the slower relaxation is used as a way to quantify the interaction strength between the polymer and the surface. Comparisons were made among composites containing nanoclay, silica, and carbon black. The interfacial relaxation glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites is more than 80 °C higher than the SBR bulk glass transition temperature. An interfacial mode was also observed for SBR-silica nanocomposites, but the interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-silica nanocomposite is somewhat lower than that of clay nanocomposites. An interfacial mode is also seen in the carbon black filled system, but the signal is too weak to analyze quantitatively. The interfacial polymer relaxation in SBR-clay nanocomposites is stronger compared to both SBR-carbon black and SBR-silica composites indicating a stronger interfacial interaction in the nanocomposites containing clay. These results are consistent with dynamic shear rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis measurements showing a more pronounced reinforcement for the clay nanocomposites. Comparisons were also made among clay nanocomposites using different SBRs of varying styrene concentration and architecture. The interfacial glass transition temperature of SBR-clay nanocomposites increases as the amount of styrene in SBR increases indicating that styrene interacts more strongly than butadiene with clay. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Effect of rubber polarity on selective wetting of carbon nanotubes in ternary blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Le

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the rubber-filler gel (wetting concept the kinetics of selective wetting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in ternary styrene butadiene rubber (SBR/butadiene rubber (BR/natural rubber (NR blends was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized. Almost all CNTs are found to be wetted by the non-polar NR but not by the other non-polar rubber like BR or weakly polar SBR. It was proposed that phospholipids, which are linked to the α-terminal of NR can interact with the CNT surface through cation-π interactions forming strong bonding between NR and CNTs. Using the corrected surface tension value of NR, which involves the effect of phospholipids found in our previous work the selective wetting of CNTs in ternary rubber blends can be well predicted using the Z-model for a thermodynamic equilibrium state. By replacing the non-polar BR by a polar rubber like nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR as a blend component CNTs are wetted by NBR slightly more than by NR thanks to the strong interaction between CNTs and nitrile groups of NBR. SBR remains unbound to CNTs in both blends.

  17. Evaluation of rubber composites as shielding materials against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites were prepared as γ-radiation shields.The composites were prepared with different concentration of red lead oxide (Pb 3 O 4 ) .The assessment of the linear attenuation coefficient of the SBR/lead oxide composites for γ -rays from 137 Cs 137 γ-radiation point source was studied . The factors affecting the mechanical properties and shielding capacity of the composites were also studied. These factors include the lead oxide concentration, the type of monomers added and the irradiation dose. The styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites can attain up to about 43% of the shielding capacity of pure lead. The incorporation of high concentrations of lead oxide and the effect of accumulative irradiation doses up to 3000 kGy on the physico-mechanical properties of the composites were studied . These led to hardening of the SBR rubber/lead oxide composites.

  18. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  19. Synergistic effect of plasma-modified halloysite nanotubes and carbon black in natural rubber-butadiene rubber blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated concerning their suitability for rubber reinforcement. As they have geometrical similarity with carbon nanotubes, they were expected to impart a significant reinforcement effect on the rubber compounds but the dispersion of the nanofillers is difficult.

  20. Friction and wear study of NR/SBR blends with Si3N4Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    GaneshKumar, A.; Balaganesan, G.; Sivakumar, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate mechanical and frictional properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) blends with and without silicon nitride (Si3N4) filler. The rubber is surface modified by silane coupling agent (Si-69) for enhancing hydrophobic property. The Si3N4of percentage 0 1, 3, 5 and 7, is incorporated into NR/SBR rubber compounds with 20% precipitated silica. The specimens with and without fillers are prepared as per standard for tensile and friction testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy test is conducted and it is inferred that the coupling agent is covalently bonded on the surface of Si3N4 particles and an organic coating layer is formed. The co-efficient of friction and specific wear rate of NR/SBR blends are examined using an in-house built friction tester in a disc-on-plate (DOP) configuration. The specimens are tested to find coefficient of friction (COF) against steel grip antiskid plate under dry, mud, wet and oil environmental conditions. It is found that the increase in tensile strength and modulus at low percentage of Si3N4 dispersion. It is also observed that increase in sliding friction co-efficient and decrease in wear rate for 1% of Si3N4 dispersion in NR/SBR blends. The friction tested surfaces are inspected using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 3D non contact surface profiler.

  1. Using heat-treated starch to modify the surface of biochar and improve the tensile properties of biochar-filled stryene-butadiene rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat-treated starch is a renewable material that can be used to modify the surface chemistry of small particles. In this work, heat-treated starch was used to coat hydrophilic biochar particles in order to make them more hydrophobic. Then when added as filler to hydrophobic styrene-butadiene rubber,...

  2. Damping of Mechanical Waves with Styrene/Butadiene Rubber Filled with Polystyrene Particle: Effects of Particles Size and Wave Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghgo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing polymeric materials for damping mechanical waves is of great importance in various fields of applications such as military camouflage, prevention of structural vibrational energy transfer, and noise attenuation. This ability originates from segmental dynamics of chain-like polymer molecules. Damping properties of styrene-butadiene rubbercontaining 10 wt% of monosize polystyrene particles with different diameters (from 80 nm to 500 μm was investigated in the frequency range of vibration, sound, and ultrasound via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, normalsound adsorption test, and ultrasound attenuation coefficient measurement. The obtained results indicated that for different systems, containing different sizes of polystyrene particles, the area under the damping curve does not show significant change comparing to the neat SBR in the frequency range studied. However, addition of polystyrene particles, specifically nanosized particles, resulted in emergence of a secondary glass transition temperature which could be attributed to the modified dynamics of a layer of matrix molecules near the surface of PS particles. In the range of sound frequency, 0.5 to 6.3 kHz, the maximum damping was observed for the system containing polystyrene nanoparticles. However the single damping curve of neat SBR was separated into two or even three distinct curves owing to the presence of the particles. The maximum damping in the ultrasound frequency range was found for the system containing 0.5 mm polystyrene particles. This is attributed to different contributions from matrix chains dynamics and the reflection of mechanical waves from particles-matrix interface at different frequency ranges. On other words, the increase in the glass transition temperature of the elastomeric matrix phase with increasing the mechanical wave frequency causes a reduction in the contribution from matrix chains dynamics while the contribution due to diffraction from dispersed

  3. Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene-styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Niftaliev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of asphaltic concrete with a mineral polymeric additive based on butadiene – styrene rubber and chemically precipitated calcium carbonate. This paper presents the results of the study of physical – mechanical and service properties of the asphaltic concrete modified with the mineral polymeric composition. Calcium carbonate is used both as a filler and a coagulant. The chalk was preliminarily ground and hydrophobizated by stearic acid. These operations contribute to even distribution of the filler and interfere with lump coagulation. As a result of the experiments, it was found that the best results were obtained by combining the operations of dispersion and hydrophobization. The optimal amount of stearic acid providing the finest grinding in a ball mill is a content from 3 to 5% by weight. The optimal grinding time of the filler was found (4–6 hours. With increasing dispersion time the particles form agglomerates. Filling the butadiene styrene latex with the hydrophobic fine-grained calcium carbonate was carried out in the laboratory mixer. As a result of the experimental works, it was found that the best distribution of the filler takes place with ratio of rubber: chalk – 100:400. The resulting modifier was subjected to the thermal analysis on the derivatograph to determine its application temperature interval. A marked reduction in weight of the mineral polymeric modifier begins at 350 °C. Thus, high temperature of the modifier destruction allows to use it at the temperature of the technological process of asphaltic concrete preparation (up to 170 °C. It was found that an increase in the amount of the carbonate filler in the rubber SKS 30АRК significantly increases its thermal resistance and connection of the polymer with the chalk in the composition.

  4. Reinforcing effect of plasma modified halloysite nanotubes in a carbon black filled natural rubber-butadien rubber matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    Rubber composites are generally produced by the direct incorporation of fillers like carbon black and/or silica into the rubber matrix. The incorporation of different types of nanofillers is the subject of recent research with the aim of preparing composites with special compositions and properties.

  5. Effect of concentration of polyfunctional monomers on physical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber under electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, T.; Ahmed, S.; Yoshii, F.; Makuuchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of concentration of different polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) on the physical properties of electron-beam irradiated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) has been investigated. The PFMs used were diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (2G), tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4G), trimethylol propane triacrylate (A-TMPT), trimethylol propane trimethacrylate (TMPT) and tetramethylol methane tetraacrylate (A-TMMT). The physical properties of EB irradiated NBR sheets were evaluated by measurement of tensile strength, elongation %, hardness and gel fraction etc. The results show a remarkable increase in all physical properties as the concentration of PFMs increases from 1 phr to 5 phr in the NBR samples. The improvement in physical properties of radiation crosslinked NBR in the presence of PFMs may be attributed to its increased crosslinking density as observed by corresponding increase in gel content

  6. Effect of concentration of polyfunctional monomers on physical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber under electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Tariq; Ahmed, Shamshad; Ahmed, Munir; Yoshii, Fumio

    2005-06-01

    An investigation has been undertaken to find out the effect of concentration of different polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) on the physical properties of the acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) crosslinked by electron beam (EB). The PFMs used were diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, trimethylol propane trimethacrylate and trimethylol propane triacrylate. The physical properties of EB-irradiated NBR sheets were evaluated by measuring the tensile strength, elongation percent at break, hardness and gel fraction. The results showed a remarkable increase in tensile strength, hardness and gel fraction as the concentration of PFMs was increased from 1 part per hundred (phr) to 5 phr in the NBR samples whereas elongation percent decreased in a steady manner. The improvement in physical properties of radiation crosslinked NBR in the presence of PFMs may be attributed to its increased crosslinking density as observed by the corresponding increase in gel content.

  7. Effect of concentration of polyfunctional monomers on physical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber under electron-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasin, Tariq [Polymer Processing and Radiation Technology Laboratory, Applied Chemistry Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: yasintariq@yahoo.com; Ahmed, Shamshad [Polymer Processing and Radiation Technology Laboratory, Applied Chemistry Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Munir [Polymer Processing and Radiation Technology Laboratory, Applied Chemistry Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Yoshii, Fumio [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, JAERI, Takasaki, Gunma-Ken 370-12 (Japan)

    2005-06-01

    An investigation has been undertaken to find out the effect of concentration of different polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) on the physical properties of the acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) crosslinked by electron beam (EB). The PFMs used were diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, trimethylol propane trimethacrylate and trimethylol propane triacrylate. The physical properties of EB-irradiated NBR sheets were evaluated by measuring the tensile strength, elongation percent at break, hardness and gel fraction. The results showed a remarkable increase in tensile strength, hardness and gel fraction as the concentration of PFMs was increased from 1 part per hundred (phr) to 5 phr in the NBR samples whereas elongation percent decreased in a steady manner. The improvement in physical properties of radiation crosslinked NBR in the presence of PFMs may be attributed to its increased crosslinking density as observed by the corresponding increase in gel content.

  8. Effect of Silane Coupling Agent on the Creep Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fibers/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woong-Ki; Park, Gil-Young; Kim, Byoung-Shuk; Seo, Min-Kang

    2018-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of the silane coupling agent on the relationship between the surface free energy of carbon fibers (CFs) and the mechanical strength of CFs/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) composites. Moreover, the creep behavior of the CF/NBR composites at surface energetic point of view were studied. The specific component of the surface free energy of the carbon fibers was found to increase upon grafting of the silane coupling agent, resulting in an increase in the tensile strength of the CF/NBR composites. On the other hand, the compressive creep strength was found to follow a slightly different trend. These results indicate the possible formation of a complex interpenetrating polymer network depending on the molecular size of the organic functional groups of the silane coupling agent.

  9. Effect of concentration of polyfunctional monomers on physical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber under electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, Tariq; Ahmed, Shamshad; Ahmed, Munir; Yoshii, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    An investigation has been undertaken to find out the effect of concentration of different polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) on the physical properties of the acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) crosslinked by electron beam (EB). The PFMs used were diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, trimethylol propane trimethacrylate and trimethylol propane triacrylate. The physical properties of EB-irradiated NBR sheets were evaluated by measuring the tensile strength, elongation percent at break, hardness and gel fraction. The results showed a remarkable increase in tensile strength, hardness and gel fraction as the concentration of PFMs was increased from 1 part per hundred (phr) to 5 phr in the NBR samples whereas elongation percent decreased in a steady manner. The improvement in physical properties of radiation crosslinked NBR in the presence of PFMs may be attributed to its increased crosslinking density as observed by the corresponding increase in gel content

  10. Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber-Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Zhijie; Zhang, Fuqing; You, Feng; Yao, Chu

    2018-03-22

    Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation.

  11. Effect of nano-scaled styrene butadiene rubber based nucleating agent on the thermal, crystallization and physical properties of isotactic polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petchwattana, Nawadon [Division of Polymer Materials Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Product Innovation and Technology, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Wattana, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Covavisaruch, Sirijutaratana, E-mail: sirijutaratana.c@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sripanya, Panjapong [Thai Oleochemicals Company Limited (A Subsidiary of PTT Global Chemical Public Company Limited), Mueang Rayong, Rayong 21150 (Thailand)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The effect of a SBR based β-NA on the properties iPP was investigated. • The addition of β-NA led to higher population of nuclei and smaller spherulites. • β to α phase transformation was observed when re-extrusion process was applied. • Impact strength was increased when the β-NA was added from 0.10 to 0.20 wt%. -- Abstract: The influence of a specific nano-scaled styrene butadiene rubber based β-nucleating agent (β-NA) on the properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated in the current research. β-NA was applied at the concentration ranged from 0.05 to 0.50 wt%. Microscopic observation revealed that the neat iPP crystals grew very slowly; they ranged in size from 100 to 200 μm. The addition of β-NA led to higher population of nuclei and smaller spherulites than those found in neat iPP. The addition of only 0.05 wt% β-NA significantly decreased the sizes of the spherulites down to 5 μm; the crystal grew very rapidly, leading to extremely fine morphology. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that iPP/β-NA constituted mainly of β-crystal structure. The transformation of β to α phase was observed upon re-extrusion, it was verified by the lowered fraction of the β-crystalline phase (K{sub β}) although the total degree of crystallinity remained unchanged. A significant improvement in the impact strength of the iPP/β-NA was observed when the β-NA was employed from 0.10 to 0.20 wt%, leading to the formation of tough β-crystals in the β-NA nucleated iPP. The color measurement implied that the iPP nucleated with β-NA was superior in terms of whiteness but it was less transparent, as was evident by the increased haze.

  12. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Polymeric materials do not decompose easily, disposal of waste polymers is a major environmental problem of global character. Recycling is an economical alternative and environmentally recommended for polymers consumed and discarded by society. As regards the rubber in object, its natural decomposition is much slower due to their highly crosslinked, in three-dimensional networks, structures which makes it an infusible and insoluble material. Moreover, these three dimensional structures entails several problems for their recovery and reprocessing. The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of NBR rubber recycle. It was used rubber powder from industry. The powder was irradiated in master-batch composition and used directly in classical formulations for rubber vulcanization. The master-batch processed was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in 60 Co source at 5 kGy s -1 rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites during devulcanization that promoted further integration of the rubber powder in formulations for commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength and elongation. The greatest change in the properties of polymeric materials by exposure to ionizing radiation resulted mainly of two main reactions occurring in the polymer molecule: chains scission (degradation) and crosslinking. Although these two processes occur simultaneously in all the polymers, the predominance of one or other effect depends mainly of the chemical structure of each polymer, and the irradiation conditions. In the results was observed the behavior of nitrile rubber under different doses and radiation improvement of the mechanical properties. (author)

  13. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente (CQMA)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Polymeric materials do not decompose easily, disposal of waste polymers is a major environmental problem of global character. Recycling is an economical alternative and environmentally recommended for polymers consumed and discarded by society. As regards the rubber in object, its natural decomposition is much slower due to their highly crosslinked, in three-dimensional networks, structures which makes it an infusible and insoluble material. Moreover, these three dimensional structures entails several problems for their recovery and reprocessing. The aim of this paper was to study the behavior of NBR rubber recycle. It was used rubber powder from industry. The powder was irradiated in master-batch composition and used directly in classical formulations for rubber vulcanization. The master-batch processed was irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150kGy in {sup 60}Co source at 5 kGy s{sup -1} rate, at room temperature. Gamma radiation created active sites during devulcanization that promoted further integration of the rubber powder in formulations for commercial use. The processes were compared and their products were characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as tensile strength and elongation. The greatest change in the properties of polymeric materials by exposure to ionizing radiation resulted mainly of two main reactions occurring in the polymer molecule: chains scission (degradation) and crosslinking. Although these two processes occur simultaneously in all the polymers, the predominance of one or other effect depends mainly of the chemical structure of each polymer, and the irradiation conditions. In the results was observed the behavior of nitrile rubber under different doses and radiation improvement of the mechanical properties. (author)

  14. Hybrid joining of polyamide and hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber through heat-resistant functional layer of silane coupling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jing; Sato, Riku; Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Mori, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    A simple, direct adhesion method was developed to join polyamide (PA6) to hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) by grafting a functional layer of a silane coupling agent on plasma functionalized PA6 surfaces. The functional layer of the silane coupling agent was prepared using a self-assembly method, which greatly improved the heat resistance of PA6 from 153 °C up to 325 °C and the resulting PA6/HNBR joints showed excellent adhesion properties with cohesive failure between PA6 and HNBR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nanoscale infrared microscopy and chemical imaging (Nano-IR, AFM-IR) were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The Nano-IR analysis method was employed for the first time to analyze the chemical structures of the adhesion interfaces between different materials and to establish the interface formation mechanism. This study is of significant value for interface research and the study of adhesion between resins and rubbers. There is a promising future for heat-resistant functional layers on resin surfaces, with potential application in fuel hose composite materials for the automotive and aeronautical industries.

  15. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Neha, E-mail: neha87bhu@gmail.com [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E. [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS{sub 2} and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS{sub 2} and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  16. Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuga, M; Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2002-11-01

    In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves into n-heptane were detected by GC/MS. In this paper, six unknown compounds were obtained from one kind of NBR glove by n-hexane extraction and each was isolated by silica gel chromatography. From the results of NMR and mass spectral analysis of the six unknown compounds, their structures are proposed as 1,4-dione-2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)cyclohexadiene (1), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetra methylbutyl)phenol (2), 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (3), 2,4-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (4), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)4,6-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (5) and 2,4,6-tris(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (6). Compound 1 was observed in five of the seven kinds of NBR gloves, and compounds 2-4 and 6, which are not listed in Chemical Abstract (CA), were present in four kinds of gloves.

  17. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Neha; Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E.; Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS_2) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS_2 and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS_2 and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  18. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neha; Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E.

    2016-05-01

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS2) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS2 and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS2 and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  19. Transport properties of carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)-nanoclay composites; a promising material for protective gloves in occupational exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei Aliabadi, Mostafa; Naderi, Ghasem; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Forushani, Abbas Rahimi; Mohammadfam, Iraj; Jahangiri, Mehdi

    2014-02-28

    This study was conducted in response to one of the research needs of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), i.e. the application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in the field of occupational safety and health. In order to fill this important knowledge gap, the equilibrium solubility and diffusion of carbon tetrachloride and ethyl acetate through carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)-clay nanocomposite, as a promising new material for chemical protective gloves (or barrier against the transport of organic solvent contaminant), were examined by swelling procedure. Near Fickian diffusion was observed for XNBR based nanocomposites containing different amounts of nanoclay. Decontamination potential is a key factor in development of a new material for reusable chemical protective gloves applications, specifically for routine or highly toxic exposures. A thermal decontamination regime for nanocomposite was developed for the first time. Then, successive cycles of exposure/decontamination for nanocomposite were performed to the maximum 10 cycles for the first time. This result confirms that the two selected solvents cannot deteriorate the rubber-nanoclay interaction and, therefore, such gloves can be reusable after decontamination.

  20. The influence of carbon black on curing kinetics and thermal aging of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić; Gordana Marković; Milena Marinović-Cincović; Vojislav Jovanović; Suzana Samardžija-Jovanović

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers based on a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (NBR) have excellent oil resistance but are very sensitive for degradation at very high temperatures. The aim of this applicative contribution was to determine the effect of high abrasion furnace carbon black with primary particle size 46 nm on aging properties of elastomeric materials based on NBR as network precursor. The curing kinetics was determined using the rheometer with an oscillating disk, in which the network formation ...

  1. Aging-Resistant Functionalized LDH⁻SAS/Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber Composites: Preparation and Study of Aging Kinetics/Anti-Aging Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxiang; Shi, Zhengren; He, Xianru; Jiang, Ping; Lu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xin

    2018-05-18

    With the aim of improving the anti-aging properties of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), a functional organic filler, namely LDH⁻SAS, prepared by intercalating 4-amino-benzenesulfonic acid monosodium salt (SAS) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through anion exchange, was added to nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), giving the NBR/LDH⁻SAS composites. Successful preparation of LDH⁻SAS was confirmed by XRD, TGA and FTIR. LDH⁻SAS was well dispersed in the NBR matrix, owing to its strong interaction with the nitrile group of NBR. The obtained NBR/LDH⁻SAS composites exhibited excellent thermo-oxidative aging resistance as shown by TGA-DSC. Further investigation by ATR-FTIR indicated that SAS can capture the radical groups, even during the aging process, which largely accounts for the improved aging resistance.

  2. Aging-Resistant Functionalized LDH–SAS/Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber Composites: Preparation and Study of Aging Kinetics/Anti-Aging Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxiang; Shi, Zhengren; He, Xianru; Jiang, Ping; Lu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    With the aim of improving the anti-aging properties of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), a functional organic filler, namely LDH–SAS, prepared by intercalating 4-amino-benzenesulfonic acid monosodium salt (SAS) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) through anion exchange, was added to nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR), giving the NBR/LDH–SAS composites. Successful preparation of LDH–SAS was confirmed by XRD, TGA and FTIR. LDH–SAS was well dispersed in the NBR matrix, owing to its strong interaction with the nitrile group of NBR. The obtained NBR/LDH–SAS composites exhibited excellent thermo-oxidative aging resistance as shown by TGA-DSC. Further investigation by ATR-FTIR indicated that SAS can capture the radical groups, even during the aging process, which largely accounts for the improved aging resistance. PMID:29783656

  3. Effects of ageing conditions on degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber filled with heat-treated ZnO star-shaped particles in rapeseed biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaghi, Shahin; Pourrahimi, A. M.; Christian, Sjöstedt; Martin, Bellander; Mikael S., Hedenqvist; Ulf W., Gedde

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) after exposure to biodiesel at different oxygen partial pressures in an automated ageing equipment at 80 °C, and in a high-pressure autoclave at 150 °C was studied. The oxidation of biodiesel was promoted by an increase in oxygen concentration, resulting in a larger uptake of fuel in the rubber due to internal cavitation, a greater decrease in the strain-at-break of NBR due to the coalescence of cavity, and a faster increase in the cross...

  4. Effect of filler loading and silane modification on the biodegradability of SBR composites reinforced with peanut shell powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaniba, V.; Balan, Aparna K.; Sreejith, M. P.; Jinitha, T. V.; Subair, N.; Purushothaman, E.

    2017-06-01

    The development of biocomposites and their applications are important in material science due to environmental and sustainability issues. The extent of degradation depends on the nature of reinforcing filler, particle size and their modification. In this article, we tried to focus on the biodegradation of composites of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) reinforced with Peanut Shell Powder (PSP) by soil burial test. The composites of SBR with untreated PSP (UPSP) and silane modified PSP (SPSP) of 10 parts per hundred rubber (phr) and 20 phr filler loading in two particle size were buried in the garden soil for six months. The microbial degradation were assessed through the measurement of weight loss, tensile strength and hardness at definite period. The study shows that degradation increases with increase in filler loading and particle size. The chemical treatment of filler has been found to resist the degradation. The analysis of morphological properties by the SEM also confirmed biodegradation process by the microorganism in the soil.

  5. Quantitative analysis of styrene butadiene copolymers using S-SIMS and LA-FTICRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, D.; Boes, C.; Zimmer, R.; Muller, J.F.; Migeon, H.-N.

    2003-01-01

    Styrene butadiene copolymers (SBR) have been analyzed by static secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS) and laser ablation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LA-FTICRMS) to obtain quantitative information based on specific peaks knowing that the complication of this system is that there are no characteristic SIMS peaks unique to each styrene and butadiene monomer. So, to overcome this problem, a silver deposition has been applied into polystyrene (PS), butadiene rubber (BR) and SBR. By this way, new secondary ions are detected in particular silver cationized butadiene and styrene monomers at m/z 161/163 and 211/213, respectively. The LA-FTICRMS experiments do not require pre-treatment. At high laser power density, UV photons (193, 266 and 355 nm) allow to detect directly the styrene and butadiene ions at m/z 104 and 54, respectively. Using these SIMS and LA-FTICRMS peaks, it is possible to obtain quantitative results. However, the silver coating in the SIMS experiment seems to have a great influence on the obtention of quantitative information. For LA-FTICRMS experiments, the best results seem to be obtained at the 355 nm wavelength

  6. Understanding interpenetrating-polymer-network-like porous nitrile butadiene rubber hybrids by their long-period miscibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen bonds are introduced into NBR to develop its IPN-like porous hybrids. • NBR is partly miscible with AO-60. • AO-60 possesses the viscoelastic behavior resembling that of polymers. • Phase separation aggravates and AO-60 crystallizes in the durations. • The porous hybrids may have potential damping applications. - Abstract: In this article, tetrakis [methylene-3-(3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy phenyl) propionyloxy] methane (AO-60) with hydrogen bonds was designed to interpenetrate into the chemical crosslinking bonds of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and then porous materials were prepared. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) demonstrate that NBR is partly miscible with AO-60 which induces the micro-pores and interpenetrating-polymer-network (IPN)-like phase morphology in the hybrids. The wide double tan δ peak in DMA curve displays that AO-60 possesses similar viscoelastic behaviors to polymers which come from supramolecular interactions between polar groups of NBR chains and hydroxyl (OH) groups of AO-60. To further understand the supramolecular abilities of AO-60 in the rubber, the long-period observations for their miscibility are conducted. With the increase of durations, the hydrogen bond network from AO-60 is weakened. The phase separation between AO-60 and NBR is aggravated and even extremely few AO-60 crystallizes which develops multi-scale porous morphology in the hybrids. It is believed that these findings can serve as a guide for the designs of the IPN-like hybrids with small molecule substances and their applications of damping materials

  7. Blends of nitrile butadiene rubber/poly (vinyl chloride: The use of maleated anhydride castor oil based plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiah Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based plasticizers, with biodegradable materials, such as biopolymer which offers competitive mechanical properties. In this study, castor oil was modified with maleic anhydride (MAH to produce bioplasticizer named maleated anhydride castor oil (MACO, and used in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/poly vinyl chloride (PVC blend. The effect of MACO on its cure characteristics and mechanical properties of NBR/PVC blend has been determined. The reactions were carried out at different castor oil (CO/xylene ratios, i.e. 1:0 and 1:1 by weight, and fixed CO/MAH ratio, 1:3 by mole. DOP, CO, and MACO were added into each NBR/PVC blend according to the formula. It was found that the viscosity and safe process level of NBR/PVC blend is similar from all plasticizer, however, MACO (1:0 showed the highest cure rate index (CRI. MACO-based plasticizer gave a higher value of the mechanical properties of the NBR/PVC blend as compared to DOP based plasticizer. MACO (1:1 based plasticizer showed a rather significance performance compared to another type of plasticizers both before and after aging. The value of hardness, elongation at break, tensile strength, and tear strength were 96 Shore A, 155.91 %, 19.15 MPa, and 74.47 MPa, respectively. From this result, NBR/PVC blends based on MACO plasticizer can potentially replace the DOP, and therefore, making the rubber blends eco-friendly.

  8. Hybrid joining of polyamide and hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber through heat-resistant functional layer of silane coupling agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Jing; Sato, Riku [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Aisawa, Sumio, E-mail: aisawa@iwate-u.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Hirahara, Hidetoshi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Mori, Kunio [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • We modify PA6 surface using silane coupling agent layer of APTMS to link HNBR. • APTMS greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 from 153 °C up to 325 °C. • A PA6/HNBR joined body was obtained, and it exhibits high adhesion strength with cohesive failure. • Chemical structures of the adhesion interfaces of PA6/HNBR were confirmed by Nano-IR. - Abstract: A simple, direct adhesion method was developed to join polyamide (PA6) to hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) by grafting a functional layer of a silane coupling agent on plasma functionalized PA6 surfaces. The functional layer of the silane coupling agent was prepared using a self-assembly method, which greatly improved the heat resistance of PA6 from 153 °C up to 325 °C and the resulting PA6/HNBR joints showed excellent adhesion properties with cohesive failure between PA6 and HNBR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nanoscale infrared microscopy and chemical imaging (Nano-IR, AFM-IR) were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The Nano-IR analysis method was employed for the first time to analyze the chemical structures of the adhesion interfaces between different materials and to establish the interface formation mechanism. This study is of significant value for interface research and the study of adhesion between resins and rubbers. There is a promising future for heat-resistant functional layers on resin surfaces, with potential application in fuel hose composite materials for the automotive and aeronautical industries.

  9. The influence of carbon black on curing kinetics and thermal aging of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers based on a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (NBR have excellent oil resistance but are very sensitive for degradation at very high temperatures. The aim of this applicative contribution was to determine the effect of high abrasion furnace carbon black with primary particle size 46 nm on aging properties of elastomeric materials based on NBR as network precursor. The curing kinetics was determined using the rheometer with an oscillating disk, in which the network formation process is registered by the torque variation during time. The vulcanizates were obtained in a hydraulic press at 150 °C. The mechanical properties of elastomeric composites were determined before and after thermal aging in an air circulating oven. The reinforcing effect of the filler particles was assessed according to mechanical properties before and after aging.

  10. The effect of γ-irradiation on acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber NBR seal materials with different antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Farida S.; Shafy, Mahmoud; Abd El-megeed, A.A.; Hegazi, Elham M.

    2012-01-01

    Seals made of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (NBR) are one of the classified seals used in nuclear facilities. But at high irradiation doses the physical and mechanical properties of NBR are adversely affected due to the degradation induced by radiation and hence affect the sealing performance reducing their service life. In order to improve the NBR sealing performance, antioxidants can be added to the NBR compounds. N-N-substituted p-phenylene diamines (PPDs) antioxidants are selected to improve the resistance of NBR seals against gamma irradiation up to 5 MGy. The effect of addition of different PPDs on the mechanical and physical properties of the NBR seals is investigated. Three types of antioxidants which are N-isopropyl-N′-phenyl-p-phenylene diamine (IPPD), phenyl B-naphthylamine (PBN), and N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N-phenyl-p-phenylene diamine (6PPD) are chosen. The physical and mechanical properties of these NBR compounds were evaluated by measuring crosslinking density, the tensile strength, and the percentage of elongation as well as hardness and abrasion resistance. The results of the present study show that the addition of 6PPD as a candidate antioxidant to NBR seal material gives the best physical and mechanical performance compared to the other studied antioxidants.

  11. Influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of waste polyethylene/nitrile butadiene rubber blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf O. Aly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamma irradiation radical–radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free, and simple. In this work a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma-rays, mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behavior to emphasize the blend formation. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of unirradiated ones. A relatively low-radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≈50 kGy.

  12. Endocrine disruptive effects of chemicals eluted from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves using reporter gene assay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kanako; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Ohyama, Ken-ichi; Nagai, Fumiko; Ogata, Akio; Iida, Mitsuru

    2008-03-01

    Disposable gloves made of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used for contact with foodstuffs rather than polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), because endocrine-disruptive effects are suspected for phthalate diesters including DEHP. However, 4,4'-butylidenebis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol) (BBBC), 2,4-di-t-butylphenol, and 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate can be eluted from NBR gloves, and possibly also detected in food. In this study, we examined the endocrine-disrupting effects of these chemicals via androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated pathways using stably transfected reporter gene cell lines expressing AR (AR-EcoScreen system) and ER (MVLN cells), respectively. We also examined the binding activities of these chemicals to AR and ER. The IC50 value of BBBC for antagonistic androgen was in the range of 10(-6)M. The strength of inhibition was about 5 times that of a known androgen antagonist, 1,1'-(2,2-dichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene] (p,p'-DDE), and similar to that of bisphenol A. The IC50 value of BBBC for antagonistic estrogen was in the range of 10(-6)M. These results suggest that BBBC and its structural homologue, 4,4'-thiobis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol) are androgen and estrogen antagonists. It is therefore necessary to study these chemicals in vivo, and clarify their effect on the endocrine system.

