WorldWideScience

Sample records for butadiene processing plant

  1. Biological monitoring to determine worker dose in a butadiene processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Butadiene (BD) is a reactive gas used extensively in the rubber industry and is also found in combustion products. Although BD is genotoxic and acts as an animal carcinogen, the evidence for carcinogenicity in humans is limited. Extrapolation from animal studies on BD carcinogenicity to risk in humans has been controversial because of uncertainties regarding relative biologic exposure and related effects in humans vs. experimental animals. To reduce this uncertainty, a study was designed to characterize exposure to BD at a polymer production facility and to relate this exposure to mutational and cytogenetic effects. Biological monitoring was used to better assess the internal dose of BD received by the workers. Measurement of 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl) butane (M1) in urine served as the biomarker in this study. M1 has been shown to correlate with area monitoring in previous studies. Most studies that relate exposure to a toxic chemical with its biological effects rely on exposure concentration as the dose metric; however, exposure concentration may or may not reflect the actual internal dose of the chemical.

  2. 二甲基甲酰胺法萃取精馏生产1,3-丁二烯的模拟计算%Simulation of 1,3-Butadiene Production Process by Dimethylfomamide Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小健; 殷绚; 欧阳平凯

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, extractive distillation is the main technique to produce 1,3-butadiene. This study simulated the 1,3-butadiene production process with DMF extractive distillation by Aspen Plus. The solvent ratio is the most important parameter to the extractive distillation process. The article has given out the proper solvent ratios, reflux ratios, distillate ratios, and bottom product ratios of the columns. It also discusses the thermal loads of several columns. The results of simulation are consequently compared with the plant data, which shows good accordance with each other.

  3. Influence of acid-base properties on the Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process catalyzed by SiO2-MgO materials

    OpenAIRE

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E. Z.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process entails a complex chain of reactions that require catalysts to possess a subtle balance in the number and strength of acidic and basic sites. SiO2-MgO materials can be excellent Lebedev catalysts if properly prepared, as catalyst performance has been found to depend significantly on the synthesis method. To assess the specific requirements for butadiene production in terms of active sites and to link their presence to the specific preparation method ap...

  4. Study on Exothermic Oxidation of Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS Resin Powder with Application to ABS Processing Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Renn Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative degradation of commercial grade ABS (Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin powders was studied by thermal analysis. The instabilities of ABS containing different polybutadiene (PB contents with respect to temperature were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC. Thermograms of isothermal test and dynamic scanning were performed. Three exothermic peaks were observed and related to auto-oxidation, degradation and oxidative decomposition, respectively. Onset temperature of the auto-oxidation was determined to be around 193 °C. However, threshold temperature of oxidation was found to be as low as 140 °C by DSC isothermal testing. Another scan of the powder after degeneration in air showed an onset temperature of 127 °C. Reactive hazards of ABS powders were verified to be the exothermic oxidation of unsaturated PB domains, not the SAN (poly(styrene-acrylonitrile matrix. Heat of oxidation was first determined to be 2,800 ± 40 J per gram of ABS or 4,720 ± 20 J per gram of PB. Thermal hazards of processing ABS powder are assessed by adiabatic temperature rise at process conditions. IR spectroscopy associated with heat of oxidation verified the oxidative mechanism, and these evidences excluded the heat source from the degradation of SAN. A specially prepared powder of ABS without adding anti-oxidant was analyzed by DSC for comparing the exothermic behaviors. Exothermic onset temperatures were determined to be 120 °C and 80 °C by dynamic scanning and isothermal test, respectively. The assessment successfully explained fires and explosions in an ABS powder dryer and an ABS extruder.

  5. Processing of styrene butadiene rubber-carbon black nanocomposites with gradation of crosslink density: Static and dynamic mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of sulfur and accelerator were varied in the nanocomposites of carbon black (CB)-filled styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix to introduce the gradation of the crosslink density. These curatives were varied from 1 to 11 phr (per hundred rubber) along the span of 3-mm thick sheet using the construction-based layering method. The static and dynamic mechanical characterizations of these functionally graded polymeric nanocomposites (FGPNCs) were carried out. With increasing crosslink density along thickness, hardness and modulus increase while the ultimate properties like tensile strength and elongation at break droop down. The dynamic mechanical analysis of FGPNCs exhibits the increment in the storage modulus than the uniformly dispersed polymeric nanocomposites (UDPNCs) employing the same average amount of curatives. The peak position of tan δmax remains at the same temperature while the value mitigates in FGPNCs. In FGPNCs, tan δ peak intimates the broadness in the transition region

  6. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  7. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  8. Industrial emissions of 1,3-butadiene.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, J A

    1990-01-01

    Sources of industrial emissions of 1,3-butadiene are discussed both by process (production, consumers) and type (equipment leaks, point sources). Quantification of the emissions are presented, as reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1986. The reported emissions attributed to equipment leaks (also known as fugitive emissions) range from about 50 to 95% of the total, depending on the specific production process used. The methods by which these emissions were estimated are dis...

  9. The Feasibility for the Project of Introducing 25 kt/a Butadiene - Based Chloroprene Rubber (CR) Plant%引进25 kt/a丁二烯法氯丁橡胶(CR)项目可行性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泗文

    2001-01-01

    The project of introducing 25 kt/a butadiene - based CR plant is to the advantage of any chloro - alkali enterprise at or near a petrochemical complex. But the introduction of the technology for CR is a key for the project, then the success of the project is entirely dependent on whether marketable and high - tech grades for CR to be produced.%上25 kt/a CR新项目对石化厂或靠近石化厂的氯碱企业有利;但技术引进难度高,引进后能否生产出适销对路且技术含量高的CR品种,决定项目的前途。

  10. Process control in biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Efficient monitoring and control of anaerobic digestion (AD) processes are necessary in order to enhance biogas plant performance. The aim of monitoring and controlling the biological processes is to stabilise and optimise the production of biogas. The principles of process analytical technology...

  11. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  12. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  13. Mass Customization of process plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes how F.L.Smidth A/S, a manufacturer of large processing plants for cement production, has applied the principles of mass customisation in the area of highly complex, custom engineered products. The company has based its sales process on a configuration system to achieve...

  14. Excited State Spectra and Dynamics of Phenyl-Substituted Butadienes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace-Williams, Stacie E.; Schwartz, Benjamin J.; Møller, Søren;

    1994-01-01

    A combination of steady-state and dynamic spectral measurements are used to provide new insights into the nature of the excited-state processes of all-trans-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene and several analogs: 1,4-diphenyl- 1,3-cyclopentadiene, 1,1,4,4-tetraphenylbutadiene, 1,2,3,4-tetraphenyl-1...

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  16. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  17. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.)

  18. Radiotracers in understanding plant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and allied techniques have immense applications in the area of agricultural research. Radioisotopes have been exceptionally useful to understand the various physiological functions of the metabolic changes induced under varying growth environments and among different crops. These have helped in improving our understanding of crop variation in carbon influx and assimilation, source sink relationship, ion influx into apoplasm, nutrient uptake, interaction of ions, foliar uptake, transport, utilisation/assimilation. Isotopes yield an analytical advantage that they can be easily traced and measured in minute quantities and analysis remains uncomplicated by the presence of large cellular pools of the ions in question. In fact radioisotopes can be used effectively in developing modern agro-techniques for better understanding of the mineral fertilizer-, water-use and biological nitrogen efficiency. It is important to collate and critical analyze the available research knowledge and leads on the advances made in the field of plant mineral nutrition through the use of radioisotopes and stable isotopes. 14C can be used to assess source sink relationship and to measure the carbon exudates that are released by plant roots for ensuing rhizosphereic modifications. Radiotracers offer a unique advantage in terms of high sensitivity, their simplicity and small expense (compared to competing technologies such as mass spectrometry). In a well-designed experiment, the presence of radiotracers does not affect the system under study and any analysis is non-destructive. Radiotracers can be used to study the dynamic biological processes like the ion transport across cell membranes, turnover, intermediary metabolism, or translocation in plants that were earlier being studied indirectly with a greater degree of analytical error. Radiotracer technology also aids in identification of the rate determining step in any biological process. Innovative radiological tools like Positron

  19. Plant Growth and Water Purification of Porous Vegetation Concrete Formed of Blast Furnace Slag, Natural Jute Fiber and Styrene Butadiene Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate porous vegetation concrete formed using the industrial by-products blast furnace slag powder and blast furnace slag aggregates. We investigated the void ratio, compressive strength, freeze–thaw resistance, plant growth and water purification properties using concretes containing these by-products, natural jute fiber and latex. The target performance was a compressive strength of ≥12 MPa, a void ratio of ≥25% and a residual compressive strength of ≥80% following 100 freeze–thaw cycles. Using these target performance metrics and test results for plant growth and water purification, an optimal mixing ratio was identified. The study characterized the physical and mechanical properties of the optimal mix, and found that the compressive strength decreased compared with the default mix, but that the void ratio and the freeze–thaw resistance increased. When latex was used, the compressive strength, void ratio and freeze–thaw resistance all improved, satisfying the target performance metrics. Vegetation growth tests showed that plant growth was more active when the blast furnace slag aggregate was used. Furthermore, the use of latex was also found to promote vegetation growth, which is attributed to the latex forming a film coating that suppresses leaching of toxic components from the cement. Water purification tests showed no so significant differences between different mixing ratios; however, a comparison of mixes with and without vegetation indicated improved water purification in terms of the total phosphorus content when vegetation had been allowed to grow.

  20. Effect of processing plant on pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, Q. Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO2 stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not r

  1. Equivalent lifetime prediction of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber for thermal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber(NBR), which is used for O-ring material as elastomeric sealed diaphragm valve in the nuclear power plants, is examined. The thermal degradation is accelerated at 130 .deg. C by arrhenius exploit method using the activation energy calculated by thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature are verified for thermally aged NBR. The relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and elongation at break are also investigated. The threshold valued of thermally aged NBR is a ten year in the change of elongation at break

  2. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  3. Artificial intelligence methods in process plant layout

    OpenAIRE

    McBrien, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The thesis describes "Plant Layout System" or PLS, an Expert System which automates all aspects of conceptual layout of chemical process plant, from sizing equipment using process data to deriving the equipment items' elevation and plan positions. PLS has been applied to a test process of typical size and complexity and which encompasses a wide range of layout issues and problems. The thesis presents the results of the tests to show that PLS generates layouts that are entirely satisfactory an...

  4. The Effect of Uncertainty in Exposure Estimation on the Exposure-Response Relation between 1,3-Butadiene and Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maldonado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In a follow-up study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers, cumulative exposure to 1,3-butadiene was positively associated with leukemia. Problems with historical exposure estimation, however, may have distorted the association. To evaluate the impact of potential inaccuracies in exposure estimation, we conducted uncertainty analyses of the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia. We created the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates using job-exposure matrices consisting of exposure values that corresponded to randomly selected percentiles of the approximate probability distribution of plant-, work area/job group-, and year specific butadiene ppm. We then analyzed the relation between cumulative exposure to butadiene and leukemia for each of the 1,000 sets of butadiene estimates. In the uncertainty analysis, the point estimate of the RR for the first non zero exposure category (>0–<37.5 ppm-years was most likely to be about 1.5. The rate ratio for the second exposure category (37.5–<184.7 ppm-years was most likely to range from 1.5 to 1.8. The RR for category 3 of exposure (184.7–<425.0 ppm-years was most likely between 2.1 and 3.0. The RR for the highest exposure category (425.0+ ppm-years was likely to be between 2.9 and 3.7. This range off RR point estimates can best be interpreted as a probability distribution that describes our uncertainty in RR point estimates due to uncertainty in exposure estimation. After considering the complete probability distributions of butadiene exposure estimates, the exposure-response association of butadiene and leukemia was maintained. This exercise was a unique example of how uncertainty analyses can be used to investigate and support an observed measure of effect when occupational exposure estimates are employed in the absence of direct exposure measurements.

  5. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of...

  7. Telomerization of butadiene with starch under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnager, Julien; Quettier, Claude; Lambin, Anne; Rataboul, Franck; Pinel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The design of industrial products based on bioresources is a challenging issue. Modification of starch, by hydrophobic chemical substituents, results in an innovative hydrophobic material. Herein, the hydrophobic part of the derivative, comprised of octadienyl chains, is introduced through catalytic butadiene telomerization. The process is efficiently conducted on starch in its granular form in an aqueous medium using hydrosoluble palladium complexes. After optimization, a turnover number (TON) of up to 550 was achieved in the presence of [(pi-allyl)PdCl](2) catalyst and, unusually, by using dimethylisosorbide as a cosolvent. PMID:19856380

  8. Process plant equipment operation, control, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Michael D; Onyewuenyi, Oliver A

    2012-01-01

    "Process Plant Equipment Book is another great publication from Wiley as a reference book for final year students as well as those who will work or are working in chemical production plants and refinery…" -Associate Prof. Dr. Ramli Mat, Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia "…give[s] readers access to both fundamental information on process plant equipment and to practical ideas, best practices and experiences of highly successful engineers from around the world… The book is illustrated throughout with numerous black & white p

  9. Process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Plant is currently analyzing processes for the removal of tritium from the heavy water used as a moderator in SRP's nuclear reactors. An accompanying paper describes the background and need for this process. A computer-aided design program was used to simulate the distillation section of the detritiation process flowsheet. Simplified calculation techniques were performed to optimize the process parameters. Results obtained are being used to evaluate proposals from various vendors

  10. Dose Assurance in Radiation Processing Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Chadwick, K.H.; Nam, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed at the...... radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing....

  11. Dose assurance in radiation processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed at the radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing. (author)

  12. Dose assurance in radiation processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.; Chadwick, K. H.; Nam, J. W.

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed at the radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing.

  13. Process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimum technical design of a nuclear power plant needs to be parallelled by effective process control in the stage of output operation. The author briefly demonstrates the pertinent criteria like operational organization, functional areas, crews, training of staff, process monitoring, industrial safety, incident prevention, and emergency manual. (DG)

  14. Intelligent plant operation support system for plant and process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, K.; Oishi, S.; Nishiya, T. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    Hitachi is introducing some AI (artificial intelligence) software packages, such as the advanced plant operation support system (APOS) and the intelligent alarm system (IMARK) which marks the process data with significant words, to reduce the workload of operators. APOS is a domain shell for the plant control expert system based on the real-time inference engine EUREKA-II (Electronic Understanding and Reasoning by Knowledge Activation-II). On the other hand, IMARK has been developed as one of the intelligent alarms to mark the time-series process data and report signs of an event to an operator. The present review article introduces the software packages for process computers, which includes APOS and IMARK, and also describes how AI techniques are used in them. 4 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Processes assessment in binary mixture plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shankar Ganesh, T. Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary fluid system has an efficient system of heat recovery compared to a single fluid system due to a better temperature match between hot and cold fluids. There are many applications with binary fluid system i.e. Kalina power generation, vapor absorption refrigeration, combined power and cooling etc. Due to involvement of three properties (pressure, temperature and concentration in the processes evaluation, the solution is complicated compared to a pure substance. The current work simplifies this complex nature of solution and analyzes the basic processes to understand the processes behavior in power generation as well as cooling plants. Kalina power plant consists of regenerator, heat recovery vapor generator, condenser, mixture, separator, turbine, pump and throttling device. In addition to some of these components, the cooling plant consists of absorber which is similar in operation of condenser. The amount of vapor at the separator decreases with an increase in its pressure and temperature.

  16. Improved styrene butadiene rubber by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premature failure of elastomeric materials used in US Army tank components such as track pads, bushings, and roadwheels occurs through age, wear, hardening and cracking, softening by solvents, or permanent deformation by compression set. Millions of dollars are spent annually in effort, materials, and maintenance costs. A combination of a sulfur precure during molding and an electron beam postcure of SBR has shown to be an effective method for the manufacture of much improved vulcanizates. This work demonstrates their greater hot tear strength, as well as exceptional resistance to attack by ozone. It is also shown that the rubber has 10 times the resistance to crack initiation and less than one-third the crack growth. US Army field tests on the SBR pads for M60 tanks demonstrates their clear superiority over conventional sulfur-cured SBR

  17. Status of PBMR process heat plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional nuclear power plants only supply energy in a portion of the electricity sector, while the transportation and industrial energy sectors remain to rely exclusively on fossil fuels for its energy needs. However, the transportation and industrial sectors are vast consumers of energy and jointly contribute to approximately 66% of global CO2 emissions. Industry concerns for escalating cost of natural gas and petroleum, energy security and environmental acceptability are driving interest in using nuclear energy as primary energy source for transportation and industrial applications. An opportunity exists to introduce nuclear process heat into the world's energy market, but to succeed any technology must be available commercially in the needed timeframe, be demonstrably safe in order to be located close to the process plant, be economical, match the process energy needs and must produce the required temperatures. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development in South Africa, fits each of these requirements. The PBMR is an advanced helium-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). A 400 MWt (165 MWe) Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) for the production of electricity is being developed in South Africa for its national utility Eskom. The DPP project is envisioned to form the platform to launch future commercial PBMR products, notably including a variety of process heat applications for the transport and industrial sectors. PBMR Company has partnered with the Shaw Group, Westinghouse and others to develop and pilot its nuclear process heat technology. The team proposes that the first demonstration facility involve a consortium of industrial clients and is currently working to that end. One of these collaborative projects includes the Westinghouse-led consortium that was awarded the principal contract for the initial phase of pre-conceptual engineering services and planning for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) by the U

  18. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  19. SANITATION IN SHELL EGG PROCESSING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  20. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  1. Ternary Ag/MgO-SiO2 catalysts for the conversion of ethanol into butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Wout; Makshina, Ekaterina V; Vanelderen, Pieter; De Clippel, Filip; Houthoofd, Kristof; Kerkhofs, Stef; Martens, Johan A; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2015-03-01

    Ternary Ag/Magnesia-silica catalysts were tested in the direct synthesis of 1,3-butadiene from ethanol. The influence of the silver content and the type of silica source on catalytic performance has been studied. Prepared catalysts were characterized by (29) Si NMR, N2 sorption, small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, XRD, environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (ESEM/EDX), FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine and CO2 , temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Based on these characterization results, the catalytic performance of the catalysts in the 1,3-butadiene formation process was interpreted and a tentative model explaining the role of the different catalytically active sites was elaborated. The balance of the active sites is crucial to obtain an active and selective catalyst to form 1,3-butadiene from ethanol. The optimal silver loading is 1-2 wt% on a MgO-silica support with a molar Mg/Si ratio of 2. The silver species and basic sites (Mg−O pairs and basic OH groups) are of prime importance in the 1,3-butadiene production, catalyzing mainly the ethanol dehydrogenation and the aldol condensation, respectively. PMID:25410420

  2. Dose Assurance in Radiation Processing Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Chadwick, K.H.; Nam, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed at the radiat...... radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing.......Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed at the...

  3. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant product denitrator upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium product denitrator at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has had serious operating problems since 1970, including inadequate contamintion control, fluidized bed caking, frequent bed heater failure, product overflow plugging, and poor feed control. These problems were minimized through selective redesign and upgrade of the process equipment as part of a process upgrade program completed in March 1981. Following startup and testing of the rebuilt product denitrator, 1044 kg of enriched uranium was processed in three weeks while demonstrating greater reliability, ease of operation, and improved contamination control. To maximize personnel safety in the future, the denitrator vessel should be made critically safe by geometry and process instrumentation isolated from the process for semi-remote operation

  4. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  5. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  6. Radiometry of radiochemical processing plant box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometry method is used to detect shielding losses in the newly designed processing plants, to control the personnel exposure handling the radioactivity. The acceptable radiation level in occupied area at the working place, as per AERB regulatory guidelines is 1 μSv/h (0.1mR/h). Hence a stringent control on the shielding is mandatory. The shielding integrity was evaluated using a sealed source of 900 mCi 60Co (1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV g photons of 100% abundance), by radiometry at -the newly designed 100 mm lead shielded SS 6 cell -plant box used for processing 5 -10Ci of 32P, 51Cr,153Sm, 177Lu, 166Ho etc. The radiometry source introduced into plant box through the loading chamber in H2 can (Dia. 25 mm and length 40 mm) was loaded in the plant. MS stand was fabricated and used for housing the radiometry source at different elevations (300, 600 and 900 mm). The stand was kept in the center of the plant at different locations viz., 845 mm, 1445 mm and 2045 mm distance from one side. The transmitted radiation field was mapped using radiation survey meter at marked grid segments of 100 mm x 100 mm in all sides and top of the plant box. The transmitted radiation field in all sides and top of the plant box were mapped using radiation survey meter. At certain grids the radiation levels indicated shielding losses, all such cavities were filled up, the gap was plugged and the radiometry dose mapping was repeated. Due to this rectification, radiation level at most of the places was reduced and the results showed that the shielding had improved. There was higher transmitted radiation field on the plant during opening of sliding doors. Whenever doors are opened during some work, alarm of audio alarm system indicates door opening condition. Installation of the same had been made mandatory to control occupational exposure. The radiation level may not exceed the limit of 1 μ iSv/h for the permanent occupancy of lab personnel at the working place

  7. The nuclear power plant aging management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging management is not an end product rather it is a process that can be used by utilities to collect pertinent data; to assess the life of systems, structures, and components; to develop and assess alternative aging management strategies; and to implement strategies that provide the maximum economic and safety benefits at the least cost. Aging management is a process for: determining current component condition through data collection techniques such as D and M, inservice inspection, trending, and materials research; evaluating data obtained using various life assessment methods; calculating the end of functional life from estimates of functional degradation over time; identifying and implementing actions to maintain or improve plant safety and economics. The time-dependent rate of change in the condition of equipment is the governing parameter in the life assessment process; it has to be determined by aging management techniques as a part of the integrated aging management process. The aging management process provides benefits to a utility and its customers by maintaining or improving plant performance and safety. A systematic and well-planned program is required to: determine critical systems, structures, and components and their priority ranking; predict end of functional life for critical components; determine adequacy of operating and maintenance procedures and practices; recommend necessary improvements and implement them during scheduled refueling outages; provide documented justification for optimal set of performance improvement activities A number of tools and techniques that add value in the aging management process have been or are being developed. These tools offer economic and safety benefits to plant owners

  8. Uptake of one and two molecules of 1,3-butadiene by platinum bis(dithiolene): a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li; Ni, Shao Fei; Hall, Michael B; Brothers, Edward N

    2014-09-15

    Platinum bis(dithiolene) complexes have reactivity toward alkenes like nickel bis(dithiolene) complexes. We examined the uptake of 1,3-butadiene by platinum bis(dithiolene) [Pt(tfd)2] (tfd = S2C2(CF3)2) via a density functional theory study; both 1,2- and 1,4-additions of 1,3-butadiene to the ligands of Pt(tfd)2 to form both interligand and intraligand adducts were studied. For single 1,3-butadiene addition, direct 1,4-addition on interligand S-S, 1,2-addition on intraligand S-S, and 1,4-addition on intraligand S-C are all feasible at room temperature and are controlled by the symmetry of the highest occupied molecular orbital of 1,3-butadiene and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of Pt(tfd)2. However, the formation of the interligand S-S adduct through 1,4-addition of one molecule of cis-1,3-butadiene is the most favorable route, with a reaction barrier of 9.3 kcal/mol. The other two addition processes cannot compete with this one due to both higher reaction barriers and unstable adducts. Other possible pathways, such as formation of cis-interligand S-S adduct from 1,2-addition of one molecule of 1,3-butadiene via a twisted trans-interligand S-S adduct, have higher barriers. Our calculated results show that 1,4-addition of a single molecule of 1,3-butadiene on the interligand S-S gives the kinetically stable product by a one-step pathway. But of at least equal importance is the apofacial 1,4-addition of two molecules of 1,3-butadiene on the intraligand S-C of the same ligand on Pt(tfd)2, which yields the thermodynamically stable product, obtained via a short lifetime intermediate, the 1:1 intraligand S-C adduct, being formed through several pathways. The calculated results in this study well explain the experimental observation that 1:1 interligand S-S adduct was formed in a short time, and the intraligand S-C adduct from two molecules of cis-1,3-butadiene was accumulated in 20 h at 50° and characterized by X-ray crystallography. PMID:25184506

  9. Emerging environmental issues for gas processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of emerging environmental issues of interest to the construction and ongoing management of gas processing plants was provided. Recent responses by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to certain environmental concerns, initiatives of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP), and evolving developments by the federal government with respect to air quality issues are emphasized. AEUB''s specific responsibilities for air quality, incinerator stack emissions, flaring, fugitive emissions, sulphur recovery, soil and groundwater contamination, noise and emergency response support for upstream petroleum industry incidents and associated hazards are reviewed. A case study of Shell Oil''s Caroline application for increased throughput at its Caroline sour gas plant was discussed to illustrate the AEUB''s application of its on environmental protection mandate

  10. New nuclear plant design and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes latest developments in the nuclear power reactor technology with emphasis on three areas: (1) the US technology of advanced passive light water reactors (AP600 and S BWR), (2) regulatory processes that certify their safety, and (3) current engineering concerns. The goal is to provide and insight of how the government's regulatory agency guarantees public safety by looking into how new passive safety features were designed and tested by vendors and how they were re-evaluated and retested by the US NRC. The paper then discusses the US 1989 nuclear licensing reform (10 CFR Part 52) whose objectives are to promote the standardization of nuclear power plants and provide for the early and definitive resolution of site and design issues before plants are built. The new licensing process avoids the unpredictability nd escalated construction cost under the old licensing process. Finally, the paper summarizes engineering concerns found in current light water reactors that may not go away in the new design. The concerns are related the material and water chemistry technology in dealing with corrosion problems in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems (PWRs and BWRs). These engineering concerns include core shroud cracking (BWRs), jet pump hold-down beam cracking (BWRs), steam generator tube stress corrosion cracking (PWR)

  11. Energy optimization of integrated process plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandvig Nielsen, J.

    1996-10-01

    A general approach for viewing the process synthesis as an evolutionary process is proposed. Each step is taken according to the present level of information and knowledge. This is formulated in a Process Synthesis Cycle. Initially the synthesis is conducted at a high abstraction level maximizing use of heuristics (prior experience, rules of thumbs etc). When further knowledge and information are available, heuristics will gradually be replaced by exact problem formulations. The principles in the Process Synthesis Cycle, is used to develop a general procedure for energy synthesis, based on available tools. The procedure is based on efficient use of process simulators with integrated Pinch capabilities (energy targeting). The proposed general procedure is tailored to three specific problems (Humid Air Turbine power plant synthesis, Nitric Acid process synthesis and Sulphuric Acid synthesis). Using the procedure reduces the problem dimension considerable and thus allows for faster evaluation of more alternatives. At more detailed level a new framework for the Heat Exchanger Network synthesis problem is proposed. The new framework is object oriented based on a general functional description of all elements potentially present in the heat exchanger network (streams, exchangers, pumps, furnaces etc.). (LN) 116 refs.

  12. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope

  13. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanomaterials produced from pyrolysis/combustion of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR)

    OpenAIRE

    Joner Oliveira Alves; Chuanwei Zhuo; Yiannis Angelo Levendis; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório

    2011-01-01

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanomaterials (nanofibers and nanotubes) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination of waste products containing SBR. A three stage electrically heated flow reactor was used. Small pellets of rubber were pyrolyzed at a temperature of 1000 ºC. The pyrolyzates were mixed with oxygen-containing gases and w...

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included

  15. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The scale of the coal preparation and CWF plant design chosen for the study is 200 tons per hour coal output on a dry basis (285 tph CWF). The baseline case assumes round-the-clock operation with an annual operating capacity of 83 percent, corresponding to 166 tph dry coal average output or about 1.5 million tons per year. This is equivalent to the energy required to fuel approximately 500 MW of continuous electric generating capacity. (Other approximate equivalencies are 27,000 barrels per day of CWF or three unit trains per week of CWF delivery.) The design and costing are based on a battery-limit, integrated plant located at or near a coal mine site. As such, it is assumed that roads, rail lines, electric service, water access, auxiliaries, etc., will be available. Also, no provision is made for raw coal storage, since coal storage is assumed to be part of the mining operation. CWF delivery can be by rail, barge or pipeline. The normal operating mode is assumed to the out-loading of CWF directly into unit trains made up of rail tank cars. Storage is provided for two days production of CWF. Costs for off-site disposal of dewatered refuse are included in the final cost figure. The CWF type at which the study was directed is a boiler grade fuel intended to be burned in utility or large industrial units.

  16. Ethanol-to-Butadiene Conversion over SiO2-MgO Catalysts: Synthesis-Structure-Performance Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, C.

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this PhD Thesis provides new insights into the underlying reasons that make SiO2-MgO materials excellent catalysts for the ethanol-to-butadiene Lebedev process. In particular, the preparation technique of choice affects the structural properties of the resulting SiO2-MgO materi

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to 0. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  18. Enhancing Elementary Pre-service Teachers' Plant Processes Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen L.; Lotter, Christine; Fann, Xumei; Taylor, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Researchers examined how an inquiry-based instructional treatment emphasizing interrelated plant processes influenced 210 elementary pre-service teachers' (PTs) conceptions of three plant processes, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and transpiration, and the interrelated nature of these processes. The instructional treatment required PTs to predict the fate of a healthy plant in a sealed terrarium (Plant-in-a-Jar), justify their predictions, observe the plant over a 5-week period, and complete guided inquiry activities centered on one of the targeted plant processes each week. Data sources included PTs' pre- and post-predictions with accompanying justifications, course artifacts such as weekly terrarium observations and science journal entries, and group models of the interrelated plant processes occurring within the sealed terraria. A subset of 33 volunteer PTs also completed interviews the week the Plant-in-a-Jar scenario was introduced and approximately 4 months after the instructional intervention ended. Pre- and post-predictions from all PTs as well as interview responses from the subgroup of PTs, were coded into categories based on key plant processes emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards. Study findings revealed that PTs developed more accurate conceptions of plant processes and their interrelated nature as a result of the instructional intervention. Primary patterns of change in PTs' plant process conceptions included development of more accurate conceptions of how water is used by plants, more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis features, and more accurate conceptions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration as transformative processes.

  19. Species difference in metabolism of inhaled butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure of B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats to butadiene (BD) produced a very high incidence of cancer in mice while the incidence in rats was much lower with different tissues affected. Studies at this institute indicate that for equivalent exposures, the blood BD epoxide concentrations in mice are 5-fold higher than in rats and > 10-fold higher than in Cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, the profiles of urinary metabolites of butadiene were determined in Cynomolgus monkeys, F344/N rats, Sprague Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice and Syrian hamsters, species containing widely divergent hepatic epoxide hydrolase (EH) activities. Animals were exposed for 2 hr to 8,000 ppm [14C]BD and 24-hr urine samples were analyzed for metabolites. Two major urinary metabolites were identified, N-acetyl-S-(-1(or 2)-3-butene-2(or 1)-ol)cysteine (1) and N-acetyl-S-(-4-butane-1,2-diol)cysteine (2). Monkeys exposed by inhalation produced primarily metabolite 2, while rodent species produced 1-4 times as much of 1 compared to 2. The ratio of 2/1 formation was related to the hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity in different species. The high 2/1 ratio in monkeys was consistent with the lower blood epoxide levels in this species. If BD metabolism by humans is similar to that in the monkey, exposure of humans to BD may result in lower tissue concentrations of reactive metabolites than an equivalent exposure of rodents. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of BD exposure based on rodent studies

  20. Information interfaces for process plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a systematic approach to the design of information interfaces for operator support in diagnosing complex systems faults. The need of interpreting primary measured plant variables within the framework of different system representations organized into an abstraction hierarchy is identified from an analysis of the problem of diagnosing complex systems. A formalized approach to the modelling of production systems, called Multilevel Flow Modelling, is described. A MFM model specifies plant control requirements and the associated need for plant information and provide a consistent context for the interpretation of real time plant signals in diagnosis of malfunctions. The use of MFM models as a basis for functional design of the plant instrumentation system is outlined, and the use of knowledge Based (Expert) Systems for the design of man-machine interfaces is mentioned. Such systems would allow an active user participation in diagnosis and thus provide the basis for cooperative problem solving. 14 refs. (author)

  1. Nitrification Processes in Tehran Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Sadrnejad

    2011-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant is designed to daily treat 450000 m3 of wastewater collected from the city of Tehran. The wastewater treatment plant is located at the south of Shahr-Ray in southern Tehran with the area of 110 hectares. The treatment plant effluent will be transferred to Varamin agricultural lands to be used for the irrigation of crops. A conventional activated sludge for carbon removal and a high-rate trickling filter for nitrification of ammonia to nitrate are designed and cons...

  2. BIOMARKERS IN CZECH WORKERS EXPOSED TO 1,3-BUTADIENE: A TRANSITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    All the biomarkers of exposure were correlated with the measurements of butadiene recorded by the air samplers. Although the correlation between hemoglobin adducts and exposure levels was strongest, urinary metabolites were also found to be very useful measures of butadiene...

  3. Processing of organic effluents from spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reprocessing chemical purification is based on liquid-liquid solvent extraction. The solvent is TBP diluted in hydrocarbon. Solvent management in UP3 reprocessing plant include an organic effluent processing plant based on distillation. The plant design takes into account thermal degradation of TBP and radioactivity. Study and development of this plant and original solutions are described, especially the use of very low pressure and thin film evaporation

  4. COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS OF U.S. FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, Shekhar; Bart KOCHA; Sinha, Kingshuk K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach for competitive analysis of manufacturing plants in the U. S. food processing industry. As part of this approach, plant competitiveness is measured using Operational Competitiveness Ratings Analysis (OCRA) -- a new non-parametric method of computing relative inefficiency. Drivers of competitiveness are identified in terms of policies related to plant structure and infrastructure. Policies related to plant structure are those decisions that are relate...

  5. Energy Efficiency and Carbon Management in Mineral Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Miti, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Copper processing plants involved in smelting, electro-refining and electro-winning are heat-intensive undertakings that provide extensive challenges for attainment of high energy efficiency. Literature has shown that most of these plants, especially smelters, operate at low overall energy efficiency due to the seemingly complex energy scenario where heat and electricity as forms of energy are treated distinctively from each other. Many copper processing plants have not yet explored both avai...

  6. Surveillance process of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of situations corresponding to different operation or shutdown phases of the reactor are defined. At each moment, the situation of the reactor is determined. Useful parameters for the power plant surveillance are grouped in functions each one corresponding to the accomplishment of a special task of the plant. For each the parameters of each one of the functions, its state is determined according to a category describing its aptitude to contribute to the accomplishment of the function. The most unfavorable state is assigned to at least one parameter of each function. The information related to the state of the situation and of each function. A control board with three zones of surveillance can be used. The invention can be applied, particularly, to the nuclear power plants equipped with a pressurized water reactor

  7. Safety analysis report-building 3544 process waste treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, R.J.; Robinson, R.A.

    1976-06-01

    A new Process Waste Treatment Plant was constructed at ORNL. The wastes are processed through a precipitation-clarification step and then through an ion exchange step to remove the low-level activity in the waste before discharge into White Oak Creek. There are no unusual hazards associated with the operation of the plant. (auth)

  8. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  10. Proceedings: Distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These are the proceedings of a workshop on Distributed Digital Systems, Plant Process Computers, and Networks held in Charlotte, North Carolina on August 16--18, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for technology transfer, technical information exchange, and education. The workshop was attended by more than 100 representatives of electric utilities, equipment manufacturers, engineering service organizations, and government agencies. The workshop consisted of three days of presentations, exhibitions, a panel discussion and attendee interactions. Original plant process computers at the nuclear power plants are becoming obsolete resulting in increasing difficulties in their effectiveness to support plant operations and maintenance. Some utilities have already replaced their plant process computers by more powerful modern computers while many other utilities intend to replace their aging plant process computers in the future. Information on recent and planned implementations are presented. Choosing an appropriate communications and computing network architecture facilitates integrating new systems and provides functional modularity for both hardware and software. Control room improvements such as CRT-based distributed monitoring and control, as well as digital decision and diagnostic aids, can improve plant operations. Commercially available digital products connected to the plant communications system are now readily available to provide distributed processing where needed. Plant operations, maintenance activities, and engineering analyses can be supported in a cost-effective manner. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  11. Butachlor residues in tomato plants and fate during tomato processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-butachlor incorporated with soil was taken up by tomato plants and translocated from roots to other plants. At harvest, the fruit contained 48% of the total residue in the plant. Commercial processing to tomato juice and canned fruit was simulated to evaluate the effect of processing procedures in removing the residues. As anticipated, water washing had hardly any effect on removing the residues. Residues in peel or seed wasted off in processing were much lower than those in juice or pulp. Processing into juice and canned fruit did not reduce the residue level. (author). 2 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stabik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to 25% by weight were prepared and tested. Additionally three commercial compounds were tested as reference formulations. The following test were performed: Shore hardness, short-term and long-term elastic recovery, tensile strength, elongation at break and migration of plasticizers from gasket material to unplasticized PVC.Findings: Application of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers as PVC modifier enhanced many properties essential for window gasket materials such as long-term and short term elastic recovery, tensile strength and elongation at break. At the same time addition of these elastomers did not change migration of other plasticizers contained in gasket material. Obtained results indicated that among tested compounds best properties as gasket material exhibited plasticized PVC with 23% of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer Chemigum P83. Reference commercial compounds exhibited worse performance properties than compounds with this acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer. Practical implications: Research programme allowed to elaborate plasticized PVC compounds modified with acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer that can be industrially applied for PVC window gaskets.Originality/value: Obtained results are of scientific and practical value. Research programme allowed to investigate the influence of elastomeric modifiers on plasticized PVC properties. Research results are also of practical importance.

  13. Recent developments in by-product plant processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herpers, E.T.; Barber, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving and pollution control in by-product coke plant processes are considered. An example of a very cost-effective plant modification for energy saving is the retrofitting of heat exchangers to a benzole and naphthalene plant of the British Steel Corporation at Port Talbot. Energy savings are also possible in the carbonisation process, where there are sources of low grade heat which can be recovered. Recent developments in by-product plant pollution control include those in catalytic ammonia destruction for reduction of ammonia; the Sulfammon Process, high pressure gas treatment Sulfiban Process, and the Claus Process for reduction of H/sub 2/S; and the tower effluent treatment process for liquid effluents. Odorous emission control and noise abatement are also mentioned. 2 references.

  14. On the catalytic gas phase oxidation of butadiene to furan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubias, B.; Rodemerck, U. [Institut fuer Angewandte Chemie Berlin-Adlershof e.V., Berlin (Germany); Ritschl, F.; Meisel, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Applying the thermochemical selectivity criterion of Hadnett et al. It is shown that the selectivity of the furan formation is not limited by a too low strength of the C-H bonds in furan when compared with the C-H bond dissociation energy in the educt molecule butadiene. In the oxidation of butadiene on a CsH{sub 2}PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} catalyst a maximum yield of 22 mol% furan has been obtained. To improve this comparatively low furan yield oxidation activity of the catalyst must be lowered to prevent the consecutive reaction to maleic anhydride. (orig.)

  15. Process Information System - Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Original NEK design was using several Process Computer Systems (PCS) for both process control and process supervision. PCS were built by different manufacturers around different hardware and software platforms. Operational experience and new regulatory requirements imposed new technical and functional requirements on the PCS. Requirements such as: - Acquisition of new signals from the technological processes and environment - Implementation of new application programs - Significant improvement of MMI (Man Machine Interface) - Process data transfer to other than Main Control Room (MCR) locations - Process data archiving and capability to retrieve same data for future analysis were impossible to be implemented within old systems. In order to satisfy new requirements, NEK has decided to build new Process Information System (PIS). During the design and construction of the PIS Project Phase I, in addition to the main foreign contractor, there was significant participation of local architect engineering and construction companies. This paper presents experience of NEK and local partners. (author)

  16. River Self-Restoration: Interactions between Plants and Fluvial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnell, Angela

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents evidence from European rivers of the nature and consequences of plant-fluvial process interactions. While the examples are representative of different climates, riparian and aquatic plant species, and river geomorphological types, they are linked by a general conceptual model of plant-fluvial process interactions that can be adapted to local conditions. Riparian and aquatic plants both affect and respond to fluvial processes. Their above ground biomass modifies the flow field and retains sediment, whereas their below-ground biomass affects the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the substrate and consequently the moisture regime and erodibility of the land surface. At the same time plants are disturbed, removed and buried by fluvial processes. Thus the margins of river systems provide a critical zone where plants and fluvial processes interact to produce a diverse mosaic of dynamic landforms that are characteristic of naturally-functioning river ecosystems. It is important to understand these interactions between aquatic and riparian plants and fluvial processes, and to recognize how they contribute to trajectories of natural river channel recovery from human interventions. The interactions have a significant influence on river systems across space scales from individual plants to entire river corridors. Plant-scale phenomena structure patch-scale geomorphological forms and processes. Interactions between patches contribute to larger-scale and longer-term river geomorphological phenomena. Furthermore, the influence of plants varies through time as above and below ground biomass alter within the annual growth cycle, over longer-term growth trajectories, and in response to drivers of change such as climatic and hydrological fluctuations and extremes. If river management and restoration works with these natural interactions and recovery processes, outcomes have the best chance of being cost-effective and sustainable.