  13. The influence of nano silica particles on gamma-irradiation ageing of elastomers based on chlorosulphonated polyethylene and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, G.; Marinović-Cincović, M.; Tanasić, Lj.; Jovanović, V.; Samaržija-Jovanović, S.; Vukić, N.; Budinski-Simendić, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this work was to study gamma irradiation ageing of rubber blends based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) reinforced by silica nano particles. The NBR/CSM compounds (50: 50, w/w) filled with different content of filler (0-100 phr) were crosslinked by sulfur. The vulcanization characteristics were assessed using the rheometer with an oscillating disk. The vulcanizates were prepared in a hydraulic press. The obtained materials were exposed to the different irradiation doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kGy). The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) and swelling numbers were assessed before and after gamma irradiation ageing.

  14. Investigation of Ageing Behaviour of Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber with Added Graphene in an Accelerated Thermal Ageing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Zhou Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermal ageing of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR reinforced with different graphene (GE concentrations has been investigated. NBR and NBR-GE composites were exposed to an accelerated thermal ageing environment produced by an air-circulating oven for seven days. The mechanical properties, chemical changes, and thermal stability of ageing samples and neat samples were evaluated. The results showed that the surface damage of NBR was severe and inhomogeneous, and the degree of ageing was most serious on the edge region of the voids, but NBR-GE composites were changed slightly before and after ageing. The tensile strength increased with the increase of GE concentration, up to a maximum value, and decreased with further increases in GE concentration. The GE embedded crosslinked network limited the segment movement of chains in the stretch direction and played a role in the composites properties, and the GE sheets (contained the functional groups of −OH, −C=O and C=C after ageing. This behaviour may indicate greater interface adhesion between the GE and NBR. In addition, results obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the thermal stability of NBR significantly changed with accelerated thermal ageing environment, but with addition of a certain amount of GE to NBR, the thermal stability of NBR could be improved. The NBR/GE composites exhibited good comprehensive performance with a mass fraction of GE of 10 %. Before and after the thermal ageing, the failure mechanism of NBR-GE composites appeared intergranular and ductile fracture, respectively.

  15. Effect of magnetic and thermal properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hun Tiar; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Boondamnoen, O.; Tai, Mun Foong

    2015-12-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves are one of the most important personal protective equipments but they are possible to tear off and contaminate food or pharmaceutical and healthcare products during manufacturing and packaging process. High tendency of torn glove remaining in food or products due to white or light flesh-coloured glove is not easy to be detected by naked eyes. In this paper, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) selected as additive for NBR to improve its detectability by mean of magnetic properties. IONs synthesized via precipitation method and compounded with NBR latex before casting on petri dish. The properties of IONs were investigated by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Meanwhile NBR/IONs composites were studied by Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It observed that, synthesized IONs shows of 25.28 nm crystallite with 25.86 nm semipherical (changed as) shape. Meanwhile, Magnetite and maghemite phase are found in range of 670 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 respectively, which it contributes magnetization saturation of 73.96 emu/g at 10,000 G by VSM. Thermal stability and magnetic properties were increased with incorporating IONs into NBR latex up to 20 phr. NBR/IONs 5 phr has the optimum thermal stability, lowest glass transition temperature (-14.83 °C) and acceptable range of magnetization saturation (3.83 emu/g at 10,000 G) to form NBR gloves with magnetic detectability.

  16. Probing α-relaxation with nuclear magnetic resonance echo decay and relaxation: a study on nitrile butadiene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Simone; Pieruccini, Marco; Corti, Maurizio; Rigamonti, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    One dimensional (1)H NMR measurements have been performed to probe slow molecular motions in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) around its calorimetric glass transition temperature Tg. The purpose is to show how software aided data analysis can extract meaningful dynamical data from these measurements. Spin-lattice relaxation time, free induction decay (FID) and magic sandwich echo (MSE) measurements have been carried out at different values of the static field, as a function of temperature. It has been evidenced how the efficiency of the MSE signal in reconstructing the original FID exhibits a sudden minimum at a given temperature, with a slight dependence from the measuring frequency. Computer simulations performed with the software SPINEVOLUTION have shown that the minimum in the efficiency reconstruction of the MSE signal corresponds to the average motional frequency taking a value around the inter-proton coupling. The FID signals have been fitted with a truncated form of a newly derived exact correlation function for the transverse magnetization of a dipolar interacting spin pair, which allows one to avoid the restriction of the stationary and Gaussian approximations. A direct estimate of the conformational dynamics on approaching the Tg is obtained, and the results are in agreement with the analysis performed via the MSE reconstruction efficiency. The occurrence of a wide distribution of correlation frequencies for the chains motion, with a Vogel-Fulcher type temperature dependence, is addressed. A route for a fruitful study of the dynamics accompanying the glass transition by a variety of NMR measurements is thus proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of montmorillonite on carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber/hindered phenol damping material with improved extraction resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Meijun; Xi, Xue; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Demin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MMT and XSBR display synergic effect on protecting HP1098 from being extracted. • A new hindered phenol HP1098 was used to prepare damping material. • Effects of three preparation methods on the material properties were studied. - Abstract: Three methods of blending, including direct blending, melt blending and latex blending, were introduced to disperse sodium based montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and N,N′-hexane-1,6-diylbis{3-(5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-propionamide)} (HP1098) into the carboxylated styrene butadiene (XSBR) matrix. Small angle X-ray Diffraction testing indicated that melting Na-MMT with HP1098 enlarged the d-spacing of Na-MMT, which was further enlarged by mechanical blending with XSBR, and this led to homogeneous dispersion of Na-MMT and HP1098, which was indicated by Transmission Electronic Microscopy; latex blending was found most advantageous in dispersing HP1098 which was essential for improved damping performance. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was utilized to characterize damping properties, and enhanced static mechanical properties were presumably originated from molecule chains being intercalated into the enlarged galleries of Na-MMT by mechanical blending. Formation of hydrogen bonds was observed by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectrum and was supposed to be responsible for exceptional damping performance at elevated temperature. Extraction measurement of XSBR/Na-MMT/HP1098 composite indicated that XSBR and Na-MMT showed synergic effect in protecting HP1098 molecules from being extracted, which is a promising method in preparing rubber/hindered phenol damping materials with improved extraction resistance, whereby increasing the performance stability and lifespan of the composite materials. Additional advantage of this type of materials is better processability and shortened vulcanization process

  18. The Radiation Synthesis of Ultra-Fine Powdered Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (UFCSBR) and Property of Nylon 6/ UFCSBR Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.

    2006-01-01

    A serial of novel ultra-fine powdered carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (UFCSBR) were prepared by using radiation crosslinking and spray drying method. Thereafter, these powdered rubber particles were used as toughener of nylon 6.The radiation synthesis of ultra-fine powdered rubbers were studied, moreover, the mechanical and thermal property of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends were investigated. Finally, the toughening mechanism of nylon 6 modified with ultra-fine rubber particles was discussed. The UFCSBR could be dispersed well in nylon 6 as individual particles with a diameter of 150 nm by using melt blending. The Nylon 6/UFCSBR (80/20) blend possesses higher toughness and higher thermal stability than Nylon 6/POE-g-MAH (which is most often used elastomer in toughening nylon now). The deformation mechanism of nylon 6/UFCSBR blends includes shear deformation of nylon 6 and the formation of elongated rubber particles in matrix. In addition, the UFCSBR has good interfacial compatibility with nylon 6. Therefore, the nylon 6/UFCSBR blends with good mechanical performance could be prepared in this work

  19. Enhancement of Compatibility between Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Particles and Butadiene.Nitrile Rubber Matrix with Nanoscale Ceramic Particles and Characterization of Evolving Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrinov, Nikolay V.; Sokolova, Marina D.; Cho, Jinho; Okhlopkova, A. A.; Lee, Jungkeun; Jeong, Daeyong

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the modification of surface properties of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with nanoscale ceramic particles to fabricate an improved composite with butadiene.nitrile rubber (BNR). Adhesion force data showed that ceramic zeolite particles on the surface of UHMWPE modulated the surface state of the polymer and increased its compatibility with BNR. Atomic force microscopy phase images showed that UHMWPE made up the microphase around the zeolite particles and formed the evolving layer with a complex interface. The complex interface resulted in improvements in the mechanical properties of the composite, especially its low-temperature resistance coefficients, thereby improving its performance in low-temperature applications

  20. Properties of rubber blends based on natural rubber loaded with different fillers and cured by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation system styrene butadiene rubber (1502 type) and natural rubber were blended in different ratios namely, NR/SBR (0/100), NR/SBR (25/75), NR/SBR (50/50), NR/SBR (75/25) and NR/SBR (100/0). All the samples were subjected to gamma irradiation dose up to 250 kGy. The improvement in the mechanical properties, physico-mechanical properties and thermal properties was followed as a function of irradiation dose and blend ratio. The SBR /NR (50/50) blend with reasonable properties were filled with 40 p hr of Hisil (highly fined silicon), HAF carbon black (high abrasion furnace), TiO 2 titanium dioxide and clay; the reinforcing ability of these fillers was found to follow the order: Hisil > HAF carbon black > Clay > TiO 2 The effect of different kinds of enhancing agents (coagent) namely: N, N- methylene di acrylamide (MDA), trimethylol propane tri methacrylate (TMPTMA) and tetramethylol - methane tetraacrylate (TMMT) on the properties of the obtained composites as a function of irradiation dose was studied. The data obtained showed that the enhancement character of the co agents follow the order: TMMT >TMPTMA > MDA >unenhanced composites. This investigation showed also the effect of gamma irradiation on improving the above mentioned properties in the presence of filler and co agents. Moreover, radiation dose at 100 kGy is sufficient enough for obtained the desired properties. The obtaining composites can be used in many industrial applications such as radio controlled model race car tires to footwear applications; the SBR component adds the toughness while the natural rubber provides superior resilience and energy return when used in footwear.

  1. Radiation-induced copolymerization of styrene/n-butyl acrylate in the presence of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haibo [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng Jing [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: jpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhai Maolin; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qiao Jinliang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SINOPEC Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Beijing 100013 (China)

    2007-11-15

    Styrene (St)/n-butyl acrylate (BA) copolymers were prepared by two-stage polymerization: St/BA was pre-polymerized to a viscous state by bulk polymerization with initiation by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) followed by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray radiation curing. The resultant copolymers had higher molecular weight and narrower molecular weight distribution than conventional methods. After incorporation of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) with a particle size of 100 nm in the monomer, the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of St-BA copolymer increased at low rubber content. Both the St-BA copolymer and the St-BA copolymer/UFSBR composites had good transparency at BA content below 40%.

  2. The Properties of Polymer-Modified Asphalt Drived from Vacuum Bottom and Wastes of PE and SBR Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymeric and non-polymeric petrochemical wastes are environmentally unfavorable materials. We have to found a way to reuse these wastes in a safe manner. In styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR production plant two major wastes are produced one is a fine rubber powder and the other is recycled N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP. In high-density polyethylene (HDPE production plant also a low molecular weight polymer waste is produced which does not degrade in environment easily. On the other hand, bitumen is usually blended with thermoplastics, rubbers and an oil to produce polymermodified bitumens. Effect of SBR, PE and NMP wastes on vacuum bottom residue of crude oil distillation was investigated. The results of penetration, softening point and Frass tests revealed the advantages of SBR and PE wastes at high temperatures and suggest NMP waste as a good bitumen extender. The results of the Marshal test on the prepared polymer-modified hot-mix asphalt of the optimum formulation highlight the superiority of its strength and its lower flow as compared with those of standard 60/70 penetration grade bitumen.

  3. Effect of magnetic and thermal properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hun Tiar; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Boondamnoen, O.; Tai, Mun Foong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves are one of the most important personal protective equipments but they are possible to tear off and contaminate food or pharmaceutical and healthcare products during manufacturing and packaging process. High tendency of torn glove remaining in food or products due to white or light flesh-coloured glove is not easy to be detected by naked eyes. In this paper, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) selected as additive for NBR to improve its detectability by mean of magnetic properties. IONs synthesized via precipitation method and compounded with NBR latex before casting on petri dish. The properties of IONs were investigated by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Meanwhile NBR/IONs composites were studied by Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It observed that, synthesized IONs shows of 25.28 nm crystallite with 25.86 nm semipherical (changed as) shape. Meanwhile, Magnetite and maghemite phase are found in range of 670 cm −1 and 700 cm −1 respectively, which it contributes magnetization saturation of 73.96 emu/g at 10,000 G by VSM. Thermal stability and magnetic properties were increased with incorporating IONs into NBR latex up to 20 phr. NBR/IONs 5 phr has the optimum thermal stability, lowest glass transition temperature (−14.83 °C) and acceptable range of magnetization saturation (3.83 emu/g at 10,000 G) to form NBR gloves with magnetic detectability. - Highlights: • We synthesized IONs with high magnetization saturation (M s ). • High M s of IONs were incorporated into NBR latex in order to induce magnetic properties in the NBR composite. • Introduction of IONs into NBR latex would improve thermal properties. • The produced NBR/IONs 5 phr composite exceeded the minimum magnetic moment sensor of the detector. • They have high potential for the

  4. Effect of magnetic and thermal properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) in nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hun Tiar; Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd, E-mail: sharifahbee@um.edu.my; Boondamnoen, O.; Tai, Mun Foong

    2015-12-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves are one of the most important personal protective equipments but they are possible to tear off and contaminate food or pharmaceutical and healthcare products during manufacturing and packaging process. High tendency of torn glove remaining in food or products due to white or light flesh-coloured glove is not easy to be detected by naked eyes. In this paper, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) selected as additive for NBR to improve its detectability by mean of magnetic properties. IONs synthesized via precipitation method and compounded with NBR latex before casting on petri dish. The properties of IONs were investigated by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Meanwhile NBR/IONs composites were studied by Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It observed that, synthesized IONs shows of 25.28 nm crystallite with 25.86 nm semipherical (changed as) shape. Meanwhile, Magnetite and maghemite phase are found in range of 670 cm{sup −1} and 700 cm{sup −1} respectively, which it contributes magnetization saturation of 73.96 emu/g at 10,000 G by VSM. Thermal stability and magnetic properties were increased with incorporating IONs into NBR latex up to 20 phr. NBR/IONs 5 phr has the optimum thermal stability, lowest glass transition temperature (−14.83 °C) and acceptable range of magnetization saturation (3.83 emu/g at 10,000 G) to form NBR gloves with magnetic detectability. - Highlights: • We synthesized IONs with high magnetization saturation (M{sub s}). • High M{sub s} of IONs were incorporated into NBR latex in order to induce magnetic properties in the NBR composite. • Introduction of IONs into NBR latex would improve thermal properties. • The produced NBR/IONs 5 phr composite exceeded the minimum magnetic moment sensor of the detector. • They have high

  5. FTIR spectra and mechanical strength analysis of some selected rubber derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Natarajan, R. K.; Kala, A.

    2007-10-01

    Rubber materials have wide range of commercial applications such as, infant diapers, famine hygiene products, drug delivery devices and incontinency products such as rubber tubes, tyres, etc. In the present work, studies on mechanical properties of some selected rubber materials viz., natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) have been carried out in three states viz., raw, vulcanized and reinforced. To enhance the quality of rubber elastomers, an attempt is made to prepare new elastomers called polyblends. In the present study an attempt is made to blend NR with NBR and with EPDM. We here report, a novel approach for the evaluation of various physico-mechanical properties such as mechanical strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness. The method is simple, direct and fast and involves infrared spectral measurements for the evaluation of these properties. With the applications of modern infrared spectroscopy, the mechanical strength of these rubber materials have been analyzed by calculating the internal standards among the methyl and methylene group vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR spectroscopy. Also the tensile strength measurements carried out by universal testing machine. The results pertaining physico-mechanical properties of the rubber derivatives undertaken in the present study obtained by IR-based method are in good agreement with data resulted from the standard methods.

  6. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, István Zoltán; Bárány, Tamás

    2016-08-24

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (T mix ) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state), which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5-10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.

  7. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Zoltán Halász

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state, which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5–10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.

  8. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Rubber by FT-NIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattapol Pornprasit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical tests, for example, tensile and hardness tests, are usually used to evaluate the properties of rubber materials. In this work, mechanical properties of selected rubber materials, that is, natural rubber (NR, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM, were evaluated using a near infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique. Here, NR/NBR and NR/EPDM blends were first prepared. All of the samples were then scanned using a FT-NIR spectrometer and fitted with an integration sphere working in a diffused reflectance mode. The spectra were correlated with hardness and tensile properties. Partial least square (PLS calibration models were built from the spectra datasets with preprocessing techniques, that is, smoothing and second derivative. This indicated that reasonably accurate models, that is, with a coefficient of determination [R2] of the validation greater than 0.9, could be achieved for the hardness and tensile properties of rubber materials. This study demonstrated that FT-NIR analysis can be applied to determine hardness and tensile values in rubbers and rubber blends effectively.

  9. Design, Construction, and Evaluation of Rubber Friction Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Razzaghi Kashani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coeffcient of  friction  (COF  for  rubber parts  is one of  the key parameters in their interaction with solid rough surfaces (micrometer to millimeter scales,  such  as  tire-road  interactions. COF  of  rubber  depends  on  viscoelastic properties of rubber, roughness characteristics of the counter-part surface, and process variables such as contact nominal pressure and sliding speed. Due to the need for measuring COF  for  rubber,  a  new  friction  tester, with  continuous  variation  of nominal pressure and sliding speed, was designed and constructed in order to assess the effect of above mentioned parameters. Tire tread compounds, as the most common rubber part  in  the feld of  rubber  tribology, was used  for  this purpose. Viscoelastic properties of compounds were varied by changing composition of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR and butadiene rubber (BR in the blend. Effect of surface roughness was evaluated by using silicon-carbide papers with different roughness parameters. By statistical analysis it was shown that the designed friction tester has high accuracy in measuring the coeffcient of friction of rubber and differentiating the effective parameters. Increasing the nominal pressure led to reduction of COF and increase in sliding speed forced it through a maximum. In conclusion, the loss factor of the compound and asymmetry in roughness distribution of the counter-surface are considered as the most effective parameters on COF of rubber.

  10. Nanocomposites of NR/SBR Blend Prepared by Latex Casting Method: Effects of Nano-TiO2 and Polystyrene-Encapsulated Nano-TiO2 on the Cure Characteristics, Physical Properties, and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of 80/20 (w/w natural rubber (NR/styrene butadiene rubber (SBR blend with four loadings of either nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO2 or polystyrene-encapsulated nTiO2 (PS-nTiO2, ranging from 3 to 9 parts by weight per hundred of rubber (phr, were prepared by latex casting method. The PS-nTiO2 synthesized via in situ differential microemulsion polymerization displayed a core-shell morphology (nTiO2 core and PS shell with an average diameter of 42 nm. The cure characteristics (scorch time, cure time, and cure rate index, mechanical properties (tensile properties, tear strength, and hardness, thermal stability, glass transition temperature, and morphology of the prepared nanocomposites were quantified and compared. The results showed that the cure characteristics of all the nanocomposites were not significantly changed compared to those of the neat NR/SBR blend. The inclusion of an appropriate amount of either nTiO2 or PS-nTiO2 into the NR/SBR blend apparently improved the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain, tear strength, hardness, and thermal stability but deteriorated the elongation at break of the nanocomposites. Based on differential scanning calorimetry, the glass transition temperature of all the nanocomposites was similar to that of the neat NR/SBR blend. Moreover, the morphology of the PS-nTiO2-filled rubber nanocomposites fractured surface analyzed by scanning electron microscopy showed an improvement in the interfacial adhesion between the rubber phase and the nanoparticles.

  11. Electron beam crosslinked gels-Preparation, characterization and their effect on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; Sabharwal, Sunil; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Electron beam (EB) crosslinked natural rubber (NR) gels were prepared by curing NR latex with EB irradiation over a range of doses from 2.5 to 20 kGy using butyl acrylate as sensitizer. The NR gels were systematically characterized by solvent swelling, dynamic light scattering, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties. These gels were introduced in virgin NR and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) matrices at 2, 4, 8 and 16 phr concentration. Addition of the gels improved the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of NR and SBR considerably. For example, 16 phr of 20 kGy EB-irradiated gel-filled NR showed a tensile strength of 3.53 MPa compared to 1.85 MPa of virgin NR. Introduction of gels in NR shifted the glass transition temperature to a higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of NR gel-filled SBR systems. Morphology of the gel-filled systems was studied with atomic force microscopy. The NR gels also improved the processability of the virgin rubbers greatly. Both the shear viscosity and the die swell values of EB-irradiated gel-filled NR and SBR were lower than their virgin counterparts as investigated by capillary rheometer.

  12. Electron beam crosslinked gels-Preparation, characterization and their effect on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Suman; Chattopadhyay, Santanu [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Sabharwal, Sunil [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhowmick, Anil K., E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.i [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Electron beam (EB) crosslinked natural rubber (NR) gels were prepared by curing NR latex with EB irradiation over a range of doses from 2.5 to 20 kGy using butyl acrylate as sensitizer. The NR gels were systematically characterized by solvent swelling, dynamic light scattering, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties. These gels were introduced in virgin NR and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) matrices at 2, 4, 8 and 16 phr concentration. Addition of the gels improved the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of NR and SBR considerably. For example, 16 phr of 20 kGy EB-irradiated gel-filled NR showed a tensile strength of 3.53 MPa compared to 1.85 MPa of virgin NR. Introduction of gels in NR shifted the glass transition temperature to a higher temperature. A similar effect was observed in the case of NR gel-filled SBR systems. Morphology of the gel-filled systems was studied with atomic force microscopy. The NR gels also improved the processability of the virgin rubbers greatly. Both the shear viscosity and the die swell values of EB-irradiated gel-filled NR and SBR were lower than their virgin counterparts as investigated by capillary rheometer.

  13. Nanosized TiN-SBR hybrid coating of stainless steel as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Masanobu; Myung, Seung-Taek; Asaishi, Ryo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Yashiro, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In attempt to improve interfacial electrical conductivity of stainless steel for bipolar plates of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, TiN nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the surface of stainless steel with elastic styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) particles. From transmission electron microscopic observation, it was found that the TiN nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm) surrounded the spherical SBR particles (ca. 300-600 nm), forming agglomerates. They were well adhered on the surface of the type 310S stainless steel. With help of elasticity of SBR, the agglomerates were well fitted into the interfacial gap between gas diffusion layer (GDL) and stainless steel bipolar plate, and the interfacial contact resistance (ICR), simultaneously, was successfully reduced. A single cell using the TiN nanoparticles-coated bipolar plates, consequently, showed comparable cell performance with the graphite employing cell at a current density of 0.5 A cm -2 (12.5 A). Inexpensive TiN nanoparticle-coated type 310S stainless steel bipolar plates would become a possible alternate for the expensive graphite bipolar plates as use in fuel cell applications

  14. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-03-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100-300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating-cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase.

  15. Effect of Short PET Fiber and Electron Beam Irradiation on The Properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber-Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (NBR-PVC) Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, H.A.; Shaltout, N.A.; EI Nemer, K.F.; EI Miligy, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Blend of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR ) and ploy vinyl chloride(PYV) (70-30) has been loaded with different concentrations of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers waste ( 0.5 - 40 p hr); in the presence of resorcinol hexamethylenetetramine - precipitated silica (RHS) as bonding agent system and pentaeritheroal tetraacrylate (PET A) as co agent. Curing of the prepared composites has been carried out by electron beam irradiation (25 - 150 kGy) under atmospheric conditions. Evaluations of mechanical, physical, and thermal properties of uncured as well as cured composites have been undertaken. It has been found that the tensile strength, tensile modulus at 25 % elongation and hardness were increased with irradiation dose as well as fiber loading whereas the elongation at break and soluble fraction were decreased. Moreover, it has been found that the thermal stability of prepared composites at constant fiber loading of 10 p hr is improved on irradiation up to 100 kGy. Confirmation of latter data has been found through calculation of activation energy, Ea of the thermal degradation process

  16. Effect of Short PET Fiber and Electron Beam Irradiation on The Properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber-Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (NBR-PVC) Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, H.A.; Shaltout, N.A.; EI Nemer, K.F.; EI Miligy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Blend of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR ) and ploy vinyl chloride(PYV) (70-30) has been loaded with different concentrations of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers waste ( 0.5 - 40 p hr); in the presence of resorcinol hexamethylenetetramine - precipitated silica (RHS) as bonding agent system and pentaeritheroal tetraacrylate (PET A) as co agent. Curing of the prepared composites has been carried out by electron beam irradiation (25 - 150 kGy) under atmospheric conditions. Evaluations of mechanical, physical, and thermal properties of uncured as well as cured composites have been undertaken. It has been found that the tensile strength, tensile modulus at 25 % elongation and hardness were increased with irradiation dose as well as fiber loading whereas the elongation at break and soluble fraction were decreased. Moreover, it has been found that the thermal stability of prepared composites at constant fiber loading of 10 p hr is improved on irradiation up to 100 kGy. Confirmation of latter data has been found through calculation of activation energy, Ea of the thermal degradation process

  17. Effect of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) on mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr)/empty fruit bunch (EFB) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nurul Syazwani; Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Abdillahi, Khalid Mohamed; Ismail, Hanafi

    2017-07-01

    The fabrication of polypropylene (PP)/ recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr)/ empty fruit bunch (EFB) composites were investigated. The effects of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) as a compatibilizer on the mechanical and morphological properties of PP/NBRr/EFB composites were studied. Composites were prepared through melt mixing using heated two roll mill at 180 °C for 9 minutes and rotor speed of 15 rpm. NBRr loading were varied from 0 to 60 phr and PPMAH was fixed for 5 phr. The composites were moulded into a 1 mm thin sheet using hot press machine and then cut into dumbbell shape. The mechanical and morphological properties of composites were examined using universal tensile machine (UTM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of PP/NBRr/EFB composites decreased with increasing NBRr loading, whilst increasing the elongation at break. However, PPMAH compatibilized composites have resulted 27% to 40% and 25% to 42% higher tensile strength and Young's modulus, respectively, higher compared to uncompatibilized composites. This was due to the better adhesion between PP/NBRr matrices and EFB filler with the presence of maleic anhydride moieties. From the morphological study, the micrograph of PPMAH compatibilized composites has proved the well bonded and good attachments of EFB filler with PP/NBRr matrices which results better tensile strength to the PP/NBRr/EFB composites.

  18. Heat shrinkable behavior, physico-mechanical and structure properties of electron beam cross-linked blends of high-density polyethylene with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Kalkis, Valdis; Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Grigalovica, Agnese

    2016-01-01

    In this study, heat-shrinkable composites of electron beam irradiated high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. HDPE/NBR blends at a ratio of components 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50 and 20/80 wt% were prepared using a two-roll mill. The compression molded films were irradiated high-energy (5 MeV) accelerated electrons up to irradiation absorbed doses of 100–300 kGy. The effect of electron beam induced cross-linking was evaluated by the changes of mechanical properties, gel content and by the differences of thermal properties, detected by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermo-shrinkage forces were determined as the kinetics of thermorelaxation and the residual shrinkage stresses of previously oriented (stretched up to 100% at above melting temperature of HDPE and followed by cooling to room temperature) specimens of irradiated HDPE/NBR blends under isometric heating–cooling mode. The compatibility between the both components was enhanced due to the formation of cross-linked sites at amorphous interphase. The results showed increase of mechanical stiffness of composites with increase of irradiation dose. The values of gel fraction compared to thermorelaxation stresses increased with the growth of irradiation dose level, as a result of formation cross-linked sites in amorphous PP/NBR interphase. - Highlights: • Binary blends of HDPE/NBR have been irradiated with 5 MeV accelerated electrons. • Increase of NBR content and irradiation dose improves cross-linking efficiency. • Thermo-shrinkage and residual stresses are investigated for oriented specimens. • Cross-linked HDPE/NBR composites can be successfully used as thermos-shrinkable materials.

  19. Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. F.

    The word "rubber" immediately brings to mind materials that are highly flexible and will snap back to their original shape after being stretched. In this chapter a variety of materials are discussed that possess this odd characteristics. There will also be a discussion on the mechanism of this "elastic retractive force." Originally, rubber meant the gum collected from a tree growing in Brazil. The term "rubber" was coined for this material by the English chemist Joseph Priestley, who noted that it was effective for removing pencil marks from paper. Today, in addition to Priestley's natural product, many synthetic materials are made that possess these characteristics and many other properties. The common features of these materials are that they are made up of long-chain molecules that are amorphous (not crystalline), and the chains are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature.

  20. Devulcanization of ground tire rubber: Physical and chemical changes after different microwave exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave devulcanization is known to be a promising and an efficient rubber recycling method which makes possible for the rubber to regain its fluidity, and makes it capable of being remolded and revulcanized. The focus of this work is to understand the physical and chemical changes that occur in the ground tire rubber after different microwave exposure periods. For this purpose chemical, thermal, rheological and morphological analyses were performed on the tire rubber, which contains natural rubber (NR and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR as polymeric material. The results showed that the microwave treatment promoted the breaking of sulfur cross-links and consequently increased the rubber fluidity. However, long periods of exposure led to degradation and modification of some properties. At nanoscale, the deformation of the devulcanized NR domain under stress was observed, and the morphology obtained appears to be a droplet dispersion morphology. The most exposed samples presented only one glass transition temperature, and from this it was concluded that the treatment may have played an important role in the compatibilization of the elastomeric blend. Based on the results, it is required to control the microwave exposure time and polymeric degradation in order to achieve a regenerated rubber with satisfactory properties.

  1. Electrical and Thermo-Mechanical properties of Irradiated Clay Nanoparticle/SBR Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.M.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer-Composites incorporating metal, semiconductors, Carbon black, nano materials and Clay materials have been widely used and studied as multifunctional materials with inherent polymer properties. Polymer-clay nano composites show remarkable property improvement when compared to conventionally scaled composites. For designing new materials with desirable, predicted properties, a better understanding of structure-property relationships is necessary. In this work, we employ dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) to investigate molecular mobility in relation to morphology in styrene butadiene rubber-SBR (treated and untreated) nano composites. In addition to the investigation of dipolar processes, special attention is paid here to the investigation of conductivity effects and mechanical as well as thermo-mechanical properties. From the stress-strain characteristics, one found that, all the compositions showed a tensile strength higher than the virgin rubber. By increasing the filler loading, the tensile strength of the prepared composites increases. The elongation at break for treated and untreated clay filed composites increases with an increase in filer loading up to 10 p hr and then followed by a decrease up to 15 p hr. The cross linking density, υ increases with both treated and untreated clay contents and treated samples have higher increasing rate of υ values than untreated one. To elucidate the tensile behavior of the test samples. The Ht model is tested by using non-Gaussian chain statistics, which give a good fitting with the experimental data.

  2. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F trademark), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste

  3. SYNTHESIS OF STYRENE-BUTADIENE STATISTIC COPOLYMERS CONTAINING MAGNESIUM INITIATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Firsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of organomagnesium initiators in the synthesis of styrene-butadiene random copolymer (SBR obtained solution polymerization and their influence on the properties of rubber. Selected organic magnesium dialkyl initiator is combined with a modifier, which is a mixed alkoxide of an alkali and alkaline earth metals, which allows to control the micr ostructure of the diene polymer and its molecular weight characteristics. Alcohol derivatives selected high-boiling alcohols tetra (hydroxypropyl ethylenediamine (lapromol 294 and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (TGFS. Selection of high-boiling alcohols due to the fact that the destruction of alkoxide with aqueous polymer degassing they do not fall into the return solvent and almost fall into the exact water. The metal components of alkoxides are lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. The resulting solutions are stable when stored modifier t hroughout the year even at -40 °C. The scheme of obtaining the new catalyst systems based organomagnesium and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals, which yields as functionalized SBR with a statistical and a distribution block of butadiene and styrene was developed. The process of copolymerization with styrene to butadiene organomagnesium initiators as using an organolithium compound (n-butyllithium was carried out, and without it. Found that the addition of n-butyllithium in the reaction mixture leads to a sharp increase in the rate of reaction. The results of studies of the effect of composition of the initiator system on the structure of diene polymers. It was revealed that a mixed initiator system affords a high conversion of monomers (to 90 % in 1 hour 1,2-polybutadiene content increased to 60 %. The process of polymerization of only a mixture of organomagnesium initiators and alcoxide of alkali and alkaline earth metals are not actively proceeds, conversion of the monomers reaches to 90 % in 4 hours, the microstructure

  4. Rubber/clay nanocomposites by combined latex compounding and melt mixing: A masterbatch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Jinghua; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by the masterbatch process. → Latex compounding method is efficient to improve the Ca-montmorillonite dispersion. → Exfoliated structure was obtained in the masterbatch by latex compounding method. → Intercalated and exfoliated structures were achieved in the vulcanizate. → The properties of vulcanizate are improved by the addition of Ca-montmorillonite. -- Abstract: Rubber/Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) nanocomposites with well exfoliated Ca-MMT layers were prepared by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, a high Ca-MMT content masterbatch was co-coagulated by natural rubber (NR) latex and modified Ca-MMT aqueous suspension through latex compounding. The masterbatch was added in the system of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) by melt mixing subsequently. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) results showed that intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained by the masterbatch technique. The effects of modified Ca-MMT introduction into the rubber matrix, via the masterbatch technique, on the properties of the resulting composites were studied. It was found that the vulcanization was hindered by the incorporation of modified Ca-MMT, while mechanical performances, thermal stability and aging resistance were improved. The increasingly glass transition temperature and the storage modulus with the loading of modified Ca-MMT were measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

  5. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, we have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epi-chloro-hydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F), poly-tetrafluoroethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to ∼3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 deg. C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using VTR measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, screening criteria of ∼1 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and specific gravity change of 10% were used. Those materials that failed to meet these criteria were judged to have failed the screening tests and were excluded from the next phase of this experimental program. We have completed the comprehensive testing phase of liner materials in a simulant Hanford Tank waste consisting of an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. From the data analyses performed, we have identified the chloro-fluorocarbon Kel-F as having the greatest chemical durability after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the aqueous alkaline simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the extremely poor performance of Teflon under these conditions. We have also completed the comprehensive

  6. Use of Several Thermal Analysis Techniques to Study the Cracking of a Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Insulator on the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) of the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Two different vendor rubber formulations have been used to produce the silica-filled NBR insulators for the BSM of each of the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle. Each cured insulator is bonded to the BSM aluminum aft closure with an epoxy adhesive, and some of the curved areas in the rubber may have significant residual stresses. A number of recently bonded NBR insulators have shown fine surface cracks, and stressed insulator areas may be aging at a faster rate than unstressed areas, thus hastening the surface cracking. Thermal analysis data on both vendor insulators by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) through a temperature/frequency sweep from 24 to 74 C have shown a higher flexural storage modulus and Arrhenius activation energy for the stressed area than for the unstressed area. Other thermal analysis techniques are being used to study the insulator surface vs. bulk interior for better understanding this anomaly.

  7. Effect of γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APS) coupling agent on mechanical and morphological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE)/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/palm pressed fibre (PPF) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norizan, Nabila Najwa; Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Ismail, Hanafi

    2017-07-01

    The fabrication of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)/ Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)/ Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF) composite were investigated. The effect of γ-Aminopropyltriethoxy Silane (APS) as coupling agent on the properties of HDPE/ NBR/ PPF composite were studied. The composites were melt mixed using heated two roll mill at 180°C and speed of 15rpm with six different loading (100/0/10, 80/20/10, 70/30/10, 60/40/10, 50/50/10, and 40/60/10). The effects of γ-APS silane on mechanical, and morphological properties were examined using universal tensile machine (UTM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of HDPE/ NBR/ PPF composites decrease with increasing of NBR loading, whilst increasing the elongation at break. However, treated composites have resulted 3% to 29%, and 9% to 19%, higher in tensile strength and young's modulus compared to untreated composites. This was due to the better adhesion between HDPE/ NBR matrices and PPF filler with the presence of silanol moieties. From the morphological study, the micrograph of treated composites has proved the well bonded and good attachment of PPF filler with HDPE/ NBR matrices which resulted to better tensile strength to the HDPE/ NBR/ PPF composites.

  8. Advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhixin; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2014-02-01

    The research advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes (rubber/HNTs) nanocomposites are reviewed. HNTs are environmentally-friendly natural nanomaterials, which could be used to prepare the rubber-based nanocomposites with high performance and low cost. Unmodified HNTs could be adopted to prepare the rubber/HNTs composites with improved mechanical properties, however, the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites with fine morphology and excellent properties were chiefly prepared with various modifiers by in situ mixing method. A series of rubber/HNTs nanocomposites containing several rubbers (SBR, NR, xSBR, NBR, PU) and different modifiers (ENR, RH, Si69, SA, MAA, ILs) have been investigated. The results showed that all the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites achieved strong interfacial interaction via interfacial covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds or multiple interactions, realized significantly improved dispersion of HNTs at nanoscale and exhibited excellent mechanical performances and other properties.

  9. Lignocellulosic fiber reinforced rubber composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural Rubber (NR) is a naturally occurring elastomeric polymer of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). It can be extracted from latex of only one kind of tree, the Hevea braziliensis. Hevea rubber is produced in many tropical regions of Southeast...

  10. Adesivos poliméricos à base de SBR: influência de diferentes tipos de agentes promotores de adesão SBR-based polymeric adhesives: influence of different types of adhesion promoting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro E. C. B. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um novo adesivo não estrutural à base de copolímero de SBR com alto teor em estireno (SBR-53. O objetivo deste novo produto é avaliar a possibilidade de sua utilização no segmento moveleiro, em substituição ao adesivo de policloropreno (CR-M, cujo polímero-base é importado. Diferentes formulações de adesivos foram desenvolvidas, específicas para a indústria moveleira, e o desempenho do elastômero SBR-53 foi comparado ao dos elastômeros SBR-23 comercial (SBR tradicional - baixo teor de estireno e CR-M, quanto à estabilidade em solução, viscosidade e propriedades mecânicas.In this work a new non-structural adhesive based on a high styrene content SBR copolymer (SBR-53 was developed. This new product is intended to be used in the furniture segment, to replace the chloroprene rubber (CR-M adhesive, whose base polymer is imported. Different adhesive formulations were developed specifically for the furniture industry, and the performance of the elastomer SBR-53 was compared to that of commercial elastomers SBR-23 (low-styrene traditional SBR and CR-M, as for solution stability, viscosity and mechanical properties.

  11. Misturas NR/SBR: influência da composição e do modo de preparação sobre propriedades mecânicas e reométricas NR/SBR mixtures: influence of composition and preparation mode on the mechanical and rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hérlon M. B. Abreu Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de produtos à base de borracha diversas vezes requerem um conjunto de propriedades as quais, geralmente, não são fornecidas por um único elastômero. Dessa forma, um dos recursos utilizados é a mistura de dois ou mais polímeros para obtenção de novas propriedades. Neste caso, os demais ingredientes que são adicionados, normalmente distribuem-se de forma irregular, dependendo de sua afinidade com cada uma das borrachas. O grau de dispersão de cada um desses ingredientes em cada fase elastomérica irá então influenciar a velocidade de cura e o grau de vulcanização e, certamente, terá conseqüências nas propriedades do produto final. Neste trabalho, a borracha natural (NR foi misturada ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR nas proporções de 75:25 e 50:50, em massa. As composições foram preparadas empregando-se quatro maneiras distintas para a incorporação dos aditivos. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas mostraram que, apesar da utilização de uma mesma formulação, o modo de preparo tem grande influência sobre as propriedades. No caso da mistura NR/SBR as melhores propriedades são obtidas quando é favorecida a vulcanização da borracha que, isoladamente, apresenta propriedades inferiores.Frequently a set of properties required for a given application cannot be accomplished by one elastomer only and, thus, mixtures of two or more polymers must be employed. In these cases, the other ingredients added are normally dispersed in a non homogeneous way, depending on their affinity to each polymer. The degree of dispersion each additive experiences in each elastomeric phase will influence the rate and the degree of vulcanization and will certainly have consequences on the properties of the final product. In this work, natural rubber (NR was mixed with styrene-butadiene elastomer (SBR in 75:25 and 50:50 w/w ratios. The compositions were prepared in a two-roll mill, by introducing the additives according to

  12. Thermo-chemical de-vulcanization of suphur-vulcanized SBR assisted by de-vulcanization aids and oxidation stabilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ground tire rubber (GTR) from whole passenger car tires is composed of several types of rubbers and fillers, making de-vulcanization of this material rather complicated. The most critical component in this material is SBR, as it tends to degrade and recombine during the commonly used reclaiming

  13. Thermolysis of scrap tire and rubber in sub/super-critical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Fuxin; Meng, Aihong; Tan, Zhongchao; Zhang, Yanguo

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of waste tires has become a serious environmental issue. Energy and material recovery is regarded as a promising use for waste tires. Thermolysis of scrap tire (ST), natural rubber (NR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was carried out in subcritical and supercritical water using a temperature-pressure independent adjustable batch tubular reactor. As a result, oil yields increased as temperature and pressure increased, and they reached maximum values as the state of water was near the critical point. However, further increases in water temperature and pressure reduced the oil yields. The maximum oil yield of 21.21% was obtained at 420 °C and 18 MPa with a reaction time of 40 min. The relative molecular weights of the chemicals in the oil products were in the range of 70-140 g/mole. The oil produced from ST, NR, and SBR contained similar chemical compounds, but the oil yield of SR was between those of NR and SBR. The oil yield from thermolysis of subcritical or supercritical water should be further improved. The main gaseous products, including CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , and C 3 H 8 , increased with reaction time, temperature, and pressure, whereas the solid residues, including carbon black and impurities, decreased. These results provide useful information to develop a sub/super-critical water thermolysis process for energy and material regeneration from waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Several Thermal Analysis Techniques to Study the Cracking of an Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) Insulator on the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) of the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles D.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Two different vendor rubber formulations have been used to produce the silica-filled NBR insulators for the BSM used on both of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) of the Space Shuttle. A number of lots of the BSM insulator in 1998-99 exhibited surface cracks and/or crazing. Each insulator is bonded to the BSM aluminum aft closure with an epoxy adhesive. Induced insulator stresses from adhesive cure are likely greatest where the insulator/adhesive contour is the greatest, thus showing increased insulator surface cracking in this area. Thermal analysis testing by Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) was performed on one each of the two vendor BSM insulators previously bonded that exhibited the surface cracking. The TMA data from the film/fiber technique yielded the most meaningful results, with thin insulator surface samples containing cracks having roughly the same modulus (stiffness) as thin insulator bulk samples just underneath.

  15. Sifat fisika dan analisis gugus fungsi karet seal o-ring dari bahan termoplastik elastomer nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR dan polyvinyl chloride (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the physical properties and functional groups on O-ring rubber seals made of thermoplastic elastomers blend NBR and PVC. Composition of the NBR / PVC were successively varied : 90/10; 85/15; 80/20; 75/25; 70/30 and 65/35 phr. Mixing process between NBR/PVC with additive used a two roll mill within a temperature of 60º - 80 ºC, the vulcanization process used a hydraulic press at a temperature of 170 oC and pressure of 150 kg/cm2. The physical properties were evaluated including tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, before and after aging, hardness after immersion in isooctane and swelling while analysis of functional groups was also carried out by method of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR. The result of the best vulcanized was characterized by tensile strength 188.93 kg/cm2, the change of tensile strength after aging 2.50%, elongation at break of 400%, the change of elongation at break after aging was 12.5%, hardness 75 shore A, the change of hardness after aging 0%, the change of hardness after immersion in isooctane 1.3%, swelling 0.8% and functional group of vulcanisate was indicated by new peak (OH at wave band of 3468 cm-1. Those formula met the requirements of the technical specifications of ASTM D 2000 seal O-ring.

  16. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan, Nikki; Liu, Max; Topham, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled polymerization of 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization has been demonstrated for the first time. 2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene, more commonly known as chloroprene, has significant industrial relevance as a crosslinked rubber, with uses ranging from adhesives to integral automotive components. However, problems surrounding the inherent toxicity of the lifecycle of the thiourea-vulcanized rubber have led to the need for control ...

  17. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  18. Pemanfaatan Silika Abu Sekam Padi sebagai Bahan Pengisi Rubber Membrane Filter Press untuk Memisahkan Minyak Inti Sawit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed to obtain rubber membrane filter press (RMFP) from natural rubber (NR) as well as synthetic rubber (chloroprene rubber and nytrike butadiene rubber). The research method was done my vulcanizing natural rubber, synthetic rubber, and filler to shape RMFP. Research formulation was done with 8 units of experiments using variations of mixers that have been pre-determined. The examination to the RMFP was done with ASTM test methods that cover parameters such as viscometer mo...

  19. Pengaruh sulfur terhadap sifat fisika campuran pale crepe dan SBR untuk karet tahan panas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur plays an important role in the rubber vulcanization process especially in the formation of crosslinks. Heat resistant rubber made from mixing pale crepe and SBR requires the right amount of sulfur as crosslinking agent. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of the addition of sulfur on the changes in physical properties before and after aging. Heat resistant rubber was made with variation of pale crepe/SBR: 80/20; 70/30; 60/40; 50/50 phr and sulfur variation of 1; 1.5 phr. The results showed that sulfur was influential in the crosslinks formation. The addition of 1 phr sulfur gave higher physical properties of the vulcanized with 1.5 phr sulfur. The changes of physical properties after aging process of the vulcanized with sulfur 1 phr was lower than the vulcanized with sulfur 1.5 phr. Vulcanized pale crepe/SBR (70/30 with 1 phr sulfur could be applied as heat-resistant rubber products.

  20. 21 CFR 177.1050 - Acrylonitrile/styrene copoly-mer modified with butadiene/styrene elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... parts by weight of a grafted rubber consisting of (i) 8-12 parts of butadiene/styrene elastomer... limitations are determined by an infrared spectro-photo-metric method titled “Infrared Spectro-photo-metric...

  1. Elastomers for Tracked Vehicles: 1980-1997 Program to Improve Durability of Rubber Tank Pads for Army Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    elastomeric compound coded NBR -12 was developed. This compound was based on a highly saturated nitrile rubber or hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene...at Fort Belvoir, VA, produced a patented rubber formulation ( NBR -12) based on hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR)1,2 with a novel curing and filler...performance vehicles. • Acrylonitrile butadiene or nitrile rubber ( NBR )10: NBR is the generic name given to emulsion polymerized copolymers of

  2. US rubber markets recover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic rubber markets in North America bounced back in no uncertain terms last year, with demand climbing an impressive 9.5%, to 2.97 million m.t.; and, according to the International Institute of Synthetic Rubber Producers (IIS-RP; Houston) latest five-year forecast, producers can look forward to a 3.3% increase in demand during 1993. This growth rate outpaced out 1992 forecast and demonstrates the resilience of the synthetic rubber industry, says William E. Tessemer, managing director of IISRP. We expect demand in 1993 to surpass 1992 and level off at a 2%/year growth rate for synthetic rubber - 2.5% including thermoplastic elastomers [TPEs]-over the 1993-97 period. The improvement reflects signs of a recovery in North America, especially the pickup in the auto and tire industry. The two major tire rubbers - styrene butadiene and polybutadiene rubber - notched up double-digit gains, and other materials that have autos uses, such as nitrile rubber and many of the specialty elastomers, also advanced strongly

  3. Characterization of electron-beam-modified surface coated clay fillers and their influence on physical properties of rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sudip; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Majali, A.B.; Tikku, V.K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel process of surface modification of clay filler has been developed by coating this with an acrylate monomer, trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or a silane coupling agent, triethoxy vinyl silane (TEVS) followed by electron beam irradiation. Characterization of these surface modified fillers has been carried out by Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), wettability by dynamic wicking method measuring the rise of a liquid through a filler-packed capillary tube and water flotation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Presence of the acrylate and the silane coupling agent on the modified fillers has been confirmed from FTIR, ESCA, and EDX studies, which has also been supported by TGA studies. The contact angle measurement by dynamic wicking method suggests improvement in hydrophobicity of the treated fillers, which is supported by water flotation test especially in the case of silanized clay. However, XRD studies demonstrate that the entire modification process does not affect the bulk properties of the fillers. Finally, both unmodified and modified clay fillers have been incorporated in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and nitrile rubber (NBR). Rheometric and mechanical properties reveal that there is a definite improvement using these modified fillers specially in the case of silanized clay compared to the control sample, probably due to successful enhancement in interaction between the treated clay and the base polymer

  4. Evaluation of clay hybrid nanocomposites of different chain length as reinforcing agent for natural and synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehia, A.A.; Akelah, A.M.; Rehab, A.; El-Sabbagh, S.H.; El Nashar, D.E.; Koriem, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The modified organo-clay (MMT-ATBN) markedly reinforce natural and synthetic rubbers. → The reinforcing efficiency of the organo-clay is much higher than HAF carbon black. → The reinforcing efficiency of MMT modified with different alkylamines greatly depend on the chain length. → The good compatibility of modified organo-clay with NBR can be attributed to the chemical nature. -- Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites are one of the highly discussed research topics in recent time. It has been reported in the present paper the preparation and the properties of different nanoclays based on sodium montmorillonite (bentonite) and some organic amines of varying chain lengths (dodecylamine, hexadecylamine and octadecylamine) beside amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN). The hybrid clays have been characterized with the help of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Wide angle X-ray diffractions (WXRD), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). X-ray results showed that the intergallery distance of the clay is increased as a result of the intercalation of the amines and ATBN. The nanocomposite clays were incorporated in natural and synthetic rubbers (NR, SBR and NBR). The physico-mechanical properties are greatly improved with loading low concentrations of the nanocomposite clays compared with carbon black.

  5. Characterization of electron-beam-modified surface coated clay fillers and their influence on physical properties of rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sudip; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Sarma, K. S. S.; Majali, A. B.; Tikku, V. K.

    2002-12-01

    A novel process of surface modification of clay filler has been developed by coating this with an acrylate monomer, trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or a silane coupling agent, triethoxy vinyl silane (TEVS) followed by electron beam irradiation. Characterization of these surface modified fillers has been carried out by Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), wettability by dynamic wicking method measuring the rise of a liquid through a filler-packed capillary tube and water flotation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Presence of the acrylate and the silane coupling agent on the modified fillers has been confirmed from FTIR, ESCA, and EDX studies, which has also been supported by TGA studies. The contact angle measurement by dynamic wicking method suggests improvement in hydrophobicity of the treated fillers, which is supported by water flotation test especially in the case of silanized clay. However, XRD studies demonstrate that the entire modification process does not affect the bulk properties of the fillers. Finally, both unmodified and modified clay fillers have been incorporated in styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and nitrile rubber (NBR). Rheometric and mechanical properties reveal that there is a definite improvement using these modified fillers specially in the case of silanized clay compared to the control sample, probably due to successful enhancement in interaction between the treated clay and the base polymer.

  6. Gender differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene to butadiene diepoxide in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E. [and others

    1995-12-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a gaseous compound used in the production of rubber, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats. The mechanism of BD-induced carcinogenicity is thought to involve genotoxic effects of its reactive epoxide metabolites butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO{sub 2}). Studies in our laboratory have shown that levels of the epoxides, particularly BDO{sub 2}, are greater in mice-the more sensitive species-than rats. While both epoxides are genotoxic in a number of assays, BDO{sub 2} is mutagenic in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than BDO. Species differences in carcinogenicity of BD have posed a dilemma to investigators deciding which animal model is most appropriate for BD risk assessment.

  7. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a 60 Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation

  8. Rubber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  9. Improved natural rubber composites reinforced with a complex filler network of biobased nanoparticles and ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased rubber composites are renewable and sustainable. Significant improvement in modulus of rubber composite reinforced with hydrophilic filler was achieved with the inclusion of ionomers. Soy particles aided with ionomer, carboxylated styrene-butadiene (CSB), formed a strong complex filler netw...

  10. Modification of rubber surface with hydrogenated diamond-like carbon thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y. T.; Bui, X. L.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Laudon, M; Romanowicz, B

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) have been deposited on hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) for reduction of friction and enhancement of wear resistance of dynamic rubber seals, by sputtering graphite targets in C(2)H(2)/Ar plasma. The wax removal and pre-deposition

  11. Magnetron reactively sputtered Ti-DLC coatings on HNBR rubber : The influence of substrate bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, X.L.; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Ti-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) coatings have been deposited on HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubber and also on Si wafer as reference via unbalanced magnetroli reactive sputtering from a Ti target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The deposition rates of coatings on rubber and Si

  12. Toughening of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites with rubber nanoparticles for advanced industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ozdemir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of nano carboxylic acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (CNBR-NP and nano acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR-NP on the interlaminar shear strength and fracture toughness of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRP with dicyandiamide-cured epoxy matrix. The results show that nano-size dispersion of rubber significantly improved the Mode I delamination fracture toughness (GIC of the CFRP by 250% and its Mode II delamination fracture toughness (GIIC by 80% with the addition of 20 phr of CNBR-NP. For the NBR-NP system, the GIC and GIIC delamination fracture toughness of the CFRP were increased by 200 and 80% respectively with the addition of 20 phr (parts per hundred rubber of nano rubber to the matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the fracture surface revealed that the toughening was mainly achieved by debonding of the nano rubber, crack path deflection and fibre bridging.

  13. Mechanical properties of irradiated rubber-blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, G.M.; Madani, M.

    2005-01-01

    A study has been made on blend ratios of natural rubber (NR) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) that are loaded with general purpose furnace (GPE) carbon black and irradiated at different gamma radiation doses. It was fount that the mechanical properties of such blend are highly affected by γ- irradiation dose and the composition ratios of its constituents. The elongation at break for blends was found to increase slightly with increasing NBR loafing which is mainly due to the stiffness of blending matrix formation between NR and GPF carbon black particles. The hysteresis loss, extension ratio and shape factor have been calculated for the different un-irradiated and irradiated samples

  14. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  15. Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the understanding the viscoelastic behavior of silica filled Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) using different sizes/surface areas in three different regions of deformation that will be developed in 3 chapters. The characterization of the samples used in this work is described in

  16. Positron annihilation studies on proton irradiated nitrile rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Chandran, T.S.G.; Lobo, Blaise; Ranganath, M.R.; Gopal, S.; Sreeramalu, V.

    1996-01-01

    NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) was irradiated with 4 MeV proton beam from a variable energy cyclotron (VEC) at VEC Centre, Calcutta, to a flux of 10 16 ions/cm 2 , in a vacuum of 10 -9 Torr and was studied through positron lifetime measurements

  17. Tribological behavior of W-DLC coated rubber seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coatings have been deposited on FKM (fluorocarbon) and HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubbers via unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering from a WC target in a C2H2/Ar plasma. The surface morphology and fracture cross sections of uncoated and

  18. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  19. The cross linking of EPDM and NBR rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžija-Jovanović Suzana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of macromolecule cross linking, the choice of type and quantity of the components and the experimental conditions are important to obtain the new cross linked materials with better mechanical and chemical characteristics. The cross linking method depends on the rubber type and structure. Intermolecular cross linking results in the formation elastomer network. The basis of the cross linking process, between ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, is a chemical reaction. Fillers and other additives are present in different mass ratios in the material. The exploitation properties of the cross linked materials depend on the quantity of additive in the cross linked systems.

  20. Misturas BR/SBR: propriedades mecânicas em função do modo de preparo BR/SBR blends: mechanical properties as a function of the preparation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. de Alcantara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas com borracha são freqüentemente usadas para se conseguir o balanço das propriedades desejadas e também, em alguns casos, a redução de custos. As misturas elastoméricas são normalmente sistemas multifásicos e a distribuição dos aditivos entre as fases não é necessariamente uniforme. Neste trabalho, o polibutadieno (BR foi misturado ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR na proporção 1:1 em peso. As composições foram preparadas utilizando um misturador de rolos, segundo a norma ASTM D3182, sendo que a incorporação dos aditivos foi realizada de quatro formas diferentes. Após a avaliação das propriedades reométricas e a vulcanização, foram estudadas as propriedades mecânicas para cada composição, avaliadas de acordo com as normas ASTM específicas para cada ensaio. Os resultados mostram que os diferentes modos de preparo de uma mesma formulação podem provocar mudança significativa nas propriedades mecânicas de misturas envolvendo essas duas borrachas. No caso das misturas BR/SBR estudadas, as propriedades apresentaram valores intermediários aos das borrachas isoladas.Rubber blends are frequently prepared to give a balance of the desired properties and, in some cases, reduction of cost as well. Elastomeric mixtures are usually multiphase systems and the dispersion of the additives may not be uniform throughout the phases. In this work, polybutadiene rubber (BR was mixed with polybutadiene-styrene rubber (SBR in a 50:50 w/w ratio. The compositions were prepared in a two-roll mill, according to ASTM D3182, and the incorporation of the ingredients was carried out according to four different modes. After the determination of the rheometric properties and the vulcanization of the compounds, mechanical properties were evaluated according to specific ASTM procedures. The results show that the mechanical properties may be altered by changing the procedure to prepare a given formulation. In the case of BR/SBR

  1. Rubber Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  2. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  3. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex sensitized with commercial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirinos, H.; Lugao, A.

    2002-01-01

    The industrial activities using natural rubber latex are fully compatible with rural areas in Amazon and other places in Brazil, as well as in other tropical countries. However the classical sulfur vulcanization presents many occupational problems for the workers in rural areas. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex is a much more friendly process as sulfur compounds are not needed for crosslinking, although chemicals as acrylate monomers, particularly multifunctional acrylates are still used as sensitizers for radiation processes. Two commercial gases, acetylene and butadiene, were selected as sensitizers for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex instead of acrylates. These gases accelerate the crosslinking rates of the cure process and lower the radiation dose required to achieve vulcanization of natural rubber latex and improve the mechanical properties to reduce the tackiness of rubber goods. (author)

  4. Comparison study of crosslink density determination in cured rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-sabbagh, S.H.; Yehia, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The crosslink density is an important property affecting the major characteristics of cured rubber. The crosslink density can be determined by different methods such as: 1. Dynamic mechanical method using the data of stress-strain relationship. 2. Mooney-Rivlin equation 3. Swelling in organic solvents measurements using Flory-Rehner equation. The crosslink density calculated by the previous methods were discussed and compared with each other for cured NR, SBR and NBR. The obtained data showed that the dynamic-mechanical method can be considered as a simple and reliable method for determination of crosslink density for cured rubbers

  5. Evaluation of rubber seal products for gamma facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobhy, M.S.; Shafy, M.A.; Shahin, F.

    2005-01-01

    Ageing behavior by employing the prolonged exposures of high-energy radiation such as gamma-rays on the physicomechanical properties of some rubber seal products are studied. The proposed binary-rubber blends, SBR/NBR, EPDM/NBR and EPDM/EPM. have overcome their problem of inhomogeneity and incompatibility between the two rubber phases. Such enhancements are acquired by either the replacement of part of NBR by SBR during mastication, or the incorporation of maleic anhydride. Results show that the EPDM/EPM rubber blend has possessed the radiation resistance property towards the deterioration due to higher gamma-irradiation dose. The SEM images have c early observed the role of the used antioxidant, where a thin film is usually produced, degraded; with the appearance of surface cracks, and repaired with further gamma-irradiation up to high doses. Such enhancement is necessary for the definition of the requirements to be put on rubber seal materials. Finally, these products ought to assure the quality control in production and evaluate their application suitability that may employ in the pneumatic system in gamma facility

  6. Microwave enhanced digestion of aerobic SBR sludge | Kennedy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWs) for improving characteristics of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) sludge to enhance mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Effects of pretreatment temperature, MW irradiation intensity and solids concentration on sludge characterisation ...

  7. Rheological Properties of Rubber Compounds with Finely Divided Carbon Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashok, Zh. S.; Prokopchuk, N. R.; Vishnevskii, K. V.; Krauklis, A. V.; Borisevich, K. O.; Borisevich, I. O.

    2018-01-01

    A study has been made of the influence of three different nanomaterials: of the starting material, and also of those functionalized by amine and oxygen-containing groups, on the properties of elastomer compositions based on rubbers for special purposes. As the elastomer matrix, use was made in one case of a rubber compound based on BNKS-18 butadiene-nitrile rubber and in the other, of a combination of two grades of butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNKS-18 + BNKS-28 in a 50:50 ratio), which differed by the amount of the bound nitrile of acrylic acid. To determine the degree of interaction between the additives and the elastomer matrix, the authors carried out multiple tests of the rubber compounds. The indices of plastoelastic properties of the rubber compounds and the qualitative characteristics of distribution of the filler (elastic modulus at small deformation amplitudes and the shear modulus under large deformation) and the difference in these indices (complex dynamic modulus) alike have been determined.

  8. The Effect of Uncertainty in Exposure Estimation on the Exposure-Response Relation between 1,3-Butadiene and Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maldonado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a follow-up study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers, cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was positively associated with leukemia. Problems with historical exposure estimation, however, may have distorted the association. To evaluate the impact of potential inaccuracies in exposure estimation, we conducted uncertainty analyses of the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia. We created the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates using job-exposure matrices consisting of exposure values that corresponded to randomly selected percentiles of the approximate probability distribution of plant-, work area/job group-, and year specific butadiene ppm. We then analyzed the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia for each of the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates. In the uncertainty analysis, the point estimate of the RR for the first non zero exposure category (>0–<37.5 ppm-years was most likely to be about 1.5. The rate ratio for the second exposure category (37.5–<184.7 ppm-years was most likely to range from 1.5 to 1.8. The RR for category 3 of exposure (184.7–<425.0 ppm-years was most likely between 2.1 and 3.0. The RR for the highest exposure category (425.0+ ppm-years was likely to be between 2.9 and 3.7. This range off RR point estimates can best be interpreted as a probability distribution that describes our uncertainty in RR point estimates due to uncertainty in exposure estimation. After considering the complete probability distributions of butadiene exposure estimates, the exposure-response association of butadiene and leukemia was maintained. This exercise was a unique example of how uncertainty analyses can be used to investigate and support an observed measure of effect when occupational exposure estimates are employed in the absence of direct exposure measurements.

  9. Biological Reclaiming of Recycled Rubber and Its Effect on Mechanical Properties of New Rubber Vulcanizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mansourirad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to environmental concerns, there has been great attention to recycling and reclaiming of tires. Different methods have been used for reclaiming or desulfurization of rubber. One of these methods, in which desulfurization of rubber happens with no damage to the polymer structure, is desulfurization by biological microorganisms. In this research the application and performance of thermophilic and sulfur oxidizing bacteria, Acidianus brierleyi for this purpose was investigated. Ground tire rubber was detoxified with organic solvents, and the optimum conditions for growing microorganisms in the existence of rubber powder in the shaker flasks were determined. In order to accelerate the process, the suitable conditions for growth of bacteria and desulfurization in the bioreactor were adopted. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to characterize desulfurization of bio-treated powder from bioreactor. The results indicated that morphological changes on powder surface and reduction of sulfur bonds have occurred. Samples from bioreactors, with and without bacteria and also untreated rubber powder were compounded with virgin styrene butadiene rubber. Tensile and dynamic properties were investigated using uni-direction tensile test and dynamic-mechanical-thermal analysis, respectively. Although some differences in dynamic-mechanical-thermal properties of samples pointed to stronger interaction between rubber matrix and treated rubber powder, no significant improvements in the mechanical properties of vulcanizates containing A.brierleyi-treated powder were observed. Low concentration of sulfur in rubber vulcanizates, chemical bonds of sulfur, and low efficiency of A. brierleyi in breaking sulfur bonds and reclaiming rubber were considered as the reasons for low efficiency of this treatment process.

  10. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural polymers during the world war years led to the development of synthetic polymers like nylon, acrylic, neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyethylene. The increasing popularity of synthetic polymers is partly due...

  11. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha natural e EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CQMA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation.

  12. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  13. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe 2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H 2 O 2 /COD molar ratio 2, H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  14. Study of radiation induced structural changes in nitrile rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, F.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Copolymers of butadiene (BD) and acrylonitrile (AN) (NBR rubber), have become important commercial material. NBR rubbers are part of a larger classification of products often referred to as special-purpose rubbers. Oil resistance is the most important property of nitrile rubbers, and refer to the ability of the vulcanised product to retain its original physical properties such as modulus, tensile strength, abrasion resistance and dimensions, while in contact with oils and fuels. Despite these reported advantages very few studies have been conducted on the radiation yields and structural changes in nitrile rubbers during exposure to high energy radiation. In this study we are investigating the stability against gamma and UV radiation, to different doses in vacuum, of butadiene, acrylonitrile and NBR copolymers with different composition ratio BD/AN. The mechanism of radiation induced structural changes is being investigated using experimental techniques such as ESR, NMR (Solid-state), FT-IR, RAMAN and UV spectroscopy. Also is being investigated the effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties of stressed and unstressed samples by TGA, DSC, DMA, Instron and Creep Test measurements. So far the main effect have been a marked radiation-induced loss of unsaturation in the butadiene units, cis to trans isomerization and formation of crosslink structures (intermolecular and intramolecular). One of the main challenges in the studies of NBR polymers is to observe directly the crosslinks produces by the radiation induced chemical reactions. IR spectroscopy is unsuitable because of the low molar absorbity of the peaks related to intermolecular crosslinking and the overlapping of the peaks (1630-1670 cm-1) related to intramolecular crosslinking (cyclization), with conjugated and nonconjugated (-C=C-; -C=N-) double bonds. A. K. Whittaker has shown that crosslink structures in PBD can be detected and measured directly using solid-state 13 C NMR. This technique

  15. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  16. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-01-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in 60 Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  17. Microstructure and tribological behavior of tungsten-containing diamondlike carbon coated rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Zhou, Xiao; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten-containing diamondlike carbon (W-DLC) coatings have been deposited on FKM (fluorocarbon), ACM (acrylate), and HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubbers via unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering from a WC target in C2H2/Ar plasma. The surface morphology and, fracture cross sections of

  18. Modeling of continuous free-radical butadiene-styrene copolymerization process by the Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Mikhailova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the algorithm of modeling of continuous low-temperature free-radical butadiene-styrene copolymerization process in emulsion based on the Monte-Carlo method is offered. This process is the cornerstone of industrial production butadiene – styrene synthetic rubber which is the most widespread large-capacity rubber of general purpose. Imitation of growth of each macromolecule of the formed copolymer and tracking of the processes happening to it is the basis of algorithm of modeling. Modeling is carried out taking into account residence-time distribution of particles in system that gives the chance to research the process proceeding in the battery of consistently connected polymerization reactors. At the same time each polymerization reactor represents the continuous stirred tank reactor. Since the process is continuous, it is considered continuous addition of portions to the reaction mixture in the first reactor of battery. The constructed model allows to research molecular-weight and viscous characteristics of the formed copolymerization product, to predict the mass content of butadiene and styrene in copolymer, to carry out calculation of molecular-weight distribution of the received product at any moment of conducting process. According to the results of computational experiments analyzed the influence of mode of the process of the regulator introduced during the maintaining on change of characteristics of the formed butadiene-styrene copolymer. As the considered process takes place with participation of monomers of two types, besides listed the model allows to research compositional heterogeneity of the received product that is to carry out calculation of composite distribution and distribution of macromolecules for the size and structure. On the basis of the proposed algorithm created the software tool that allows you to keep track of changes in the characteristics of the resulting product in the dynamics.