  17. Gender differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene to butadiene diepoxide in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Dahl, A.R.; Bechtold, W.E. [and others

    1995-12-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD), a gaseous compound used in the production of rubber, is a potent carcinogen in mice and a weak carcinogen in rats. The mechanism of BD-induced carcinogenicity is thought to involve genotoxic effects of its reactive epoxide metabolites butadiene monoepoxide (BDO) and butadiene diepoxide (BDO{sub 2}). Studies in our laboratory have shown that levels of the epoxides, particularly BDO{sub 2}, are greater in mice-the more sensitive species-than rats. While both epoxides are genotoxic in a number of assays, BDO{sub 2} is mutagenic in TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells at concentrations approximately 100-fold lower than BDO. Species differences in carcinogenicity of BD have posed a dilemma to investigators deciding which animal model is most appropriate for BD risk assessment.

  18. Future of robots in nuclear plants and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of robotics at the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory is reviewed. The site's remote process areas are described briefly, and existing remote handling equipment and robots are discussed. Three technology areas under development and relating to process automation are reviewed. These are: inspection systems to detect and evaluate process problems or to determine equipment integrity, process monitoring systems to analyze plant operations and to supply information in the event of an unusual occurrence, and remote manipulator systems and controls to handle instruments and tools. A technique is presented for employing future intelligent robots through process networks. These networks will represent the integration of robotic technology with dedicated process knowledge bases

  19. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW)

  20. Process monitoring for reprocessing plant safeguards: a summary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process monitoring is a term typically associated with a detailed look at plant operating data to determine plant status. Process monitoring has been generally associated with operational control of plant processes. Recently, process monitoring has been given new attention for a possible role in international safeguards. International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) Task C.59 has the goal to identify specific roles for process monitoring in international safeguards. As the preliminary effort associated with this task, a review of previous efforts in process monitoring for safeguards was conducted. Previous efforts mentioned concepts and a few specific applications. None were comprehensive in addressing all aspects of a process monitoring application for safeguards. This report summarizes the basic elements that must be developed in a comprehensive process monitoring application for safeguards. It then summarizes the significant efforts that have been documented in the literature with respect to the basic elements that were addressed

  1. Organizational processes and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the effects organizational factors have on the risk associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The described research project addresses three methods for identifying the organizational factors that impact safety. The first method consists of an elaborate theory-based protocol dealing with decision making procedures, interdepartmental coordination of activities, and communications. The second, known as goals/means/measures protocol, deals with identifying safey related goals. The third method is known as behaviorally anchored rating scale development. The paper discusses the importance of the convergence of these three methods to identify organizational factors essential to reactor safety

  2. The effect of unsaturated polyester resin from recycled PET as compatibilizer for styrene-butadiene (SBR)/ acrylonitrile-butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) from recycled PET flakes was prepared by depolymerization with propylene glycol and poly esterified with adipic acid. The effect of addition of 5, 10 and 15 phr of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) on the compatibility and physicomechanical properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) blends were studied. DSC, TGA, MDR, FTIR and chemical methods were used to determine the degree of compatibility. The mechanical and physical properties of the blends were found to improve with addition of 10 phr UPR for SBR/NBR blend. (author)

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Kartick K; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K, E-mail: ashwini@smita-iitd.co, E-mail: manjeet.jassal@smita-iitd.co [Smart and Innovative Textile Materials Group (SMITA), Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 {mu}l took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to < 1 s in the untreated samples. The plasma modified samples showed water contact angle of around 134{sup 0}. Both top and bottom sides of the fabric showed similar hydrophobic results in terms of water absorbency and contact angle. The results may be attributed to chemical reaction of butadiene with the cellulosic textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under <100 nm. The results showed that atmospheric pressure plasma can be successfully used for carrying out reaction of 1,3-butadiene with cellulosic textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  4. Energy conservation in small meat, poultry and dairy processing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausen, C.L.; Fields, E.L.; Huff, R.C.

    1983-06-01

    Energy audits were performed in twenty-three small (generally under 50 employees) meat, poultry and dairy processing plants. Energy conservation opportunities with the greatest potential for net gain in a plant are listed and discussed. Relationships between product throughput and energy consumption are reported.

  5. 1,3-Butadiene: Biomarkers and application to risk assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swenberg, J. A.; Bordeerat, N. K.; Boysen, G.; Carro, S.; Georgieva, N. I.; Troutman, J. M.; Upton, P. B.; Albertini, R. J.; Vacek, P. M.; Walker, V. E.; Šrám, Radim; Goggin, M.; Tretyakova, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 192, 1-2 (2011), s. 150-154. ISSN 0009-2797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : risk assessment * 1,3-butadiene * occupational exposure Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2011

  6. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Before new biorefinery systems can be implemented, or the modification of existing single product biomass processing units into biorefineries can be carried out, proper planning of the intended biorefinery scheme must be performed initially. This chapter outlines design and synthesis approaches...

  7. Safeguards planning in a plant design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safeguards efforts for the partitioning fuel cycle are considered. Included in the discussion are the organization of the safeguards study, the development of safeguards criteria, the expression of these criteria as requirements for facility design, and some preliminary details of the implementation of these requirements in facility and process layout

  8. Safeguards planning in a plant design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safeguards efforts for the partitioning fuel cycle are considered. Included in the discussion are the organization of the safeguards study, the development of safeguards criteria, the expression of these criteria as requirements for facility design, and some preliminary details of the implementation of these requirements in facility and process layout. (LK)

  9. Radiation processing plants in India - present status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are the first engineering group who came out with the concept of setting up of multipurpose radiation processing facilities with split type of source frame with continuous process. The first such plant was designed and commissioned at Jhunsons Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., Bhiwadi - in the year 2009 and this plant started commercial operation in early 2010. During last four years the success of this plant for gamma irradiation of different product in different dose range is highly encouraging. The design concept of multipurpose irradiator of JCPL is as follows: Product overlapping type design, Mode of operation is continuous, Unique feature is no breakage of process cycle for box shuffling - it is integrated with continuous process of shuffle dwell system within the radiation cell. Split type source frame is designed to cater the low dose application for better flexibility of plant. The tote box is palletized to handle with forks. The maximum capacity of tote box is 250 kg of materials depending upon the product density and package size. The maximum speed of conveyor achieved is 52 boxes / hour, which is equivalent to 12 to 13 ton/hour, when 250 kg material loaded in the box. In last four years this plant has established new trends in contract radiation processing service. This plant has processed following materials in the last four years successfully within the stipulated dose rate

  10. Industrial applications for remote operation in a processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of this article, J. Hermier covers the use of remote handling equipment in the UP2-400 plant at La Hague near Cherbourg, in which for the most part master/slave mechanism remote handling units are used with a number of these employed in daily processing operations. As regards this subject, it is useful to remember that, at the time of the designing of this plant (UP2-400), this was the only equipment available on the market with remote-controlled remote handling equipment. In the second part, before speaking about the development of remote operation equipment in the plants now under construction and attempting to project what might be the remote operation role in future plants, R. Le Guennec reviews the problems faced by engineering in designing industrial-sized processing plants and, consequently, the motivations of engineering when faced with a choice between several possible solutions

  11. Effect of preparation method and CuO promotion in the conversion of ethanol into 1,3-butadiene over SiO₂-MgO catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E Z; Weckhuysen, Bert M; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A

    2014-09-01

    Silica-magnesia (Si/Mg=1:1) catalysts were studied in the one-pot conversion of ethanol to butadiene. The catalyst synthesis method was found to greatly influence morphology and performance, with materials prepared through wet-kneading performing best both in terms of ethanol conversion and butadiene yield. Detailed characterization of the catalysts synthesized through co-precipitation or wet-kneading allowed correlation of activity and selectivity with morphology, textural properties, crystallinity, and acidity/basicity. The higher yields achieved with the wet-kneaded catalysts were attributed to a morphology consisting of SiO2 spheres embedded in a thin layer of MgO. The particle size of the SiO2 catalysts also influenced performance, with catalysts with smaller SiO2 spheres showing higher activity. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements showed that best butadiene yields were obtained with SiO2-MgO catalysts characterized by an intermediate amount of acidic and basic sites. A Hammett indicator study showed the catalysts' pK(a) value to be inversely correlated with the amount of dehydration by-products formed. Butadiene yields could be further improved by the addition of 1 wt% of CuO as promoter to give butadiene yields and selectivities as high as 40% and 53%, respectively. The copper promoter boosts the production of the acetaldehyde intermediate changing the rate-determining step of the process. TEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses showed CuO to be present on both the SiO2 and MgO components. UV/Vis spectra of promoted catalysts in turn pointed at the presence of cluster-like CuO species, which are proposed to be responsible for the increased butadiene production. PMID:25045112

  12. Nuclear pre-mRNA processing in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of CTMI, entitled Nuclear premRNA Processing in Plants, with 16 chapters from leading scientists in this area, summarizes recent advances in nuclear pre-mRNA processing and its role in plant growth and development. It provides researchers in the field, as well as those in related areas, with an up-to-date and comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the current status and future potential of this research in understanding plant biology. The first four chapters focus on spliceosome composition, genome-wide alternative splicing, and splice site requirements for U1 and U12 introns using computational and empirical approaches. Analysis of sequenced plant genomes has revealed that 80% of all protein-coding nuclear genes contain one or more introns. The lack of an in vitro plant splicing system has made it difficult to identify general and plant-specific components of splicing machinery in plants. The next three chapters focus on serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins, a family of highly conserved proteins, which are known to play key roles in constitutive and regulated splicing of pre-mRNA and other aspects of RNA metabolism in metazoans. These proteins engage both in RNA binding and protein.protein interactions and function as splicing regulators at multiple stages of spliceosome assembly. This family of proteins has expanded considerably in plants with several plant-specific SR proteins. Several serendipitous discoveries made using forward genetics are indicating that RNA metabolism (alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation, mRNA transport) plays an important role in many aspects of plant growth and development and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The next seven chapters focus on these aspects of RNA metabolism. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates a number of physiological processes during plant growth and development. The next chapter or A.B. Rose discusses the ways introns affect gene expression both positively and

  13. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  14. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  15. Pilot Plant for Solar Process Steam Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hennecke, Klaus; Hirsch, Tobias; Krüger, Dirk; Lokurlu, Ahmet; Walder, Markus

    2008-01-01

    An aluminium upgrading process will be supplied by steam directly generated in parabolic trough collectors. In this first of it’s kind installation in an industrial environment, steam at 4 bar will be fed into the existing distribution lines of the production to heat anodizing baths and storage tanks. The integration of the solar steam through separate heat exchangers in parallel to the existing system was also considered. In principle, due to the low temperatures of the baths, solar hot wate...

  16. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  17. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually

  18. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  19. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  20. Modeling Recycling Asphalt Pavement Processing Technologies in Asphalt Mixing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Simonas Tamaliūnas; Henrikas Sivilevičius

    2011-01-01

    The article presents reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) processing technologies and equipment models used in the asphalt mixing plant (AMP). The schematic model indicating all possible ways to process RAP in AMP is shown. The model calculating the needed temperature of mineral materials used for heating RAP is given and an example of such calculation is provided.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Multilevel flow modelling of process plant for diagnosis and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as basic for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator. (author)

  2. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and functions and may be used as a basis for design of computer-based support systems for the plant...... operator. Plant control requirements can be derived from the models and due to independence of the actual controller implementation the method may be used as a basis for design of control strategies and for the allocation of control tasks to the computer and the plant operator.......The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of...

  3. The PUREX process as designated for the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wackersdorf plant was designed on the basis of national and international experience with reprocessing plants for a throughput of 2 Mg of nuclear fuel per day. The long-proven PUREX process was adapted to local requirements and simplified by the introduction of electrolytical process stages. The amount of secondary waste was minimized by virtually complete recycling of the chemicals. For the first time in a commercial reprocessing plant, concentration of the dissolved tritium in a relatively small stream of waste water, which can be treated separately, was intended. The equipment is arranged in modules and can be remotely maintained, repaired and replaced. In this way, the exposure of the personnel to radiation is reduced to a minimum, not only during operation and maintenance, but also during repairs and decommissioning of the plant. (orig.)

  4. Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2015-11-01

    Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored

  5. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, M.J. [Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, L-INIA, Quinta do Marques, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal)], E-mail: mjptrigo@gmail.com; Sousa, M.B.; Sapata, M.M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L. [Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, L-INIA, Quinta do Marques, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Botelho, M.L. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2696 Sacavem (Portugal); Veloso, M.G. [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria de Lisboa, Av. da Universidade Tecnica, Alto da Ajuda, 1300-477 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress (Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D{sub 10} values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed ({>=}2 log). Based on the determined D{sub 10}, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10{sup 5}E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  6. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, M. J.; Sousa, M. B.; Sapata, M. M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L.; Botelho, M. L.; Veloso, M. G.

    2009-07-01

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L .), mint ( Mentha spicata L.), parsley ( Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress ( Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D 10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (⩾2 log). Based on the determined D10, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10 5E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  7. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress (Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (≥2 log). Based on the determined D10, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 105E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  8. The Relation of Design Parameters, Plant Capacity and Processing Costs in Cobalt-60 Sterilization Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main features of three basic types of cobalt-60 sterilization plants which have been designed to provide a complete range of capacities for radiosterilization of medical products. The smallest plant has a capacity of up to 50 000 cubic feet of medical products a year, the intermediate size plant has a capacity of up to 500 000 cubic feet a year, and the largest plant has a capacity in excess of 1000 000 cubic feet a year. The relations between capital costs, rate of production, efficiency and unit processing costs for each type of plant are discussed. The method of selecting the best type of plant for a particular need will also be outlined. (author)

  9. Ecological Patterns and Processes in Sarracenia Carnivorous Pitcher Plant Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, Primrose

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom Fungi is taxonomically and ecologically diverse, containing an estimated 1.5 million species. Fungi include decomposers, pathogens, and plant and animal mutualists. Many fungi are microorganisms, and the processes shaping microbial diversity may be fundamentally different from those that shape plants and animals. However, ecologists do not yet fully understand how fungal species are distributed over space and time. Using fungi that inhabit the water of Sarracenia carnivorous pitch...

  10. Multilevel Flow Modelling of Process Plant for Diagnosis and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Morten

    1982-01-01

    The paper describes the multilevel flow modelling methodology which can be used to construct functional models of energy and material processing systems. The models describe mass and energy flow topology on different levels of abstraction and represent the hierarchical functional structure of complex systems. A model of a nuclear power plant (PWR) is presented in the paper for illustration. Due to the consistency of the method, multilevel flow models provide specifications of plant goals and ...

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of CO2 capture processes for power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Biyouki, Zeinab Amrollahi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work presents an evaluation of various processes for reducing CO2 emissions from natural-gas-fired combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. The scope of the thesis is to focus mainly on post-combustion chemical absorption for NGCC. For the post-combustion capture plant, an important interface is the steam extraction from the steam turbine in order to supply the heat for solvent regeneration. The steam extraction imposes a power production penalty. The thesis includes analysis and compa...

  12. Analysis of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant: Process integration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogeneration is defined as generation of two forms of energy viz. heat and work using single primary fuel. Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is important in improving energy efficiency of the overall plant and in reducing environmental pollution. A methodology, based on pinch analysis, is proposed in this paper to integrate gas turbine and regenerator with a process plant to minimize fuel consumption. Thermodynamic analysis of gas turbine integrated CHP plant is presented on gas turbine pressure ratio versus power to heat ratio diagram. On this novel diagram, limits of integration are identified and various regions of integration are represented. Additionally, contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios are represented on this diagram for optimal integration of gas turbine with a process plant. It is interesting to note that though the contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios differ significantly, loci of the maximal energy utilization factor and the maximal fuel energy saving ratio are identical. Optimum sizing of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant for grassroots design and retrofitting are performed based on these diagrams. - Highlights: • Methodology for direct integration of gas turbine, regenerator, and process plant. • Integrated system analysis plotted on turbine pressure ratio vs. power to heat ratio. • Regions of integration are identified on this new diagram. • Variations of energy utilization factor and fuel energy saving ratio are indicated. • Optimal sizing of integrated gas turbine for retrofitting and grassroots design

  13. A contractor's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. Ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant are described. Design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  14. A contractors's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. This paper describes ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant. The design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  15. Characterization of process air emissions in automotive production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, J B; Dasch, J M; Gundrum, A B; Rivera, J L; Johnson, J H; Carlson, D H; Sutherland, J W

    2016-01-01

    During manufacturing, particles produced from industrial processes become airborne. These airborne emissions represent a challenge from an industrial hygiene and environmental standpoint. A study was undertaken to characterize the particles associated with a variety of manufacturing processes found in the auto industry. Air particulates were collected in five automotive plants covering ten manufacturing processes in the areas of casting, machining, heat treatment and assembly. Collection procedures provided information on air concentration, size distribution, and chemical composition of the airborne particulate matter for each process and insight into the physical and chemical processes that created those particles. PMID:26273851

  16. Biocompatibility of epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solution casting method and then was epoxidized with peroxyformic acid generated in situ to yield the epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane (ESBS). The structure and properties of ESBS were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The performances of contact angle, water content, protein adsorption, and water vapor transmission rate on ESBS membrane were determined. After epoxidation, the hydrophilicity of the membrane increased. The water vapor transmission rate of ESBS membrane is similar to human skin. The biocompatibility of ESBS membrane was evaluated with the cell culture of fibroblasts on the membrane. It revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the various ESBS membranes and the population doubling time for fibroblast culture decreased.

  17. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  18. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1990-12-31

    Disclosed is a process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment which comprises the steps of: (1) Measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; (2) measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing said plant substance being passed through said environment with said counter; and (3) generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level. Also disclosed is the apparatus and system used to conduct the process.

  19. Optimisation of the steel plant dust recycling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Darius-Alexandru; Hepuť, Teodor; Puťan, Vasile

    2016-06-01

    The widespread use of oxygen in the EAF steel-making process led to the increase of furnace productivity and reduction of specific energy consumption. Following the increase of the metal bath temperature, the brown smoke exhaust process is intensified, which requires mandatory gas treatment. The steel plant dust resulting from the treatment of waste gases is a manufacturing waste which must be recycled in the steel plant. Due to the fineness of the waste, when conducting the researches we processed it through pelletization. The processing of this waste aims not only its granulometric composition, but also the chemical composition (mainly the zinc content). After processing the data, we choose the optimal waste recycling technology based on the resistance of pellets and final content of zinc.

  20. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  1. A Study of the Fluorescence Response of Tetraphenyl-butadiene

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry, R.; Winslow, L.(Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, U.S.A.); Bugel, L.; Conrad, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a widely used fluorescent wavelength-shifter. A common application is in liquid-argon-based particle detectors, where scintillation light is produced in the UV at 128 nm. In liquid argon experiments, TPB is often employed to shift the scintillation light to the visible range in order to allow detection via standard photomultiplier tubes. This paper presents studies on the stability of TPB with time under exposure to light. We also examine batch-to-batch variatio...

  2. Scintillation of thin tetraphenyl butadiene films under alpha particle excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Pollmann, Tina; Kuźniak, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The alpha induced scintillation of the wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) was studied to improve the understanding of possible surface alpha backgrounds in the DEAP dark matter search experiment. We found that vacuum deposited thin TPB films emit 882 +/-210 photons per MeV under alpha particle excitation. The scintillation pulse shape consists of a double exponential decay with lifetimes of 11 +/-5 ns and 275 +/-10ns.