  19. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  20. Efficient de-vulcanization of sulfur-vulcanized SBR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacques W.M.

    Enabling recycling loops for used passenger car tires is a challenge and an opportunity: The challenge lies in the presence of SBR as the main elastomer in this type of tires, which makes this material difficult to reclaim due to the tendency of the elastomer chain fragments to re-combine. The

  1. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  3. Evaluation of filler effects on SBR in large shearing deformations 1. Utility of differential dynamic modulus as predictor for wet skid resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Y.; Oyama, T.; Kawahara, S.

    2003-01-01

    Now the use of silica in tire tread applications is increasing. This is because of not so different rolling resistance for silica (Si) filled and carbon black (CB) filled rubbers, and of higher wet skid resistance for the former than the latter. Such difference should be attributed to the variation in viscoelasticity. It is, however, still unknown what viscoelastic function should be used as a predictor. At the place in contact with the road, a tire tread rubber undergoes a large deformation on which small oscillations are superposed. Hence differential dynamic modulus measured by intermittently superposing small oscillations on a large deformation may provide useful information. In this work, nonlinear viscoelastic properties of CB and Si (with coupling agent) filled SBR vulcanizates were studied in cycles of large shearing deformation (γ = 2) and recovery (γ = 0) on which small shear oscillations (γ osc = 0.005) were superposed. CB filled SBR showed different responses in deformed and recovered states: Values of tanδ are lower in deformed state than in recovered state. However, Si filled one showed no change in tanδ in the two states. In the deformed state, Si system showed higher tanδ than CB system. The results agree with our experience of higher wet skid resistance for Si than for CB, showing validity of differential loss tangent as the predictor. Copyright (2003) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  4. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  5. Effects of Running Shoes with Abrasion Resistant Rubber Sole on the Exercise Capacity of the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization, rubber has been gradually used in the manufacture of sports equipment for its favourable properties. This study involved the addition of C5 petroleum resin into brominated isobutylene-isoprene rubber (BIIR and butadiene rubber (BR while manufacturing the sole of running shoes. The effects of running shoes with abrasion resistant rubber sole on the exercise capacity of the human body were investigated by analysing the skid resistance and abrasion resistance of the running shoes, and conducting biomechanical study on naked feet and feet wearing the shoes. The results demonstrated that the rubber sole had favourable slip resistance property and mechanical properties such as stretching, abrasion resistance, and hardness. Compared to naked feet, the peak pressure intensity of the whole step of feet wearing the newly developed shoes, was significantly lower than that of feet wearing ordinary shoes. In the future, rubber can bring more comfortable experience because of its favourable properties.

  6. Properties of tire rubber with zinc-containing technological additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kayushnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the influence of zinc-containing technological additives on partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid on deformation-strength and performance properties of tire elastomeric compositions based on polyisoprene rubber and combination of oil-filled butadiene-styrene and polybutadiene rubbers. It was revealed that partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid with zinc-containing technological additives does not significantly affect the basic physico-mechanical properties of rubbers based on synthetic rubbers of general use. It was determined that the introduction of zinc-containing technological additives SCC2 in combination with zinc oxide in all the studied ratios and SCC3 in combination with zinc oxide in 4: 1 and 3: 1 ratios leads to increase (up to 10.4% of the resistance of these rubbers under the action of temperature-force fields, which is probably due to a more even distribution of polar components of curing system in non-polar elastomeric matrix, as well as the type of cross-links formed during vulcanization under the action of surface-active additives. It has been found that the introduction of zinc-containing additives into the elastomeric compositions based on SRMS-30 ARKM-15 + SRD in combination with zinc oxide leads to increase to 6.3% of wear resistance of rubbers, which may be due to a lower defectiveness of vulcanization structure of these rubbers, concentration of stress centers in the material. For rubbers based on SRI-3, preservation of bond strength of rubber with a textile cord at a sufficiently high level is shown.

  7. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Radiation cured acrylonitrile--butadiene elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldred, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of this invention, the ultimate elongation of an electron beam radiation cured acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer is significantly increased by the incorporation of a preferred noncrosslinking monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, in combination with the conventional crosslinking monomer, trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate, prior to the radiation curing process

  9. Rubber glove wearing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takada, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    Rubber groves are attached each to an upper end of a glove putting vessel having an air-sucking hole on the bottom by enlarging an opening end of the rubber glove and turning back the inside to the outside. When the sucking device is operated, air in the glove putting device is sucked and the rubber glove is expanded by an atmospheric pressure. After expansion of the rubber glove to some extent, the sucking device is stopped, and presence or absence of failures of the rubber glove is confirmed by shrinkage of the rubber glove and by an indication value of a pressure gauge for detecting the pressure change in the vessel. Then, a hand is inserted to the expanded rubber glove, and a detaching switch in the vessel is pushed by a finger tip. A detaching piece at the upper end of the vessel is protruded outwardly to enlarge the turned-back portion of the rubber glove to easily release the rubber glove from the putting vessel, and the rubber glove is put on. This enables to wear the rubber glove and conduct failure test simultaneously. Further, a user can put on the rubber glove without touching the outside of the rubber glove. (I.N.)

  10. Natural rubber: leather composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran,K.; Natchimuthu,N.

    2005-01-01

    Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have ...

  11. Surface improvement of EPDM rubber by plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, J H [LPP, Physics Department, ITA, CTA, Pca Mal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P. (Brazil); Silva Sobrinho, A S da [LPP, Physics Department, ITA, CTA, Pca Mal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P. (Brazil); Maciel, H S [LPP, Physics Department, ITA, CTA, Pca Mal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P. (Brazil); Dutra, J C N [EBO, Chemistry Division, IAE, CTA, Pca Mal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P. (Brazil); Massi, M [LPP, Physics Department, ITA, CTA, Pca Mal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P. (Brazil); Mello, S A C [EBO, Chemistry Division, IAE, CTA, Pca Mal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P. (Brazil); Schreiner, W H [Physics Department, UFPR, Centro Politecnico, 80060-000 Curitiba, P.R. (Brazil)

    2007-12-21

    The surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber was treated in N{sub 2}/Ar and N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/Ar RF plasmas in order to achieve similar or better adhesion properties than NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene) rubber, nowadays used as thermal protection of rocket chambers. The surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The treated surfaces of the EPDM samples show a significant reduction in the contact angle measurement, indicating an increase in the surface energy. XPS analyses show the incorporation of polar nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups on the rubber surface. After plasma treatment the presence of oxygen is observed due to surface oxidation which occurs when the samples are exposed to the air. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses indicate a decrease in the EPDM rubber surface roughness, promoted by surface etching during the plasma treatment. Strength tests indicate improvement of about 30% and 110% in the adhesion strength for the plasma treated EPDM/polyurethane liner interface and for the EPDM/epoxy adhesive interface, respectively. The adhesion strength of the EPDM/liner is similar to that obtained for the NBR/liner, which indicates that EPDM rubber can safely be used as thermal protection of the solid propellant rocket chamber.

  12. Surface improvement of EPDM rubber by plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, J H; Silva Sobrinho, A S da; Maciel, H S; Dutra, J C N; Massi, M; Mello, S A C; Schreiner, W H

    2007-01-01

    The surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber was treated in N 2 /Ar and N 2 /H 2 /Ar RF plasmas in order to achieve similar or better adhesion properties than NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene) rubber, nowadays used as thermal protection of rocket chambers. The surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The treated surfaces of the EPDM samples show a significant reduction in the contact angle measurement, indicating an increase in the surface energy. XPS analyses show the incorporation of polar nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups on the rubber surface. After plasma treatment the presence of oxygen is observed due to surface oxidation which occurs when the samples are exposed to the air. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses indicate a decrease in the EPDM rubber surface roughness, promoted by surface etching during the plasma treatment. Strength tests indicate improvement of about 30% and 110% in the adhesion strength for the plasma treated EPDM/polyurethane liner interface and for the EPDM/epoxy adhesive interface, respectively. The adhesion strength of the EPDM/liner is similar to that obtained for the NBR/liner, which indicates that EPDM rubber can safely be used as thermal protection of the solid propellant rocket chamber

  13. Surface improvement of EPDM rubber by plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, J. H.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Maciel, H. S.; Dutra, J. C. N.; Massi, M.; Mello, S. A. C.; Schreiner, W. H.

    2007-12-01

    The surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber was treated in N2/Ar and N2/H2/Ar RF plasmas in order to achieve similar or better adhesion properties than NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene) rubber, nowadays used as thermal protection of rocket chambers. The surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The treated surfaces of the EPDM samples show a significant reduction in the contact angle measurement, indicating an increase in the surface energy. XPS analyses show the incorporation of polar nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups on the rubber surface. After plasma treatment the presence of oxygen is observed due to surface oxidation which occurs when the samples are exposed to the air. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses indicate a decrease in the EPDM rubber surface roughness, promoted by surface etching during the plasma treatment. Strength tests indicate improvement of about 30% and 110% in the adhesion strength for the plasma treated EPDM/polyurethane liner interface and for the EPDM/epoxy adhesive interface, respectively. The adhesion strength of the EPDM/liner is similar to that obtained for the NBR/liner, which indicates that EPDM rubber can safely be used as thermal protection of the solid propellant rocket chamber.

  14. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to refine the BIOMATH calibration protocol for SBR systems, in particular to develop a pragmatic calibration protocol that takes advantage of SBR information-rich data, defines a simulation strategy to obtain proper initial conditions for model calibration and provide...

  15. Wear testing and finite element analysis of nitrile rubber (NBR) hand pump seals

    OpenAIRE

    Alkadhimi, Fadel

    2015-01-01

    The use of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber NBR as seal in machines has increased in recent years. NBR is considered as the standard material for sealing and NBR owes its many applications to a range of special mechanical properties. However, the non-linear mechanical properties and incompressible behaviour of NBR make the analysis of NBR very difficult. The literature review highlighted the fact that the most common technical cause of hand pump failures was the wear of the piston seals. The contact ...

  16. Study of the mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations in rubber-resinous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharova, L.B.; Astakhova, L.G. Trufanova, N.D.; Persinen, A.A.; Vasil'ev, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Materials based on butadiene-nitrile rubbers reinforced by phenol-formaldehyde resins presently find wide application as reliable heat-insulating coatings for various metallic constructions and are utilized under exposure to ionizing radiation. In this connection, when estimating the assured lifetime of heat-insulating coatings, it is necessary to take into account the character and degree of their radiation-chemical transformations. The aim of the present work was to study the radiation-chemical transformations of materials based on a composite of butadiene-nitrile rubber and phenol-formaldehyde resin. The investigations were carried out on model materials S-O, S-25, S-100, S-130, and S-150 based on the SKN-40M rubber with a varied content of SF-010A brand phenol-formaldehyde resin, the content of which in parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of rubber is indicated in the specifications of the materials. The possible directions of the radiation-chemical transformations in the rubber-resinous vulcanizates were studied by the method of disrupted total internal reflection (MDTIR) IR spectroscopy

  17. High damping properties of magnetic particles doped rubber composites at wide frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ye, E-mail: schtiany@163.com [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Liu, Yaqing, E-mail: lyq@nuc.edu.cn [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); He, Minhong; Zhao, Guizhe; Sun, Youyi [Research Center for Engineering Technology of Polymeric Composites of Shanxi Province, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► A new kind of permanent magnetic rubber was prepared. ► The microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. ► The mechanical and damping properties were discussed. ► The new material is expected to be an isolator material to a changed frequency. - Abstract: A new kind of rubber composite was prepared by doping SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles coated with silane coupling agents (Si-69) into nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) matrix, which was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were well dispersed in rubber matrix. Furthermore, the mechanical and magnetic properties of the rubber composites were investigated, in which the high tensile strength (15.8 MPa) and high saturation magnetization (22.9 emu/g) were observed. What is more, the high loss factor of the rubber composites was also obtained in a wide frequency range (0–100 Hz) at high loading (80 phr). The result is attributed to that the permanent magnetic field in rubber nanocomposites can absorb shock energy. These results indicate that the new kind of permanent magnetic rubber is expected to be a smart isolator material, in which the isolator will be able to adapt to a changed frequency.

  18. Developments in rubber technology 2 synthetic rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K

    1981-01-01

    This book is intended for those people who have a knowledge or understanding of rubber materials and processes but who wish to update their knowledge. It should be read in conjunction with Developments in Rubber Technology-l as that volume discussed developments in natural rubber and selected special purpose synthetic rubbers as well as additives. The authors have been selected for their expertise in each particular field and we, as editors, would like to express our appreciation to the individual authors and also to their companies. Such a book would be impossible to produce without such active cooperation as we have received. Volumes 1 and 2 of Developments in Rubber Technology cover rubbers which are processed and vulcanised in the traditional manner. It is appreciated that the omission of non-vulcanised rubber materials (the so­ called thermoplastic elastomers) will be unwelcome to many readers but it is intended, because of the size of the subject, to cover these materials in a subsequent volume. A.W. K...

  19. Ozonolysis of Model Olefins-Efficiency of Antiozonants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntink, N.M.; Datta, Rabin; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of several potential long lasting antiozonants was studied by ozonolysis of model olefins. 2-Methyl-2-pentene was selected as a model for natural rubber (NR) and 5-phenyl-2-hexene as a model for styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). A comparison was made between the

  20. Treatment of textiles industrial wastewater by electron beam and biological treatment (sbr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Zulkafli Ghazali; Ting Teo Ming

    2008-08-01

    Study of treating textiles industrial wastewater with combined of electron beam and Tower Style Biological Treatment (TSB) was investigated in Korea. In this project, textiles wastewater was also treated with electron beam, but hybrid with Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The purpose of this research is to develop combined electron beam treatment with existing biological treatment facility (SBR), of textile industries in Malaysia. The objectives of this project are to determine the effective irradiation parameter for treatment and to identify effective total retention time in SBR system. To achieve the objective, samples fill in polypropyle tray were irradiated at 1 MeV, 20 mA and 1 MeV ,5 mA at doses 11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy respectively. Raw effluent and two series of irradiated effluent at 1 MeV 20 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) and 1 MeV 5 mA (11, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) were then treated in SBR system. Samples were analysed at 6, 14 and 20 hrs after aeration in the SBR. The results show that, average reduction in BOD was about 2-11% after irradiated at 5 mA, and the percentage increased to 21-73% after treatment in SBR system. At 20 mA, BOD reduced to 7-29% during irradiation and the value increased to 57-87% after treatment in SBR system. (Author)

  1. Natural rubber: leather composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ravichandran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a fibrous protein consisting of collagen in a three dimensionally crosslinked network. Chrome tanning of leather improves the appearance of leather but at the same time emits both solid and liquid chrome leather wastes. Scrap rubber recycling using untreated and neutralized leather fibrous particles in natural rubber has been studied. Vulcanization, mechanical, morphological and swelling properties of the natural rubber - scrap rubber composites containing neutralized leather have been discussed. Use of chrome leather particles has been found to improve the consumption of scrap rubber powder in natural rubber formulations. Polymer composites based on leather wastes as fillers are reported to be useful for many applications such as in construction materials, automobile interior moldings, heat and sound insulating boards, shoe soles, flooring materials and moldings with good anti-static properties, air permeability and good appearances.

  2. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  3. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2017-12-13

    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  4. Magnetic rubber inspection (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Inspection (MRI) was developed to inspect for small cracks and flaws encountered in high performance aircraft. A formula of very fine magnetic particles immersed in a room temperature curing rubber is catalysed and poured into dams (retainers) on the surface of the part to be inspected. Inducing a magnetic field then causes the particles to be drawn to discontinuities in the component under test. These indicating particles are held to the discontinuity by magnetic attraction, as the rubber cures. The solid rubber cast (Replica) is then removed and examined under a microscope for indicating lines of particle concentrations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  5. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  6. The Properties of SBR/ENR50 Blend Containing Nanoclay/Carbon Black Dual Filler System Cured by Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ahmadi-Shooli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites based on an SBR/ENR50 rubber blend with the blend ratio of 50/50 using Cloisite 15A nanoclay (5 and 10 phr and carbon black (20 phr were prepared by melt mixing process. The rubber compounds were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation process at 50 and 100 kGy doses. A reference sample containing carbon black at 35 phr was prepared using a conventional sulphur curing system. The gel content of the samples was specified using gel fraction measurement. The results showed the maximum gel content for the sample having 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black. The dynamic mechanical properties, including the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor, of the nanocomposites were evaluated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA tests. The results indicated that, in spite of a well dispersed nanoclay in samples containing 10 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black, a minimum loss factor was observed in the sample containing 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black at 100 kGy. On the other hand, the storage modulus of the reference sample was found to be higher than that of the sample with 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black. The mechanical properties, including the tensile strength, stress at 100%, 200%, and 300% elongation and the percentage of elongation were measured by a tensile machine. The results showed an increase in tensile strength and the stress at different elongations for a sample with 5 phr nanoclay and 20 phr carbon black compared to the reference sample. In the corresponding SEM images of the samples having nanoclay and carbon black irradiated at 100 kGy a significantly higher surface roughness was observed.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on properties of ultrafine rubbers as toughening filler in polybenzoxazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taewattana, Rapiphan; Jubsilp, Chanchira; Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Rimdusit, Sarawut

    2018-04-01

    Three types of ultrafine fully vulcanized powdered rubbers (UFRs), i.e. natural rubber (NR), carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR), and carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber (XSBR) were prepared by combined technology between gamma irradiation for crosslinking and spray drying. The effects of doses in a range of 0-250 kGy on swelling ratio, crosslink density, and thermal stability of UFRs were investigated. Smaller particle size of UFRs was obtained at higher dose. A decrease in the swelling ratio and an increase in crosslink density were well corresponded to crosslinking effect related with absorbed dose. The increase in dose was also found to improve thermal performance of URFs. The influence of irradiated UFRs on impact resistance and glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzoxazine composites was also evaluated. The highest impact resistance of the composites belonged to the composite filled with irradiated UFXNBR at 200 kGy. While the significantly enhanced Tg of the composite was obtained by an addition of irradiated UFRs with higher doses, i.e. Tg = 173 °C for the composite filled with irradiated UFXNBR at 250 kGy. As a consequence, the UFRs can be used to effectively modify thermal and mechanical properties, especially impact resistance of polybenzoxazine composites.

  8. Biodiversity in rubber agroforests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Hendrien

    2013-01-01

    Jungle rubber tuinen zijn extensieve rubber agroforests die qua structuur op secundaire bossen lijken, en waarin wilde soorten door de boer worden getolereerd. Met het verdwijnen van het laaglandregenwoud rijst de vraag of de begroeiing die ervoor in de plaats komt een aantal kenmerken en functies

  9. Vulcanization of Rubber

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature 140 -180°C. Sulfur. 2-3 parts per. 100 parts of rubber (phr). Accelerator 0.5-1.0 phr. ZnO ... out an experiment, he spilt a mixture of rubber and sulfur with other ingredients on a hot .... both carbon-sulfur and sulfur-nitrogen bonds -.

  10. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on Structural Change and Interfacial Interaction in Rubber Composites Filled with Silica-Kaolin Hybrid Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Guan, J.; Hu, H.; Gao, H.; Zhang, L.

    2016-07-01

    A series of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber/polybutadiene rubber composites was prepared with nanometer silica and micron kaolin by a dry modification process, mechanical compounding, and mold vulcanization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural changes and interfacial interactions in composites. The results showed that the "seesaw" structure was formed particularly with the incorporation of silica particles in the preparation process, which would be beneficial to the dispersibility of fillers in the rubber matrix. The kaolinite platelets were generally arranged in directional alignment. Kaolinite with smaller particle size and low-defect structure was more stable in preparation, but kaolinite with larger particle size and high defect structure tended to change the crystal structure. The composite prepared in this research exhibited excellent mechanical and thermal properties.

  11. Study of the Effect of Grafted Antioxidant on the Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Ibrahim Al-Ghonamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The grafting of ADPEA onto natural rubber was executed with UV radiation. Benzoyl peroxide was used to initiate the free-radical grafting copolymerization. Natural rubber-graft-N-(4-aminodiphenylether acrylamide (NR-g-ADPEA was characterized with an IR technique. The paper aims interested to determine the crosslinking density by using the ultrasonic technique. The ultrasonic velocities of both longitudinal and shear waves were measured in thermoplastic discs of NBR vulcanizates as a function of aging time. Ultrasonic velocity measurements were taken at 2 MHz ultrasonic frequency using the pulse echo method. We studied the effect of aging on the mechanical properties, crosslinking density, and the swelling and extraction phenomena for acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR vulcanizates, which contained the prepared NR-g-ADPEA and a commercial antioxidant, N-isopropyl-−-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine. The prepared antioxidant enhanced both the mechanical properties of the NBR vulcanizates and the permanence of the ingredients in these vulcanizates.

  12. Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrajati, I. N.; Dewi, I. R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maleated castor oil (MACO) as plasticizer on natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The parameter studied were involving rheological, curing and swelling properties. The MACOs were prepared by an esterification reaction between castor oil (CO) and maleic anhydride (MAH) with the help of xylene as water entrainer to improve water removal. Resulting oils then applied as a plasticizer in each of those rubbers within a fixed loading of 5 phr. Comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of MACO and conventional plasticizer (paraffinic oil for NR and EPDM, DOP for NBR) on each rubber. Rheology, curing characteristic and swelling of each rubber were studied. The results showed that rubber (NR/EPDM/NBR) plasticized with MACO had given similar flow characteristic to conventional plasticizers. MACO exhibited slow curing, confirmed by higher t90, but the scorch safety was of the same magnitude. MAH loading tended to decrease the flow properties and curing rate, while scorch time (ts2) was independent.

  13. Strategies to improve the adhesion of rubbers to adhesives by means of plasma surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, J. M.; Romero-Sánchez, M. D.

    2006-05-01

    The surface modifications produced by treatment of a synthetic sulfur vulcanized styrene-butadiene rubber with oxidizing (oxygen, air, carbon dioxide) and non oxidizing (nitrogen, argon) RF low pressure plasmas, and by treatment with atmospheric plasma torch have been assessed by ATR-IR and XPS spectroscopy, SEM, and contact angle measurements. The effectiveness of the low pressure plasma treatment depended on the gas atmosphere used to generate the plasma. A lack of relationship between surface polarity and wettability, and peel strength values was obtained, likely due to the cohesive failure in the rubber obtained in the adhesive joints. In general, acceptable adhesion values of plasma treated rubber were obtained for all plasmas, except for nitrogen plasma treatment during 15 minutes due to the creation of low molecular weight moieties on the outermost rubber layer. A toluene wiping of the N{2 } plasma treated rubber surface for 15 min removed those moieties and increased adhesion was obtained. On the other hand, the treatment of the rubber with atmospheric pressure by means of a plasma torch was proposed. The wettability of the rubber was improved by decreasing the rubber-plasma torch distance and by increasing the duration because a partial removal of paraffin wax from the rubber surface was produced. The rubber surface was oxidized by the plasma torch treatment, and the longer the duration of the plasma torch treatment, the higher the degree of surface oxidation (mainly creation of C O moieties). However, although the rubber surface was effectively modified by the plasma torch treatment, the adhesion was not greatly improved, due to the migration of paraffin wax to the treated rubber-polyurethane adhesive interface once the adhesive joint was produced. On the other hand, the extended treatment with plasma torch facilitated the migration of zinc stearate to the rubber-adhesive interface, also contributing to deteriorate the adhesion in greater extent. Finally

  14. Species difference in metabolism of inhaled butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E.; Henderson, R.F.; Burka, L.T.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic exposure of B6C3F 1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats to butadiene (BD) produced a very high incidence of cancer in mice while the incidence in rats was much lower with different tissues affected. Studies at this institute indicate that for equivalent exposures, the blood BD epoxide concentrations in mice are 5-fold higher than in rats and > 10-fold higher than in Cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, the profiles of urinary metabolites of butadiene were determined in Cynomolgus monkeys, F344/N rats, Sprague Dawley rats, B6C3F 1 mice and Syrian hamsters, species containing widely divergent hepatic epoxide hydrolase (EH) activities. Animals were exposed for 2 hr to 8,000 ppm [ 14 C]BD and 24-hr urine samples were analyzed for metabolites. Two major urinary metabolites were identified, N-acetyl-S-(-1(or 2)-3-butene-2(or 1)-ol)cysteine (1) and N-acetyl-S-(-4-butane-1,2-diol)cysteine (2). Monkeys exposed by inhalation produced primarily metabolite 2, while rodent species produced 1-4 times as much of 1 compared to 2. The ratio of 2/1 formation was related to the hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity in different species. The high 2/1 ratio in monkeys was consistent with the lower blood epoxide levels in this species. If BD metabolism by humans is similar to that in the monkey, exposure of humans to BD may result in lower tissue concentrations of reactive metabolites than an equivalent exposure of rodents. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of BD exposure based on rodent studies

  15. Intermittent Ozonation to Reduce Excess Biological Sludge in SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of ozonation and an aerobic biological process such as the activated sludge has been recently developed as an alternative solution for sludge reduction with the objective of minimizing the excess biological sludge production. In this study, two SBR reactors each with a capacity of 20 liters and controlled by an on-line system are used. Once the steady state conditions were set in the reactors, sampling and testing of such parameters as COD, MLSS, MLVSS, DO, SOUR, SVI, residual ozone, and Y coefficient were performed over the 8 months of research. Results showed that during the solid retention time of 10 days, the kinetic coefficients of Y and Kd were 0.58 mg biomass/mg COD and 0.058 1/day, respectively. In the next stage of the study, different concentrations of ozone in the reactor were intermittently used to reduce the excess biological sludge production. The results showed that 22 mg of ozone per 1 gram of MLSS in the reactor was able to reduce the yield coefficient Y from 0.58 to 0.23 mg Biomass/mg COD. In other words, the excess biological sludge reduced by 60% but the soluble COD increased slightly in the effluent and the removal percentage decreased from 92 in the blank reactor to 76 in the test reactor. While the amount of SVI and SOUR for this level of ozone concentration reached 6 mgO2/h.gVSS and 27 ml/g, respectively. No excess sludge was observed in the reactor for an ozone concentration of 27 mg per 1 gram of MLSS.

  16. Recent Breakthroughs in the Conversion of Ethanol to Butadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Pomalaza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-Butadiene is traditionally produced as a byproduct of ethylene production from steam crackers. What is unusual is that the alternative production route for this important commodity chemical via ethanol was developed a long time ago, before World War II. Currently, there is a renewed interest in the production of butadiene from biomass due to the general trend to replace oil in the chemical industry. This review describes the recent progress in the production of butadiene from ethanol (ETB by one or two-step process through intermediate production of acetaldehyde with an emphasis on the new catalytic systems. The different catalysts for butadiene production are compared in terms of structure-catalytic performance relationship, highlighting the key issues and requirements for future developments. The main difficulty in this process is that basic, acid and redox properties have to be combined in one single catalyst for the reactions of condensation, dehydration and hydrogenation. Magnesium and zirconium-based catalysts in the form of oxides or recently proposed silicates and zeolites promoted by metals are prevailing for butadiene synthesis with the highest selectivity of 70% at high ethanol conversion. The major challenge for further application of the process is to increase the butadiene productivity and to enhance the catalyst lifetime by suppression of coke deposition with preservation of active sites.

  17. Analysis of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, and related compounds in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the residual levels of acrylonitrile (AN), 1,3-butadiene (1,3-BD), and their related compounds containing propionitrile (PN) and 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene (4-VC) in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers for kitchen utensils and children's toys. A sample was cut into small pieces, then N,N-dimethylacetamide and an internal standard were added in a sealed headspace vial. The vial was incubated for 1 h at 90 degrees C and the headspace gas was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The recovery rates of the analytes were 93.3-101.8% and the coefficients of variation were 0.3-6.5%. In ABS copolymers, the levels were 0.3-50.4 microg/g for AN, ND-4.5 microg/g for PN, 0.06-1.58 microg/g for 1,3-BD, and 1.1-295 microg/g for 4-VC. The highest level was found for 4-VC, which is a dimer of 1,3-BD, and the next highest was for AN, which is one of the monomers of the ABS copolymer. Furthermore, the method was also applied to acrylonitrile-styrene (AS) copolymers and polystyrenes (PS) for kitchen utensils, and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves. In AS copolymers, AN and PN were detected at 16.8-54.5 and 0.8-6.9 microg/g, respectively. On the other hand, the levels in PS and NBR samples were all low.

  18. Nitrogen removal kinetics in the treatment of landfill leachate by SBR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreottola, G.; Foladori, P.; Ragazzi, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted applying the SBR activated sludge process to leachate from an old MSW landfill operating for 7 years. Due to the fact that old leachate is characterized with a high concentration of ammonia (approximately 1500 mgN/1) and low availability of readily biodegradable organic matter (BOD 5 /COD,06), the aim was to examine the nitrogen removal process and to compare the efficiency of one-stage and two stage systems operating at temperature of 20 C and 12 C. The second alternative SBR configuration is based on the coupling of two SBR reactors: the first one specialized in nitrification and the second one in post-denitrification, with external carbon source addition. By the efficient removal of nitrogen, an on-site pretreatment of leachate allows to comply with the limits required for discharging into sewers or into municipal wastewater treatment plant [it

  19. Comparison between MBR and SBR on Anammox start-up process from the conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Hanmin; Gao, Dawen; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Guangyi

    2012-10-01

    Anammox start-up performances from the conventional activated sludge were compared between a MBR and SBR. Both the reactors successfully started up Anammox process. The start-up period in the MBR (59 days) was notably shorter than that in the SBR (101 days), and the max nitrogen (NH(4)(+)+NO(2)(-)) removal capacity of 345.2 mg N L(-1) d(-1) in the MBR was also higher than that of 292.0 mg N L(-1) d(-1) in the SBR. FISH analysis showed that Anammox bacteria predominated in both reactors. Phylogenetic analysis further disclosed that the MBR had the better biodiversity of Anammox bacteria and gained a higher ecological stability. Generally, the results showed that MBR exhibited a more excellent performance for Anammox start-up. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Sepe, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers' safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  1. Performance evaluation of CFRP-rubber shock absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it; Sepe, Raffaele, E-mail: giuseppe.lamanna@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, via Roma, 29 - 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work a numerical investigation on the energy absorbing capability of dedicated structural components made of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer and an emulsion polymerised styrene butadiene rubber is reported. The shock absorbers are devices designed to absorb large amounts of energy by sacrificing their own structural integrity. Their aim is to cushion the effects of an impact phenomenon with the intent to preserve other structures from global failure or local damaging. Another important role of shock absorbers is reducing the peak of the acceleration showed during an impact phenomenon. This effect is of considerable interest in the case of vehicles to preserve passengers’ safety. Static and dynamic numerical results are compared with experimental ones in terms of mean crushing forces, energy and peak crushing. The global performance of the absorbers has been evaluated by referencing to a proposed quality index.