  3. Combined Energy Supply System for Meat Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the development of technological schemes of energy production for this industry in terms of energy efficiency. Technical solution that can reduce cost of the final production of meat production plant has been presented. The main idea of the tehnical solution is the use of turboexpander, which must be installed on gas reduction station near meat processing plant in the packet with the „air-water” gas – driven heat pump, which gas cooler serves as gas heating unit for the first stage of turboexpander. The thermal exit of gas engine serves as gas heating unit for the second stage of turboexpander and as heat energy generator for the plant and source of the heat for one of the evaporators of heat pump, as well. The second evaporator of heat pump is connected with the cold consuming equipment of the plant. The electric energy, which is produced by gas engine is consumed by heat pump compressor and electric equipment of the plant. Electric energy, which is produced by turbo expander is transmitted to the electric grid. The proposed technical solution can be used to reduce natural gas consumption on meat processing plants and the cost of production of electricity, heat and cold.

  4. Ex Situ and Operando Studies on the Role of Copper in Cu-Promoted SiO2-MgO Catalysts for the Lebedev Ethanol-to-Butadiene Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, Carlo; Meirer, Florian; van der Eerden, Ad M. J.; Schaink, Herrick L.; Goryachev, Andrey; Hofmann, Jan P.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenation promoters greatly enhance the performance of SiO2-MgO catalysts in the Lebedev process. Here, the effect of preparation method and order of addition of Cu on the structure and performance of Cu-promoted SiO2-MgO materials is detailed. Addition of Cu to MgO via incipient wetness impre

  5. Study of CO2 capture processes in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post-combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture by methanol and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated using the process software Aspen PlusTM to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. With regard to post-combustion, an aqueous solution based on a mixture of amines (N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA)) was developed. Measurements of absorption were carried out between 298 and 333 K in a Lewis cell. CO2 partial pressure at equilibrium, characteristic of the CO2 solubility in the solvent, was determined up to 393 K. The solvent performances were compared with respect to more conventional solvents such as MDEA and monoethanolamine (MEA). For oxy-fuel combustion, a recovery process, based on a cryogenic separation of the components of the flue gas, was developed and applied to power plants. The study showed that O2 purity acts on the CO2 concentration in the flue gas and thus on the performances of the recovery process. The last option is natural gas reforming with CO2 pre-combustion capture. Several configurations were assessed: air reforming and oxygen reforming, reforming pressure and dilution of the synthesis gas. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents. (author)

  6. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  7. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.

  8. Investigations of biological processes in Austrian MBT plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, J; Smidt, E; Böhm, K; Binner, E

    2010-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by about 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment. PMID:20580543

  9. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant phaseout/deactivation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to cease all US Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels was made on April 28, 1992. This study provides insight into and a comparison of the management, technical, compliance, and safety strategies for deactivating the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this study is to ensure that lessons-learned and future plans are coordinated between the two facilities

  10. Advanced Purex process for the new French reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the main process innovations of the new Cogema reprocessing plants of La Hague (UP3 and UP2 800). Major improvements of process like the use of rotary dissolvers and annular columns, and also entirely new processes like solvent distillation and plutonium oxidizing dissolution, yield an advanced Purex process. The results of these innovations are significant improvements for throughput, end-products purification performances and waste minimization. They contribute also to limit personnel exposure. The main results of the first three years of operation are described. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  11. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  12. Optimal Plant Layout Design for Process-focused Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshnevisan, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Smarandache, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we have proposed a semi-heuristic optimization algorithm for designing optimal plant layouts in process-focused manufacturing/service facilities. Being a semi-heuristic search, our algorithm is likely to be more efficient in terms of computer CPU engagement time as it tends to converge on the global optimum faster than the traditional CRAFT algorithm - a pure heuristic.

  13. Numerical Modelling of Induction Heating Process for Testing Plant

    OpenAIRE

    HRENIUC Ruslan Ovidiu; TIURBE Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical modelling of electromagnetic and thermal fields in the induction heating of a 2 kW testing plant, made by the author. The purpose of this modelling is to analyze thedevelopment of heating process, to notice any changes required to increase its efficiency. Modelling is performed by means of FLUX software package.

  14. The new Uraphos process and the mobile pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is currently separated from phosphoric acid by solvent extraction processes. By far the most frequently used reagent is a synergetic mixture of TOPO and D2EHPA. Urangesellschaft mbH and Chemische Fabrik Budenheim have jointly developed a solvent extraction process, called the Uraphos process, to extract uranium from phosphoric acids of up to 40% P2O5 using a tertiary amine as extraction reagent. In 1982 Urangesellschaft mbH constructed a pilot plant to be continuously operated on 200 L/h of phosphoric acid to demonstrate the feasibility of the Uraphos process. This pilot plant is completely enclosed in standard 20 ft containers so that it could be easily transported to anywhere in the world either by car, train or ship. From June to December 1982 the Uraphos pilot plant was operated at the phosphoric acid plant of Chemie Linz AG, Austria. Despite the relatively low uranium content of 65 ppm U in the phosphoric acid produced there, the test campaign was a full success, e.g. an overall uranium recovery could be maintained at a level of over 90%. The final uranium product, a uranium-diuranate with approx. 82% U3O8, produced during the demonstration campaign in Linz immediately met the standards for uranium concentrates set forth by Allied Chemical. (author)

  15. ANALYSIS OF STEAM TRAPS A T PROCESS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedevi. KP

    2015-01-01

    In most of the process industries, high pressure steam is utilized for many applications . The steam is produced in the boilers and carried through steam pipe lines to the process plants. During their travel through these pipelines , loss may occur due to loss of pressure, pipe line insulation failures and loss of temperature. These are known as losses in steam network. This reduces steam efficiency , thus the quality of...

  16. Three essential management processes of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper takes the operation and management of Qinshan NPP Phase II as an example, focusing on the implementation of the essential process from the following three aspects the NPP production organization, training, examination and authorization for safety-related personnel, and financing budge management. A better understanding and implementation of the essential process will enable nuclear power plants to effectively control the nuclear safety from the most fundamental managerial level. (author)

  17. Large-plant sulfur recovery processes stress efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goar, B.G.; Nasato, E. (Goar, Allison Associates Inc., Tyler, TX (United States))

    1994-05-23

    Natural-gas processing in the future will encounter significantly more raw sour gas, i.e., gas containing 15--20 mol % H[sub 2]S or greater. Deciding whether to make the significant investment to build a sour-gas treating and sulfur-recovery plant involves many considerations. An operator selecting the optimum gas treating, sulfur recovery, and tail-gas cleanup processes must choose each carefully because each upstream step can affect design and operation of subsequent downstream steps. Reviewed here are current gas treating and sulfur-recovery processes in use today. For this purpose, plants that process sour gas and recover 50 long tons/day (ltd) or more of sulfur will be considered. Sample plants employing major technologies are listed in a table. Such other sulfur recovery, removal processes as Lo-Cat, SulFerox, Stretford, Iron Sponge, SulfaTreat, and Sulfa-Scrub are available to industry. But these processes are normally considered only when the total sulfur to be handled is 15--20 ltd or less. Additionally, many are troublesome to operate and have relatively high operating costs.

  18. Commercial demonstration plant for radiation processing of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Government of India has cleared radiation processing for preservation of 1) spices, 2) onions/potatoes and 3) frozen sea foods (exports only) in the year 1994. Process parameters for each of these categories being quite diverse, dedicated radiation processing facilities, based on 60Co, are planned by DAE to demonstrate the techno-economic viability of the radiation processing for the preservation of foods in the country. This paper describes the first such facility, being set up by BRIT for the radiation processing of spices to reduce their microbial contamination, which often is of the order of 108 CFU/g in common spices. The facility is ideally located near the wholesale spices market of Navi Mumbai. It is designed for a maximum of one million curies of 60Co and will process wide variety of spices with a throughput of ∼ 12,000 tons per annum, at an average dose of 10 kGy. Safety systems incorporated in the plant, having a wet type source storage, conform to national as well as international standards. Plant controls are built around a robust programmable logic controller with fault reporting system for safety interlocks as well as for plant operation. (author)

  19. Concept of a cognitive-numeric plant and process modelizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve automatic modeling of plant distrubances and failure limitation procedures, first the system's hardware and the present media (water, steam, coolant fluid) are formalized into fully computable matrices, called topographies. Secondly a microscopic cellular automation model, using lattice gases and state transition rules, is combined with a semi - microscopic cellular process model and with a macroscopic model, too. In doing this, at semi-microscopic level there are acting a cellular data compressor, a feature detection device and the Intelligent Physical Element's process dynamics. At macroscopic level the Walking Process Elements, a process evolving module, a test-and-manage device and abstracting process net are involved. Additionally, a diagnosis-coordinating and a counter measurements coordinating device are used. In order to automatically get process insights, object transformations, elementary process functions and associative methods are used. Developments of optoelectronic hardware language components are under consideration

  20. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level

  1. Combined Energy Supply System for Meat Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sit M.; Sit B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the development of technological schemes of energy production for this industry in terms of energy efficiency. Technical solution that can reduce cost of the final production of meat production plant has been presented. The main idea of the tehnical solution is the use of turboexpander, which must be installed on gas reduction station near meat processing plant in the packet with the „air-water” gas – driven heat pump, which gas cooler serves as gas heating unit f...

  2. Retrofitting of process control plants in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VDI-report 961 contains the papers presented on its conference in Wuerzburg on the 28th and 29th April 1992. The first part of the conference 'Concepts' looked at the various influence which need to be considered for successful retrofitting: integration of new systems, retrofitting strategies, meaningful utilisation of new functions. Part 2 was dedicated to experiences with the retrofitting of energy plants: power stations, thermal and hydro, supply grids (power, gas, water), waste water purification plant, refineries. The report is adressed to process engineers and control engineers attached to operators, licensing authorities, planning authorities, manufacturers and universites. (orig./GL)

  3. Process and apparatus for detecting presence of plant substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J.A.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes an apparatus and process for detecting the presence of plant substances in a particular environment. It comprises: measuring the background K40 gamma ray radiation level in a particular environment with a 1.46 MeV gamma ray counter system; measuring the amount of K40 gamma ray radiation emanating from a package containing a plant substance being passed through an environment with a counter; and generating an alarm signal when the total K40 gamma ray radiation reaches a predetermined level over and above the background level.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J.C.; Chandratilleke, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.

  5. Empirical evaluation of the Process Overview Measure for assessing situation awareness in process plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Nathan; Jamieson, Greg A; Skraaning, Gyrd

    2016-03-01

    The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure developed to assess operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants. A companion paper describes how the measure has been developed according to process plant properties and operator cognitive work. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability in two full-scope simulator experiments investigating dramatically different operational concepts. Practicality was assessed based on qualitative feedback of participants and researchers. The Process Overview Measure demonstrated sensitivity and validity by revealing significant effects of experimental manipulations that corroborated with other empirical results. The measure also demonstrated adequate inter-rater reliability and practicality for measuring SA in full-scope simulator settings based on data collected on process experts. Thus, full-scope simulator studies can employ the Process Overview Measure to reveal the impact of new control room technology and operational concepts on monitoring process plants. Practitioner Summary: The Process Overview Measure is a query-based measure that demonstrated practicality, sensitivity, validity and reliability for assessing operator situation awareness (SA) from monitoring process plants in representative settings. PMID:26398584

  6. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  7. Turbidimetric behavior of Butadiene Rubber (BR) solutions in toluene and dichloromethane after heating at open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the turbidimetric behavior of Butadiene Rubber BR solutions, a synthetic rubber, in two solvents (toluene and dichloromethane), after heating at open air till 180 Deg Celsius for optimal polymer cracking conditions. Concentration, solvent and temperature effects have been studied using methanol as precipitant. Butadiene rubber exhibits a high sensitivity to autoxidation with high tendency to reticulation.

  8. The pilot plant for electron beam food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT. The pilot plant has been constructed inside an old fort what decreases significantly the cost of the investment. The pilot plants is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. Job training planning and design for process plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented by which process plant operators for nuclear power plants are trained in Sweden. It works by a top-down method of systems analysis which can be integrated into the analysis, specification, and design of the process automation system. The training methods can also be adapted to existing automation systems and operating schedules. The author's method is based on the principle that training programs should be based on job requirements, e.g. operator tasks in common, less frequent, and rare operating conditions. Procedures have been tested for the following steps: Job analysis, analysis of knowledge and experience required, analysis of operator training requirements, set-up and organisation of the training programme, achievement control, evaluation of the training programme. (orig./HP)

  10. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resurgence of the nuclear power industry at a time when the nuclear plant I and C workforce is diminishing due to aging and retirements has been the motivation for writing this book. This book compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. It focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time. In spite of great advances in electronics, computers, and measurement technologies, important process parameters such as temperature and pressure are still measured with conventional sensing techniques found in RTDs, thermocouples, and conventional pressure and differential pressure sensors. Furthermore, no improved technology providing comparable performance is currently on the horizon. Therefore, it is important to understand how these sensors function and the testing techniques for verifying their performance. This book is intended to help provide this understanding. (orig.)

  11. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, at the Hanford Site has been done at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and in recycle of PuO2-bearing fuels through Hanford reprocessing plants. Plutonium oxide is notoriously refractory and difficult to dissolve. As such, losses of PuO2 residues from the PFP or from Hanford reprocessing plants can report to Hanford Site underground tank waste storage. Those stored wastes are destined to become feed to the Waste Treatment Plant, WTP. Information on the processing of non-PFP plutonium oxide in Hanford plants is provided in this brief report. To help gain perspective, information on PFP processing and plutonium additions to the tank farm system from other Hanford processing is also presented. Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400 C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP's Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ∼0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3·9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4. The PuO2 dissolution was not perfect, however, and

  12. Integration of drinking water treatment plant process models and emulated process automation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to limit the risks of fully automated operation of drinking water treatment plants and to improve their operation by using an integrated system of process models and emulated process automation software. This thesis contains the design of such an integrated system.

  13. Plutonium processing at the Siemens Hanau fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast amount of experience accumulated to date in the fabrication of plutonium fuel assemblies and the course taken by the protracted licensing procedure is outlined. A description of the processes applied and the plant equipment at the existing fabrication facility is provided. The two new production lines, including ancillary systems with a planned annual capacity of 120 tons of mixed oxide, are also described. The current status of implementation with all licenses granted is also presented

  14. Erection and commissioning of technical plants - process phases, risks, losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focal point of the risks involved in the supply and erection of industrial plants changes between the initial setting up of the site and final handing over. That is the subject of this contribution. Various process phases and typical causes of damage are described on the basis of examples. The author elucidates different supply contractual agreements and terms, such as testing period. The effects in the event of loss or damage occuring are demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. Conceptual Design of a Thermal Process Plant Weblab

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Túlio Corrêa de Siqueira; Marcio Luiz Debner dos Santos; Luciano Antonio Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Weblabs, or remote experimentation laboratories, make possible carrying out real-time experiments through the internet by using integrated laboratorial systems, software, hardware and multimedia resources, having important applications in engineering education and research teams cooperation. This paper presents the conceptual design of a Weblab for a thermal process plant, based on the systematic model for planning and development of Weblabs. Its approach comprises three layers (physical syst...

  16. Safety implications of computerized process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern nuclear power plants are making increasing use of computerized process control because of the number of potential benefits that accrue. This practice not only applies to new plants but also to those in operation. Here, the replacement of both conventional process control systems and outdated computerized systems is seen to be of benefit. Whilst this contribution is obviously of great importance to the viability of nuclear electricity generation, it must be recognized that there are major safety concerns in taking this route. However, there is the potential for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants if the full power of microcomputers and the associated electronics is applied correctly through well designed, engineered, installed and maintained systems. It is essential that areas where safety can be improved be identified and that the pitfalls are clearly marked so that they can be avoided. The deliberations of this Technical Committee Meeting are a step on the road to this goal of improved safety through computerized process control. This report also contains the papers presented at the technical committee meeting by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 15 presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Characteristics of biological aerosols in dairy processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y J; Frank, J F

    1990-03-01

    The viable aerosol in dairy processing plant environments was characterized by using an Andersen six-stage sieve sampler and a Reuter centrifugal sampler. Artificially introduced Serratia marcescens were detected in the air during drain flooding and after rinsing the floor with a pressured water hose, thus illustrating the ability of a specific microorganism to be disseminated from drains and wet surfaces via physical disruption activities often observed in food plants. Once a high concentration of wet viable aerosol was generated, it took 40 or more min to return to the background level in the absence of forced ventilation or other activity. The greatest reduction in viable particles occurred during the first 10 min. Estimated mean aerosol particle sizes were decreased from approximately 4.6 to 3.2 mu with time lapse. The estimated mean aerosol particle sizes from actual dairy processing plant environments ranged from approximately 4.3 to 5.3 mu. In addition, a more heavily contaminated dairy processing environment contained larger aerosol particles. These results indicate that the RCS sampler will often overestimate the true aerosol concentration in highly contaminated air, because mean particle sizes are over 4 mu in diameter. PMID:2187913

  18. Increasing operational efficiency in a radioactive waste processing plant - 16100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solid waste plant at Harwell in Oxfordshire, contains a purpose built facility to input, assay, visually inspect and sort remote handled intermediate level radioactive waste (RHILW). The facility includes a suite of remote handling cells, known as the head-end cells (HEC), which waste must pass through in order to be repackaged. Some newly created waste from decommissioning works on site passes through the cells, but the vast majority of waste for processing is historical waste, stored in below ground tube stores. Existing containers are not suitable for long term storage, many are already badly corroded, so the waste must be efficiently processed and repackaged in order to achieve passive safety. The Harwell site is currently being decommissioned and the land is being restored. The site is being progressively de-licensed, and redeveloped as a business park, which can only be completed when all the nuclear liabilities have been removed. The recovery and processing of old waste in the solid waste plant is a key project linked to de-licensing of a section of the site. Increasing the operational efficiency of the waste processing plant could shorten the time needed to clear the site and has the potential to save money for the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The waste processing facility was constructed in the mid 1990's, and commissioned in 1999. Since operations began, the yearly throughput of the cells has increased significantly every year. To achieve targets set out in the lifetime plan (LTP) for the site, throughput must continue to increase. The operations department has measured the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) of the process for the last few years, and has used continuous improvement techniques to decrease the average cycle time. Philosophies from operational management practices such as 'lean' and 'kaizen' have been employed successfully to drive out losses and increase plant efficiency. This paper will describe how the solid waste plant

  19. The influence of carbon black on curing kinetics and thermal aging of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers based on a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (NBR have excellent oil resistance but are very sensitive for degradation at very high temperatures. The aim of this applicative contribution was to determine the effect of high abrasion furnace carbon black with primary particle size 46 nm on aging properties of elastomeric materials based on NBR as network precursor. The curing kinetics was determined using the rheometer with an oscillating disk, in which the network formation process is registered by the torque variation during time. The vulcanizates were obtained in a hydraulic press at 150 °C. The mechanical properties of elastomeric composites were determined before and after thermal aging in an air circulating oven. The reinforcing effect of the filler particles was assessed according to mechanical properties before and after aging.

  20. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanotubes produced from pyrolysis/combustion of styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joner O.; Zhuo, Chuanwei; Levendis, Yannis A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Engineering. Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tenorio, Jorge A.S. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Polytechnic School. Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination for wastes produced from SBR. Pellets of this rubber were controlled burned at temperature of 1000 deg C, and a catalyst system was used to synthesize the nanomaterials. CNTs are materials with a wide range of potential applications due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Produced materials were characterized by SEM and TEM, and the hydrocarbons emissions were measured using GC. Results showed that materials with diameters of 30-100 nm and lengths of about 30 {mu}m were formed. That materials presented similar structures of multi-walled CNTs. Therefore, the use of SBR to produce carbon nanotubes showed quite satisfactory and an interesting field for future investments. (author)

  1. Correlation of mass fractal dimension and cluster size of silica in styrene butadiene rubber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gerald Johannes; Vollnhals, V; Brandt, K; Roth, S V; Göritz, D

    2010-09-01

    The morphology of the precipitated silica VN3 filled in styrene butadiene rubber was studied as a function of the volume fraction Φ by means of small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The wide q-range of 0.008 nm(-1)silica. The diameter of the primary particles and their surface roughness are independent from the silica concentration. The size of the clusters and the corresponding aggregation number depend on Φ. This observation could be ascribed to external mechanical forces because of the mixing process and to growing cluster-cluster interactions with increasing filler fraction. In contrast the mass fractal dimension does not depend on Φ, and by that means experimentally proving that there is not necessarily a correlation between the mass fractal dimension and the cluster size. PMID:20831333

  2. Digital Processing of Light Microscopy Images in Plant Pathogen Diagnostics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlář, Jiří; Sedlářová, M.; Flusser, Jan

    Santa Barbara : Center for Bio-Image Informatics, 2008, s. 1-2. [Workshop on Bio-Image Informatics: Biological Imaging, Computer Vision and Data Mining, 2008. Santa Barbara, CA (US), 17.01.2008-18.01.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 148207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image processing * pattern recognition * downy mildews * light microscopy * pathogen determination Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZOI/sedlar-digital processing of light microscopy images in plant pathogen diagnostics.pdf

  3. Design build process flow visualization model plant PLTN PWR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-down version of nuclear power plant type PWR model and process flow visualization has been design and constructed. This scale-down model includes primary and secondary cooling systems, and transmission line in three dimensional layout with a 1: 33,33 scale. The construction of scale model has been done in five steps that are study literature, field survey, drawing scale design, construction, and test. The results is scale-down model integrated with monitoring system using lab view and interlock system using PLC. The test result shows that process flow has operated as required in design specification. (author)

  4. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis. PMID:3680447

  5. Pressure dependence of the Boson peak in poly(butadiene)

    CERN Document Server

    Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    Variation of pressure and temperature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments allows us to separate density and thermal energy contributions. We summarise briefly the influence of pressure and temperature on the dynamic scattering law of the polymer glass former poly(butadiene) far below the glass transition. We also show the advantage of using a liquid-niobium pressure cell in such studies. The effect of pressure on the boson peak is to shift the peak towards higher energies and to reduce the low-frequency modes more strongly below the boson-peak maximum than above. A decrease in the Debye-Waller factor with increasing pressure is observed. (orig.)

  6. Carbon nanotubes as reinforcement of styrene-butadiene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports an easy technique to produce cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites with a sulphur/accelerator system at 150 deg. C. Significant improvement in Young's modulus and tensile strength were achieved by incorporating 0.66 wt% of filler without sacrificing SBR elastomer high elongation at break. A comparison with carbon black filled SBR was also made. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate dispersion and fracture surfaces. Results indicated that the homogeneous dispersion of MWCNT throughout SBR matrix and strong interfacial adhesion between oxidized MWCNT and the matrix are responsible for the considerable enhancement of mechanical properties of the composite

  7. Pressure dependence of the Boson peak in poly(butadiene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of pressure and temperature in inelastic neutron scattering experiments allows us to separate density and thermal energy contributions. We summarise briefly the influence of pressure and temperature on the dynamic scattering law of the polymer glass former poly(butadiene) far below the glass transition. We also show the advantage of using a liquid-niobium pressure cell in such studies. The effect of pressure on the boson peak is to shift the peak towards higher energies and to reduce the low-frequency modes more strongly below the boson-peak maximum than above. A decrease in the Debye-Waller factor with increasing pressure is observed. (orig.)

  8. Prototype plant for nuclear process heat (PNP) - operation of the pilot plant for hydrogasification of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG developed the process of hydrogasification of coal in a fluidized bed for generation of SNG. On basis of test results obtained in a semi-technical pilot plant of a through-put of 250 kg/h dried coal a large pilot plant was erected processing 10 t/h dried brown coal. This plant was on stream for about 14700 h, of which about 7800 h were with gasifier operation; during this time about 38000 t of dried brown coal of the Rhenish district were processed containing 4 to 25% of ash. At pressures of 60 to 120 bar and temperatures of 800 to 9350C carbon conversion rates up to 81 percent and methane amounts of 5000 m3 (STP)/h were reached. The decisive parameter for methane generation was the hydrogen/coal-ratio. Even at high moisture contents, usually diminishing the methane yield from the coal essentially, by high hydrogen/coal-ratios high methane yields could be obtained. The gasifier itself caused no troubles during the total time operation. Difficulties with the original design of the residual char cooler could be overcome by change-over from water injection to liquid carbon dioxide. The design of the heat recovery system proved well. Alltogether so the size increasement of the gasifier from the semi-technical to the large pilot plant as well as the harmonization of gas generation and gas refining was proved. (orig.) With 20 refs., 20 tabs., 81 figs

  9. Processing of Various Plants using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide : Optimization and Modeling of Extraction Process

    OpenAIRE

    Machmudah, Siti; マームダー, シティ

    2008-01-01

    In this work, scC02 extraction of valuable compounds from various naturalproducts of plants has been done. Extractions were carried out using a semicontinuous flow extractor with and/or without cosolvent/entrainer. The effect of extraction conditions on the recovery of extracted valuable compounds was studied. Optimizations of the extraction process were also conducted to determine optimal condition of the process. Furthermore, mathematical model of the extraction process was developed in ord...

  10. Characteristics of Effluents from a Meat Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Pandey

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characteristics of effluents from a meat processing plant has been made at three stages: (a the slaughter of animals (sheep and goat ranged from 340+-10 per day and the treatment of effluents was through oxidation ponds, (b the slaughter was 400 animals per day and the treatment plant (anacrobic digestion had been commissioned, and (c the slaughter was of the order of 700 animals per day. The treatment plant had been at work. In the first stage, the effluents were being routed to oxidation pounds I and II one after the other with the total detention period of 19 days. The BOD by these lagoons had gone down by 50 per cent and the percentage total solids by 46 per cent. In the second stage, the efficiency of the treatment plant was worked out to be 85 per cent. The solid content fall was only 37 per cent. In the third stage, the Permanganate Value (PV, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD had reduced by 82 per cent respectively. The decrease in coliform counts was about 80 per cent. The BOD contribution has been worked out to be 555 gm/animal at the influent stage and 106 gm/animal at the effluent discharge stage.

  11. Improvement on process instrumentation technology for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For process instrumentation, instruments applying new detecting principles have recently been developed and put to practical use. Since performance of these detectors has been advanced and their long-term stability is excellent, their working experiences have increased in the general industrial world. Meanwhile, in the nuclear power world, they should satisfy the environment resistance abilities peculiar to the nuclear power plants. Therefore, when, a new instrument is to be applied to the nuclear power plant, it should be confirmed if the instrument can endure environments of the nuclear power plant, especially earthquakes and radiation. For some instruments it should be confirmed in addition if they can endure the atmosphere during accident (temperature, pressure, radiation, etc.). This paper describes the outline of the performance confirmation tests of new detectors carried out for the purpose of applying them to nuclear power plants from the viewpoint of coping with future long-cycle operations, improving reliability, rationalizing maintenance operations, etc. In addition, this paper also introduce the outline of the detectors under development at present. (author)

  12. Model-based reasoning and the control of process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to feedback control, safe and economic operation of industrial process plants requires discrete-event type logic control like for example automatic control sequences, interlocks, etc. A lot of complex routine reasoning is involved in the design and verification and validation (VandV) of such automatics. Similar reasoning tasks are encountered during plant operation in action planning and fault diagnosis. The low-level part of the required problem solving is so straightforward that it could be accomplished by a computer if only there were plant models which allow versatile mechanised reasoning. Such plant models and corresponding inference algorithms are the main subject of this report. Deep knowledge and qualitative modelling play an essential role in this work. Deep knowledge refers to mechanised reasoning based on the first principles of the phenomena in the problem domain. Qualitative modelling refers to knowledge representation formalism and related reasoning methods which allow solving problems on an abstraction level higher than for example traditional simulation and optimisation. Prolog is a commonly used platform for artificial intelligence (Al) applications. Constraint logic languages like CLP(R) and Prolog-III extend the scope of logic programming to numeric problem solving. In addition they allow a programming style which often reduces the computational complexity significantly. An approach to model-based reasoning implemented in constraint logic programming language CLP(R) is presented. The approach is based on some of the principles of QSIM, an algorithm for qualitative simulation. It is discussed how model-based reasoning can be applied in the design and VandV of plant automatics and in action planning during plant operation. A prototype tool called ISIR is discussed and some initial results obtained during the development of the tool are presented. The results presented originate from preliminary test results of the prototype obtained

  13. Plant life management processes and practices for heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    responsibility for achievement of specific SSC lifetime. This paper discusses an overview of PLiM programs and considerations. This includes key objectives of such programs, regulatory considerations, asset management perspectives, integration of methodologies into current programs, organizational and technology infrastructure considerations, importance of effective plant data management and finally, benefits and costs. This paper is summary of the IAEA technical documents on 'Guidelines on Plant Life Management Processes and Practices for Heavy Water Reactors'. (author)

  14. Concept of a HTR modular plant for generation of process heat in a chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report summarizes the results of a preliminary study on behalf of Buna AG and Leunawerke AG. With regard to the individual situations the study investigated the conditions for modular HTR-2 reactors to cover on-site process heat and electric power demands. HTR-2 reactor erection and operation were analyzed for their economic efficiency compared with fossil-fuel power plants. Considering the prospective product lines, the technical and economic conditions were developed in close cooperation with Buna AG and Leunawerke AG. The study focused on the technical integration of modular HTR reactors into plants with regard to safety concepts, on planning, acceptance and erection concepts which largely exclude uncalculable scheduling and financial risks, and on comparative economic analyses with regard to fossil-fuel power plants. (orig.)

  15. Sustained qualification process for full scope nuclear power plant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade, simulator training for all nuclear power plant operators has evolved into a vital requirement. To assure a correct training, the simulator qualification process is an important issue not only for the initial validation but also following major simulator updates, which are necessary during the lifetime of the simulator. In order to avoid degradation of the simulator validated software, the modifications have to be introduced according to a rigorous methodology and a practical requalification process has to be applied. Such methodology has to be enforced at every phase of the simulator construction or updating process from plant data package constitution, over simulator software development to simulator response qualification. The initial qualification and requalification process is based on the 3 levels identified by the ANSI/ANS 3-5 standard for steady-state, operational transients and accident conditions. For the initial certification of the full scope simulators in Belgium, a practical qualification methodology has been applied, which has been adapted into a set of non regression tests for the requalification after major simulator updates. (orig.) (4 refs., 3 figs.)

  16. NEURO-FUZZY MODELLING OF BLENDING PROCESS IN CEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Olarotimi Araromi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of a cement plant depends largely on the efficient operation of the blending stage, therefore, there is a need to control the process at the blending stage in order to maintain the chemical composition of the raw mix near or at the desired value with minimum variance despite variation in the raw material composition. In this work, neuro-fuzzy model is developed for a dynamic behaviour of the system to predict the total carbonate content in the raw mix at different clay feed rates. The data used for parameter estimation and model validation was obtained from one of the cement plants in Nigeria. The data was pre-processed to remove outliers and filtered using smoothening technique in order to reveal its dynamic nature. Autoregressive exogenous (ARX model was developed for comparison purpose. ARX model gave high root mean square error (RMSE of 5.408 and 4.0199 for training and validation respectively. Poor fit resulting from ARX model is an indication of nonlinear nature of the process. However, both visual and statistical analyses on neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS model gave a far better result. RMSE of training and validation are 0.28167 and 0.7436 respectively, and the sum of square error (SSE and R-square are 39.6692 and 0.9969 respectively. All these are an indication of good performance of ANFIS model. This model can be used for control design of the process.

  17. Ethanol-to-Butadiene Conversion over SiO2-MgO Catalysts: Synthesis-Structure-Performance Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Angelici, C.

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this PhD Thesis provides new insights into the underlying reasons that make SiO2-MgO materials excellent catalysts for the ethanol-to-butadiene Lebedev process. In particular, the preparation technique of choice affects the structural properties of the resulting SiO2-MgO materials considerably and therefore the distribution, i.e. nature and amount, of acidic-basic sites. Given the complex cascade of elementary steps required, striking a precise balance in the latter is k...

  18. Prototype development of filter monitor for 131I processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 (131I) is used extensively in nuclear medicine because of its short half-life and useful beta emission. Isotope Production and Applications Division (IP and AD) of BARC produces 131I in its processing plant. The charcoal filters that are capable of extracting high levels of radioactive iodine and particulates in the suction flow are installed in the plant. The radioactive iodine is fully removed and deposited onto activated charcoal impregnated with potassium iodide. These charcoal filters get saturated over a period of use and need to be replaced with fresh ones. A 5-channel Filter monitor for online measurement of radiation level of trapped 131I on the charcoal filter is being developed by IP and AD, BARC. The unavailability of this type of instrument motivated to undertake this development. Current paper deals with a prototype filter monitor developed with single detector. Some results prove the functionality of the system. (author)

  19. Ionizing radiation effect study by electron beam on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene - ABS terpolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great advantage in the researches involving development has as objective to increase significantly the quality of the products. The ABS (acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene) resins are terpolymers formed by an elastomer and two thermoplastics amorphous components. The three different monomeric units from the terpolymer ABS contribute separately to the material characteristics exhibited. The molecular stiffness originating from polystyrene and the benzene ring hanging on the chain is responsible for the flexion module ABS. The acrylonitrile and the styrene incorporated butadiene exercises strong influence in the resistance to the impact because it reduces the bonding among them. The engineering use of this terpolymer became important due their mechanical properties and mainly, for the responses of this to tensions or deformations applied. The polymeric materials, when submitted to the ionizing radiation are modified by the transference of energy to these materials, introducing excitation and ionization of the molecules, generating chemical reactions that can produce permanent modifications in the polymeric physicochemical structure. The induced modifications can result in the polymeric material degradation or crosslinking, which can result in the improvement of some properties. This work has, as objective, to study the electron beam ionizing radiation effect, at different doses, in the properties of the polymer ABS. The studied properties were: tensile strength at break, elongation at break, Izod impact strength, flexural strength, melt flow index, Vicat softening temperature and the thermic distortion temperature. Also researches on Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA) were accomplished. From the experimental results, it was showed that for doses until 500 kGy, at 22.6 kGy/s dose rate, in the presence of air, the crosslinking process of ABS prevails. (author)

  20. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO

  1. Accident Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Polycube Stabilization Project involves low temperature oxidation, without combustion, of polystyrene cubes using the production muffle furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C located in the Remote Mechanical ''C'' (RMC) Line in Room 230A in the 234-52 Facility. Polycubes are polystyrene cubes containing various concentrations of plutonium and uranium oxides. Hundreds of these cubes were manufactured for criticality experiments, and currently exist as unstabilized storage forms at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). This project is designed to stabilize and prepare the polycube material for stable storage using a process very similar to the earlier processing of sludges in these furnaces. The significant difference is the quantity of hydrogenous material present, and the need to place additional controls on the heating rate of the material. This calculation note documents the analyses of the Representative Accidents identified in Section 2.4.4 of Hazards Analysis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Polycube Stabilization Process, HNF-7278 (HNF 2000). These two accidents, ''Deflagration in Glovebox HC-21C due to Loss of Power'' and ''Seismic Failure of Glovebox HC-21C'', will be further assessed in this accident analysis

  2. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  3. SignalPlant: an open signal processing software platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesinger, F; Jurco, J; Halamek, J; Jurak, P

    2016-07-01

    The growing technical standard of acquisition systems allows the acquisition of large records, often reaching gigabytes or more in size as is the case with whole-day electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings, for example. Although current 64-bit software for signal processing is able to process (e.g. filter, analyze, etc) such data, visual inspection and labeling will probably suffer from rather long latency during the rendering of large portions of recorded signals. For this reason, we have developed SignalPlant-a stand-alone application for signal inspection, labeling and processing. The main motivation was to supply investigators with a tool allowing fast and interactive work with large multichannel records produced by EEG, electrocardiograph and similar devices. The rendering latency was compared with EEGLAB and proves significantly faster when displaying an image from a large number of samples (e.g. 163-times faster for 75  ×  10(6) samples). The presented SignalPlant software is available free and does not depend on any other computation software. Furthermore, it can be extended with plugins by third parties ensuring its adaptability to future research tasks and new data formats. PMID:27243208

  4. "Environmental Diagnosis of Process Plants by Life Cycle Techniques"

    OpenAIRE

    Yrigoyen González, Haydée Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Environmental Diagnosis of Process Plants by Life Cycle TechniquesHaydée A. Yrigoyen GonzálezEl objetivo de la investigación es desarrollar una herramienta que relacione aspectos desimulación, evaluación ambiental y análisis de sensibilidad. Para lo cual se estableció unametodología que consta de cinco niveles: Simulación de proceso, Inventario, evaluación deimpactos ambientales, análisis económico y análisis de sensibilidad.La metodología describe las variables relacionadas con el proceso, a...

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  6. Digital image processing for radiography in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the help of digital processing of radiographic images from reactor-components it is possible to increase the security and objectiveness of the evaluation. Several examples of image processing procedures (contrast enhancement, density profiles, shading correction, digital filtering, superposition of images etc.) show the advantages for the visualization and evaluation of radiographs. Digital image processing can reduce some of the restrictions of radiography in nuclear power plants. In addition a higher degree of automation can be cost-saving and increase the quality of radiographic evaluation. The aim of the work performed was to to improve the readability of radiographs for the human observer. The main problem is lack of contrast and the presence of disturbing structures like weld seams. Digital image processing of film radiographs starts with the digitization of the image. Conventional systems use TV-cameras or scanners and provide a dynamic range of 1.5. to 3 density units, which are digitized to 256 grey levels. For the enhancement process it is necessary that the grey level range covers the density range of the important regions of the presented film. On the other hand the grey level coverage should not be wider than necessary to minimize the width of digitization steps. Poor digitization makes flaws and cracks invisible and spoils all further image processing

  7. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  8. Intensifying drying process with creation of functional plant compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Petrova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The process of drying agricultural raw products is associated with loss of bioactive substances by the products exposed to heat, light, oxygen, or рН medium. It is reasonable to enhance the table beet processing technology in order to achieve maximum betanin conservation at lower energy consumption. Materials and methods. Table beets, rhubarbs, lemons, and tomatoes were dried at temperature of 50 to 100 ºС, air speed of 1.5 to 3.5 m/s, heat carrier water content of 7 to 15 g/kg, and layer thickness of 2 to 20 mm. The betanіn content was determined via absorption spectra, using the optical density value at 540 nm wavelength. A differential microcalorimeter was used for measuring evaporation heat consumption. Results and discussion.The effect of raw product pre-drying preparation was studied. With no preliminary preparation, the loss of betanin after drying reaches 66 %. The preliminary preparation technology we have developed includes boiling whole root crops with optimal selection of acid medium and allows us to reduce the betanin loss down to 6 %. Regretfully, the process requires large energy consumption. Low energy consumption pre-drying preparation method was developed for antioxidant raw products with thermal processing replaced by blending. The betanin loss, in this case, does not exceed 5 %. Optimal drying temperature of betanin-containing raw stock, after its preliminary processing, is 60 °С. It allows to keep up to 95 % of betanіn. Specific heat consumption for water evaporation out of the developed table beet based antioxidant plant compositions, with addition of rhubarb and lemon, is less by 4 to 5 % as compared to the initial components. Conclusions. Dependence of betanin loss in plant raw stock on the material temperature and composition components, in the course of their pre-drying preparation, was found. It was also found that water evaporation heat, for some antioxidant plant compositions developed, is less

  9. Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, N A

    1990-02-01

    This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Mechanical property modification and morphology of poly(styrene-b-hydrogenated butadiene-b-styrene)/poly(hydrogenated butadiene) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetzold, J.P.; Gancarz, I.; Quan, X.; Koberstein, J.T. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))

    1994-09-12

    The mechanical properties and morphology of a series of triblock copolymer blends with midblock associating homopolymers of varying molecular weight (Mw) have been characterized. The symmetric triblock copolymer studied contains polystyrene endblocks and midblocks of hydrogenated poly(1,2-butadiene) and is mixed with hydrogenated poly (1,2-butadiene) homopolymers of Mw both below and above that of the copolymer midblock. The rubbery plateau modulus determined by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy increases with increasing Mw of the homopolymer at fixed overall homopolymer content. At fixed Mw, the composition dependence of the plateau modulus is complex and shows unusually synergistic behavior. For high Mw homopolymers the plateau modulus increases initially upon homopolymer addition. Small angle neutron scattering and TEM are employed to determine the morphological changes. In all cases, the blends exhibit a lamellar microphase structure, with homopolymer macrophases apparent at high homopolymer contents. The apparent homopolymer solubility limits are found to be inversely related to the homopolymer Mw. The results indicate that the lamellar repeat distance decreases upon addition of the lowest Mw homopolymer and that the microdomains swell in blends containing homopolymers with Mw similar to that of the midblock sequence and are unchanged for high Mw homopolymers with negligible solubility. The results suggest that the interesting mechanical response of the blends can be explained by consideration of the changes in their entanglement structure resulting from confinement of the homopolymer chains within the highly constrained environment of the midblock lamellae.