  2. Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber–Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xueliang; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Zhijie; Zhang, Fuqing; You, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR) and polyurethane (PU) foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation. PMID:29565321

  3. Preparation and Sound Absorption Properties of a Barium Titanate/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber–Polyurethane Foam Composite with Multilayered Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate/nitrile butadiene rubber (BT/NBR and polyurethane (PU foam were combined to prepare a sound-absorbing material with an alternating multilayered structure. The effects of the cell size of PU foam and the alternating unit number on the sound absorption property of the material were investigated. The results show that the sound absorption efficiency at a low frequency increased when decreasing the cell size of PU foam layer. With the increasing of the alternating unit number, the material shows the sound absorption effect in a wider bandwidth of frequency. The BT/NBR-PU foam composites with alternating multilayered structure have an excellent sound absorption property at low frequency due to the organic combination of airflow resistivity, resonance absorption, and interface dissipation.

  4. Rubber-toughened polypropylene/acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene blends: Morphology and mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Kolařík, Jan; Kotek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2007), s. 582-592 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP106/02/P029; GA ČR GA106/04/1051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * co-continuity * predictive models Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2007

  5. A Study of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Blends as Improved Flame Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    results of air gun tests. Thus, both elasticity and viscosity must be considered when DD I JAN 7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 63 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED sECURITy...L.EGEND!~ 23.9’ C 0~ 1:? 100 >.80 I.. 20 ini Sha at)sc Fiue2. Prcn eoyof2-ecnSR4/0a Vaiu aisa 38 227 I LI I : hi Ilii Al 01 100 130 6n0 40- Shear Rate

  6. New strategy and easy fabrication of solid-state supercapacitor based on polypyrrole and nitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyool; Lee, Youngkwan; Cho, Mi-Suk; Nam, Jae-Do

    2008-09-01

    Solid state redox supercapacitors were fabricated using a solid polymer electrolyte, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)-KCI and chemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) as the conducting polymer electrodes on both surfaces of a NBR film. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the PPy/NBR electrode were confirmed as functions of the uptake of pyrrole monomer into the NBR matrix as well as the immersion time in an oxidant solution. The morphology of the PPy-NBR-KCI capacitor was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The performance of the capacitors was characterized using a galvanostatic charge-discharge technique.

  7. Rubber molds for investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibtain, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to investigate different types of molding rubbers used for investment casting. The level of shape complexity which can be achieved by using these rubber molds is also studied. It was almost impossible to make complex shapes molds using metal molds, in that cases rubber molds are very important because they arc flexible and give accurate and precise part dimensions. Turbine blades are hi-tech components with air-foil geometries that have close dimensional tolerances. They are made of super-alloys and manufactured by investment casting. The final blade profile depends upon the dimensional accuracy in each of the processing steps. In the present work experimental study for the production of high quality low cost castings of turbine blades using rubber molds and injected wax patterns is presented. Natural Rubber molds and wax patterns from these molds were made. Different types of molding rubbers were studied including natural rubber, silicone rubber and liquid silicone rubber. It was found that by using rubber molds we can make most complex shape with very less finishing required. The shrinkage was 12% as compared to original master pattern. Rubber molds were made using laboratory hot press. Three layers of rubber above and below the master pattern. After that vulcanization was done by giving temperature and pressure. (author)

  8. Feasibility of using microencapsulated phase change materials as filler for improving low temperature performance of rubber sealing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Avinash; Shubin, Sergey N; Alcock, Ben; Freidin, Alexander B; Thorkildsen, Brede; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2017-11-01

    The feasibility of a novel composite rubber sealing material to improve sealing under transient cooling (in a so-called blowdown scenario) is investigated here. A composite of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) filled with Micro Encapsulated Phase Change Materials (MEPCM) is described. The fillers contain phase change materials that release heat during the phase transformation from liquid to solid while cooling. This exotherm locally heats the rubber and may improve the function of the seal during a blowdown event. A representative HNBR-MEPCM composite was made and the critical thermal and mechanical properties were obtained by simulating the temperature distribution during a blowdown event. Simulations predict that the MEPCM composites can delay the temperature decrease in a region of the seal during the transient blowdown. A sensitivity analysis of material properties is also presented which highlights possible avenues of improvement of the MEPCMs for sealing applications.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may be...

  10. Focusing light through strongly scattering media using genetic algorithm with SBR discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Feng, Qi; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Chengyou; Ding, Yingchun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated light focusing through strongly scattering media by performing binary amplitude optimization with a genetic algorithm. In the experiments, we control 160 000 mirrors of digital micromirror device to modulate and optimize the light transmission paths in the strongly scattering media. We replace the universal target-position-intensity (TPI) discriminant with signal-to-background ratio (SBR) discriminant in genetic algorithm. With 400 incident segments, a relative enhancement value of 17.5% with a ground glass diffuser is achieved, which is higher than the theoretical value of 1/(2π )≈ 15.9 % for binary amplitude optimization. According to our repetitive experiments, we conclude that, with the same segment number, the enhancement for the SBR discriminant is always higher than that for the TPI discriminant, which results from the background-weakening effect of SBR discriminant. In addition, with the SBR discriminant, the diameters of the focus can be changed ranging from 7 to 70 μm at arbitrary positions. Besides, multiple foci with high enhancement are obtained. Our work provides a meaningful reference for the study of binary amplitude optimization in the wavefront shaping field.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus riograndensis SBR5(T), a Gram-positive diazotrophic rhizobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana Fernandes; Bach, Evelise; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wibberg, Daniel; Passaglia, Luciane M; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-08-10

    Paenibacillus riograndensis is a Gram-positive rhizobacterium which exhibits plant growth promoting activities. It was isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat grown in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of P. riograndensis strain SBR5(T). The genome of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) consists of a circular chromosome of 7,893,056bps. The genome was finished and fully annotated, containing 6705 protein coding genes, 87 tRNAs and 27 rRNAs. The knowledge of the complete genome helped to explain why P. riograndensis SBR5(T) can grow with the carbon sources arabinose and mannitol, but not myo-inositol, and to explain physiological features such as biotin auxotrophy and antibiotic resistances. The genome sequence will be valuable for functional genomics and ecological studies as well as for application of P. riograndensis SBR5(T) as plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Start-Up and Aeration Strategies for a Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Process in an SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The start-up and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal via nitrite (CANON process were examined in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR with intermittent aeration. Initially, partial nitrification was established, and then the DO concentration was lowered further, surplus water in the SBR with high nitrite was replaced with tap water, and continuous aeration mode was turned into intermittent aeration mode, while the removal of total nitrogen was still weak. However, the total nitrogen (TN removal efficiency and nitrogen removal loading reached 83.07% and 0.422 kgN/(m3·d, respectively, 14 days after inoculating 0.15 g of CANON biofilm biomass into the SBR. The aggregates formed in SBR were the mixture of activated sludge and granular sludge; the volume ratio of floc and granular sludge was 7 : 3. DNA analysis showed that Planctomycetes-like anammox bacteria and Nitrosomonas-like aerobic ammonium oxidization bacteria were dominant bacteria in the reactor. The influence of aeration strategies on CANON process was investigated using batch tests. The result showed that the strategy of alternating aeration (1 h and nonaeration (1 h was optimum, which can obtain almost the same TN removal efficiency as continuous aeration while reducing the energy consumption, inhibiting the activity of NOB, and enhancing the activity of AAOB.

  13. Performance of SBR for the treatment of textile dye wastewater: Optimization and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sequential batch reactor (SBR was employed for the treatment of textile dye wastewater. The performance of four white rot fungi (WRF viz. Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was evaluated in pure and mixed combinations in terms of decolorization. From the results it was found that the combination of Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was best and they were used in the SBR. The process parameters like air flow rate, sludge retention time (SRT and cycle period were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. At these optimized conditions, treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried out at various initial dye wastewater concentration and hydraulic retention time. The performance of SBR was analyzed in terms of decolorization, COD reduction and sludge volume index (SVI. From the results it was found that a maximum decolorization and COD reduction of 71.3% and 79.4%, respectively, was achieved in the SBR at an organic loading rate of 0.165 KgCOD/m3 d. The sludge volume index (SVI was found to be low in the range of 90–103 mL/g. The kinetic study was carried out using a first order based model and the degradation follows the first order system.

  14. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha EPDM e nitrilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-07-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h{sup -1} at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  15. On the catalytic gas phase oxidation of butadiene to furan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubias, B.; Rodemerck, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Ritschl, F.; Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Applying the thermochemical selectivity criterion of Hadnett et al. It is shown that the selectivity of the furan formation is not limited by a too low strength of the C-H bonds in furan when compared with the C-H bond dissociation energy in the educt molecule butadiene. In the oxidation of butadiene on a CsH{sub 2}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} catalyst a maximum yield of 22 mol% furan has been obtained. To improve this comparatively low furan yield oxidation activity of the catalyst must be lowered to prevent the consecutive reaction to maleic anhydride. (orig.)

  16. Radiation luminescence of polymers - emission behaviour of aromatic compounds incorporated in synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1986-01-01

    For a deep understanding of a radiation protection mechanism of some aromatic compounds on synthetic polymers, their optical emission behavior under electron irradiation was studied. The fluorescence light was led out of an irradiation room through a wave guide and detected by a photomultiplier so that less noisy spectrum was obtained. Acenaphthene or acenaphthylene was added to the synthetic rubbers such as ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, styrene butadiene rubber and cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The intensities of optical emission induced by electron beams changed from polymer to polymer, while those by ultraviolet lights were independent of the kind of polymers. The dependence of emission intensity on polymers under electron irradiation was estimated to show the fact that the radiation excited energy transfers occur from the polymer matrix to the additives and that an efficiency of the energy transfer is dependent on kinds of polymers. (author)

  17. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  18. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Hasani, Amirhesam; Eisakhani, Mahdieh; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ . → SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg 2+ and 96-98% of Cd 2+ . → COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ concentrations. → Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 ± 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 ± 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg 2+ and 96-98% of Cd 2+ . The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  19. Study of the Influence of adding styrene-ethylene/butadiene-styrene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and polyethylene blends

    OpenAIRE

    Peydro, M. A.; Parres, F.; Navarro Vidal, Raúl; Sanchez-Caballero, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the recovery of two grades of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) contaminated with low-density polyethylene (LDPE), by adding styrene ethylene/butadiene styrene (SEBS). To simulate contaminated ABS, virgin ABS was mixed with 1, 2, 4, and 8% of LDPE and then extruded at 220°C. After this, the ABS with the highest percentage of LDPE (8%) was mixed with 1, 2, 4, and 8% of SEBS and then extruded. Different blends were mechanically, rheologically, optically, and dimensionally ...

  20. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  1. 1,3-Butadiene: Biomarkers and application to risk assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swenberg, J. A.; Bordeerat, N. K.; Boysen, G.; Carro, S.; Georgieva, N. I.; Troutman, J. M.; Upton, P. B.; Albertini, R. J.; Vacek, P. M.; Walker, V. E.; Šrám, Radim; Goggin, M.; Tretyakova, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 192, 1-2 (2011), s. 150-154 ISSN 0009-2797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : risk assessment * 1,3-butadiene * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2011

  2. Seeded emulsion polymerization of butadiene. 1. The propagation rate coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; Dohmen, E.H.M.; Verstegen, J.M.; Maxwell, I.A.; German, A.L.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of the emulsifier-free, seeded polymn. of butadiene (I) at 60 Deg in Smith-Ewart interval III were studied in presence of Na peroxodisulfate initiator and tert-dodecyl mercaptan. The fractional conversion was based on gravimetrically calibrated online densitometry and was highly

  3. Study of glucoamylase immobilization in butadiene nitrile latex membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts have been undetaken to immobilize glucoamylaze by means of butadiene nitrile latex in the presence of a chemical initiator and 60 Co γ-radiation. The activity, stability of conjugates in the membrane and permeability of oxygen in these membranes were determined. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs

  4. Solid separation and sbr biological process for pig slurry treatment; Depuracion de purines por separacion de solidos y tratamiento biologico en SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekuona, A.; Alberdi, M.; Lekue, I.; Lasuen, M.

    2009-07-01

    Egiluze treatment plant in Renteria (Gipuzkoa, spain), has treated around 45 m{sup 3}/day of pig slurry since 2006. During this two years, the plant has been running in order to get a suitable effluent, which fulfills the corresponding parameters to be discharged to municipal drain. The treatment process consists basically of a first solid separation and subsequent nitrification-de-nitrificacion biological process using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The technical and economic results showed in this article, prove that the process used in Egiluze treatment plant is an effective solution which allows the treatment of pig slurry in an economical and automated way. (Author)

  5. Preparation and mechanical properties of rubber composites reinforced with carbon nanohorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Mikiko; Morii, Masato; Ota, Yuki; Kaneda, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hidetaka; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Okino, Fujio

    2010-06-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) composites with single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs, or simply NHs), hole-opened NHs (h-NHs), and carbon black (CB), the most commonly used nanocarbon rubber filler, were prepared, and their mechanical properties were compared. The NBR composites with h-NHs (NBR/h-NH) showed higher tensile strength than those with NHs (NBR/NH), and the tensile strength of NBR/h-NH or NBR/NH was much greater than those of the NBR composites with CB (NBR/CB). At 5 parts per hundred of rubber (phr), the tensile stresses at break of NBR/h-NH was about 1.8 times larger than those of NBR/CB, and the strain at the break, 1.2 times larger. Similarly, at 20 phr, both the tensile strength and strain at the break of NBR/h-NH were 1.4 times larger than those of NBR/CB. NBR/NH showed the highest hardness while having the smallest specific gravity. The present results indicate that NHs and h-NHs have much superior reinforcement effects to CB for NBR rubber matrix.

  6. Innovative Mesoporous Nanosilicas: SBR Nanocomposite for Low Environmental Impact Tread Tyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Maila; Turturro, Antonio; Finocchio, Elisabetta; Busca, Guido; Legami, Rossella Di; Vicini, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    Silica nanoparticles with different aspect ratios (A.R.) were tested as reinforcing fillers of styrenebutadiene copolymer (s-SBR) for "green tyres," i.e., tires with lower rolling resistance. A commercial nanosilica with A.R. = 1 (Aerosil® 200) was compared with two nanosilica samples with A.R. = 2 and 4, synthesized by means of an innovative process, to ascertain if the filler shape was significant to improve the composite properties. In addition, bis-triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulfide was grafted onto the particles surface, in order to obtain more hydrophobic materials and to enhance their dispersion in the elastomeric composites: pristine and modified silicas were then compared. Grafting extent was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. The surface properties of silicas were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and inverse gas chromatography. s-SBR/silica nanocomposites were then prepared and characterized assessing their dynamic-mechanical properties and carrying out morphological observations by transmission electron microscopy.

  7. SBR treatment of olive mill wastewaters: dilution or pre-treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, G; Chiavola, A; Rolle, E

    2012-01-01

    The olive-oil extraction industry is an economically important activity for many countries of the Mediterranean Sea area, with Spain, Greece and Italy being the major producers. This activity, however, may represent a serious environmental problem due to the discharge of highly polluted effluents, usually referred to as 'olive mill wastewaters' (OMWs). They are characterized by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (80-300 g/L), lipids, total polyphenols (TPP), tannins and other substances difficult to degrade. An adequate treatment before discharging is therefore required to reduce the pollutant load. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate performances of a biological process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with pre-treated OMWs. Pre-treatment consisted of a combined acid cracking (AC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. The efficiency of the system was compared with that of an identical SBR fed with the raw wastewater only diluted. Combined AC and GAC adsorption was chosen to be used prior to the following biological process due to its capability of providing high removal efficiencies of COD and TPP and also appreciable improvement of biodegradability. Comparing results obtained with different influents showed that best performances of the SBR were obtained by feeding it with raw diluted OMWs (dOMWs) and at the lowest dilution ratio (1:25): in this case, the removal efficiencies were 90 and 76%, as average, for COD and TPP, respectively. Feeding the SBR with either the pre-treated or the raw dOMWs at 1:50 gave very similar values of COD reduction (74%); however, an improvement of the TPP removal was observed in the former case.

  8. ODC-Free Solvent Implementation Issues for Vulcanized Rubber and Bond Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, James R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thiokol Propulsion has worked extensively to replace 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) with ozone depleting chemicals (ODC)-free solvents for use in the manufacture of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) for the Space Shuttle Program. As Thiokol has transitioned from sub-scale to full-scale testing and implementation of these new solvents, issues have been discovered which have required special attention. The original intent of Thiokol's solvent replacement strategy was to replace TCA with a single drop-in solvent for all equivalent applications. We have learned that a single candidate does not exist for replacing TCA. Solvent incompatibility with process materials has caused us to seek for niche solvents and/or processing changes that provide an ODC-free solution for special applications. This paper addresses some of the solvent incompatibilities, which have lead to processes changes and possible niche solvent usage. These incompatibilities were discovered during full-scale testing of ODC-free solvents and relate to vulcanized rubber and bond systems in the RSRM. Specifically, the following items are presented: (1) Cure effects of d-limonene based solvents on Silica Filled Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (SF-EPDM) rubber. During full-scale test operations, Thiokol discovered that d-limonene (terpene) based solvents inhibit the cure of EPDM rubber. Subsequent testing showed the same issue with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Also discussed are efforts to minimize uncured rubber exposure to solvents; and (2) Cured bond system sensitivity to ODC-free solvents. During full scale testing it was discovered that a natural rubber to steel vulcanized bond could degrade after prolonged exposure to ODC-free solvents. Follow on testing showed that low vapor pressure and residence time seemed to be most likely cause for failure.

  9. Study on the properties of blend rubber prepared with grafted rubber and irradiated rubber by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafader, N. C.; Haque, M. E.; Islam, K. A.

    2004-05-01

    The blend rubbers were prepared by mixing γ-rays irradiated and monomer grafted rubbers. The monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene were used separately to prepare grafted rubber by exposure to radiation. The physico-chemical properties of the blend rubbers were evaluated. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the blend rubbers decrease whereas modulus at 500% elongation, swelling ratio and permanent set increase with the increased proportion of grafted rubber in the blend. The tear strength of the blend between irradiated and styrene grafted rubbers increases with the increased proportion of grafted rubber but that of the blend of irradiated and MMA grafted rubbers remains almost constant. The blend rubber could be used for special type of application like rubber thread, tube, catheter etc

  10. Preparation of butadiene D{sub 6} -1-1-2-3-4-4; Preparation du butadiene D{sub 6} -1-1-2-3-4-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L; Chatelain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A description of the preparation of butadiene D{sub 6} by dehalogenation of perchlorobutadiene by zinc and heavy water in dioxane. (author) [French] Description de la preparation du butadiene D{sub 6} par reduction deshalogenante du perchlorobutadiene par le zinc et l'eau lourde dans le dioxane. (auteur)

  11. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  12. Impact of reactor configuration on anammox process start-up: MBR versus SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Gao, Da-Wen; Fu, Yuan; Wu, Wei-Min; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an energy saving biological nitrogen removal process which was limited to slow growth rate of anammox bacteria during start-up period. This study investigated the start-up of anammox process by a laboratory sequential batch reactor (SBR) for 218 days and subsequently modified the reactor as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for 178 days. Modification of a SBR as MBR with installation of an external membrane module resulted in acceleration of specific anammox activity by 19 times. The acceleration of specific anammox activity with MBR was further confirmed by starting-up another MBR for a 242 day period. Molecular microbial analyses showed that Candidatus "Brocadia anammoxidans" and Candidatus "Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" were the dominant species in the inocula and biomass developed in the reactor. The start-up with MBR appeared to be more effective than SBR for the enrichment of anammox bacteria due to high sludge retention property of MBR configuration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g −1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h −1 , were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V max ) varied between 1164.5 mg L −1 h −1 and 1867.4 mg L −1 h −1 . High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  14. Nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber resistance to soybean biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Nunes Linhares

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel has been considered a suitable substitute for petroleum diesel, but their chemical composition differs greatly. For this reason, biodiesel interacts differently than petroleum diesel with various materials, including rubbers. Therefore, the resistance of some elastomers should be thoroughly evaluated, specifically those which are commonly used in automotive industry. Nitrile rubber (NBR is widely used to produce vehicular parts that are constantly in contact with fuels. This paper aimed to assess the resistance of carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR with 28% of acrylonitrile content to soybean biodiesel in comparison with non-carboxylated nitrile rubber samples, with high and medium acrylonitrile content (33 and 45%. NBR with medium acrylonitrile content showed little resistance to biodiesel. However, carboxylated nitrile rubber even with low acrylonitrile content had similar performance to NBR with high acrylonitrile content.

  15. PROPERTIES TYRE TREAD RUBBERS DEPENDING ON PARTICULARITY OF RUBBER COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The results of studies of the elastomeric compositions based on natural rubber containing curatives different ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" listed in this article. Influence of the composition of the vulcanizing group on stress-strain and elastic- deformation properties of tire tread rubber was installed. It has been shown that a significant effect on thermo-oxidative aging of vulcanizates was the composition of the vulcanizing group. Results of studies resistance tread rubber to exposure to elevated temperatures were presented . Vulcanizates differing type and density by varying the cross-linking ratio of "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" were obtained . Research results in the formation of rubber resistance and crack growth at different temperatures were presented. Revealed that the best education and resistance to tear propagation under normal conditions characterized by rubber ratio "curing agent : vulcanization accelerator" equal to 1.5:1. It has been established that a dynamic endurance study rubbers depends largely on the nature and concentration of the cross-linking cross-links and movable promote increase efficiency due to the grid and reduce the sulfidity rearrangement. During loading mode alternating deformations at elevated temperatures lability of polysulfide bonds negatively affects the performance of rubber, and the decisive role of providing strength and thermal cross-linking. It is shown that the performance of the spatial grid rubbers allow indirectly judge the dynamic vulcanizates endurance and predict performance rubbers at elevated temperatures under conditions of repeated cyclic deformation. Revealed that the vulcanizing system containing sulfur and vulcanization accelerator TBBS 1:2, promotes the formation of the optimal structure of vulcanized rubber , which provides the best resistance to repeated cyclic deformations in the operating temperatures of the tire.

  16. Crack Velocities in Natural Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    vulcanized natural rubber (3). The surprisingly low value for natural rubber was attributed to highly anisotropic elastic behavior at high strains...Dr. R.L. Rabie Hercules Incorporated WX-2, MS-952 Alleghany Ballistic Lab Los Alamos National Lab. P.O. Box 210 P.O. Box 1663 Washington, D.C. 21502

  17. Alternative sources of natural rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, H.; Cornish, K.

    2000-01-01

    Rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is one of the most important polymers naturally produced by plants because it is a strategic raw material used in more than 40,000 products, including more than 400 medical devices. The sole commercial source, at present, is natural rubber harvested from the Brazilian

  18. Biocompatibility of epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Tsai, Shih Chang

    2010-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solution casting method and then was epoxidized with peroxyformic acid generated in situ to yield the epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane (ESBS). The structure and properties of ESBS were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The performances of contact angle, water content, protein adsorption, and water vapor transmission rate on ESBS membrane were determined. After epoxidation, the hydrophilicity of the membrane increased. The water vapor transmission rate of ESBS membrane is similar to human skin. The biocompatibility of ESBS membrane was evaluated with the cell culture of fibroblasts on the membrane. It revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the various ESBS membranes and the population doubling time for fibroblast culture decreased.

  19. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  20. Study of Polymer Material Aging by Laser Mass Spectrometry, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Junien Exposito; Claude Becker; David Ruch; Frédéric Aubriet

    2007-01-01

    Dyed natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), designed for outdoor applications, were exposed to an accelerated artificial aging in xenon light. The aging results in the deterioration of the exposed surface material properties. The ability of dyed polymers to withstand prolonged sunlight exposure without fading or undergoing any physical deterioration is largely determined not only by the photochemical characteristics of the absorbing dyestuff itself but also by the polymer str...

  1. Recycling tires? Reversible crosslinking of poly(butadiene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovatti, Eliane; Lacerda, Talita M; Carvalho, Antonio J F; Gandini, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Furan-modified poly(butadiene) prepared by the thiol-ene click reaction is crosslinked with bismaleimides through the Diels-Alder reaction, giving rise to a novel recyclable elastomer. This is possible because of the thermal reversibility of the adducts responsible for the formation of the network. The use of this strategy provides the possibility to produce recyclable tires. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguino, P.; Balau, F.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is widely used in particle detectors as a wavelength shifter. In this work we studied the stability of TPB thin films when immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). The thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates by thermal evaporation. Morphological and chemical surface properties were monitored before and after immersion into LXe by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No appreciable changes have been detected with these two methods. Grain size and surface chemical composition were found to be identical before and after submersion into LXe. However, the film thickness, measured via optical transmission in the ultraviolet–visible wavelength regions, decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe during 20 h. These results suggest the necessity of using a protective thin film over the Tetraphenyl butadiene when used as a wavelength shifter in LXe particle detectors. - Highlights: • Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) thin films immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). • Thermally evaporated TPB thin films were immersed in LXe for 20 h. • Film morphology and chemical surface properties remained unchanged. • Surface density of the films decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe. • For using in LXe particle detectors, TPB films should be protected with a coating.

  3. Nano-reinforcement of tire rubbers: silica-technology for natural rubber : exploring the infuence of non-rubber constituents on the natural rubber-silica system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkawi, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Natural rubber is a renewable resource material with outstanding properties which offers significant advantages over its counterparts, the fossil-resource synthetic rubbers. In fact, a natural rubber tree is an efficient carbon dioxide sequester. Since natural rubber is a natural product, it is

  4. Solubility Study of Curatives in Various Rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, R.; Talma, Auke; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous works on solubility of curatives in rubbers were mainly carried out in natural rubber. Not too much information available on dissimilar rubbers and this is important because most of the compounds today are blends of dissimilar rubbers. Although solubility can be expected to certain

  5. Application of SBR technology for domestic waste water treatment; Aplicacion de la tecnologia SBR para el tratamiento de aguas residuales domesticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, S.; Mata-Alvarez, J.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the present study is to give an overall vision of SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactors) technology as an alternative way for treating domestic and municipal wastewaters. This technology has been gaining popularity through years, mainly due to its single-tank design and the ease of its automation. There are a lot of cases in literature dealing with the treatment of this kind of effluents with this technology, whether a lab-scale, pilot scale or industrial scale. Thus, this paper includes relevant experiments found in literature concerning domestic wastewater treatment. There is also a special attention given to an application that has been studied recently: the use of this technology in wastewater treatment plants, concretely for the treatment of the reject water found after anaerobic digesters, which contains high concentrations of ammoniacal nitrogen. (Author)

  6. Optimization of NMP extraction in 1, 3-butadiene production line

    OpenAIRE

    Mortaheb, H.R.; Mafi, M.; Mokhtarani, B.; Khosravi, K.; Mashkini, F.

    2010-01-01

    N-methylpyrrolidone is a powerful solvent for variety of chemical processes due to its vast chemical properties. It has been used in manufacturing processes of polymers, detergents, pharmaceuticals rubber and many more chemical substances. However, it creates large amount of residue in some of these processes which has to be dealt with. Many well known methods such as BASF in rubber producing units have tried to regenerate the solvent at the end of each run, however, there is still discarding...

  7. Estudo da modificação química de polidienos do tipo SBR e BR Study of chemical modification of SBR and BR polydiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L. A. C. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de modificações químicas de polidienos comerciais tem sido estudada como um meio alternativo à síntese de novos polímeros, para otimização das propriedades finais destes materiais através da introdução de diferentes grupamentos reativos na cadeia polimérica. A modificação química pode ser feita através de diferentes métodos, os quais podem ser realizados tanto em solução como em massa, onde podem ser destacadas as reações de epoxidação, sulfonação, maleinização, carboxilação, etc. Neste trabalho foi estudado o método de epoxidação de borrachas do tipo SBR e BR. Foi possível observar que mesmo pequenos graus de modificação química causam mudanças marcantes nas propriedades finais dos polímeros, como determinado para a temperatura de transição vítrea.Chemical modification of polydiene has been studied as an alternative route to obtain modified polymers with improved final properties. This improvement is due to the introduction of different kinds of reactive groups into a polymer chain, and it can be done in solution as well as in bulk. The chemical modification can be carried out by different methods such as epoxidation, maleination, carboxylation, sulfonation etc. In this work we show that in the epoxidation of SBR and BR even a small degree of modification can change the final properties of the polymer, as it occurred for the glass transition temperature.

  8. A comparative examination of MBR and SBR performance for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Hashisho, J

    2014-09-01

    The management of landfill leachate is challenging, with relatively limited work targeting high-strength leachate. In this study, the performance of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technologies are compared in treating high-strength landfill leachate. The MBR exhibited a superior performance with removal efficiencies exceeding 95% for BOD5, TN, and NH3 and an improvement on SBR efficiencies ranging between 21 and 34%. The coupled experimental results contribute in filling a gap toward improving the management of high-strength landfill leachate and providing comparative guidelines or selection criteria and limitations for MBR and SBR applications. Implications: While the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology offers some flexibility in terms of cycle time and sequence, its performance is constrained when considering landfill leachate associated with significant variations in quality and quantity. Combining membrane separation and biodegradation processes or the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology improved removal efficiencies significantly. In the context of leachate management using the MBR technology, more efforts have targeted low-strength leachate with limited attempts at moderate to high strength leachate. In this study, the SBR and MBR technologies were tested under different operating conditions to compare and evaluate their feasibility for the management of high-strength leachate from a full-scale operating landfill. Such a comparison has not been reported for high-strength leachate.

  9. Nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber resistance to soybean biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Nunes Linhares; Cléverson Fernandes Senra Gabriel; Ana Maria Furtado de Sousa; Marcia Christina Amorim Moreira Leite; Cristina Russi Guimarães Furtado

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Biodiesel has been considered a suitable substitute for petroleum diesel, but their chemical composition differs greatly. For this reason, biodiesel interacts differently than petroleum diesel with various materials, including rubbers. Therefore, the resistance of some elastomers should be thoroughly evaluated, specifically those which are commonly used in automotive industry. Nitrile rubber (NBR) is widely used to produce vehicular parts that are constantly in contact with fuels. T...

  10. A sequential treatment of intermediate tropical landfill leachate using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Zi Jun; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Ng, Choon Aun; Sethupathi, Sumathi; Lim, Jun-Wei

    2018-01-01

    The increase in landfill leachate generation is due to the increase of municipal solid waste (MSW) as global development continues. Landfill leachate has constantly been the most challenging issue in MSW management as it contains high amount of organic and inorganic compounds that might cause pollution to water resources. Biologically treated landfill leachate often fails to fulfill the regulatory discharge standards. Thus, to prevent environmental pollution, many landfill leachate treatment plants involve multiple stages treatment process. The Papan Landfill in Perak, Malaysia currently has no proper leachate treatment system. In the current study, sequential treatment via sequencing batch reactor (SBR) followed by coagulation was used to treat chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total suspended solids (TSS), and colour from raw landfill leachate. SBR optimum aeration rate, L/min, optimal pH and dosage (g/L) of Alum for coagulation as a post-treatment were determined. The two-step sequential treatment by SBR followed by coagulation (Alum) achieved a removal efficiency of 84.89%, 94.25%, 91.82% and 85.81% for COD, NH 3 -N, TSS and colour, respectively. Moreover, the two-stage treatment process achieved 95.0% 95.0%, 95.3%, 100.0%, 87.2%, 62.9%, 50.0%, 41.3%, 41.2, 34.8, and 22.9 removals of Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Selenium, Barium, Iron, Silver, Nickel, Zinc, Arsenic, and Manganese, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R; Bao, Jianguo; Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH3-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s(-1) within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L(-1) at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD5/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD5, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH3-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD5, suspended solid (SS), NH3-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L(-1), 22.8 mg L(-1), 24.2 mg L(-1), 18.4 mg L(-1) and 50.8 mg L(-1) respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated pollutant loading from landfill leachate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abood, Alkhafaji R. [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Thi Qar University, Nasiriyah (Iraq); Bao, Jianguo, E-mail: bjianguo888@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Du, Jiangkun; Zheng, Dan; Luo, Ye [State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel method of stripping (agitation) was investigated for NH{sub 3}-N removal. • PFS coagulation followed agitation process enhanced the leachate biodegradation. • Nitrification–denitrification achieved by changing operation process in SBR treatment. • A dual filter of carbon-sand is suitable as a polishing treatment of leachate. • Combined treatment success for the complete treatment of non-biodegradable leachate. - Abstract: This study describes the complete treatment of non-biodegradable landfill leachate by combined treatment processes. The processes consist of agitation as a novel stripping method used to overcome the ammonia toxicity regarding aerobic microorganisms. The NH{sub 3}-N removal ratio was 93.9% obtained at pH 11.5 and a gradient velocity (G) 150 s{sup −1} within a five-hour agitation time. By poly ferric sulphate (PFS) coagulation followed the agitation process; chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) were removed at 70.6% and 49.4%, respectively at an optimum dose of 1200 mg L{sup −1} at pH 5.0. The biodegradable ratio BOD{sub 5}/COD was improved from 0.18 to 0.31 during pretreatment step by agitation and PFS coagulation. Thereafter, the effluent was diluted with sewage at a different ratio before it was subjected to sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment. Up to 93.3% BOD{sub 5}, 95.5% COD and 98.1% NH{sub 3}-N removal were achieved by SBR operated under anoxic–aerobic–anoxic conditions. The filtration process was carried out using sand and carbon as a dual filter media as polishing process. The final effluent concentration of COD, BOD{sub 5}, suspended solid (SS), NH{sub 3}-N and total organic carbon (TOC) were 72.4 mg L{sup −1}, 22.8 mg L{sup −1}, 24.2 mg L{sup −1}, 18.4 mg L{sup −1} and 50.8 mg L{sup −1} respectively, which met the discharge standard. The results indicated that a combined process of agitation-coagulation-SBR and filtration effectively eliminated

  13. Optimization of an Sbr process for nitrogen removal from concentrated wastewater via nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, L.; Basilico, D.; Meloni, A.; Canziani, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of an experimentation carried out on a pilot-scale Sbr for nitrogen removal via nitridation-denitration are reported. The experimentation was carried out in the period July October 2007 and was aimed at achieving design data for the upgrade of a full scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), following the new regulations issued by Lombardy Regional Authority for the discharge of effluents into sensitive areas. One aspect that has been considered in the upgrade is nitrogen removal from the supernatant coming from anaerobic sludge digestion. The experimental results provided sound design data based on real biological activity measurements and operational process parameters such as oxygen and organic carbon requirements. [it

  14. Systematic model development for partial nitrification of landfill leachate in a SBR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganigue, R.; Volcke, E.I.P.; Puig, S.