  12. Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, P E; Glaister, J R

    1990-01-01

    A 2-year inhalation study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats with 1,3-butadiene. Groups of 110 male and 110 female rats inhaled 1,3-butadiene at 0, 1000, or 8000 ppm for 6hr/day, 5 days/week. Interim clinical pathology, neuromuscular, and histopathology investigations were carried out. The study terminated at 20 to 25% survival (105 weeks for females, 111 weeks for males). Following exposure to 1,3-butadiene there were no effects on hematology, blood chemistry, urine analysis, and neuromusc...

  13. Public hearing process for nuclear power plants. Seminar report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 26 and 27, 1978, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted a seminar on the public hearing process for nuclear power plants. The seminar was intended to examine current practices regarding the conduct of public hearings and how these practices related to the statutory intent, to assess whether existing procedures are being followed, and to explore whether administrative or legal changes are warranted. The seminar format allowed exchanges of views among participants in the hearing process and was attended by members of the public, the General Accounting Office, Congressional staffs, NRC, and the nuclear industry. The report contains panel reports on scheduling of public hearings, procedures for Board notification, selection and training of panel members, hearing procedures, and Board functions

  14. Waste heat exploitation in processing plants using existing power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews a new procedure patent for the exploitation of low-temperature waste heat in processing plants that consist of steam power installations for the generation of electric energy. The procedure is based on the energy exchange among different processing units, divided into processing stages, so that the input of waste heat at one point substitutes for the consumption of the primary energy medium steam at another point. This enables the utilisation of higher parameter energy accumulated from the, still operationally capable, steam, for the additional expansion on the existing steam turbine within a steam installation. Should this procedure secure a larger quantity of usable steam compared to the quantities processed by the existing steam turbine, then it could be utilised on a new, smaller turbine, which would be built into the other side of the generator, so that it made a unique operational group with the existing one. This would enable the generation of additional electric energy by means of utilising waste heat. Both above mentioned variants can be seen on the process diagram, Figure 1, which is an essential part of this report, while only the first one will be presented in detail for a particular location with a potential energy rationalisation expressed through heat power of around 11 MWt. The main characteristic of this innovation is that its implementation involves minimum investments, as little new equipment would be used with the existing power installations. (author)

  15. Evaluation of 1,3-butadiene dimerization and secondary reactions in the presence and absence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeeb, A A; Rogers, W J; Mannan, M S

    2004-11-11

    Thermal stability evaluation of exothermic chemical reactions is of great importance to the safer design and operation of chemical processes. Dominant reaction stoichiometries and their thermochemistry parameters are key elements in the evaluation process. Identification of significant reaction pathways under possible process conditions will lead to an understanding of the overall thermodynamic and kinetic behavior. The kinetics of 1,3-butadiene (BD) is an excellent example of conjugated dienes that undergo addition reactions. At elevated temperatures, 1,3-butadiene monomers can dimerize exothermally, and as temperature increases, secondary exothermic reactions will take place. The very high temperature and pressure rates that these reactions can attain may lead to a reaction runaway or even a thermal explosion. BD is a vapor at ambient conditions, usually stored as a pressurized liquid, and is a carcinogen, so the experimental evaluation is potentially difficult and hazardous. In this paper, the thermal stability of BD is evaluated. Dimerization and other secondary reactions are investigated by experimental thermal analysis using an automatic pressure adiabatic calorimeter (APTAC), by theoretical computational quantum chemistry methods, and empirical thermodynamic-energy correlations. A theoretical approach is conducted to predict some of the BD reaction behavior. Results are compared to other literature data obtained using different experimental methods. PMID:15518964

  16. Conceptual Design of a Thermal Process Plant Weblab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Corrêa de Siqueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Weblabs, or remote experimentation laboratories, make possible carrying out real-time experiments through the internet by using integrated laboratorial systems, software, hardware and multimedia resources, having important applications in engineering education and research teams cooperation. This paper presents the conceptual design of a Weblab for a thermal process plant, based on the systematic model for planning and development of Weblabs. Its approach comprises three layers (physical system, hardware and software, being prescribed the following steps: definition of requirements; system technical specification; conceptual synthesis; analysis, simulation and dimensioning; detailing and documentation; integration and start up test. The users (qualitative and project (technical, quantitative requirements have been compiled in a previous work through the application of the House of Quality matrix from the QFD method. The functional structure, the morphological chart and the use of Pugh's method to select the best design solution, as well as a description of the developed conceptual solution, are presented. The conceptual solution includes the thermal process plant remote configuration to allow the variation of the experimental setup parameters, offering three variants of control engineering exercises. The presented results provide the basis for the next stage of the Weblab development.

  17. AIR POLLUTANTS IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akbarkhanzadeh

    1979-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have been carried out on the indoor air pollution in .different workshops of food processing plants in Iran. In order to evaluate the exposure of workers to the three most commonly used indices of air pollution ten food processing plants representing ten groups of food industry with 2.816 workers were selected. Air borne contamination of different origins such cotton seed. Barley, wheat flour salt and different spices sugar an1 beans dust were measured in 237, work places. Here contamination was 8-9 times higher than the proposed T.L. V. for in.3rt dust in 12% of sampling sites Carbon monoxide, measured in 94 sampling site in 69 different work places, which was higher than 50 P .P.M1. in 13% of samples and sulfur-bearing air pollutants determined in 87 different workshop where 103 samples were collected showed the existence of oxides of' sulfur in 34 samples in six industries. The results are presented and the reasons of the existence of these air pollutants are discussed.

  18. Radiation processing technology for production of plant growth promoter from brown seaweed and plant protector from shrimp shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two products (in solution state) namely plant growth promoter from brown seaweed (alginate) and plant protector from shrimp shell (chitosan) have been produced by the application of radiation processing technology. By foliar spraying, the irradiated alginate impacts the remarkable increase of the productivity of plant such as carrot, cabbage, onion, and the irradiated chitosan exhibits not only protection effect with highly antifungal activity but also growth promotion effect for plants. (author)

  19. Development Process of Plant-specific Severe Accident Management Guidelines for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A severe accident, which occurred at the TMI in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986, is an accident that exceeds design basis accidents and leads to significant core damage. The severe accident is the low possibility of occurrence but the high severity. To mitigate the consequences of the severe accidents, Korean Nuclear Safety Committee declared the Severe Accident Policy in 2001, which requested the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) for operating plants. SAMG is a symptom-based guidance that takes a set of actions to alleviate the outcomes of severe accidents and to get into the safe stable plant condition. The purpose of this paper is to presents the strategic development process of the PHWR SAMG. The guidelines consist of 5 categories: an emergency guide for the main control room (MCR) operators, a strategy implementing guide for the technical support center (TSC), six mitigation guides, a monitoring guide, and a termination guide

  20. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  1. Photodegradation Mechanisms of Tetraphenyl Butadiene Coatings for Liquid Argon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B J P; Conrad, J M; Pla-Dalmau, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone (BP). We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  2. A Study of the Fluorescence Response of Tetraphenyl-butadiene

    CERN Document Server

    Jerry, R; Bugel, L; Conrad, J M

    2010-01-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a widely used fluorescent wavelength-shifter. A common application is in liquid-argon-based particle detectors, where scintillation light is produced in the UV at 128 nm. In liquid argon experiments, TPB is often employed to shift the scintillation light to the visible range in order to allow detection via standard photomultiplier tubes. This paper presents studies on the stability of TPB with time under exposure to light. We also examine batch-to-batch variations. We compare scintillation-grade TPB to 99% pure TPB response. In the 99% pure samples, we report a yellowing effect, and full degradation of the TPB emission-peak, upon extended exposure to light.

  3. Aging studies on thin tetra-phenyl butadiene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, R.; Canci, N.; Cavanna, F.; Segreto, E.; Szelc, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    Tetra-Phenyl Butadiene (TPB) is the most commonly used compound to wave-shift the 128 nm scintillation light of liquid Argon down to the visible spectrum. We present a study on the loss of conversion efficiency of thin TPB films evaporated on reflective foils when exposed to light and atmosphere. The efficiency of the films is measured and monitored with a dedicated set-up that uses gaseous Argon excited by alpha particles to produce 128 nm photons and working at room temperature. In particular we performed a two years long exposure of the samples to lab diffuse light and atmosphere. We also performed more controlled aging tests to investigate the effect of storing samples in a inert atmosphere.

  4. Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. J. P.; VanGemert, J. K.; Conrad, J. M.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone. We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  5. γ irradiation of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crosslinking behavior of carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber latex (CSBRL) by using gamma radiation with 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (2-EHA) as crosslinking sensitizer has been studied in detail. In addition, the variation of the particle size and distribution of latex, chemical structure and thermal property of CSBRL with absorbed dose have been discussed. Also the radiation vulcanization mechanism of CSBRL has been suggested. The experiments showed that, the dose rate has small effect on the cross-link behavior of CSBRL, and the swelling ratio decreased rapidly with the increase of absorbed dose. Increasing the dose, the average molecular weight per crosslinked units (Mc) decreased and crosslinking density increased. When the dose is below 25 kGy, no significant changes in the particle size and distribution of latex were observed. The micro-FTIR analysis and DSC curves confirmed the existence of grafting reaction accompanying the crosslinking reaction during the gamma irradiation with 2-EHA as sensitizer

  6. Photodegradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene coatings for liquid argon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on studies of degradation mechanisms of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings of the type used in neutrino and dark matter liquid argon experiments. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry we have detected the ultraviolet-blocking impurity benzophenone. We monitored the drop in performance and increase of benzophenone concentration in TPB plates with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, and demonstrate the correlation between these two variables. Based on the presence and initially exponential increase in the concentration of benzophenone observed, we propose that TPB degradation is a free radical-mediated photooxidation reaction, which is subsequently confirmed by displaying delayed degradation using a free radical inhibitor. Finally we show that the performance of wavelength-shifting coatings of the type envisioned for the LBNE experiment can be improved by 10-20%, with significantly delayed UV degradation, by using a 20% admixture of 4-tert-Butylcatechol.

  7. Fabrication of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Nanostructures with Anodic Alumina Oxide Templates, Characterization and Biofilm Development Test for Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desrousseaux

    Full Text Available Medical devices can be contaminated by microbial biofilm which causes nosocomial infections. One of the strategies for the prevention of such microbial adhesion is to modify the biomaterials by creating micro or nanofeatures on their surface. This study aimed (1 to nanostructure acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS, a polymer composing connectors in perfusion devices, using Anodic Alumina Oxide templates, and to control the reproducibility of this process; (2 to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanostructured surfaces such as wettability using captive-bubble contact angle measurement technique; (3 to test the impact of nanostructures on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm development. Fabrication of Anodic Alumina Oxide molds was realized by double anodization in oxalic acid. This process was reproducible. The obtained molds present hexagonally arranged 50 nm diameter pores, with a 100 nm interpore distance and a length of 100 nm. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanostructures were successfully prepared using a polymer solution and two melt wetting methods. For all methods, the nanopicots were obtained but inside each sample their length was different. One method was selected essentially for industrial purposes and for better reproducibility results. The flat ABS surface presents a slightly hydrophilic character, which remains roughly unchanged after nanostructuration, the increasing apparent wettability observed in that case being explained by roughness effects. Also, the nanostructuration of the polymer surface does not induce any significant effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion.

  8. Sodium conversion experiments in the Inert Carrier Process demonstration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the sodium treatment studies reported here was to evaluate the use of the Inert Carrier Process (ICP) for converting sodium metal to a stable disposal form. The ICP demonstration plant consists of a closed loop of silicone oil that is circulated through a reservoir called a disperser. Solid sodium particles were fed to the disperser and kept suspended in the silicone oil carrier by turbulence. The sodium did not react with the silicone oil carrier. The dispersion of sodium in silicone oil was fed to an in-line mixer (''jet'' mixer) where it was mixed with a reactant. Water was used as the reactant in most of the tests, generating sodium hydroxide and hydrogen as the initial products. Analysis of the final solid product from the reaction indicated that the sodium hydroxide initial product interacted with the silicone oil. Complete reaction of the sodium in the demonstration plant required at least a 6/1 molar ratio of water to sodium. Good separation of the product solution was difficult because of the small difference in density between the aqueous product phase and the organic carrier phase. Emulsification of the silicone oil-aqueous solution was minimized by applying heat to the separator. Foaming of the silicone oil in the separator occurred, aggravated by the evolution of hydrogen from the sodium conversion reaction. Bench-scale tests were conducted to analyze and resolve several problems encountered in the plant experiments, such as incomplete reaction in the jet mixer, poor separation of the product from the silicone oil, formation of an oil aqueous solution emulsion in the separator, and oil foaming in the separator. Solidification tests were carried out to immobilize the sodium conversion product by mixing it with various binders. The most satisfactory binder was EPON 828, an epoxy resin

  9. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Special Nuclear Material vault upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses storage space in a Special Nuclear Material (SNM) product storage vault at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which has been recently expanded by approximately 175%. This expansion required a minimum of space and funding and resulted in a large increase in net storage capacity. Security for the additional storage is provided by standard intrusion sensors and by a real-time monitoring system, which monitors the weight of the material as it rests on weight sensors (load cells). The monitoring system also feeds weight data to a Safeguards processor which provides further confidence to Safeguards personnel. The Department of Energy requirements for bimonthly inventories for SNM stored in a particular part of this facility have been eliminated because of the guarantees provided by a real-time monitoring system. A higher efficiency has been obtained by using the expensive real estate inside a hardened product storage vault. This project has provided the ICPP with a relatively inexpensive vault upgrade and when product material is placed in this area of the vault the manpower requirements to inventory it will be reduced, resulting in a net reduction in plant worker radiation exposure

  10. A discomfort survey in a poultry-processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Buttle, C

    1994-02-01

    The relationship of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort due to awkward work postures, forces, static loading and over-use is widely accepted as an indicator of poor job design. A discomfort survey was conducted in a poultry-processing plant to help to prioritize areas for ergonomics intervention and to determine whether regions of discomfort relate to types of task performed. The survey form was basic, to accommodate illiteracy, and was administered to 699 employees. Demographic data and job information were recorded. The employee rated job satisfaction and overall discomfort, shaded areas of discomfort on a body diagram and rated the intensity of the discomfort for each area. The jobs were coded into four mutually exclusive categories: hand tool, hand manipulation, material handling and mixed task. A discomfort index (DI) combined the number of shaded areas with intensity. Of the 65% who reported discomfort, the back had the highest mean maximum intensity followed by the arm, contrary to prevalence ranking of body regions. In the light of the findings, the benefit of rotation in a plant requiring major redesign is questioned. Results unexpectedly highlighted women who reported arm discomfort with more than one job, and who performed manual material-handling tasks, to have a significant discomfort problem, which indicates the breadth of ergonomics intervention required in the poultry environment. Surprisingly, no other effects of task were found. The survey provided useful indications of ergonomics issues in areas not identified by medical records. PMID:15676948

  11. Water hammer and cavitational hammer in process plant pipe systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudlik, A.; Schoenfeld, S.B.H.; Hagemann, O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Fahlenkamp, H. [Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Chair of Environmental Technology

    2003-05-01

    Fast acting valves are often applied for quick safety shut-down of pipelines for liquids and gases in the chemical and petrochemical industry as well as in power plants and state water supplies. The fast deceleration of the liquid leads to water hammer upstream the valve and to cavitational hammer downstream the fast closing valve. The valve characteristics given by manufacturers are usually measured at steady state flow conditions of the liquid. In comparison, the dynamic characteristics depend on the initial liquid velocity, valve closing velocity, the absolute pipe pressure and the pipe geometry. Fraunhofer UMSICHT conducts various test series examining valve dynamic characteristics in order of the dynamic analysis of pressure surges in fast closing processes. Therefore a test rig is used which consists of two pipelines of DN 50 and DN 100 with an approximate length of 230 m each. In this paper the results of performed pressure surge experiments with fast closing and opening valves will be compared to calculations of commercial software programs such as MONA, FLOWMASTER 2. Thus the calculation software for water supply, power plants oil and gas and chemical industry can be permanently improved. (orig.)

  12. Water hammer and cavitational hammer in process plant pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast acting valves are often applied for quick safety shut-down of pipelines for liquids and gases in the chemical and petrochemical industry as well as in power plants and state water supplies. The fast deceleration of the liquid leads to water hammer upstream the valve and to cavitational hammer downstream the fast closing valve. The valve characteristics given by manufacturers are usually measured at steady state flow conditions of the liquid. In comparison, the dynamic characteristics depend on the initial liquid velocity, valve closing velocity, the absolute pipe pressure and the pipe geometry. Fraunhofer UMSICHT conducts various test series examining valve dynamic characteristics in order of the dynamic analysis of pressure surges in fast closing processes. Therefore a test rig is used which consists of two pipelines of DN 50 and DN 100 with an approximate length of 230 m each. In this paper the results of performed pressure surge experiments with fast closing and opening valves will be compared to calculations of commercial software programs such as MONA, FLOWMASTER 2. Thus the calculation software for water supply, power plants oil and gas and chemical industry can be permanently improved. (orig.)

  13. Lung cancer among workers at a uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the risk of dying from lung cancer among white males who received radiation to the lung as a result of inhaling uranium dust or the dust of uranium compounds. Cases and controls were chosen from a cohort of workers employed in a uranium processing plant during World War II. Cumulative radiation lung dose among study population members ranged from 0 to 75 rads. Relative risk was found to increase with increasing level of exposure even after controlling for age and smoking status, but only for those who were over the age of 45 when first exposed. A statistically significant excess in risk was found for men in this age group with a cumulative lung dose of 20 rads of more. These data suggest that older age groups may be more susceptible to radiation-induced lung cancer than younger age groups

  14. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

    2009-09-01

    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  15. Mortality among female workers at a thorium-processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality patterns among a cohort of 677 female workers at a thorium-processing plant are reported for the period from 1940 to 1982. Of the 677 women, 165 were reported dead; 459 were still alive; and 53 (7.8%) were lost to follow-up. The standardized mortality ratios from all causes (0.74), all cancers (0.53), and circulatory diseases (0.66) were significantly below those for the general US population. In this cohort, 5 deaths due to lung cancer and 1 death from leukemia were observed, with 4.53 and 1.69 deaths expected, respectively. No deaths from cancer of the liver, pancreas, or bone were observed. Poisson regression analysis was used for an internal comparison within the cohort. The results of the Poisson regression analysis showed no significant effect on mortality rates of all causes and cancers from the study factors, including job classification, duration of employment, and time since first employment

  16. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1

  17. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  18. Criticality and safeguards at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of high enriched irradiated reactor fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) presents significant potential problems to the Criticality Safety (CS) and Safeguards and Security (S and S) Sections. Two major interactions between these sections occurs when irradiated fuel is stored and fuel is dissolved. S and S is assigned the responsibility of maintaining a centralized records and reporting system which provides detailed, timely knowledge of the location, quantity and measurement uncertainties associated with accountable nuclear material, including uranium and plutonium. The Criticality Safety Section uses this information in providing criticality safety evaluations with support analyses, inspection, field surveillance and audits to ensure criticality safety implementation. The interactions of these sections has minimized operational constraints and maximized criticality safeguards controls

  19. Review of old chemistry and new catalytic advances in the on-purpose synthesis of butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makshina, Ekaterina V; Dusselier, Michiel; Janssens, Wout; Degrève, Jan; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2014-11-21

    Increasing demand for renewable feedstock-based chemicals is driving the interest of both academic and industrial research to substitute petrochemicals with renewable chemicals from biomass-derived resources. The search towards novel platform chemicals is challenging and rewarding, but the main research activities are concentrated on finding efficient pathways to produce familiar drop-in chemicals and polymer building blocks. A diversity of industrially important monomers like alkenes, conjugated dienes, unsaturated carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds are thus targeted from renewable feedstock. In this context, on-purpose production of 1,3-butadiene from biomass-derived feedstock is an interesting example as its production is under pressure by uncertainty of the conventional fossil feedstock. Ethanol, obtained via fermentation or (biomass-generated) syngas, can be converted to butadiene, although there is no large commercial activity today. Though practised on a large scale in the beginning of the 20th century, there is a growing worldwide renewed interest in the butadiene-from-ethanol route. An alternative route to produce butadiene from biomass is through direct carbohydrate and gas fermentation or indirectly via the dehydration of butanediols. This review starts with a brief discussion on the different feedstock possibilities to produce butadiene, followed by a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge regarding advances and achievements in the field of the chemocatalytic conversion of ethanol and butanediols to butadiene, including thermodynamics and kinetic aspects of the reactions with discussions on the reaction pathways and the type of catalysts developed. PMID:24993100

  20. From pathogen genomes to host plant processes: the power of plant parasitic oomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Marina; Win, Joe; Yoshida, Kentaro; Etherington, Graham J; Cano, Liliana M; Raffaele, Sylvain; Banfield, Mark J.; Jones, Alex; Kamoun, Sophien; GO Saunders, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Recent pathogenomic research on plant parasitic oomycete effector function and plant host responses has resulted in major conceptual advances in plant pathology, which has been possible thanks to the availability of genome sequences.

  1. Toxicology evaluation of Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Bryan Lee; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto; Gagnon, Graham A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an acute aquatic toxicity assessment on select effluent samples from Atlantic Canadian seafood processing plants. Raw effluent acute aquatic toxicity for the flatfish and salmon effluents was assessed using the acute lethality test and Microtox test. The effectiveness of dissolved air flotation treatment (DAF) in removing acute toxicity from these effluents was evaluated using the Microtox test. The salmon effluent failed the acute lethality test using rainbow trout while the flatfish effluent showed acute toxicity in the Microtox test with a 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) of 38.84%. Subsequent treatment by DAF of the flatfish and salmon effluents increased IC(50) values by 20% and 26% respectively. The findings of this study indicate that all of the processing effluents sampled showed characteristics that could potentially degrade effluent receiving waters and acute toxicity was demonstrated in the two raw finfish effluents. Application of DAF treatment was successful in significantly increasing Microtox IC(50) values, thereby reducing acute toxicity, but failed to entirely remove acute toxicity. PMID:19283858

  2. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  3. Competitive advantages of the Brazilian Beef Processing Plants in their Internationalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Américo Cassano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study has the primary objective of identifying the major competitive advantages owned by Brazilian beef processing plants in their internationalization process. In order to reach it, it was carried out an exploratory research, based on the survey of official data and publications concerning world’s beef cattle production, followed by a literature review and finally, by a single case study. This case study was conducted through an interview with former employee of Redenção Frigorífico do Pará Ltda. The obtained results allowed the identification of the major competitive advantages of the studied company in its internationalization process, such as the raw material quality and availability, production scale, Brazilian cattle’s extensive production system, and control and prevention of main cattle diseases. It was concluded that Brazilian beef production plants really have competitive advantages within the internationalization process context, some of them practically observed in the studied company, and others that can be effectively corroborated by future studies.

  4. Fulfilment of licensing requirements for the plant part mixed oxide processing of the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulfilment of licensing requirements for the plant part mixed oxide processing of the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The licensing procedure according to para. 7 Atomic Energy Law is completed for the entire plant. The cost of the procedure as well as of reconstruction and reequipment measures in the course of interior work in the fabrication building, of automation, of the interim storage facility, of transport systems, and the cost of verification of safeguard aspects will amount to about DM 900 million. (DG)

  5. Hanford waste vitrification plant process description, process advancements, and Hanford site interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, a prime operating contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy in Richland, Washington, has the lead responsibility for development, design, construction, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be built for the U.S. Department of Energy to vitrify existing and future liquid high level and transuranic wastes produced by defense activities at the Hanford Site. Start of construction is scheduled for mid1991. Hot startup currently is scheduled for December 1999, and acceleration of the hot startup schedule is under consideration. Requirements related to interfaces with existing Hanford Site facilities and other site specific requirements are discussed in this paper. Design of the feed transfer and lag storage, radioactive liquid waste treatment and recycle, and process off gas treatment systems is significantly affected by site specific requirements. Recent developments in design of these systems are described. 3 figs

  6. Plants as Natural Dyes for Jonegoroan Batik Processing in Jono Cultural Tourism Village, Bojonegoro, East Java

    OpenAIRE

    Nurizza Fauziyah; Luchman Hakim

    2015-01-01

    Batik Jonegoroan is one of the potential tourism product in Jono Village, Bojonegoro. Batik was processed by traditional procedure using natural dyes from plants. In order to preserve the traditional batik which was colored by natural dyes from plant, the preservation of such plant were important. As far, there are no scientific data related to the species usage in Batik production. The aims of the research were identifying plant which were used as natural dyes in Batik processing. Data were ...

  7. Processing biogas plant digestates into value-added products - BIOVIRTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paavola, T. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: teija.paavola@mtt.fi; Torniainen, M. (Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: merja.torniainen@evira.fi; Kaparaju, P. (Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)), e-mail: prasad.kaparaju@jyu.fi (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The objective of BIOVIRTA project is to develop technologies and practices with which digestates, originating from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes and by-products can be refined to value-added and safe products for various end-uses. It is expected that the operational preconditions for biogas plants will be significantly enhanced when the end-products are proven safe and applicable. Selection of the raw materials for anaerobic co-digestion is the main operational strategy that could influence the nutrient content in the digestate. This has been clearly established in the laboratory and full-scale studies with various digestates originating from different raw materials. The nutrient content in the digestate also affects the opportunities to produce refined digestate products. In this project, the possibilities for several processing technologies, e.g. mechanical separation, stripping, and struvite production have been intensively evaluated for the production of different digestate products. Their mass balances have also been estimated. The feasibility for the use of the digestate products has been assessed based on their chemical and hygienic quality and for various end-uses, including as organic fertiliser and/or soil improver in crop production. The results of these field-experiments showed that the yield of barley fertilised with digestate products was comparable to inorganic fertilisers. (orig.)

  8. Modeling risk assessment for nuclear processing plants with LAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (LAVA) methodology, the authors developed a model for assessing risks associated with nuclear processing plants. LAVA is a three-part systematic approach to risk assessment. The first part is the mathematical methodology; the second is the general personal computer-based software engine; and the third is the application itself. The methodology provides a framework for creating applications for the software engine to operate upon; all application-specific information is data. Using LAVA, the authors build knowledge-based expert systems to assess risks in applications systems comprising a subject system and a safeguards system. The subject system model is sets of threats, assets, and undesirable outcomes. The safeguards system model is sets of safeguards functions for protecting the assets from the threats by preventing or ameliorating the undesirable outcomes, sets of safeguards subfunctions whose performance determine whether the function is adequate and complete, and sets of issues, appearing as interactive questionnaires, whose measures (in both monetary and linguistic terms) define both the weaknesses in the safeguards system and the potential costs of an undesirable outcome occurring

  9. Atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of 1,3-butadiene for hydrophobic finishing of textile substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Kartick K.; Jassal, Manjeet; Agrawal, Ashwini K.

    2010-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of textile has both ecological and economical advantages over the wet-chemical processing. However, reaction in atmospheric pressure plasma has important challenges to be overcome before it can be successfully used for finishing applications in textile. These challenges are (i) generating stable glow plasma in presence liquid/gaseous monomer, and (ii) keeping the generated radicals active in the presence of contaminants such as oxygen and air. In this study, a stable glow plasma was generated at atmospheric pressure in the mixture of gaseous reactive monomer-1,3-butadiene and He and was made to react with cellulosic textile substrate. After 12 min of plasma treatment, the hydrophilic surface of the cellulosic substrate turned into highly hydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic finish was found to be durable to soap washing. After soap washing, a water drop of 37 μl took around 250 s to get absorbed in the treated sample compared to textile substrate. The surface characterization of the plasma modified samples under SEM and AFM revealed modification of the surface under textile substrates for producing hydrophobic surface finish.

  10. Reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber with lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks were fabricated in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR matrix by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, SBR/lignin compounds were co-coagulated by SBR latex and lignin aqueous solution. Then the novolac epoxy resin (F51 was added in the SBR/lignin compounds by melt compounding method. F51 was directly cured by lignin via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups of F51 and OH groups (or COOH groups of lignin during the curing process of rubber compounds, as was particularly evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies and maximum torque of the curing analysis. The existence of lignin-F51 networks were also detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The structure of the SBR/lignin/F51 was also characterized by rubber process analyzer (RPA, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and determination of crosslinking density. Due to rigid lignin-F51 networks achieved in SBR/lignin/F51 composites, it was found that the hardness, modulus, tear strength, crosslinking density, the temperature of 5 and 10% weight-loss were significantly enhanced with the loading of F51.

  11. Examples of power generation and heat utilization in solid waste processing plants. Minami solid waste processing plant, Matsue District Environmental Sanitation Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, J.

    1981-01-01

    The plant has a solid waste processing capacity of 150t/16h and incorporates an indoor swimming pool of 25 x 10 x 1m. The outline of the facilities, the layout of the plant and the heat balance are described. The purpose and the mode of use of the indoor swimming pool are described.

  12. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under high NOx conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cocker III

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years; however, reactions of other conjugated dienes emitted from anthropogenic sources remain poorly understood. SOA formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, isoprene-1-13C, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is investigated for high NOx conditions. The SOA yield measured in the 1,3-butadiene/NOx/H2O2 irradiation system (0.089–0.178 was close to or slightly higher than that measured with isoprene under similar NOx conditions (0.077–0.103, suggesting that the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene is a possible source of SOA in urban air. In contrast, a very small amount of SOA particles was produced in experiments with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Off-line liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis revealed oligoesters as the major SOA products observed from all dienes investigated. The oligoesters originate from the unsaturated aldehyde gas-phase diene reaction products, which undergo oligoester formation through heterogeneous oxidation under high NOx conditions. Oligoesters produced by the dehydration reaction between nitrooxypolyol and 2-methylglyceric acid monomer or its oligomer were also discovered in these experiments with isoprene as the starting diene. These oligomers are possible sources of the 2-methyltetrols found in ambient aerosol samples collected under high NOx conditions. Furthermore, in low-temperature experiments also conducted in this study, the SOA yield measured with isoprene at 278 K was 2–3 times as high as that measured at 300 K under similar concentration conditions. Although oligomerization plays an important role in SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation, the observed temperature dependence of SOA yield is largely explained by gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile compounds.

  13. Photoinitiator grafted styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting of photoinitiator-4-maleimidobenzophenone (4-MBP) onto styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymer was carried out by free radical polymerization. The grafting ratio was evaluated by varying initiator concentrations, and the structure of grafted copolymer (SBS-g-MBP) was characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirmed that 4-MBP was successfully grafted onto the SBS backbone. Thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the thermal properties and morphology of the SBS-g-MBP. From the data of TGA, the SBS-g-MBP had better thermal stability compared with that of SBS. DMTA testing indicated that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of SBS-g-MBP was higher than that of SBS. With the aid of SEM and AFM, the structure of micro-phase separation can be observed obviously. What is more, the aggregates become smaller compared with those of pure SBS. The experiment of UV-crosslinked SBS-g-MBP revealed that the gel fraction could be facilely controlled by adjusting grafting ratio and exposure time. The results suggested that this novel grafted copolymer could be attractive for its application in biomedical materials such as medical pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  14. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  15. High performance light-colored nitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanda; Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenyou; Jia, Demin

    2011-12-01

    High mechanical performance nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with light color was fabricated by the method of in situ formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) or magnesium disorbate (MDS). The in situ formed ZDS and its polymerization via internal mixing was confirmed by X-ray diffaraction. The mechanical properties, ageing resistance, morphology and the dynamic mechanical analysis were fully studied. It was found that with increasing loading of metallic disorbate both the curing rate and the ionic crosslink density was largely increased. The modulus, tensile strength and tear strength were largely increased. With a comparison between internal mixing and opening mixing, the mechanical performance for the former one was obviously better than the latter one. The high performance was ascribed to the finely dispersion nano domains with irregular shape and obscure interfacial structures. Except for the NBR vulcanizate with a high loading of MDS, the others' ageing resistance with incorporation of these two metallic disorbate was found to be good. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that, with increasing loading of metallic disorbate, the highly increased storage modulus above -20 degrees C, the up-shifted glass transition temperature (Tg) and the reduced mechanical loss were ascribed to strengthened interfacial interactions. PMID:22408977

  16. [Identification of migrants from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Wakui, Chiseko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are restricted for food contact use. In their place, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used in contact with foodstuffs. Some unknown substances were found to migrate into n-heptane from NBR gloves. By GC/MS, HR-MS and NMR, their chemical structures were confirmed to be 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (used as a plasticizer), 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol), a mixture of styrenated phenols consisting of 2-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 4-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,6-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,4-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol and 2,4,6-tri(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol (used as antioxidants), and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which seems to a degradation product of antioxidant. Migration levels of these compounds were 1.68 micrograms/cm2 of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 2.80 micrograms/cm2 of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate, 46.08 micrograms/cm2 of styrenated phenols and 4.22 micrograms/cm2 of 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol) into n-heptane, respectively. The content of total styrenated phenols was 6,900 micrograms/g in NBR gloves. PMID:12846157

  17. An estimation of photon scattering length in tetraphenyl-butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolp, D.; Dalager, O.; Dhaliwal, N.; Godfrey, B.; Irving, M.; Kazkaz, K.; Manalaysay, A.; Neher, C.; Stephenson, S.; Tripathi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Tetraphenyl-butadiene (TPB) is a wavelength shifting material that can absorb ultraviolet photons and emit blue photons. It is used in the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons, for which typical photo-sensors, such as most photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), do not have any quantum efficiency. The secondary blue light is emitted isotropically, however, due to scattering within the material, its angular distribution upon exiting the material can not be easily predicted. Here we describe a procedure for estimating the scattering length of blue light in TPB, by measuring and modeling the angular distribution as a function of layer thickness. The experiment consists of shining 254nm light at various thicknesses of TPB deposited on fused silica, and measuring the intensity of blue light using SiPMs on either side of the sample. We simulate light propagation within the sample to estimate the light yield and compare that to the data, which allows us to estimate mean scattering length for photons in TPB to be in the range 2-3 μm, with some preference for a central value of 2.75 μm.

  18. Rich methane laminar flames doped with light unsaturated hydrocarbons. Part II: 1,3butadiene

    CERN Document Server

    Gueniche, Hadj-Ali; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2007-01-01

    In line with the study presented in the part I of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a ratio C4H6 / CH4 of 16 %. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included usual methane C0-C2 combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene and toluene. In order to model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C3-C4 unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reacti...

  19. Risk analysis of process plants: approach of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the probable consequences and effects of the hazardous chemicals used in the process plants plays a vital role in regulatory decision-making. This analysis is required in the entire life cycle of the process plant. This paper presents the detail of risk analysis required at various life cycle stages viz. siting, design, and operation of a process plant. It also describes the regulatory methodology and safety review process adopted by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) to ensure safety of the plant in its entire life cycle. (author)

  20. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  1. Using graph theory to analyze the vulnerability of process plants in the context of cascading effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dealing with large quantities of flammable and explosive materials, usually at high-pressure high-temperature conditions, makes process plants very vulnerable to cascading effects compared with other infrastructures. The combination of the extremely low frequency of cascading effects and the high complexity and interdependencies of process plants makes risk assessment and vulnerability analysis of process plants very challenging in the context of such events. In the present study, cascading effects were represented as a directed graph; accordingly, the efficacy of a set of graph metrics and measurements was examined in both unit and plant-wide vulnerability analysis of process plants. We demonstrated that vertex-level closeness and betweenness can be used in the unit vulnerability analysis of process plants for the identification of critical units within a process plant. Furthermore, the graph-level closeness metric can be used in the plant-wide vulnerability analysis for the identification of the most vulnerable plant layout with respect to the escalation of cascading effects. Furthermore, the results from the application of the graph metrics have been verified using a Bayesian network methodology. - Highlights: • Graph metrics can effectively be employed to identify vulnerable units and layouts in process plants. • Units with larger vertex-level closeness result in more probable and severe cascading effects. • Units with larger vertex-level betweenness contribute more to the escalation of cascading effects. • Layouts with larger graph-level closeness are more vulnerable to the escalation of cascading effects

  2. About the cure kinetics in natural rubber/styrene Butadiene rubber blends at 433 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, M.A., E-mail: mmansilla@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marzocca, A.J. [Laboratorio de Polimeros y Materiales Compuestos, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon 1, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Vulcanized blends of elastomers are employed in several goods mainly to improve physical properties and reduce costs. One of the most used blends of this kind is that composed by natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR). The cure kinetic of these blends depends mainly on the compound formulation and the cure temperature and time. The preparation method of the blends can influence the mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds. In this work the cure kinetic at 433 K of NR/SBR blends vulcanized with the system sulfur/TBBS (N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenamide) is analyzed in samples prepared by mechanical mixing and solution blending. The two methods produce elastomer domains of NR and SBR, which present different microstructure due to the cure level attained during vulcanization. The cure kinetics is studied by means of rheometer tests and the model proposed by Kamal and Sourour. The analysis of the cure rate is presented and is related to the structure obtained during the vulcanization process.

  3. FRACTAL CHARACTER OF PHASE MORPHOLOGY OF HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE/POLY(cis-BUTADIENE) RUBBER BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-yan Li; Yun-ping Han; Jing Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Evolution and fractal character of the phase morphology of high impact polystyrene/poly(cis-butadiene) rubber (HIPS/PcBR) blends during melting and mixing were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristic length L was defined as the size of particles of the dispersed phase in blends. Different fractal dimensions, Df and Dm, were introduced to study the distribution width of phase dimensions in the dimensionless region and the uniformity of the spatial distribution of particles, respectively. The results showed that the average characteristic length Lm and Df increase as the volume fraction of the dispersed phase increases, when the volume fraction of the dispersed phase is lower than 50%. In other words, the size of particles increases and their distribution in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the uniformity of the spatial distribution becomes more perfect as the volume fraction increases. At a certain composition, Lm decreases in the initial stage of the mixing and levels off in the late stage. In the initial stage, Df becomes large rapidly with the process of blending, which means that the distribution of L in the dimensionless region becomes more uniform. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution tends to be ideal rapidly in the early stage and fluctuates in a definite range in the late stage of the mixing.

  4. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  5. The physical and degradation properties of starch-graft-acrylonitrile/carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber latex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misman, M A; Azura, A R; Hamid, Z A A

    2015-09-01

    Starch-graft-acrylonitrile (ANS) is compounded with carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The control XNBR and the ANS/XNBR latex films were prepared through a coagulant dipping process. The films were subjected to ageing and soil burial procedures. For the biodegradation experiment, the surface of the film was assessed after the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of soil burial. The ANS, XNBR, and ANS/XNBR colloidal stability were determined with a Malvern Zetasizer. For the dipped latex films, the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were analyzed. The addition of ANS into the XNBR latex increased the stability of the colloidal dispersions, decreased the latex film tensile strength, but increased the elongation at break due to the bipolar interaction of the ANS and XNBR particles. The ANS/XNBR latex films aged faster than the control films while the morphological analysis showed the existence of a starch crystal region and the formation of microbial colonies on the surfaces of the films. Based on the TGA-DTA curves, a higher ΔT was observed for the ANS/XNBR latex films signifying high thermal energy needed for the film to thermally degrade. PMID:26005134

  6. Devulcanization of styrene butadiene rubber by microwave energy: Effect of the presence of ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seghar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR was devulcanized using microwave irradiation. In particular, effect of ionic liquid (IL, pyrrolidinium hydrogen sulfate [Pyrr][HSO4], on the devulcanization performance was studied. It was observed that the evolution of the temperature reached by rubber powder exposed to microwave irradiation for different energy values was favored by the presence of ionic liquid [Pyrr][HSO4] significantly over the whole range of the microwave energy values. Beyond the threshold point of 220 Wh/kg, the soluble fraction after devulcanization sharply increased with increasing devulcanization microwave energy. For the powder mixed with [Pyrr][HSO4], the increase was more significant. Furthermore, the crosslink density was observed to decrease slowly with the microwave energy up to 220 Wh/kg, beyond which the crosslink density decreased significantly for the rubber impregnated with IL. For the rubber with IL, significant and continuous increase in Tg with microwave energy values was observed in comparison with the SBR where no change in transition temperature was observed. Mechanical shearing of rubber gums in the two-roll mill favored the devulcanization process, which indicated that the combination of mechanical loading with microwave energy and IL is an efficient procedure allowing an optimal devulcanization of rubbers.