    2010-01-01

    ), confirmed by statistical tests. Good model fits were also obtained for pH, despite a slight bias in pH prediction, probably caused by the high salinity of the leachate. Future work will be addressed to the model-based evaluation of the interaction of different factors (aeration, stripping, pH, inhibitions....... Following a systematic procedure, the model was successfully constructed, calibrated and validated using data from short-term (one cycle) operation of the PN-SBR. The evaluation of the model revealed a good fit to the main physical-chemical measurements (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and inorganic carbon......, among others) and their impact on the process performance....

  15. The Cyclization of natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzataheri, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of solvent, temperature, time, weight percent of catalyst on the rate and mechanism of cyclization of natural rubber was studied in toluene and xylene solutions having tin tetra chloride catalyst (SnCl 4 ). Iodo metric titration show, with 8% SnCl 4 (based on polymer weight) cyclization occurs, leaving 27.4% of the total unsaturation. Infrared spectra of cyclized natural rubber show decreased absorption intensity at 840 and 780 cm -1 which are characteristic bands of the linear polymer and the appearance of absorption band at 890 cm -1 as cycles were formed. By using this chemical modification, natural rubber is transformed into a resinous thermoplastic, hard, non rubbery cyclized material with much less unsaturation than the original rubber, which could find commercial applications ad adhesives, printing inks, industrial and ship paints

  16. Studies on nitrile rubber degradation in zinc bromide completion fluid and its prevention by surface fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Cantu, Yadira Itzel

    Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) or nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) is frequently used as an O-ring material in the oil extraction industry due to its excellent chemical properties and resistance to oil. However, degradation of NBR gaskets is known to occur during the well completion and oil extraction process where packers are exposed to completion fluids such as ZnBr2 brine. Under these conditions NBR exhibits accelerated chemical degradation resulting in embrittlement and cracking. Samples of NBR, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) and poly(butadiene) (PB) have been exposed to ZnBr2 based completion fluid, and analyzed by ATR and diffuse reflectance IR. Analysis shows the ZnBr2 based completion fluid promotes hydrolysis of the nitrile group to form amides and carboxylic groups. Analysis also shows that carbon-carbon double bonds in NBR are unaffected after short exposure to zinc bromide based completion fluid, but are quickly hydrolyzed in acidic bromide mixtures. Although fluoropolymers have excellent chemical resistance, their strength is less than nitrile rubber and replacing the usual gasket materials with fluoroelastomers is expensive. However, a fluoropolymer surface on a nitrile elastomer can provide the needed chemical resistance while retaining their strength. In this study, we have shown that this can be achieved by direct fluorination, a rather easy and inexpensive process. Samples of NBR O-rings have been fluorinated by exposure to F2 and F2/HF mixtures at various temperatures. Fluorination with F 2 produces the desired fluoropolymer layer; however, fluorination by F2/HF mixtures gave a smoother fluorinated layer at lower temperatures and shorter times. Fluorinated samples were exposed to ZnBr2 drilling fluid and solvents. Elemental analysis shows that the fluorinated layer eliminates ZnBr2 diffusion into the NBR polymeric matrix. It was also found that surface fluorination significantly retards the loss of mechanical properties such as elasticity, tensile

  17. Elimination of the reactivation process in the adhesion of chlorinated SBS rubber with polychloroprene adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorination treatment of a thermoplastic styrene-butadiene-styrene rubber (SBS with a 3 wt% solution of trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCI in methyl ethyl ketone (MEK introduces chlorinated and oxidized moieties on the rubber surface which increase its surface energy and produces surface microroughness. Consequently adhesion properties, evaluated by T-peel strength measurements in chlorinated SBS/solvent based-polyurethane adhesive/leather joints, are enhanced. In this study, two solvent-based polychloroprene adhesives (PCP0 and PCP30R have been considered as an alternative to the commonly used solvent-based polyurethane adhesive (PU. A thermoreactive phenolic resin was added to one of the polychloroprene adhesive formulations (PCP30R. This tackifier resin favors chlorination of the adhesive and reinforces the interface between the chlorinated adhesive and the chlorinated rubber surface. Besides, PCP30R adhesive does not need adhesive reactivation and considerable high T-peel strength value (5.7±0.3 kN/m was obtained. Elimination of the reactivation process implies a considerable improvement of the manufacturing process in the footwear industry.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154.1750 Section 154.1750 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...

  19. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accomplished by bag sampling as used for total hydrocarbons determination. This procedure is detailed in 40 CFR 86.109. (b) Benzene and 1,3-butadiene must be analyzed by gas chromatography. Expected values for benzene and 1,3-butadiene in bag samples for the baseline fuel are 4.0 ppm and 0.30 ppm respectively. At...

  20. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  1. Synthesis and properties of butadiene-alpha-methylstyrene thermoplastic elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Firsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Butadiene-α-methylstyrene block – copolymer – a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE-R DMST occupies a special place among the ethylene – vinyl aromatic block copolymers. TPE-R DMST comprising as plastic – poly-α-methylstyrene unit and elastic – polybutadiene block. TPE-R DMST has high heat resistance, flexibility, abrasion resistance compared to butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomer (TPE DST. The synthesis of block copolymers of butadiene and α-methylstyrene was carried out. The process of polymerization the α-methylstyrene characterized the high speed of polymerization in polar medium and low reaction speed in hydrocarbon solvents. Anionic catalyst nbutyllithium (n-BuLi and high concentration – 60–80% α-methylstyrene in the mixture influenced by synthesis of the 1st block of TPE-R DMST, it’s technologically difficult. Found that the low temperature of polymerization α-methylstyrene (+61 o C, the reversibility of these reactions and the high concentration of residual monomer are very importance. It was revealed that a high polymerization rate α-methylstyrene can be achieved by conducting the reaction in a hydrocarbon solvent with polar additives compounds such as tetrahydrofuran (THF and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE. The conditions for the synthesis of P-DMST were developed. The kinetics of polymerization for the first DMST-P unit was obtained. Analysis of physical and mechanical properties DMST-P samples was conducted. The optimum content of bound α-methylstyrene block copolymer provides a good combination of properties in a relatively wide temperature range. The tensile strength at normal and elevated temperatures, the hardness and the stiffness of the polymer increased by increasing the content of bound α-methylstyrene. The elongation and the elasticity reduced by increasing the content of bound α-methylstyrene.

  2. Treatment of landfill leachate using a combined stripping, Fenton, SBR, and coagulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinsong; Abbas, Abdulhussain A.; Chen Youpeng; Liu Zhiping; Fang Fang; Chen Peng

    2010-01-01

    The leachate from Changshengqiao landfill (Chongqing, China) was characterized and submitted to a combined process of air stripping, Fenton, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and coagulation. Optimum operating conditions for each process were identified. The performance of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the removal of organic matter (COD and BOD 5 ) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N). It has been confirmed that air stripping (at pH 11.0 and aeration time 18 h) effectively removed 96.6% of the ammonia. The Fenton process was investigated under optimum conditions (pH 3.0, FeSO 4 .7H 2 O of 20 g l -1 and H 2 O 2 of 20 ml l -1 ), COD removal of up to 60.8% was achieved. Biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD ratio) increased from 0.18 to 0.38. Thereafter the Fenton effluent was mixed with sewage at dilutions to a ratio of 1:3 before it was subjected to the SBR reactor; under the optimum aeration time of 20 h, up to 82.8% BOD 5 removal and 83.1% COD removal were achieved. The optimum coagulant (Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) was a dosage of 800 mg l -1 at pH of 5.0, which reduced COD to an amount of 280 mg l -1 . These combined processes were successfully employed and very effectively decreased pollutant loading.

  3. Treatment of anaerobic sludge digester effluents by the CANON process in an air pulsing SBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Pozo, M.J.; Jarpa, M.; Figueroa, M.; Franco, A.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J.L.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The CANON (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen removal Over Nitrite) process was successfully developed in an air pulsing reactor type SBR fed with the supernatant from an anaerobic sludge digester and operated at moderately low temperatures (18-24 o C). The SBR was started up as a nitrifying reactor, lowering progressively the dissolved oxygen concentration until reaching partial nitrification. Afterwards, an inoculation with sludge containing Anammox biomass was carried out. Nitrogen volumetric removal rates of 0.25 g N L -1 d -1 due to Anammox activity were measured 35 d after inoculation even though the inoculum constituted only 8% (w/w) of the biomass present in the reactor and it was poorly enriched in Anammox bacteria. The maximal nitrogen removal rate was of 0.45 g N L -1 d -1 . By working at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.5 mg L -1 in the bulk liquid, nitrogen removal percentages up to 85% were achieved. The reactor presented good biomass retention capacity allowing the accumulation of 4.5 g VSS L -1 . The biomass was composed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) forming fluffy structures and granules with an average diameter of 1.6 mm. These granules were composed by Anammox bacteria located in internal anoxic layers surrounded by an external aerobic layer where AOB were placed.

  4. SBR treatment of tank truck cleaning wastewater: sludge characteristics, chemical and ecotoxicological effluent quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Michel; Dobbeleers, Thomas; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny; Dries, Jan

    2017-08-02

    A lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat tank truck cleaning (TTC) wastewater with different operational strategies (identified as different stages). The first stage was an adaptation period for the seed sludge that originated from a continuous fed industrial plant treating TTC wastewater. The first stage was followed by a dynamic reactor operation based on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Thirdly, dynamic SBR control based on OUR treated a daily changing influent. Lastly, the reactor was operated with a gradually shortened fixed cycle. During operation, sludge settling evolved from nearly no settling to good settling sludge in 16 days. The sludge volume index improved from 200 to 70 mL gMLSS -1 in 16 days and remained stable during the whole reactor operation. The average soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) removal varied from 87.0% to 91.3% in the different stages while significant differences in the food to mass ratio were observed, varying from 0.11 (stage I) to 0.37 kgCOD.(kgMLVSS day) -1 (stage III). Effluent toxicity measurements were performed with Aliivibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Low sensitivity of Aliivibrio was observed. A few samples were acutely toxic for Daphnia; 50% of the tested effluent samples showed an inhibition of 100% for Pseudokirchneriella.

  5. Effect of HRT on SBR Performance for Treatability of Combined Domestic and Textile Wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, M.S.; Khan, S.J.; Khan, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Textile wastewater contains organics and color dyes which need to be treated before discharging into receiving water bodies. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is proved promising against textile wastewater due to its high organic and nutrient removal efficiencies. In this study the influence of variable hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of SBR in treating combined textile and domestic wastewater was evaluated. Six SBRs were operated in parallel at 12 and 8 hrs HRTs respectively, three for synthetic and three for real textile plus domestic wastewater. SBRs were operated at constant temperature 25 +- 1 degree C and pH 7 +- 1 to avoid seasonal effects. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiency was consistent at 73% while, total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency increased from 52 to 63% in SBRs with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.45 to 0.68 Kg/m3/d, SVI decreased from 94 to 84 mL/g and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increased in real waste water (RWW) SBRs from 59 to 63% with decrease in HRT from 12 to 8 hrs. Low COD removal at 12 hr HRT can be attributed to poor settling characteristics of sludge due to possible filamentous growth at low F/M (0.03) and greater SRT (28 days) as compared to 8 hr HRT condition, where F/M was 0.05 and SRT of 20 days. (author)

  6. Advanced treatment of sodium dithionite wastewater using the combination of coagulation, catalytic ozonation, and SBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling

    2017-10-01

    A combined process of coagulation-catalytic ozonation-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)-SBR was developed at lab scale for treating a real sodium dithionite wastewater with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 21,760-22,450 mg/L. Catalytic ozonation with the prepared cerium oxide (CeO 2 )/granular activated carbon catalyst significantly enhances wastewater biodegradability and reduces wastewater microtoxicity. The results show that, under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of COD and suspended solids are averagely 99.3% and 95.6%, respectively, and the quality of final effluent can meet the national discharge standard of China. The coagulation and ASBR processes remove a considerable proportion of organic matter, while the SBR plays an important role in post-polish of final effluent. The ecotoxicity of the wastewater is greatly reduced after undergoing the hybrid treatment. This work demonstrates that the hybrid system has the potential to be applied for the advanced treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater.

  7. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  8. Rubber mixing process and its relationship with bound rubber and crosslink density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A.; Rochmadi; Sulistyo, H.; Honggokusumo, S.

    2017-06-01

    This research studied the relationship between bound rubber and crosslink density based on rubber mixing process. Bound rubber was obtained after natural rubber was masticated and mixed with rubber chemicals and filler while crosslink density was collected after rubber compound was vulcanized. Four methods are used and each method refers to four ways of incorporating carbon black during mixing. The first method, after rubber was masticated for 5 minutes, the addition of rubber chemicals and filler was done simultaneously. Rubber was masticated for 1 minute and continued mixing of rubber chemicals and filler where mixing was different from first method. This was the second method. The third method was the same as the second method but the filler used N 660 while in the second method N 330. The last method is not the same as the first and second, the rubber is only masticated for 3 minutes and then mixed with filler and followed by rubber chemicals sequentially. The results showed that bound rubber and crosslink density were influenced by mixing and mastication process. Bound rubber dropped and crosslink density was relatively stable in the first three mixing methods for increasing carbon black at the beginning of the mixing process. Bound rubber and crosslink density stated opposite results in the fourth mixing method. The higher the bound rubber the lower the crosslink density. Without regard to mixing methods, there is a non-linear relationship between bound rubber formation and crosslink density determination

  9. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--Surface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) 6th Annual PI Meeting: Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen Ed., T.C.

    2011-04-11

    On behalf of the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) program managers in the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD), Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcome to the 2011 SBR Principal Investigators meeting. Thank you in advance for your attendance and your presentations at this year's meeting. As the events in Japan continue to unfold, we are all reminded that the research we perform on radionuclide behavior in the environment has implications beyond legacy waste cleanup and in fact has its place in the discussion on the expanded use of nuclear power. As in the past, there are three broad objectives to the Principal Investigators meeting: (1) to provide opportunities to share research results and promote interactions among the SBR scientists and other invited guests; (2) to evaluate the progress of each project within the program; and (3) to showcase the scientific expertise and research progress over the past year to senior managers within the DOE Office of Science, the technology offices within DOE, and other invited attendees from other Federal Agencies. This past year has seen a few significant changes within BER and within the SBR program. In November, our Associate Director for BER, Anna Palmisano, retired from Federal service. Just this month, Dr. Sharlene Weatherwax (Division Director for Biological Systems Sciences) has been named as the new Associate Director for BER. In August, BER welcomed Dr. Gary Geernaert as the new Division Director for CESD. Gary joins the division from Los Alamos National Laboratory with a background in atmospheric science. Within the SBR program, a new Strategic Plan was completed last June (currently posted on the SBR and the Office of Science website). The new strategic plan is intended to foster integration within the Environmental Systems Science portion of the BER budget that includes both SBR and Terrestrial Ecosystem Sciences (TES). Both these programs share a goal of advancing a

  10. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claramma, N.M.; Mathew, N.M.; Thomas, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    Acrylonitrile graft natural rubber was prepared by initiating the polymerization of acrylonitrile in natural rubber field latex using γ-rays. The reaction was carried out at different rubber-monomer concentrations and the properties of the modified rubbers were compared with those of natural rubber and nitrile rubber. (author)

  11. Electrical and optical properties of nitrile rubber modified by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Najidha; Predeep, P.

    2014-10-01

    Implantation of N+ ion beams are performed on to a non-conjugated elastomer, acrylonirtle butadiene rubber (NBR) with energy 60 keV in the fluence range of 1014 to 1016 ions/cm2. A decrease in the resistivity of the sample by about eight orders of magnitude is observed in the implanted samples along with color changes. The ion exposed specimens were characterized by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy which shows a shift in the absorption edge value for the as deposited polymer towards higher wavelengths. The band gap is evaluated from the absorption spectra and is found to decrease with increasing fluence. This study can possibly throw light on ion induced changes in the polymer surface.

  12. Electrical and optical properties of nitrile rubber modified by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S, Najidha [Department of Physics, B.J.M Govt: college, Chavara, Kollam, Kerala (India); Predeep, P. [Laboratory for molecular Photonics and Electronics, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut (India)

    2014-10-15

    Implantation of N{sup +} ion beams are performed on to a non-conjugated elastomer, acrylonirtle butadiene rubber (NBR) with energy 60 keV in the fluence range of 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. A decrease in the resistivity of the sample by about eight orders of magnitude is observed in the implanted samples along with color changes. The ion exposed specimens were characterized by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy which shows a shift in the absorption edge value for the as deposited polymer towards higher wavelengths. The band gap is evaluated from the absorption spectra and is found to decrease with increasing fluence. This study can possibly throw light on ion induced changes in the polymer surface.

  13. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  14. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Butyl Rubber: Compound Development and Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sloan, James

    2000-01-01

    ...), to develop the standard butyl rubber compound. The strategy of this work was to compound- and compression-mold high-quality, uniform butyl rubber experimental sheets and to evaluate their cure properties, mechanical properties...

  16. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Mohamed, Mahathir; Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber's mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  17. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Mahathir

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber

  18. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Mahathir [Radiation Processing Technology Division (BTS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  19. Investigation of the electronic structure of the BiSBr and BiSeBr clusters by density functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audzijonis, A.; Gaigalas, G.; Zigas, L.; Pauliukas, A.; Zaltauskas, R.; Kvedaravicius, A.; Cerskus, A.

    2008-01-01

    The energy levels of valence bands (VB) of the BiSBr and BiSeBr crystals have been calculated for investigation of the photoelectron emission spectra of BiSBr, BiSeBr and BiSI crystals. The molecular model of this crystal has been used for the calculation of VB by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The molecular cluster, consisting of 20 molecules of BiSBr, BiSeBr, has been used for calculations of averaged total density of states, including atom vibrations. The spectra of the averaged total density of states from VB of BiSBr and BiSeBr clusters have been compared with the experimental photoelectron emission spectra from VB of BiSI crystals. The results clarify that the atomic vibrations in A 5 B 6 C 7 type crystals with chain structure create a smoother appearance of the averaged total density of state spectrum and the experimental X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS)

  20. Effect of Aromatic Oil on Phase Dynamics of S-SBR/BR Blends fro Passenger Car Tire Treads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathi, Akansha; Hernández, M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Bergmann, C.; Trimbach, J.; Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Even though S-SBR/BR blends are commonly used for passenger car tire treads, little is known about the phase dynamics arising from the local morphological heterogeneities. The present study aims at developing the understanding of: (i) the influence of aromatic oil on the dynamics of the individual

  1. COD fractions changes in the SBR-type reactor treating municipal wastewater with controlled percentage of dairy sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk-Sokołowska Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the influence of percentage of dairy wastewater in the municipal wastewater on the changes of COD fractions during the cycle of SBR-type reactor. The scope of the research included physicochemical analyses of municipal wastewater without dairy wastewater, dairy wastewater, mixture of municipal and dairy wastewater as well as treated sewage. Both the concentrations and the proportions between COD fractions changed in the SBR cycle. In raw municipal and dairy wastewater - XS, insoluble hardly bio-degradable fraction of COD dominated (49.6 and 64.5% respectively. In treated wastewater SI, COD for dissolved compounds that are not biologically decomposed (inert (from 62.1 to 74.6% dominated, while XS fraction was from 19.1 to 24.4%. The consumption rate of organic compounds depended on the type of COD fraction, SBR cycle phase and the percentage of dairy wastewater. The highest rates of organic compounds consumption were noted in the phase of mixing. In the case of fraction SI, no differences in concentration in the SBR cycle time, were found. Concentration of COD in treated wastewater was from 34.8 to 58.9 mgO2·L-1 (efficiency wastewater treatment from 96.0 to 98.6%.

  2. Kinetic rates and mass balance of COD, TKN, and TP using SBR treating domestic and industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warodomrungsimun, Chaowalit; Fongsatitkul, Prayoon

    2009-12-01

    To assess the performance of SBR to treat three different types of wastewater from domestic, hospital, slaughterhouse and investigate the kinetic rates of active biomass. Mass balance calculation of COD, TKN and TP was further performed to explain the mechanisms of the biological nutrient removals processed in the SBR system. The measured kinetic rates were in turn used to evaluate the process performances under different types of wastewater. Experimental research involving 3 similar SBR lab-scales were installed and operated at the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory. The reactors were seeded with sludge biomass obtained from the Sri-Phraya Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bangkok. The slaughterhouse, hospital and domestic wastewaters were treated by SBR system for biological organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus removals. Biological methods for kinetic rates evaluation were conducted in five replicated batch tests. The removal efficiencies of COD and TKN were greater than 90% for all three types of wastewater while the biological phosphorus removal for domestic and hospital wastewaters were less than 60% and phosphorus removal for slaughterhouse exceeded 95%. The kinetic rates of nitrification and denitrification of hospital wastewater was lower than those the domestic and slaughterhouse wastewaters. Phosphorus release and uptake rates of slaughterhouse wastewater were high but domestic and hospital wastewaters were very low. The result of system removal efficiency and batch test for kinetic rates confirmed that the domestic and hospital wastewaters were in deficiency of organic carbon with respect to its ability to support successful biological phosphorus removal.

  3. Organics removal from landfill leachate and activated sludge production in SBR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimiuk, Ewa; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    This study is aimed at estimating organic compounds removal and sludge production in SBR during treatment of landfill leachate. Four series were performed. At each series, experiments were carried out at the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12, 6, 3 and 2 d. The series varied in SBR filling strategies, duration of the mixing and aeration phases, and the sludge age. In series 1 and 2 (a short filling period, mixing and aeration phases in the operating cycle), the relationship between organics concentration (COD) in the leachate treated and HRT was pseudo-first-order kinetics. In series 3 (with mixing and aeration phases) and series 4 (only aeration phase) with leachate supplied by means of a peristaltic pump for 4 h of the cycle (filling during reaction period) - this relationship was zero-order kinetics. Activated sludge production expressed as the observed coefficient of biomass production (Y obs ) decreased correspondingly with increasing HRT. The smallest differences between reactors were observed in series 3 in which Y obs was almost stable (0.55-0.6 mg VSS/mg COD). The elimination of the mixing phase in the cycle (series 4) caused the Y obs to decrease significantly from 0.32 mg VSS/mg COD at HRT 2 d to 0.04 mg VSS/mg COD at HRT 12 d. The theoretical yield coefficient Y accounted for 0.534 mg VSS/mg COD (series 1) and 0.583 mg VSS/mg COD (series 2). In series 3 and 4, it was almost stable (0.628 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.616 mg VSS/mg COD, respectively). After the elimination of the mixing phase in the operating cycle, the specific biomass decay rate increased from 0.006 d -1 (series 3) to 0.032 d -1 (series 4). The operating conditions employing mixing/aeration or only aeration phases enable regulation of the sludge production. The SBRs operated under aerobic conditions are more favourable at a short hydraulic retention time. At long hydraulic retention time, it can lead to a decrease in biomass concentration in the SBR as a result of cell decay. On the contrary

  4. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Vignali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures.

  5. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  6. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  7. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  8. Calibration and validation of a model describing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular SBR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A validated model describing the nitritation-anammox process in a granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system is an important tool for: a) design of future experiments and b) prediction of process performance during optimization, while applying process control, or during system scale......-up. RESULTS: A model was calibrated using a step-wise procedure customized for the specific needs of the system. The important steps in the procedure were initialization, steady-state and dynamic calibration, and validation. A fast and effective initialization approach was developed to approximate pseudo...... screening of the parameter space proposed by Sin et al. (2008) - to find the best fit of the model to dynamic data. Finally, the calibrated model was validated with an independent data set. CONCLUSION: The presented calibration procedure is the first customized procedure for this type of system...

  9. Treatment of landfill leachate using a combined stripping, Fenton, SBR, and coagulation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jinsong, E-mail: guo0768@cqu.edu.cn [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Abbas, Abdulhussain A. [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Faculty of Engineering, Basrah University, Basrah (Iraq); Chen Youpeng; Liu Zhiping; Fang Fang; Chen Peng [Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China)

    2010-06-15

    The leachate from Changshengqiao landfill (Chongqing, China) was characterized and submitted to a combined process of air stripping, Fenton, sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and coagulation. Optimum operating conditions for each process were identified. The performance of the treatment was assessed by monitoring the removal of organic matter (COD and BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N). It has been confirmed that air stripping (at pH 11.0 and aeration time 18 h) effectively removed 96.6% of the ammonia. The Fenton process was investigated under optimum conditions (pH 3.0, FeSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O of 20 g l{sup -1} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of 20 ml l{sup -1}), COD removal of up to 60.8% was achieved. Biodegradability (BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio) increased from 0.18 to 0.38. Thereafter the Fenton effluent was mixed with sewage at dilutions to a ratio of 1:3 before it was subjected to the SBR reactor; under the optimum aeration time of 20 h, up to 82.8% BOD{sub 5} removal and 83.1% COD removal were achieved. The optimum coagulant (Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}) was a dosage of 800 mg l{sup -1} at pH of 5.0, which reduced COD to an amount of 280 mg l{sup -1}. These combined processes were successfully employed and very effectively decreased pollutant loading.

  10. Effect of dairy wastewater on changes in COD fractions in technical-scale SBR type reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk-Sokołowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The annual global production of milk is approximately 630,000 million litres and the volume of generated dairy wastewater accounts for 3.2 m 3 ·m -3 product. Dairy wastewater is characterized by a high load of chemical oxygen demand (COD). In many wastewater plants dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater are co-treated. The effect of dairy wastewater contribution on COD fraction changes in municipal sewage which has been treated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in three wastewater treatment plants in north-east Poland is presented. In these plants the real contribution of dairy wastewater was 10, 13 and 17%. In raw wastewater, S S fraction (readily biodegradable dissolved organic matter) was dominant and ranged from 38.3 to 62.6%. In the effluent, S S fraction was not noted, which is indicative of consumption by microorganisms. The presence of dairy wastewater in municipal sewage does not cause changes in the content of the X I fraction (insoluble fractions of non-biodegradable organic matter). SBR effluents were dominated by non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter S I , which from 57.7 to 61.7%. In raw wastewater S I ranged from 1.0 to 4.6%. X s fraction (slowly biodegradable non-soluble organic matter) in raw wastewater ranged from 24.6 to 45.5% while in treated wastewater it ranged from 28.6 to 30.8%. In the control object (fourth wastewater plant) which does not process dairy wastewater, the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction in inflow was 28.7, 2.4, 51.7 and 17.2% respectively. In the effluent the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction was below 0.1, 33.6, 50.0 and 16.4% respectively.

  11. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  12. Use of rubber crumbs in cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvinenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rubber crumb obtained from worn out tires has been increasingly used over the last 15-20 years, especially in manufacture of asphalt and cement concrete mixtures. This review pays principal attention to application of the rubber crumb to cement concrete mixtures. Use of the rubber crumb in cement concrete is not as successful as in asphalt concrete mixtures, due to incompatibility problems linked to chemical composition and a significant difference in rigidity between the rubber crumb and concrete mixture aggregates. Different methods are proposed and studied to mitigate the adverse influence and increase the beneficial effects of the rubber crumb when added to cement concrete.

  13. Soft matter: rubber and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Gregory B.

    2018-06-01

    Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and ‘gel’ like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function. Important relationships are presented and experimental results show that the continuum ideas contained in the phenomenological thermodynamics are valid, but that the molecular bases for some of them remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly so in the case of the entropic gels or swollen networks. The review is concluded with some perspectives on other networks, ranging from entropic polymer networks such as thermoplastic elastomers to physical gels in which cross-link points are formed by glassy or crystalline domains. A discussion is provided for other physical gels in which the network forms a spinodal-like decomposition, both in thermoplastic polymers that form a glassy network upon phase separation and for colloidal gels that seem to have a similar behavior.

  14. Cryogenic Deflashing for Rubber Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deflashing is the process of removal of excess flashes from the rubber products. Initially deflashing was a manual operation where dozen of workers, seated at small work stations would take each part and trim the excess rubber off with scissors, knives or by grinding. Still the same method is employed in most of the rubber industry. The drawbacks of this method are demand inconsistent and repeatable quality. Work done by hand is often inconsistent. There are commercially available cryogenic deflashing machine but they are too expensive hence cost effectiveness is also a prime factor. The objective of this paper is to develop a technique, to identify the media through which the flashes can be removed easily and effectively. Based on the test results obtained from testing of five different types of media, ABCUT Steel media gave best results. The testing of the ABCUT Steel media on rubber samples like O-rings, grommet tail door, bottom bush etc. shows good results.

  15. Synthesis of novel N-, S-substituted-polyhalo-1, 3-butadienes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyhalogenated-2-nitro-1, 3-butadienes are important synthetic precursors for a variety of poly- functionalized ... biodegradation of morpholine with strains of Mycobac- terium or ...... pounds from very simple precursor in a one-pot ope- ration.

  16. Influence of fillers on hydrogen penetration properties and blister fracture of rubber composites for O-ring exposed to high-pressure hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe, Junichiro; Nishimura, Shin [Department of Mechanical Science Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage (HYDROGENIUS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) composites having carbon black, silica, and no fillers were exposed to hydrogen gas at a maximum pressure of 10 MPa; then, blister tests and the measurement of hydrogen content were conducted. The hydrogen contents of the composites were proportional to the hydrogen pressure, i.e., the behavior of their hydrogen contents follows Henry's law. This implies that hydrogen penetrates into the composite as a hydrogen molecule. The addition of carbon black raised the hydrogen content of the composite, while the addition of silica did not. Based on observations, the blister damages of composites with silica were less pronounced, irrespective of the hydrogen pressures. This may be attributed to their lower hydrogen content and relatively better tensile properties than the others. (author)

  17. Electron beam modification and crosslinking: Influence of nitrile and carboxyl contents and level of unsaturation on structure and properties of nitrile rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayabaskar, V.; Tikku, V.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2006-01-01

    The structural changes of nitrile rubber with varying nitrile contents, hydrogenated nitrile rubber and carboxylated nitrile rubber in the presence and absence of a polyfunctional monomer, namely trimethylolpropane triacrylate, at different doses of electron beam irradiation, were investigated with the help of FTIR spectroscopy (in the attenuated total reflectance mode), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and sol-gel analysis. Solid-state NMR with gated high power decoupling technique was used to understand the mechanism of crosslinking of the irradiated samples. The allylic radicals generated in the butadiene chains react to form intermolecular crosslinkages. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of olefinic groups for the nitrile rubber on irradiation. This was also affirmed by the increase in the carbon resonances due to C-C linkages from the NMR technique, indicating more crosslinkages. The spectroscopic crosslink densities were determined and the results were compared with the swelling measurements. The variation in the crosslink clustering for rubbers with different acrylonitrile contents was explained using the NMR technique. The increase in crosslinking was also revealed by the increase in the percent gel content and dynamic storage moduli with radiation doses. The lifetime of spurs formed and the critical dose, an important criterion for overlapping of spurs, were determined for both the grafted and the ungrafted nitrile rubbers of different grades and compared using a mathematical model. The ratio of scissioning to crosslinking for nitrile rubber was determined using Charlesby-Pinner equation. The mechanical properties had also been studied for both the modified and the unmodified systems

  18. Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/manganous tungstate (MnWO4) nanocomposites: Characterization, mechanical and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Abdu Raheem V., P.; Jayakrishnan, P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocomposites of NBR with manganous-tungstate nanoparticles were prepared through vulcanization process. The extent of interaction of nanoparticles with the polymer was studied by FTIR, SEM, XRD, TGA and AC conductivity. FTIR and XRD ascertain the interaction of NBR with MnWO4 nanoparticles. SEM analysis established that the nanopartilces were well dispersed in the macromolecular chain of NBR. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were studied as a function of filler loading. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced thermal stability as seen in TGA. Conductivity and dielectric properties of nanocomposites increase with increase in concentration of MnWO4 nanoparticles (7phr) and thereafter the value decreases.

  19. The filler-rubber interface in styrene butadiene nanocomposites with anisotropic silica particles: morphology and dynamic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tadiello, L.; D´Arienzo, M.; Di Credico, B.; Hanel, T.; Matějka, Libor; Mauri, M.; Morazzoni, F.; Simonutti, R.; Špírková, Milena; Scotti, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 20 (2015), s. 4022-4033 ISSN 1744-683X Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposites * silica particles * polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.798, year: 2015

  20. Review of old chemistry and new catalytic advances in the on-purpose synthesis of butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makshina, Ekaterina V; Dusselier, Michiel; Janssens, Wout; Degrève, Jan; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2014-11-21

    Increasing demand for renewable feedstock-based chemicals is driving the interest of both academic and industrial research to substitute petrochemicals with renewable chemicals from biomass-derived resources. The search towards novel platform chemicals is challenging and rewarding, but the main research activities are concentrated on finding efficient pathways to produce familiar drop-in chemicals and polymer building blocks. A diversity of industrially important monomers like alkenes, conjugated dienes, unsaturated carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds are thus targeted from renewable feedstock. In this context, on-purpose production of 1,3-butadiene from biomass-derived feedstock is an interesting example as its production is under pressure by uncertainty of the conventional fossil feedstock. Ethanol, obtained via fermentation or (biomass-generated) syngas, can be converted to butadiene, although there is no large commercial activity today. Though practised on a large scale in the beginning of the 20th century, there is a growing worldwide renewed interest in the butadiene-from-ethanol route. An alternative route to produce butadiene from biomass is through direct carbohydrate and gas fermentation or indirectly via the dehydration of butanediols. This review starts with a brief discussion on the different feedstock possibilities to produce butadiene, followed by a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge regarding advances and achievements in the field of the chemocatalytic conversion of ethanol and butanediols to butadiene, including thermodynamics and kinetic aspects of the reactions with discussions on the reaction pathways and the type of catalysts developed.

  1. Upscaling of a Batch De-Vulcanization Process for Ground Car Tire Rubber to a Continuous Process in a Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitisaiyidah Saiwari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1–3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid, extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling. The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.

  2. Nanocomposites of nitrile (NBR) rubber with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warasitthinon, Nuthathai

    Nanotechnology offers the promise of creating new materials with enhanced performance. There are different kinds of fillers used in rubber nanocomposites, such as carbon black, silica, carbon fibers, and organoclays. Carbon nanotube reinforced elastomers have potential for improved rubber properties in aggressive environments. The first chapter is an introduction to the literature. The second chapter investigated the incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into rubber matrix for potential use in high temperature applications. The vulcanization kinetics of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes was investigated. The vulcanized NBR rubber with different loading percentages of MWCNTs was also compared to NBR reinforced with carbon black N330. The optimum curing time at 170°C (T90) was found to decrease with increasing content of MWCNTs. Increased filler loading of both carbon black and MWCNTs gave higher modulus and strength. The MWCNTs filled materials gave better retention of modulus and tensile strength at high temperatures, but lower strength as compared to the carbon black filled samples. In the third chapter, carbon black (CB, 50phr) content in nitrile rubber (NBR) nanocomposites was partially replaced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). NBR/CB/CNTs nanocomposites with varying ratio of CB/CNTs (50/0 phr to 40/10 phr) were formulated via the melt-mixing method using an internal mixer. The reinforcing effect of single filler (CB) and mixture of fillers (CB and CNTs) on the properties of NBR nanocomposites was investigated. The cure kinetics and bound rubber content were analyzed using rheometry and solvent swelling method. In addition, mechanical behavior at both room temperature and high temperature (350°F/ 121°C) were examined. The scorch time and curing time values showed that there was no significant effect on the curing behavior of NBR nanocomposites after the partial replacement of CB with

  3. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  4. Effects of Diatomite and SBS on Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt mixture is susceptible to moisture damage under the effect of freeze-thaw (F-T cycles. In this paper, crumb rubber (CR was used to modify stone mastic asphalt (SMA and the effects of diatomite and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS on antifreezing performances of crumb rubber modified SMA (CRSMA were investigated. Regression analysis and modified grey model (MGM were used to construct the prediction models for properties of modified mixtures. CRSMA, CR and diatomite modified SMA (CRDSMA, and CR and SBS modified SMA (CRSSMA were prepared in laboratory, respectively. Process of F-T cycles was designed. Air void, indirect tensile strength (ITS, and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM were measured to evaluate the antifreezing performances of CRSMA, CRDSMA, and CRSSMA. Results indicate that air voids increase with the increasing of F-T cycles. ITS and ITSM all decrease with the increasing of F-T cycles. The addition of diatomite and SBS can reduce the air void and improve the ITS and ITSM of CRSMA. CRSSMA presents the lowest air void, highest tensile strength, and largest stiffness modulus, which reveals that CRSSMA has the best F-T resistance among three different kinds of mixtures. Moreover, MGM (1, 2 models present more favorable accuracy in prediction of air void and ITS compared with regression ones.

  5. Ionic elastomers based on carboxylated nitrile rubber (XNBR and magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (hydrotalcite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laskowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carboxyl groups in carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR allows it to be cured with different agents. This study considers the effect of crosslinking of XNBR by magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH, known also as hydrotalcite (HT, on rheometric, mechano-dynamical and barrier properties. Results of XNBR/HT composites containing various HT loadings without conventional curatives are compared with XNBR compound crosslinked with commonly used zinc oxide. Hydrotalcite acts as an effective crosslinking agent for XNBR, as is particularly evident from rheometric and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies. The existence of ionic crosslinks was also detected by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the resulting composites. DMA studies revealed that the XNBR/HT composites exhibited two transitions – one occurring at low temperature is associated to the Tg of elastomer and the second at high temperature corresponds to the ionic transition temperature Ti. Simultaneous application of HT as a curing agent and a filler may deliver not only environmentally friendly, zinc oxide-free rubber product but also ionic elastomer composite with excellent mechanical, barrier and transparent properties.

  6. Radiation Curing of Rubber/Thermoplastic Composites Containing Different Inorganic Fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Zayat, M.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Blending of polymeric materials has proved to be a successful method for preparing new polymeric materials having not only the main properties of the blends components but also new modification as well as specific ones. High density polyethylene (HDPE) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) are both soild and constitute the blend components to be investigated in present study and hence the method of mechanical blending is the most suitable one for its preparation . HDPE thermoplastic is a semi – crystalline polymer ; on the other hand , NBR elastomer is totally amorphous polymer. Both polymers are categorized as crosslinking polymers with respect to ionizing gamma rays with different extents. In order to increase the efficiency of irradiation curing of such NBR/HDPE blend , it may be required to add suitable additives such as reinforcing fillers that may increase the extent of crosslinking at the same irradiation dose . Thus synthetic fillers are used commercially in industrial processing of rubber formulation due to its specific characteristics and hence its high reinforcing capacity and suitable price . To follow property changes occurred to the blend as well as its composites , measurements have been done to monitor the changes that happened to mechanical, physical and thermal properties as a function of irradiation dose and composition of blends and composites.

  7. High throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS methodology for mercapturic acid metabolites of 1,3-butadiene: Biomarkers of exposure and bioactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotapati, Srikanth; Esades, Amanda; Matter, Brock; Le, Chap; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2015-11-05

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental carcinogen present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air. The major urinary metabolites of BD in humans are 2-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1-hydroxybut-3-ene/1-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-ene (MHBMA), 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2-dihydroxybutane (DHBMA), and 4-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (THBMA), which are formed from the electrophilic metabolites of BD, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), hydroxymethyl vinyl ketone (HMVK), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), respectively. In the present work, a sensitive high-throughput HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of MHBMA and DHBMA in small volumes of human urine (200 μl). The method employs a 96 well Oasis HLB SPE enrichment step, followed by isotope dilution HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS analysis on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The validated method was used to quantify MHBMA and DHBMA in urine of workers from a BD monomer and styrene-butadiene rubber production facility (40 controls and 32 occupationally exposed to BD). Urinary THBMA concentrations were also determined in the same samples. The concentrations of all three BD-mercapturic acids and the metabolic ratio (MHBMA/(MHBMA+DHBMA+THBMA)) were significantly higher in the occupationally exposed group as compared to controls and correlated with BD exposure, with each other, and with BD-hemoglobin biomarkers. This improved high throughput methodology for MHBMA and DHBMA will be useful for future epidemiological studies in smokers and occupationally exposed workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermostability and surface morphology of nano- and micro-filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM rubber blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARINOVIC-CINCOVIC

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR, polychloroprene rubber (CR, chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM and their blends were cross-linked with sulphur, ethylene-thiourea, magnesium oxide or their combination. The effect of nano- and micro- particle sized of 35 pphr SiO2 on the thermostability and surface morphology of all the crosslinked systems was investigated. Identification of the structure of nano- and micro- particle sized SiO2 filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems was carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR extension. The thermal stability of the nano- and micro- particle sized SiO2 filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The glass transition temperature (Tg of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The morphology of the fracture surface of the crosslinked systems was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results show when filled with nano-particle sized of SiO2 NBR/CSM and CR/CSM polymer matrix have a strong peak from SiO–C at 1079 cm-1. This suggests the an interaction between the SiO2, which should lead to an increased thermal stability, higher values of Tg, better dispersion the nano-SiO2 and more polish, without cracks than micro-filled NBR/CSM and CR/CSM crosslinked systems.

  9. A novel application of ADC/K-foaming agent-loaded NBR rubber composites as pressure sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, W E [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Eraki, M H I [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); El-Lawindy, A M Y [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Hassan, H H [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2006-02-07

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) structure foam of different apparent densities was obtained by using different concentrations of foaming agent, azodicarbonamide, ADC/K. The true stress-strain characteristics, in case of compression, of foamed samples were measured. It was found that the theoretical values predicted from the simple blending model are in more agreement with the experimental results than those from the square-relationship model. The effect of cyclic loading-unloading and dissipation energy of rubber foams was studied. The results also indicated that foams with low density exhibited a small hysteresis. The electrical properties were found dependent on the foaming agent concentration. This study was assisted by Mott and Gurney equation. The effect of compressive strain on the electrical conductivity of rubber foams was studied. The free current carrier mobility and the equilibrium concentration of charge carrier in the conduction band were produced as functions of compressive strain. The results also indicate that there is a linear variation between pressure and conductivity for all samples, which means that these samples can be used as a pressure sensor. At a certain concentration of foaming agent (5 phr) a change of electrical conductivity by more than three orders is observed at 20% compression strain.

  10. A novel application of ADC/K-foaming agent-loaded NBR rubber composites as pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, W E; El-Eraki, M H I; El-Lawindy, A M Y; Hassan, H H

    2006-01-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) structure foam of different apparent densities was obtained by using different concentrations of foaming agent, azodicarbonamide, ADC/K. The true stress-strain characteristics, in case of compression, of foamed samples were measured. It was found that the theoretical values predicted from the simple blending model are in more agreement with the experimental results than those from the square-relationship model. The effect of cyclic loading-unloading and dissipation energy of rubber foams was studied. The results also indicated that foams with low density exhibited a small hysteresis. The electrical properties were found dependent on the foaming agent concentration. This study was assisted by Mott and Gurney equation. The effect of compressive strain on the electrical conductivity of rubber foams was studied. The free current carrier mobility and the equilibrium concentration of charge carrier in the conduction band were produced as functions of compressive strain. The results also indicate that there is a linear variation between pressure and conductivity for all samples, which means that these samples can be used as a pressure sensor. At a certain concentration of foaming agent (5 phr) a change of electrical conductivity by more than three orders is observed at 20% compression strain

  11. A novel application of ADC/K-foaming agent-loaded NBR rubber composites as pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, W. E.; El-Eraki, M. H. I.; El-Lawindy, A. M. Y.; Hassan, H. H.

    2006-02-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) structure foam of different apparent densities was obtained by using different concentrations of foaming agent, azodicarbonamide, ADC/K. The true stress-strain characteristics, in case of compression, of foamed samples were measured. It was found that the theoretical values predicted from the simple blending model are in more agreement with the experimental results than those from the square-relationship model. The effect of cyclic loading-unloading and dissipation energy of rubber foams was studied. The results also indicated that foams with low density exhibited a small hysteresis. The electrical properties were found dependent on the foaming agent concentration. This study was assisted by Mott and Gurney equation. The effect of compressive strain on the electrical conductivity of rubber foams was studied. The free current carrier mobility and the equilibrium concentration of charge carrier in the conduction band were produced as functions of compressive strain. The results also indicate that there is a linear variation between pressure and conductivity for all samples, which means that these samples can be used as a pressure sensor. At a certain concentration of foaming agent (5 phr) a change of electrical conductivity by more than three orders is observed at 20% compression strain.

  12. Development of biological treatment known as SBR process for supporting radiation treatment of industrial wastewater using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Siti Aishah Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Ismail Yaziz

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of wastewater is capable of degrading stable non-biodegradable compound. However it requires high dose and in turn increase the cost of operation. A combination of irradiation and biological treatment is expected to overcome this problem. In this study, the treatment system will use a biological process known as Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The SBR will be developed in a series and each series consist of reaction tank and clarifier tank. Filling and reaction step will occur in reaction tank while settling, decanting and idling step will ensue in the clarifier tank. The process is designed as such to enable rapid and simultaneous analysis on treated sample in order to achieve reliable results. (Author)

  13. Thermodynamic Study of Tl6SBr4 Compound and Some Regularities in Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chalcohalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Mahammad Babanly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-phase diagram of the Tl-TlBr-S system was clarified and the fundamental thermodynamic properties of Tl6SBr4 compound were studied on the basis of electromotive force (EMF measurements of concentration cells relative to a thallium electrode. The EMF results were used to calculate the relative partial thermodynamic functions of thallium in alloys and the standard integral thermodynamic functions (-ΔfG0, -ΔfH0, and S0298 of Tl6SBr4 compound. All data regarding thermodynamic properties of thallium chalcogen-halides are generalized and comparatively analyzed. Consequently, certain regularities between thermodynamic functions of thallium chalcogen-halides and their binary constituents as well as degree of ionization (DI of chemical bonding were revealed.

  14. The role of linked phospholipids in the rubber-filler interaction in carbon nanotube (CNT) filler natural rubber (NR) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, H.H.; Abhijeet, S.; Ilish, S.; Klehm, J.; Henning, S.; Beiner, M.; Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Das, A.; Fischer, D.; Stöckelhuber, K.-W.; Wiessner, S.; Khatiwada, S.P.; Adhikari, R.; Pham, T.; Heinrich, G.; Radusch, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to evidence the role of the linked phospholipids of natural rubber (NR) in the rubber-carbon nanotube (CNT) interactions in rubber composites. Three rubbers namely NR, deproteinized NR (DPNR) and a synthetic rubber isoprene (IR) were used as matrix for CNTs. The

  15. Misturas NR/SBR: modos de preparação e propriedades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconte Leila L. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de artefatos de borracha muitas vezes requerem um conjunto de propriedades que não podem ser fornecidas por um único elastômero sendo, então necessário, que misturas de dois ou mais polímeros sejam empregadas. Nesses casos, os demais ingredientes que normalmente são adicionados, distribuem-se de modo diferente dependendo de sua afinidade com cada uma das borrachas. O grau de dispersão de cada um desses ingredientes em cada fase elastomérica irá influenciar a velocidade e o grau de vulcanização e, certamente, terá conseqüências sobre o desempenho do composto final. Neste trabalho, a borracha natural (NR foi misturada ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR na proporção de 1:1 em peso. As composições foram preparadas em misturador de cilindros, segundo a norma ASTM D 3182, empregando-se quatro maneiras distintas para a incorporação dos aditivos. Após a vulcanização foram estudadas propriedades mecânicas, como resistências à tração e ao rasgamento e dureza, propriedades termo-dinâmico-mecânicas e a morfologia de cada uma das composições. As propriedades mecânicas foram avaliadas de acordo com as normas ASTM específicas para cada ensaio. Os resultados mostram que, apesar de se usar a mesma formulação, o modo de preparo tem grande influência sobre as propriedades, o que é detectável pelas propriedades mecânicas e pela análise morfológica, e evidenciado através de testes sensíveis, como o dinâmico-mecânico. No caso da mistura NR/SBR as melhores propriedades são obtidas quando é favorecida a vulcanização da borracha que, isoladamente, apresenta propriedades inferiores.

  16. Integration of ozonation and an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) for the treatment of cherry stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro M; Beltrán, Fernando J; Rodríguez, Eva M

    2005-01-01

    Cherry stillage is a high strength organic wastewater arising from the manufacture of alcoholic products by distillation of fermented cherries. It is made up of biorefractory polyphenols in addition to readily biodegradable organic matter. An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used to treat cherry stillage at influent COD ranging from 5 to 50 g/L. Different cycle times were selected to test biomass organic loading rates (OLR(B)), from 0.3 to 1.2 g COD/g VSS.d. COD and TOC efficiency removals higher than 80% were achieved at influent COD up to 28.5 g/L but minimum OLR(B) tested. However, as a result of the temporary inhibition of acetogens and methanogens, volatile fatty acids (VFA) noticeably accumulated and methane production came to a transient standstill when operating at influent COD higher than 10 g/L. At these conditions, the AnSBR showed signs of instability and could not operate efficiently at OLR(B) higher than 0.3 g COD/g VSS.d. A feasible explanation for this inhibition is the presence of toxic polyphenols in cherry stillage. Thus, an ozonation step prior to the AnSBR was observed to be useful, since more than 75% of polyphenols could be removed by ozone. The integrated process was shown to be a suitable treatment technology as the following advantages compared to the single AnSBR treatment were observed: greater polyphenols and color removals, higher COD and TOC removal rates thus enabling the process to effectively operate at higher OLR, higher degree of biomethanation, and good stability with less risk of acidification.

  17. Advanced phosphorus recovery using a novel SBR system with granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-Ze; Wang, Hou-Feng; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a novel process for phosphorus (P) recovery without excess sludge production from granular sludge in simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and P removal (SNDPR) system is presented. Aerobic microbial granules were successfully cultivated in an alternating aerobic-anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for removing P and nitrogen (N). Dense and stable granular sludge was created, and the SBR system showed good performance in terms of P and N removal. The removal efficiency was approximately 65.22 % for N, and P was completely removed under stable operating conditions. Afterward, new operating conditions were applied in order to enhance P recovering without excess sludge production. The initial SBR system was equipped with a batch reactor and a non-woven cloth filter, and 1.37 g of CH3COONa·3H2O was added to the batch reactor after mixing it with 1 L of sludge derived from the SBR reactor to enhance P release in the liquid fraction, this comprises the new system configuration. Under the new operating conditions, 93.19 % of the P contained in wastewater was released in the liquid fraction as concentrated orthophosphate from part of granular sludge. This amount of P could be efficiently recovered in the form of struvite. Meanwhile, a deterioration of the denitrification efficiency was observed and the granules were disintegrated into smaller particles. The biomass concentration in the system increased firstly and then maintained at 4.0 ± 0.15 gVSS/L afterward. These results indicate that this P recovery operating (PRO) mode is a promising method to recover P in a SNDPR system with granular sludge. In addition, new insights into the granule transformation when confronted with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) load were provided.

  18. Radiotracer application for characterization of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singare, P.U.

    2015-01-01

    Radio isotopic tracer technique as one of the versatile nondestructive technique is employed to evaluate the performance of nuclear grade anion exchange resins Tulsion A-23 and Dowex SBR LC. The evaluation was made on the basis of ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by using 131 I and 82 Br radioactive tracer isotopes. It was observed that for both the resins, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of ion exchanged (mmol) and initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min) were calculated to be lower for bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. It was observed that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions of 30.0 C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.001 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution, the values of specific reaction rate (min -1 ), amount of iodide ion exchanged (mmol), initial rate of iodide ion exchange (mmol/min) and log K d were calculated as 0.377, 0.212, 0.080 and 15.5 respectively for Dowex SBR LC resin, which was higher than 0.215, 0.144, 0.031 and 14.1 respectively as that obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. Also at a constant temperature of 30.0 C, as the concentration of labeled iodide ion solution increases from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L, the percentage of iodide ions exchanged increases from 84.75 % to 90.20 % for Dowex SBR LC resins which was higher than increases from 57.66 % to 62.38 % obtained for Tulsion A23 resins. The identical trend was observed for the two resins during bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The overall results indicate superior performance of Dowex SBR LC over Tulsion A23 resins under identical experimental conditions.

  19. Morphology and Phase Transitions in Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer Grafted with Isobutyl Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazowski, Daniel B; Lee, Andre; Haddad, Timothy S

    2007-01-01

    Two symmetric triblock polystyrene-butadiene-polystyrene (SBS) copolymers with different styrene content were grafted with varying amounts of isobutyl-substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules...

  20. Morphology and Phase Transitions in Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer Grafted with Isobutyl Substituted Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazkowski, Daniel B; Lee, Andre; Haddad, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Two symmetric triblock polystyrene-butadiene-polystyrene (SBS) copolymers with different styrene content were grafted with varying amounts of isobutyl-substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules...

  1. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  2. Organic loading rate effect on the acidogenesis of cheese whey: a comparison between UASB and SBR reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, R; Iglesias-Iglesias, R; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2017-09-16

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and degree of acidification (DA) were investigated in the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey by comparison of two processes: a continuous process using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a discontinuous process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The main purpose of this work was to study the organic loading rate (OLR) effect on the yield of VFA in two kinds of reactors. The predominant products in the acidogenic process in both reactors were: acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate. The maximum DA obtained was 98% in an SBR at OLR of 2.7 g COD L -1 d -1 , and 97% in the UASB at OLR at 15.1 g COD L -1 d -1 . The results revealed that the UASB reactor was more efficient at a medium OLR with a higher VFA yield, while with the SBR reactor, the maximum acidification was obtained at a lower OLR with changes in the VFA profile at different OLRs applied.

  3. Integration of Cleaner Production and Waste Water Treatment on Tofu Small Industry for Biogas Production using AnSBR Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Budiyono; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    A research on developing a system that integrates clean production and waste water treatment for biogas production in tofu small industry has been conducted. In this research, tofu waste water was turned into biogas using an AnSBR reactor. Mud from the sewage system serves as the inoculums. This research involved: (1) workshop; (2) supervising; (3) technical meeting; (4) network meeting, and (5) technical application. Implementation of clean production integrated with waste water treatment reduced the amount of waste water to be treated in a treatment plant. This means less cost for construction and operation of waste water treatment plants, as inherent limitations associated with such plants like lack of fund, limited area, and technological issues are inevitable. Implementation of clean production prior to waste water treatment reduces pollution figures down to certain levels that limitations in waste water treatment plants can be covered. Results show that biogas in 16 days HRT in an AnSBR reactor contains CH4(78.26 %) and CO2 (20.16 %). Meanwhile, treatments using a conventional bio-digester result in biogas with 72.16 % CH4 and 18.12 % CO2. Hence, biogas efficiency for the AnSBR system is 2.14 times greater than that of a conventional bio-digester.

  4. A comparative study of natural rubber modified with ground tire rubber of truck

    OpenAIRE

    Binti Haridan, Ili Liyana

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste rubber has considerable significance in term of environmental protection and energy conservation. Considering that most of the relevant literature is concerned with tire recycling, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize the elastomeric samples of natural rubber (NR) composites filled with ground tire rubber of truck (GTR) devulcanized by microwave (DGTR). The tire rubber was ground under ambient conditions and subjected to microwave exposure for 3, 5 and ...

  5. Radiation cured silicone rubber articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, J.G.; Goodwin, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    A process for making radiation cured silicone rubber articles is disclosed wherein a hydroxyl-terminated polysilaxane having a molecular weight from about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, optionally modified by mixing with up to 85% of an end-stopped silicone rubber, is mixed with from about 10 to about 70 parts per hundred of rubber of a finely divided silica filler with a particle size in the reinforcing range and other inert fillers as determined by desired final properties; the composition so prepared is formed into the desired shape at room temperature; the article so formed is precured to improve the mechanical properties of the material with which it is made by exposure to ammonia gas, ammonium hydroxide, or to the vapors or solutions of a volatile amine at room temperature; and the precured article is irradiated with high energy electrons or gamma radiation to effect a permanent cure of the material from which the article is formed

  6. Thermal endurance tests on silicone rubber specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, C.

    1977-07-01

    Thermal endurance tests have been performed on a range of silicone rubber specimens at temperature above 300 0 C. It is suggested that the rubber mix A2426, the compound from which Wylfa sealing rings are manufactured, will fail at temperatures above 300 0 C within weeks. Hardness measurements show that this particular rubber performs in a similar manner to Walker's S.I.L./60. (author)

  7. Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. ... Discharge of untreated rubber effluent to waterways resulted in water pollution that affected the human health. ... Key words: Rubber industry, effluent, waste management, Malaysia.

  8. The effect of gamma radiation on the ageing of sulfur cured nr/csm and nbr/csm rubber blends reinforced by carbon black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Marković

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of the γ-radiation dose on ageing of carbon black reinforced elastomeric materials was studied. The compounds based on natural rubber/chlorosulfonated rubber blend (NR/CSM and butadiene acrylonitrile rubber/chlorosulfonated rubber blend (NBR/CSM (50:50, w/w with different loadings (0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 phr of the filler with the average particle size of 40 nm were cured by sulfur. The obtained elastomeric composites were subjected to radiation doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kGy in the presence of oxygen. The changes of material mechanical properties were estimated after radiation accelerated ageing. By using Fourier transform infrared measurements (ATR-FTIR it was assessed that after exposure to doses of 100 kGy alcohols, ethers, lactones, anhydrides, esters and carboxylic acids are formed in materials. The formation of shorter polyene sequences and aromatic rings in aged samples are assumed on the basis of the obtained spectra.

  9. Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Nur Hanis Adila; Rasid, Hamizah Md; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was synthesized via photosentisized degradation of natural rubber (NR). LNR was modified into epoxidized liquid natural rubber (LENR) and hydroxylated liquid natural rubber (LNR-OH) using Na2WO4/CH3COOH/H2O2 catalytic system. Chemical structures of LNR and modified LNRs were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Integration of 1H NMR was used to calculate the epoxy content (%) of LENR. 1H NMR detected the formation of LNR-OH after prolonged heating and increased of catalyst in oxidation reaction.

  10. External validation of structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) models for predicting the biodegradability of xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, J; Pandard, P; Richard, B

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradation is an important mechanism for eliminating xenobiotics by biotransforming them into simple organic and inorganic products. Faced with the ever growing number of chemicals available on the market, structure-biodegradation relationship (SBR) and quantitative structure-biodegradation relationship (QSBR) models are increasingly used as surrogates of the biodegradation tests. Such models have great potential for a quick and cheap estimation of the biodegradation potential of chemicals. The Estimation Programs Interface (EPI) Suite™ includes different models for predicting the potential aerobic biodegradability of organic substances. They are based on different endpoints, methodologies and/or statistical approaches. Among them, Biowin 5 and 6 appeared the most robust, being derived from the largest biodegradation database with results obtained only from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) test. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive performances of these two models from a set of 356 chemicals extracted from notification dossiers including compatible biodegradation data. Another set of molecules with no more than four carbon atoms and substituted by various heteroatoms and/or functional groups was also embodied in the validation exercise. Comparisons were made with the predictions obtained with START (Structural Alerts for Reactivity in Toxtree). Biowin 5 and Biowin 6 gave satisfactorily prediction results except for the prediction of readily degradable chemicals. A consensus model built with Biowin 1 allowed the diminution of this tendency.

  11. Influence of cooking on anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemori, Miki; Koh, Eunmi; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2009-03-11

    The composition and thermal stability of anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR) produced in California were investigated. Six anthocyanin pigments were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography using photo diode-array detection (HPLC-PDA) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(ESI)MS/MS]. The predominant anthocyanins are cyanidin-3-glucoside (572.47 microg/g; 91.13% of total) and peonidin-3-glucoside (29.78 microg/g; 4.74% of total). Minor constituents included three cyanidin-dihexoside isomers and one cyanidin hexoside. Thermal stability of anthocyanins was assessed in rice cooked using a rice cooker, pressure cooker, or on a gas range. All cooking methods caused significant (P rice cooker (74.2%) and gas range (65.4%). Conversely, levels of protocatechuic acid increased 2.7 to 3.4 times in response to all cooking methods. These findings indicate that cooking black rice results in the thermal degradation of cyanidin-3-glucoside and concomitant production of protocatechuic acid.

  12. Wpływ czasu napowietrzania na pracę reaktora SBR i SBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Makowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available W pracy przedstawiono efekty oczyszczania małych ilości ścieków w bioreaktorach porcjowych. Przebadano dwa równolegle pracujące reaktory, z czego jeden był klasycznym systemem SBR, a drugi to reaktor SBBR ze złożem ruchomym. Obydwa ciągi technologiczne oczyszczały taką samą ilość ścieków bytowych wstępnie podczyszczonych w piaskowniku. Trzy kolejne serie badań różniły się długością napowietrzania. Porównano pracę reaktorów w kolejnych seriach oraz analizowano wyniki uzyskane w obu systemach. Największą skuteczność usuwania związków węgla organicznego (jako ChZT i azotu (jako N-NH4 uzyskano w reaktorze SBBR w trzeciej serii badań (średnio odpowiednio 90 i 62%. Reaktor SBBR pracował bardziej stabilnie oraz usuwał na drodze biologicznej fosfor z największą średnią skutecznością 83% w serii trzeciej. Ścieki oczyszczone w tym reaktorze charakteryzowały się mniejszym stężeniem zawiesiny, co świadczy o skuteczniejszej pracy reaktora z wypełnieniem w fazie sedymentacji.

  13. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5 /COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3 . Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3 . Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  14. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  15. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  16. Radiation preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.; Ahmadi, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer netwoks were prepared using gamma radiation. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used as elastomer and plastomer components respectively. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were also used as the curing agent of SBR and crosslinker for MMA monomer. The resulting IPNs were characterized by evaluating their mechanical properties. The effect of the amount of DCP on the final properties of product was examined. It was found that amount of curing agent had an important role on the properties of obtained IPNS. The results of the mechanical properties of IPNs showed very good synergistic behavior. (Author)

  17. Fatigue Characteristics of 3D Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padzi, M. M.; Bazin, M. M.; Muhamad, W. M. W.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the use of 3D printer technology has become significant to industries, especially when involving the new product development. 3D printing is a technology, which produces the 3D product or prototype using a layer-by-layer technique. However, there becomes less research on the mechanical performance of the 3D printed component. In the present work, fatigue characteristics of 3D printed specimen have been studied. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) has been chosen as a material research due to its wide applications. Two types of specimen used, which is the 3D printing and moulding specimens. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique was used to produce the specimens. The dog bone shape part was produced based on ASTM D638 standard and the tensile test has been carried out to get the mechanical properties. Fatigue test was carried out at 40%, 60% and 80% of the tensile strength. The moulded part shows higher fatigue cycles compared to 3D printed part for all loading percentages. Fatigue lives for 40%, 60% and 80%, were 911, 2645 and 26948 cycles, respectively. The results indicated that 3D printed part has a lower fatigue life, which may not suitable for industrial applications. However, the 3D printed part could be improved by using various parameters and may be introduced in low strength application.

  18. Hydroxyl radical and ozone initiated photochemical reactions of 1,3-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Jeffries, Harvey E.; Sexton, Kenneth G.

    1,3-Butadiene, classified as hazardous in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is an important ambient air pollutant. Understanding its atmospheric transformation is useful for its own sake, and is also helpful for eliciting isoprene's fate in the atmosphere (isoprene dominates the biogenic emissions in US). In this paper, samples from both hydroxyl- and ozone-initiated photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene were analyzed by derivatization with O- (2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine followed by separation and detection by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry to detect and identify carbonyl compounds. The following carbonyls were observed: formaldehyde, acrolein, glycolaldehyde, glycidaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-propanaldehyde, hydroxy acetone, and malonaldehyde, which can be classified into three categories: epoxy carbonyls, hydroxyl carbonyls, and di-carbonyls. Three non-carbonyls, furan, 1,3-buatdiene monoxide, and 1,3-butadiene diepoxide, were also found. To confirm their identities, both commercially available and synthesized standards were used. To investigate the mechanism of 1,3-butadiene, separate batch reactor experiments for acrolein and 1,3-butadiene monoxide were carried out. Time series samples for several products were also taken. When necessary, computational chemistry methods were also employed. Based on these results, various schemes for the reaction mechanism are proposed.

  19. Evaluation of active sampling strategies for the determination of 1,3-butadiene in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Maceira, Alba; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2018-03-01

    Two analytical methods for determining levels of 1,3-butadiene in urban and industrial atmospheres were evaluated in this study. Both methods are extensively used for determining the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and involve collecting samples by active adsorptive enrichment on solid sorbents. The first method uses activated charcoal as the sorbent and involves liquid desorption with carbon disulfide. The second involves the use of a multi-sorbent bed with two graphitised carbons and a carbon molecular sieve as the sorbent, with thermal desorption. Special attention was paid to the optimization of the sampling procedure through the study of sample volume, the stability of 1,3-butadiene once inside the sampling tube and the humidity effect. In the end, the thermal desorption method showed better repeatability and limits of detection and quantification for 1,3-butadiene than the liquid desorption method, which makes the thermal desorption method more suitable for analysing air samples from both industrial and urban atmospheres. However, sampling must be performed with a pre-tube filled with a drying agent to prevent the loss of the adsorption capacity of the solid adsorbent caused by water vapour. The thermal desorption method has successfully been applied to determine of 1,3-butadiene inside a 1,3-butadiene production plant and at three locations in the vicinity of the same plant.

  20. Theory of rubber friction and traction properties of car tyres; Theorie der Gummireibung und Traktionseigenschaften von Reifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueppel, M.; Alshuth, T.; Schuster, R.H. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Kautschuktechnologie e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    ABS braking on dry and wet roads involves different mechanisms of rubber friction on rough surfaces. This improves car safety in terms of higher manoeuvrability and shorter braking lengths especially on wet roads. Current research focuses on optimisation of tyrecontact surface materials with better traction characteristics and lower rolling resistance. Laboratory predictions of the traction properties of tyre faces must be based on fundamental knowledge of the local sliding phenomena in the tyre contact surface and the resulting energy dissipation during ABS braking. This contribution therefore attempts to relate the elementary mechanisms of tyre mechanics in ABS braking processes to theoretical concepts of rubber friction on rough surfaces. [Deutsch] Beim ABS-Bremsen auf trockenen und nassen Strassen werden unterschiedliche Mechanismen der Gummireibung auf rauhen Oberflaechen wirksam. In der Summe bewirkt dies eine hoehere Fahrsicherheit, da neben der Manoevrierfaehigkeit des Autos auch der Bremsweg, vor allem auf nassen Strassen, verkuerzt sein kann. In diesem Zusammenhang wird zur Zeit verstaerkt an einer Optimierung von Laufflaechenmaterialien durch den Einsatz von massgeschneiderten Loesungs-SBR-Typen in Verbindung mit gefaellten Kieselsaeuren gearbeitet, wodurch neben einer Verbesserung der Traktionseigenschaften beim ABS-Bremsen auch eine Verringerung des Rollwiderstandes erreicht wird. Fuer Laborvorhersagen der Traktionseigenschaften von Reifenlaufflaechen ist ein grundlegendes Verstaendnis der lokalen Gleitphaenomene in der Reifenaufstandsflaeche und der damit verbundenen Energiedissipation beim ABS-Bremsen erforderlich. In dieser Arbeit wird deshalb angestrebt, die elementaren Mechanismen der Reifenmechanik beim ABS-Bremsen mit theoretischen Konzepten der Gummireibung auf rauhen Oberflaechen in Verbindung zu bringen. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of heat generation in rubber or rubber-metal springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banić Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of rubber or rubber-metal springs increases under cyclic loading, due to hysteresis losses and low rubber thermal conductivity. Hysteresis losses correspond to energy dissipation from the rubber, which is primarily converted into heat. This well-known phenomenon, called heat build-up, is the primary reason for rubber aging. Increase in temperature within the rubber compound leads to degradation of its physical and chemical properties, increase in stiffness and loss of damping capability. This paper presents a novel procedure of heat generation prediction in rubber or rubber-metal springs. The procedure encompasses the prediction of hysteresis loss, i. e. dissipated energy within the rubber, by finite element analysis and application of a modern visco-plastic rubber constitutive model. The obtained dissipated energy was used as an input for transient thermal analysis. Verification of the proposed procedure was performed by comparison of simulation results with experimentally obtained data during the dynamic loading of the rubber specimen. The proposed procedure is highly computationally efficient and it enables time integration, which can be problematic in coupled mechanical thermal analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005: Research and Development of New Generation of Wind Turbines of High Energy Efficiency

  2. Effect of Recycled Rubber Particles and Silica on Tensile and Tear Properties of Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velu CHANDRAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of scrap rubber and worn out tires in natural rubber compounds has been studied. The scrap rubber can, however, be recycled and compounded with natural rubber and thus can be generated as a rubber composite. In this work, recycled rubber particles (RRP were prepared using pulverization process. Then, RRP was blended with natural rubber and silica compounds, and it was synthesized by two- roll mill and hydraulic press at specified operating conditions. The samples ranging from 0 to 40 phr of RRP loaded with silica were used as constant filler. The mechanical properties and morphological analysis were carried out. The results showed that tensile strength and elongation at break gradually decreased with increasing RRP loading in natural rubber and silica compounds. Tensile modulus went down at 10 phr of RRP and then showed an increasing trend. Hardness increased up to 30 phr of RRP and tear strength increased up to 20 phr of RRP. A comparative study was also carried out with virgin natural rubber vulcanizates. The incorporation of RRP and silica up to 20 phr in natural rubber did not lower the performance of rubber articles. Morphological studies revealed that better filler dispersion, interfacial adhesion, and cross link density could increase the tensile and tear strengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7330

  3. Energy usage in the rubber industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederstroem, M.

    1980-01-01

    The rubber industry has several energy-intensive steps, such as mastication of natural rubber, mixing and extrusion, and vulcanization. Opportunities for energy savings would be available with a continuous mixing process, heat recovery from cooling waters, and abandonment of thermal conduction in vulcanization. 6 figures. (DCK)

  4. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Currently, Hevea brasiliensis has been only one resource for commercial natural rubber production. ...... ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ... polymer chain. Combinations of an amine antioxidant and a zinc dialkyldithiocarbamate have been used to counter these effects, improving guayule rubber ...

  5. UTILISATION OF RUBBER SEED OL IN THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal degradation studies on polyvinyl chloride in the presence of rubber seed oil, epoxidized rubber seed oil and metal ... Epoxidation of RSO was carried out at 29°C using peractic acid ..... impurities such as pigments, Vitamins, sterols ...

  6. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  7. Rheological testing of crumb rubber modified bitumen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available used to analyse crumb rubber modified (CRM) bitumen is that the specified gap setting in the configuration of the DSR between the upper and lower test platens is too small to accommodate crumb rubber particles. DSR testing of CRM bitumen therefore...

  8. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  9. Promoting effect of oxygen for hydrogenation of butadiene over Ni/sub 2/P catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, F.; Kitoh, T.; Sodesawa, T.

    1980-04-01

    When 0-10 mm Hg of oxygen were added to the reaction of 75 mm Hg butadiene and 225 mm Hg hydrogen over dinickel phosphide in a closed circulation system at 40/sup 0/C, increasing amounts of oxygen caused increasing lengths of induction periods followed by hydrogenation at reaction rates which had a maximum at 3 mm Hg oxygen. This maximum rate was about six times higher than the rate without oxygen addition. Adsorption, temperature-programed desorption, IR spectroscopy, and the product distribution of butadiene deuteration showed that two types of oxygen adsorbed on the dinickel phosphide catalyst; molecular oxygen on nickel, which desorbed on evacuation below 50/sup 0/C and which could be displaced by butadiene, was responsible for the induction period; molecular oxygen on phosphorus atoms, which promoted hydrogen adsorption, was responsible for the increased hydrogenation rate.

  10. Effect of plasticiser on properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzalia, S.; Farid, A.S.; O'Brien, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the properties of plasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers for possible applications in pharmaceutical, medical and food industries. Unplasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene (USBS) materials: vector 8550-D and vector 4461-D, which are developmental materials introduced by Exxon, and blends of vector 8550-D with vector 4461-D were plasticised paraffinic type plasticisers plastol 172 and plastol 352. Shore A hardness, tensile stress at break, modulus at 100% strain, elongation at break and density values showed a decrease whereas flow properties such as melt flow index (MFI) increased considerably with increasing plasticiser concentration. The properties of the plasticised styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers were compared to the USBS materials. (author)

  11. Characteristics of N2O production and hydroxylamine variation in short-cut nitrification SBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Ye, Junhong; Zhao, Jianqiang; Ding, Xiaoqian; Yang, Liwei; Tian, Xiaolei

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production and hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) variation under oxic conditions, concentrations of NH 2 OH and N 2 O were simultaneously monitored in a short-cut nitrification sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated with different influent ammonia concentrations. In the short-cut nitrification process, N 2 O production was increased with the increasing of ammonia concentration in influent. The maximum concentrations of dissolved N 2 O-N in the reactor were 0.11 mg/L and 0.52 mg/L when ammonia concentrations in the influent were 50 mg/L and 70 mg/L respectively. Under the low and medium ammonia load phases, the concentrations of NH 2 OH-N in the reactor were remained at a low level which fluctuated around 0.06 mg/L in a small range, and did not change with the variation of influent NH 4 + -N concentration. Based on the determination results, the half-saturation of NH 2 OH in the biochemical conversion process of NH 2 OH to NO 2 - -N was very small, and the value of 0.05 mg NH 2 OH-N/L proposed in the published literature was accurate. NH 2 OH is an important intermediate in the nitrification process, and the direct determination of NH 2 OH in the nitrification process was beneficial for revealing the kinetic process of NH 2 OH production and consumption as well as the effects of NH 2 OH on N 2 O production in the nitrification process.

  12. A Treatment of Dyestuff Wastewater by Internal Electrolysis-Coagulate-SBR-Biocharcoal%内电解-混凝-SBR-生物炭组合工艺处理染料废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文敦; 刘晓东; 孙秀云; 王连军

    2002-01-01

    详述用内电解-混凝-SBR-生物炭组合工艺处理染料废水的过程.通过对各工艺段的调试,确定了各工艺段的最佳控制条件.结果表明:当染料废水COD平均值为5100mg/L,色度为6 000倍时,去除率达95%以上,出水水质达到国家污水综合排放二级标准.

  13. Optimization aspects of the biological nitrogen removal process in a full-scale twin sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system in series treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmas, Nikolaos; Ntougias, Spyridon; Chatzopoulou, Marianna; Melidis, Paraschos

    2018-03-29

    Despite the fact that biological nitrogen removal (BNR) process has been studied in detail in laboratory- and pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems treating landfill leachate, a limited number of research works have been performed in full-scale SBR plants regarding nitrification and denitrification. In the current study, a full-scale twin SBR system in series of 700 m 3 (350 m 3 each) treating medium-age landfill leachate was evaluated in terms of its carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency in the absence and presence of external carbon source, i.e., glycerol from biodiesel production. Both biodegradable organic carbon and ammonia were highly oxidized [biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total Kjehldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies above 90%], whereas chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was slightly above 40%, which is within the range reported in the literature for pilot-scale SBRs. As the consequence of the high recalcitrant organic fraction of the landfill leachate, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was restricted in the absence of crude glycerol, although denitrification was improved by electron donor addition, resulting in TN removal efficiencies above 70%. Experimental data revealed that the second SBR negligibly contributed to BNR process, since carbon and ammonia oxidation completion was achieved in the first SBR. On the other hand, the low VSS/SS ratio, due to the lack of primary sedimentation, highly improved sludge settleability, resulting in sludge volume indices (SVI) below 30 mL g -1 .

  14. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and metabolites.

    OpenAIRE

    Arce, G T; Vincent, D R; Cunningham, M J; Choy, W N; Sarrif, A M

    1990-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene and two major genotoxic metabolites 3,4-epoxybutene (EB) and 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) were used as model compounds to determine if genetic toxicity findings in animal and human cells can aid in extrapolating animal toxicity data to man. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus induction results indicated 1,3-butadiene was genotoxic in the bone marrow of the mouse but not the rat. This paralleled the chronic bioassays which showed mice to be more susceptible than rats ...

  15. The Effect of Rubber Mixing Process on The Curing Characteristics of Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hasan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying the relationship between rubber mixing processes and curing characteristics of natural rubber. The curing characteristic analysis was carried out through a natural rubber formula having been masticated and mixed, followed by curing. As many as four mastication methods were finely applied; each respected four sequences of rubber mixing process. In the first method, rubber was masticated for 5 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were  simultaneously added. In the second and the third methods, rubber was masticated for 1 minute and then carbon blacks and rubber chemicals were also simultaneously added but using different type of fillers. In the fourth method, rubber was masticated for 3 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black were subsequently added. The additions of rubber chemicals and carbon blacks to the masticated rubber were distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. The carbon blacks were added in two stages by which 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In another method, ratios of the carbon blacks addition (as done in the first  and the second stages were 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The examination results showed that rubber mixing process gave an impact on the changes of curing characteristics. They were much affected by the method of carbon black addition. The mixing temperature also had an effect on both curing time and curing rate in which the higher the mixing temperature, the lower the curing time and curing rate. Vulcanization temperature also affected the curing time and curing rate in which the higher the vulcanization temperature, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate. Lastly, particle size of carbon black also gave an impact on the curing time and curing rate in which the smaller the particle size, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate.

  16. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD 5 removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD 5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%

  17. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R., E-mail: scrs@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD{sub 5} removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD{sub 5} removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%.

  18. Exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the general rubber goods, tyre manufacturing and retread industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, A A; Redman, D; Cox, G

    2000-08-01

    This study assesses the current patterns and levels of exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the British rubber industry and compares and contrasts the data obtained from the general rubber goods (GRG), retread tire (RT) and new tire (NT) sectors. A total of 179 rubber companies were visited and data were obtained from 52 general rubber goods, 29 retread tire and 7 new tire manufacturers. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and included a walk-through inspection of the workplace to assess the extent of use of control measures and the nature of work practices being employed. The most recent (predominantly 1995-97) exposure monitoring data for rubber fume and rubber process dust were obtained from these companies; no additional sampling was conducted for the purpose of this study. In addition to the assessment of exposure data, evaluation of occupational hygiene reports for the quality of information and advice was also carried out.A comparison of the median exposures for processes showed that the order of exposure to rubber fume (E, in mg m(-3)) is: E(moulding) (0.40) approximately E(extrusion) (0.33)>E(milling) (0.18) for GRG; E(press) (0. 32)>E(extrusion) (0.19)>E(autoclave) (0.10) for RT; and E(press) (0. 22) approximately E(all other) (0.22) for NT. The order of exposure to rubber fume between sectors was E(GRG) (0.40)>E(RT) (0.32)>E(NT) (0.22). Median exposures to rubber process dust in the GRG was E(weighing) (4.2)>E(mixing) (1.2) approximately E(milling) (0.8) approximately E(extrusion) (0.8) and no significant difference (P=0. 31) between GRG and NT sectors. The findings compare well with the study carried out in the Netherlands [Kromhout et al. (1994), Annals of Occupational Hygiene 38(1), 3-22], and it is suggested that the factors governing the significant differences noted between the three sectors relate principally to the production and task functions and also to the extent of controls employed. Evaluation of occupational

  19. Performance of self-compacting rubberized concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Bensaci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Used tyre rubber wastes present a serious environmental problem of pollution and storage. The recycling of this waste in the industry of construction could be an appropriate solution to produce an eco-concrete and could contribute to the improvement of some of its properties. This paper aims to study the possibility of using tyre rubber waste as fine aggregate replacement in self-compacting concrete (SCC. Fines rubber particles of 0-2 mm of waste tyres were added SCC mixtures as a partial substitution of the total volume of sand at different percentages (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The influence of fines rubber of used tyres on fresh and hardened properties of the SCC was investigated. The fresh properties of SCC were performed by using slump-flow, T50 flow time, L-box, V-funnel and segregation resistance tests. Characteristics of the hardened state were obtained by compressive strength and thermal conductivity. The experimental results showed that the inclusion of fines rubber in SCC decreases the workability, reduced its passing capacity and increases the possibility of blocking. A decrease in compressive strength is observed with the increase in rubber content. On the other hand, the incorporation of the rubber fines aggregates enhances in a remarkably way the thermal conductivity.

  20. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B N J

    2006-01-01

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10 -2 m s -1 the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s -1 . This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems

  1. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya; Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi.

    1982-01-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  3. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  4. Effect of SBR feeding strategy and feed composition on the stability of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of a simulated textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, R D G; Ortigueira, J; Pinheiro, H M; Lourenço, N D

    2017-09-01

    Treatment of the highly polluting and variable textile industry wastewater using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) has been recently suggested. Aiming to develop this technology application, two feeding strategies were compared regarding the capacity of anaerobic-aerobic SBRs to deal with disturbances in the composition of the simulated textile wastewater feed. Both a statically fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR and an anaerobic plug-flow fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR could cope with shocks of high azo dye concentration and organic load, the overall chemical oxygen demand and color removal yields being rapidly restored to 80%. Yet, subsequent azo dye metabolite bioconversion was not observed, along the 315-day run. Moreover, switching from a starch-based substrate to acetate in the feed composition deteriorated AGS stability. Overall, the plug-flow fed SBR recovered more rapidly from the imposed disturbances. Further research is needed towards guaranteeing long-term AGS stability during the treatment of textile wastewater.

  5. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  6. Radiation Vulcanization of Polymeric Blends Based on Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Rubber/ Waste Materials in Presence of Different Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, the mechanical blending technique was applied for preparation of elastomeric blend of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM)and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having a fixed ratio of (50/50) by weight. The prepared blend of EPDM/NBR (50/50) was used as a rubber matrix to be loaded with waste materials, namely rice husk (RH) as a natural waste filler and then with ground tire rubber (GTR) as an artificial one. The degree of loading varied from 5 p hr to 20 p hr. Ionizing radiation, namely ,gamma rays were applied for inducing vulcanization of prepared and loaded rubber blends, in the range from 5 kGy to 250 kGy. Different properties of prepared composites were followed up as a function of degree of loading with the waste material and dose of irradiation. The mechanical properties, namely tensile strength and elongation at break percent of the composites slightly decreased as the filler loading increased over the whole range of irradiation .Tensile modulus and hardness, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend, i.e. the increased. Other properties, namely physical, thermal and morphological confirmed the mechanical ones. Obtained results were affiliated with lack of interface adhesion between the waste materials and the rubber matrix elastomers. The lack of interface adhesion was improved by filling the composite with a limited content, up to 7 p hr, of the compatibilizer, namely, maleic anhydride (MAH). Measurements of different properties was carried out for composite loaded with 10 p hr of waste material. It has been found that the tensile properties were significantly improved with addition of the compatibilizing agent Further and significant improvement was attained in properties of prepared later composite by its loading with 40 p hr of either HAF- carbon black or Hisil as reinforcing fillers that participates in chemical as well as physical bonding. Similarly and lastly 8 p hr of N, N- methylene di acrylamide (MDA) were loaded

  7. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium research and development of energy (High-quality low-cost metal dies for molding rubber and plastic - 2nd year); 1999 nendo gomu plastic yo kohin'i tei cost kanagata no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Metal die surfaces are improved in their resistance to abrasion and corrosion and, in particular, in their release from rubber materials and resistance to contamination. In an effort to develop techniques for optimum metal die surface modification, a PBII (plasma based ion implantation) unit is operated to implant ions into various kinds of metal die surfaces by means of nitrogen or fluorine gas plasma, and optimum conditions are studied by analyzing and evaluating the surface layers after treatment. In an effort to develop a novel ion implantation device to work on 3-dimensional shapes, conditions for stable ion implantation are determined, for which PBII gas concentration, arc plasma power, pulse frequency, application voltage, processing time, etc., are allowed to vary. In the quest for suitable conditions for metal die treatment by the PBII unit, tests are conducted involving natural rubber, butadiene rubber, nitrile rubber, chloroprene rubber, and ethylene propylene rubber and studies are conducted about their release from and contamination of metal dies and 3-dimensional metal dies into which ions have been implanted using fluorine plasma. (NEDO)

  8. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  9. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion

  10. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  11. Life assessment of rubber articles in fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Selldén, Emmy

    2013-01-01

    The choice of rubber material for use in sealings and hoses in the fuel system is of great importance. If a wrong type of rubber is used, premature failure during service may occur. This impacts the environmental performance, the safety during driving, uptime and economy of the transport. In this diploma work, rubbers for use in sealing and hoses in the fuel system have been evaluated to assess which materials have the potential to be used under long-term use in contact with commercial fuels....

  12. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R S; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  13. Comparative studies on the mechanical properties of natural rubber and natural rubber filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The present article compares the mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled natural rubber composites. Four types of nanocomposite specimens are fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The specimens are tested for their mechanical properties. It is observed that the tensile strength, hardness and elongation break of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs. Percentage of the elongation at break of rubber CNTs composites is lower than that of raw rubber.

  14. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on the crosslinking properties of oligo-butadiene-base polyurethane elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedgaonkar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid oligo-butadiene-base diol was cured by gammas when a diisocyanate and a triol were present. The NCO/OH ratio was at unity. Radiation brought about crosslink networks through urethane linkages and among polybutadiene segments. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  16. Seeded emulsion polymerization of butadiene. 2. Effects of persulfate and tert-dodecyl mercaptan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; Geurts, J.M.; Verstegen, J.M.; Maxwell, I.A.; German, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of the emulsion polymn. of butadiene at 60 Deg in Smith-Ewart interval III were investigated using sodium persulfate as initiator. Monomer conversion was based on gravimetrically calibrated online densitometry. Plots of the product of the propagation rate coeff., Kp, and the av. no. of

  17. Hemoglobin adducts in 1,3-butadiene exposed Czech workers: Female–male comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacek, P. M.; Albertini, R. J.; Šrám, Radim; Upton, P.; Swenberg, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 3 (2010), s. 668-676 ISSN 0009-2797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : 3-Butadiene * metabolism * THB-Val hemoglobin adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.832, year: 2010

  18. Biomarkers in Czech workers exposed to 1,3-butadiene: a transitional epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albertini, Richard J.; Srám, Radim J.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Lynch, Jeremiah; Nicklas, Janice A.; van Sittert, Nico J.; Boogaard, Peter J.; Henderson, Rogene F.; Swenberg, James A.; Tates, Ad D.; Ward, Jonathan B.; Wright, Michael; Ammenheuser, Marinel M.; Binkova, Blanka; Blackwell, Walter; de Zwart, Franz A.; Krako, Dean; Krone, Jennifer; Megens, Hendricus; Musilová, Petra; Rajská, Gabriela; Ranasinghe, Asoka; Rosenblatt, Judah I.; Rössner, Pavel; Rubes, Jiri; Sullivan, Linda; Upton, Patricia; Zwinderman, Ailko H.

    2003-01-01

    A multiinstitutional, transitional epidemiologic study was conducted with a worker population in the Czech Republic to evaluate the utility of a continuum of non-disease biological responses as biomarkers of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD)* in an industrial setting. The study site included two BD

  19. Dimensional accuracy of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene injection molded parts produced in a pilot produc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Davoudinejad, Ali; Charalambis, Alessandro

    of a geometry including micro-features have been injection-molded in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) with a single 20x20x2.5 mm^3 injection molding insert manufactured in a photopolymer composite material. This research investigates the dimensional accuracy of the injection molded parts as a function...

  20. Hardness measurements of silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work investigates the hardness of both silicon rubber and polyurethane rubber cured by ionizing radiation. Shore A Hardness is used to characterize the subject elastomers in relation to the crosslinking process. Various formulations of both materials have been investigated in order to achieve the optimum cure conditions desired. A small amount of the curing agent has been incorporated in some formulations in order to reduce the required dose to achieve full cure conditions. Silicon rubber has shown improvements in hardness as absorbed dose is increased, whereas hardness remained constant over a range of absorbed doses for polyurethane rubber

  1. The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chaorong; Yang, Meng; Fang, Yongjun; Luo, Yingfeng; Gao, Shenghan; Xiao, Xiaohu; An, Zewei; Zhou, Binhui; Zhang, Bing; Tan, Xinyu; Yeang, Hoong Yeet; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Lin, Qiang; Mei, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticif...

  2. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-01-01

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO 3 - was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD 5 TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 ± 4.9% and 50.2 ± 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD 5 ). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 ± 1 days and 31 ± 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively

  4. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangmod, Thung-kru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)], E-mail: suntud.sir@kmutt.ac.th; Sansak, Jutarat [Department of Environmental Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, Thonburi, Bangmod, Thung-kru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO{sub 3}{sup -} was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD{sub 5} TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7 {+-} 4.9% and 50.2 {+-} 6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD{sub 5}). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW + glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW + TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28 {+-} 1 days and 31 {+-} 2 days with TWW + glucose and TWW + TRNWW, respectively.

  5. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3,000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO(3)(-) was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD(5) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7+/-4.9% and 50.2+/-6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD(5)). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW+glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW+TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28+/-1 days and 31+/-2 days with TWW+glucose and TWW+TRNWW, respectively.

  6. On-site treatment of a motorway service area wastewater using a package sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Solar, J; Hudson, S; Stephenson, T

    2005-01-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating the effluent of a motorway service station in the south of England situated on a major tourist route was investigated. Wastewater from the kitchens, toilets and washrooms facilities was collected from the areas on each side of the motorway for treatment on-site. The SBR was designed for a population equivalent (p.e.) of 500, assuming an average flow of 100 m3/d, influent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 300 mg/l, and influent suspended solids (SS) of 300 mg/l. Influent monitoring over 8 weeks revealed that the average flow was only 65 m3/d and the average influent BOD and SS were 480 mg/l and 473 mg/l respectively. This corresponded to a high sludge loading rate (F:M) of 0.42 d(-1) which accounted for poor performance. Therefore the cycle times were extended from 6 h to 7 h and effluent BOD improved from 79 to 27 mg/l.

  7. Fluctuation of microbial activities after influent load variations in a full-scale SBR. Recovery of the biomass after starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Angela; Draper, Patricia; Etchebehere, Claudia [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Catedra de Microbiologia, Facultad de Quimica y Facultad de Ciencias

    2009-10-15

    Due to variations in the production levels, a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for post-treatment of tannery wastewater was exposed to low and high ammonia load periods. In order to study how these changes affected the N-removal capacity, the microbiology of the reactor was studied by a diverse set of techniques including molecular tools, activity tests, and microbial counts in samples taken along 3 years. The recover capacity of the biomass was also studied in a lab-scale reactor operated with intermittent aeration without feeding for 36 days. The results showed that changes in the feeding negatively affected the nitrifying community, but the nitrogen removal efficiencies could be restored after the concentration stress. Species substitution was observed within the nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter predominated initially, and after an ammonia overload period, Nitrosomonas nitrosa and Nitrospira became dominant. Some denitrifiers, with nirS related to Alicycliphilus, Azospirillum, and Marinobacter nirS, persisted during long-term reactor operation, but the community fluctuated both in composition and in abundance. This fluctuating community may better resist the continuous changes in the feeding regime. Our results showed that a nitrifying-denitrifying SBR could be operated with low loads or even without feeding during production shut down periods. (orig.)

  8. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  9. Radiation stability of plastics and rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchon, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Physical radiation effects of #betta# particles, #betta#-radiation, x rays and accelerated electrons on thermosets, thermoplastics and rubbers are charted. Modifications to the information due to composition, shape and environment are noted. (U.K.)

  10. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  11. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  12. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2016-01-01

    several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. METHODS: Patch...... test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.......0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact...

  13. Advantages of Concrete Mixing with Tyre Rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli *

    2017-01-01

    Strong waste administration is one of the major natural concerns everywhere throughout the world. Tire-rubber particles made out of tire chips, piece elastic, and a mix of tire chips and scrap elastic, where utilized to supplant mineral totals in cement. These particles were utilized to supplant 10% , 15% , 20%, and 25% of the aggregate mineral totals volume in cement.Using rubber aggregates in such applications can help to prevent pollution and overcome the problem of storing used tyres. Adv...

  14. High macro rubber band ligature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Reis Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of a rubber band ligature is to promote fibrosis of the submucosa with subsequent fixation of the anal epithelium to the underlying sphincter. Following this principle, a new technique of ligature was developed based on two aspects: 1. macro banding: to have a better fibrosis and fixation by banding a bigger volume of mucosa and 2. higher ligature: to have this fixation at the origin of the hemorrhoidal cushion displacement. Methods: 1634 patients with internal hemorrhoidal disease grade II or III were treated by the technique called high macro rubber band. There was no distinction as to age, gender or race. To perform this technique a new hemorrhoidal device was specially designed with a larger diameter and a bigger capacity for mucosal volume aspiration. It is recommended to utilize a longer and wider anoscope to obtain a better view of the anal canal, which will facilitate the injection of submucosa higher in the anal canal and the insertion of the rubber band device. The hemorrhoidal cushion must be banded higher in the anal canal (4 cm above the pectinate line. It is preferable to treat all the hemorrhoids in one single session (maximum of three areas banded. Results: The analysis was retrospective without any comparison with conventional banding. The period of evaluation extended from one to twelve years. The analysis of the results showed perianal edema in 1.6% of the patients, immediate tenesmus in 0.8%, intense pain (need for parenteral analgesia in 1.6%, urinary retention in 0.1% of the patients and a symptomatic recurrence rate of 4.2%. All patients with symptomatic recurrence were treated with a new session of macro rubber banding. None of the patients developed anal or rectal sepsis. Small post-ligature bleeding was observed only in 0.8% of the patients. Conclusions: The high macro rubber banding technique represents an alternative method for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease grades II or III, with good

  15. Silane grafted natural rubber and its compatibilization effect on silica-reinforced rubber tire compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengloyluan, K.; Sahakaro, K.; Dierkes, W. K.; Noordermeer, J. W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Natural Rubber (NR) grafted with 3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane (NXT) was prepared by melt mixing using 1,1′-di(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane as initiator at 140 °C with NXT contents of 10 and 20 parts per hundred rubber [phr] and initiator 0.1 phr. The silane grafted on NR

  16. Static friction in rubber-metal contacts with application to rubber pad forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, E.L.

    2006-01-01

    A static friction model suitable for rubber-metal contact is presented in this dissertation. In introduction, the motivation and the aims of the research are introduced together with the background regarding the related industrial application, which is the rubber pad forming process.

  17. Shortcut nitrification-denitrification by means of autochthonous halophilic biomass in an SBR treating fish-canning wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, Marco; Corsino, Santo Fabio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2018-02-15

    Autochthonous halophilic biomass was cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) aimed at analyzing the potential use of autochthonous halophilic activated sludge in treating saline industrial wastewater. Despite the high salt concentration (30 g NaCl L -1 ), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS), removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. More than 95% of the nitrogen was removed via a shortcut nitrification-denitrification process. Both the autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass samples exhibited high biological activity. The use of autochthonous halophilic biomass led to high-quality effluent and helped to manage the issues related to nitrogen removal in saline wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  19. Evidence of carbon fixation pathway in a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 revealed with genomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Wang

    Full Text Available Autotrophic CO2 fixation is the most important biotransformation process in the biosphere. Research focusing on the diversity and distribution of relevant autotrophs is significant to our comprehension of the biosphere. In this study, a draft genome of a bacterium from candidate phylum SBR1093 was reconstructed with the metagenome of an industrial activated sludge. Based on comparative genomics, this autotrophy may occur via a newly discovered carbon fixation path, the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate (HPHB cycle, which was demonstrated in a previous work to be uniquely possessed by some genera from Archaea. This bacterium possesses all of the thirteen enzymes required for the HPHB cycle; these enzymes share 30∼50% identity with those in the autotrophic species of Archaea that undergo the HPHB cycle and 30∼80% identity with the corresponding enzymes of the mixotrophic species within Bradyrhizobiaceae. Thus, this bacterium might have an autotrophic growth mode in certain conditions. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene reveals that the phylotypes within candidate phylum SBR1093 are primarily clustered into 5 clades with a shallow branching pattern. This bacterium is clustered with phylotypes from organically contaminated environments, implying a demand for organics in heterotrophic metabolism. Considering the types of regulators, such as FnR, Fur, and ArsR, this bacterium might be a facultative aerobic mixotroph with potential multi-antibiotic and heavy metal resistances. This is the first report on Bacteria that may perform potential carbon fixation via the HPHB cycle, thus may expand our knowledge of the distribution and importance of the HPHB cycle in the biosphere.

  20. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.