  7. Influence Of Gamma Irradiation On Mechanical And Thermal Properties Of Waste Polyethylene / Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation radical-radical interaction crosslinking of elastomers and thermoplastic is a special type of crosslinking technique that has gained importance over conventional chemical crosslinking method as process is fast, pollution free and simple. In this study, a blend polymer, based on waste polyethylene and nitrile butadiene rubber, has been irradiated with gamma rays then mechanically and thermally investigated at varying NBR content. FTIR and SEM techniques were used in addition to the swelling behaviour by toluene solvent to emphasize the blend formation. The mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break and modulus at different elongations were studied and compared with those of non-irradiated ones. A relatively low radiation dose was found effective in improving the level of mechanical properties. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis were used to study the thermal characteristics of the irradiated polymer. Enhancement in thermal stability has been observed for higher NBR containing blends and via radiation-induced crosslinking up to ≅ 50 kGy

  8. Microstructural analysis of carbon nanomaterials produced from pyrolysis/combustion of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR is a synthetic rubber copolymer used to fabricate several products. This study aims to demonstrate the use of SBR as feedstock for carbon nanomaterials (nanofibers and nanotubes growth, and therefore to establish a novel process for destination of waste products containing SBR. A three stage electrically heated flow reactor was used. Small pellets of rubber were pyrolyzed at a temperature of 1000 ºC. The pyrolyzates were mixed with oxygen-containing gases and were burned. The products of combustion were used to synthesize the carbon nanomaterials (CNMs at the presence of a catalyst. CNMs have a wide range of potential applications due to their extraordinary mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Produced materials were characterized by SEM and TEM, whereas combustion products were assessed using GC. Results showed that CNMs with outer diameters of 30-100 nm and lengths of about 30 µm were formed. Therefore, it was demonstrated that waste products containing SBR can be used to generate CNMs which are value-added products of intense technological interest.

  9. Carbon nanotube buckypaper reinforced acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Gascón, David

    2013-11-27

    Novel acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites reinforced with pristine or functionalized single- or multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) sheets were manufactured via hot-compression and vacuum infiltration. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties were comparatively investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that the infiltration process leads to better BP impregnation than the hot-press technique. BPs made from functionalized or short nanotubes form compact networks that hamper the penetration of the matrix chains, whereas those composed of pristine tubes possess large pores that facilitate the polymer flow, resulting in composites with low degree of porosity and improved mechanical performance. Enhanced thermal and electrical properties are found for samples incorporating functionalized BPs since dense networks lead to more conductive pathways, and a stronger barrier effect to the diffusion of degradation products, thus better thermal stability. According to dynamic mechanical analysis these composites exhibit the highest glass transition temperatures, suggesting enhanced filler-matrix interactions as corroborated by the Raman spectra. The results presented herein demonstrate that the composite performance can be tailored by controlling the BP architecture and offer useful insights into the structure-property relationships of these materials to be used in electronic applications, particularly for EMI shielding and packaging of integrated circuits. PMID:24171494

  10. Comparison of the plant requirements, process performance and waste arisings for potential processes for the partitioning of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual overall processes have been compared for six partitioning technologies for high level waste (HLW) integrating them with the PUREX process and with the downstream processes required to convert the products into forms suitable for transmutation or other purposes. Based on the process flowsheets, a semi-quantitative assessment ha been made of the relative investment in plant necessary for each process. An assessment is also made of the secondary wastes and by-products resulting from each process

  11. STUDY ON THE SEQUENCE STRUCTURE OF BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER BY 13C-NMR METHOD Ⅲ. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEQUENCE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaonong; HU Liping; YAN Baozhen; JIAO Shuke

    1990-01-01

    The quantitative description of the sequence structure of emulsion-processed SBR and solution-processed SBR (by lithium catalyst)was carried out based on their spectral data of 13C-NMR.The calculating formulae which could be used to obtain diad concentration from the peak intensities of carbon spectra, average block length, average number of block, and the microstructure composition of the molecular chain were derived. The quantitative result showed that on the molecular chain styrene unit had the tendency to attach to trans-1,4 butadiene unit. The calculated result of the microstructure was in good agreement with that obtained through IR measurement.

  12. Crosstalk between endophytes and a plant host within information-processing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyrovska N. O.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants are heavily populated by pro- and eukaryotic microorganisms and represent therefore the tremendous complexity as a biological system. This system exists as an information-processing entity with rather complex processes of communication, occurring throughout the individual plant. The plant cellular information-proces- sing network constitutes the foundation for processes like growth, defense, and adaptation to the environment. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms, underlying perception, transfer, analysis, and storage of the endogenous and environmental information within the plant, remain to be fully understood. The associated microorganisms and their investment in the information conditioning are often ignored. Endophytes as plant partners are indispen- sable integrative part of the plant system. Diverse endophytic microorganisms comprise «normal» microbiota that plays a role in plant immunity and helps the plant system to survive in the environment (providing assistance in defense, nutrition, detoxification etc.. The role of endophytic microbiota in the processing of information may be presumed, taking into account a plant-microbial co-evolution and empirical data. Since the literature are be- ginning to emerge on this topic, in this article, I review key works in the field of plant-endophytes interactions in the context of information processing and represent the opinion on their putative role in plant information web under defense and the adaptation to changed conditions.

  13. Treatment, Processing and Future Disposal of Radioactive Wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidic wastes from the recovery of enriched uranium from aluminium, zirconium, and stainless-steel fuels at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are stored in underground tanks of two configurations and nominal sizes of 30,000 and 300,000 gallons. The design and operation of the waste-tank farm as well as the methods of environmental disposal of low-level wastes is described. The ''concentrate and contain'' philosophy of waste disposal has as its ultimate aim the production of a solid mass containing the fission products. The disadvantage of increased treatment costs may or may not be offset by reduction in storage costs. The low thermal conductivity of solids makes storage temperature considerations more important than for liquids. The acid aluminium nitrate wastes from the processing of fuels of the Material Testing Reactor type may be converted to granular alumina by calcining in a fluidized bed from 350° to 550° C. The major process components are the NaK heated calciner, an off-gas cleaning system and the solids storage vessels. The process design and the research and development programme are reviewed. On the basis of the successful demonstration of fluidized-bed calcining and high-temperature solids storage in conjunction with other considerations, a number of future storage concepts and their environmental connotations are discussed. (author)

  14. Antibody degradation in tobacco plants: a predominantly apoplastic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehle Verena K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in using plants for production of recombinant proteins such as monoclonal antibodies is growing, but proteolytic degradation, leading to a loss of functionality and complications in downstream purification, is still a serious problem. Results In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the assembly and breakdown of a human IgG1κ antibody expressed in plants. Initial studies in a human IgG transgenic plant line suggested that IgG fragments were present prior to extraction. Indeed, when the proteolytic activity of non-transgenic Nicotiana tabacum leaf extracts was tested against a human IgG1 substrate, little activity was detectable in extraction buffers with pH > 5. Significant degradation was only observed when the plant extract was buffered below pH 5, but this proteolysis could be abrogated by addition of protease inhibitors. Pulse-chase analysis of IgG MAb transgenic plants also demonstrated that IgG assembly intermediates are present intracellularly and are not secreted, and indicates that the majority of proteolytic degradation occurs following secretion into the apoplastic space. Conclusions The results provide evidence that proteolytic fragments derived from antibodies of the IgG subtype expressed in tobacco plants do not accumulate within the cell, and are instead likely to occur in the apoplastic space. Furthermore, any proteolytic activity due to the release of proteases from subcellular compartments during tissue disruption and extraction is not a major consideration under most commonly used extraction conditions.

  15. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  16. Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexity of power plant evaluation is steadily rising, as more criteria are involved in the overall assessment while evaluation data change rapidly. Apart from evaluating several aspects of power plants separately, a multicriteria analysis based on hierarchically structured criteria is necessary, so as to address the overall assessment of power plants according to the technological, economic and sustainability aspects. For this reason, in this paper, ten types of power plant are evaluated using nine end node criteria properly structured under the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Moreover, pairwise comparisons allow for accurate subjective criteria weighting. According to the scenario based on the subjective criteria weighting, emphasis is laid on sustainability driving renewable energy power plants at the top of the overall ranking, while nuclear and fossil fuel power plants rank in the last five positions. End node criteria contribution to each power plant and power plant performance per end node criterion is presented for all types of power plant and end node criteria

  17. Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexity of power plant evaluation is steadily rising, as more criteria are involved in the overall assessment while evaluation data change rapidly. Apart from evaluating several aspects of power plants separately, a multicriteria analysis based on hierarchically structured criteria is necessary, so as to address the overall assessment of power plants according to the technological, economic and sustainability aspects. For this reason, in this paper, ten types of power plant are evaluated using nine end node criteria properly structured under the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Moreover, pairwise comparisons allow for accurate subjective criteria weighting. According to the scenario based on the subjective criteria weighting, emphasis is laid on sustainability driving renewable energy power plants at the top of the overall ranking, while nuclear and fossil fuel power plants rank in the last five positions. End node criteria contribution to each power plant and power plant performance per end node criterion is presented for all types of power plant and end node criteria. (author)

  18. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  19. Rich premixed laminar methane flames doped by light unsaturated hydrocarbons. II. 1,3-Butadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueniche, H.A.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F. [Departement de Chimie-Physique des Reactions, UMR 7630 CNRS, INPL-ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2007-10-15

    In line with the study presented in Part I of this paper, the structure of a rich premixed laminar methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen, and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a C{sub 4}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4} ratio of 16%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene, and toluene. To model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways of consumption of 1,3-butadiene and of formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species have been derived from flow rate analyses. In this case, the C{sub 4} route to benzene formation plays an important role in comparison to the C{sub 3} pathway. (author)

  20. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified.

  1. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified

  2. Process data validation according VDI 2048 in conventional and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process data validation according VDI 2048 in conventional and nuclear power plants is required for acceptance testing, process and component monitoring, and status-oriented maintenance. Once a validation system like VALI III has been certified according to VDI 2048, power plant owners can use the data obtained for efficiency increase. Further, all control variables can be adjusted so as to ensure maximum plant efficiency. (orig.)

  3. Application of Lignin as Antioxidant in Styrene Butadiene Rubber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shusheng; Cheng, Xiansu

    2010-11-01

    Lignin isolated from enzymatic hydrolyzed cornstalks (EHL) is a renewable natural polymer, and rubber is one of the most important polymer materials. The application of EHL in rubber industry is of great significance. The influence of EHL and antioxidant RD on the vulcanizing characteristics, thermal oxidative aging stability under free condition, and water extraction resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) were investigated. The effect of EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant on the thermal oxidative ageing of SBR was also evaluated. Results showed that the protection of SBR from thermal oxidative aging by EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant was superior to that of antioxidant D. This is because EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and have excellent auxiliary antioxidant role with antioxidant D. Moreover, the influence of EHL on the vulcanizing characteristics of SBR compounds was better than that of antioxidant RD, and EHL can reduce the cure rate and increase the optimum cure time. It is because that the EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and methoxy group, which can form a special structure to capture free radical and terminate the chain reaction. The retained tensile strength of SBR compounds with EHL was similar to that of the samples with antioxidant RD, while the retained elongation at break of SBR compounds with EHL was higher than that of the samples with antioxidant RD. In addition, the SBR compounds with EHL have a good water extraction resistance property, which was similar to the samples with antioxidant RD. This is because EHL have large molecular weight, good stability and low solubility in water. In conclusion, due to the low price, abundant resources, non-toxic and pollution-free, etc., EHL will have broad application prospect.

  4. Cognitive process in plant diagnosis using an operator cognitive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An operator cognitive model has been constructed referring to Rasmussen's ladder model, and a simulation system of operator performance has been developed. Computer simulation was then performed to investigate subjects' behavior in a cognitive experiment concerning PWR nuclear power plant diagnosis. The knowledge bases used in the simulation were constructed from the interview to the subjects. Confidence on each hypothesis and performance history of operators were compared between the experiment and the simulation, and the simulation could well explain the behavior of the subjects in the results of event identification, confidence on the results, hypotheses conceived during diagnosis, and plant parameters observed, which indicates the validity of the operator model. The order of parameter observation, however, disagreed, and it has been clearly shown that knowledge on system configuration of the plant as well as the physical layout of interface should be considered. (author)

  5. Microtubule Associated Proteins in Plants and the Processes They Manage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that physically bind to microtubules in eukaryotes. MAPs play important roles in regulating the polymerization and organization of microtubules and in using the ensuing microtubule arrays to carry out a variety of cellular functions. In plants, MAPs manage the construction, repositioning, and dismantling of four distinct microtubule arrays throughout the cell cycle. Three of these arrays, the cortical array, the preprophase band,and the phragmoplast, are prominent to plants and are responsible for facilitating cell wall deposition and modification,transducing signals, demarcating the plane of cell division, and forming the new cell plate during cytokinesis, This review highlights important aspects of how MAPs in plants establish and maintain microtubule arrays as well as regulate cell growth, cell division, and cellular responses to the environment.

  6. PROCESSING IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS WITH A STRETFORD PLANT AT GEOKINETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's transportable Stretford process pilot plant on a 700-acfm slipstream of in-situ shale oil retort offgas to investigate H2S removal efficiency and process compatibility. This was the fourth application of the pilot plant which had demonstrated ...

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Management Processes for Indian HWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian government, in response to the Fukushima accident, through the words of the Honourable Prime Minister of India, took the position that the safety of nuclear power plants is a matter of the highest priority for the country and consequently ordered safety audits of all operating nuclear power plants as well as those under construction. Major findings of the assessment of plants by utilities were that the existing nuclear power plants’ designs meet regulatory requirements for externally initiated events. They are in a position to ensure core cooling in the absence of off-site and on-site power supplies, and they have on-site water storage for decay heat removal. There are procedures to handle external events, loss of UHS and station blackout. In addition, vulnerabilities to extreme beyond design events were identified and in response, to further enhance safety, the auditors recommended incorporating automatic reactor trips in all nuclear power plants for seismic events, and to strengthen provisions for beyond design basis accidents. In addition, they provided means for augmentation of on-site water supplies, provided smaller diesel generator sets for charging batteries and running small capacity pumps, and incorporated extra provisions to enhance containment safety and fuel pool safety and to formalize and implement severe accident management guidelines. In terms of external event assessments, the auditor recommended that plants review the magnitude of postulated design basis natural events and the related requirements for siting and design of nuclear power plants as specified in the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) safety regulations, which are appropriate and sufficiently conservative. However, in light of the Fukushima experience, it is prudent to further enhance this conservatism and also postulate beyond design basis natural events

  8. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  9. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-01

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work. PMID:16942836

  10. Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (citrus greening) is one of the most serious of citrus diseases. Movement of the disease occurs as a result of natural vector-borne infection and by movement of plant material. We demonstrate here that Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (vector of citrus greening pathogens) can be transported i...

  11. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and measurement system. Data was collected by using Questionnaire tool. The Questionnaire is of closed ended questions. It consists of three parts, the first part is demographic information about the study sample, the second part about implementation of the total quality management and the third part is to measure productivity. A sample of three poultry processing plants that effectively implemented total quality management were purposively chosen out of eight plants in Saudi Arabia Central Region. The study respondents are purposively chosen which consists quality team, production supervisors, Total quality management and production managers. 73 respondents out 75 participated in the survey. The finding indicated that the TQM practices have positive impact on poultry processing plants' productivity.

  12. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment. PMID:25750055

  13. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlesworth, D L

    1986-01-01

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed.

  14. Waste immobilization process development at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processes to immobilize various wasteforms, including waste salt solution, transuranic waste, and low-level incinerator ash, are being developed. Wasteform characteristics, process and equipment details, and results from field/pilot tests and mathematical modeling studies are discussed

  15. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant

  16. Sensitivity analysis of technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological, economic and sustainability evaluation of power plants by use of the analytic hierarchy process and nine end node criteria for a reference scenario based on subjective criteria weighting has been presented in a previous paper by authors. However, criteria weight variations may substantially modify overall evaluations and rankings of power plants. The current paper presents a sensitivity analysis with four alternative scenarios (sets of criteria weights) compared with the reference scenario. The results show that priority to 'technology and sustainability' favors renewable energy power plants, while priority to 'economic' criteria favors mainly nuclear power plants and less the four types of fossil fuel power plant. (author)

  17. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Hódar, José A; Sardans, Jordi; Kyle, Jennifer E; Kim, Young-Mo; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Guenther, Alex; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-07-01

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but also the entire metabolome. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are constrained by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from three closely related Pinus species with distant coevolutionary histories with the caterpillar of the processionary moth respond similarly to its attack. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of terpenes were in the attacked trees supporting the hypothesis that herbivores avoid plant individuals with higher concentrations. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution. PMID:27386082

  18. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing radionuclide mobility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, the mobility of radionuclides. These effects were assessed for coniferous and hardwood tree species by using plants grown in lysimeter systems and examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. The study demonstrated formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides, and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management and exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed. This research provides a basis for focusing on key complexing agents in future studies to measure critical affinity constants and to incorporate this information into mathematical models describing biological effects on radionuclide mobility. 26 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  19. Gamete attachment process revealed in flowering plant fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Igawa, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sex-possessing organisms perform sexual reproduction, in which gametes from different sexes fuse to produce offspring. In most eukaryotes, one or both sex gametes are motile, and gametes actively approach each other to fuse. However, in flowering plants, the gametes of both sexes lack motility. Two sperm cells (male gametes) that are contained in a pollen grain are recessively delivered via pollen tube elongation. After the pollen tube bursts, sperm cells are released toward the egg and centr...

  20. Pollination and seed dispersal are the most threatened processes of plant regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschulz, Eike Lena; Mueller, Thomas; Schleuning, Matthias; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Plant regeneration is essential for maintaining forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which are globally threatened by human disturbance. Here we present the first integrative meta-analysis on how forest disturbance affects multiple ecological processes of plant regeneration including pollination, seed dispersal, seed predation, recruitment and herbivory. We analysed 408 pairwise comparisons of these processes between near-natural and disturbed forests. Human impacts overall reduced plant regeneration. Importantly, only processes early in the regeneration cycle that often depend on plant-animal interactions, i.e. pollination and seed dispersal, were negatively affected. Later processes, i.e. seed predation, recruitment and herbivory, showed overall no significant response to human disturbance. Conserving pollination and seed dispersal, including the animals that provide these services to plants, should become a priority in forest conservation efforts globally. PMID:27435026

  1. Waste processing plant eco-auditing system for minimization of environmental risk: European Communities regulatory proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper delineates a system of process control and monitoring checks to be applied to municipal-industrial waste processing and disposal plants to ensure their energy efficient, environmentally safe and reliable operation. In line with European Communities environmental protection strategies, this eco-auditing system requires the preparation of environmental impacts statements on a regular basis during plant operation, as well as, prior to plant start-up. Continuous plant environmental compatibility evaluations are to ascertain: material and energy inputs and outputs; the composition and amounts of exhaust gases released into the atmosphere and the integrity of treatment liquids; control and monitoring instrumentation reliability. The implementation of the auditing system is to be carried out under the supervision of authorized auditing personnel. Waste processing and disposal plants are to make maximum use of energy and materials recovery processes so as to minimize energy consumption and risk to the environment

  2. Measurement of fugitive emissions from gas processing plants in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new gas visualization camera created to detect leaks. An outline of the device's projected entry into the oil and gas industry was provided, and included: a demonstration of Differential Absorption Light Detection and Ranging (DIAL) and leak cameras to measure and reduce fugitive emissions; a comparison of DIAL measured emissions with estimated emissions; and a review of methods to measure particulate emissions. In addition, a background of gas leak visualisation technology was presented along with an an overview of DIAL and its results from sour gas plants. The results of a survey conducted in 2003 were presented, including leaks identified and repaired as well as a follow up leak survey. An analysis of pre and post-repair hydrocarbon emissions from the Deepcut area revealed a 60 per cent reduction with savings of $140,000 as well as additional savings from reduced carbon emissions. A similar survey conducted in another plant measured emissions from condensate tanks before and after cooler installation as well as from surrounding well sites, quantifying an 80 per cent reduction in methane emissions. Tasks identified for future research concerned particulate emissions and the development of Lidar methods which can currently identify particulates, but are not yet able to quantify them. Other tasks included a complete DIAL data workup and reporting; the quantification of both methane and carbon emissions reduction at a sour gas plant; a comparison of measured emissions with methods that estimate fugitives; and a complete review of particulate measurements. tabs, figs

  3. Efficiency improvements for the coal-fired power plant retrofit with CO2 capture plant using chilled ammonia process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • NH3 has been proposed as a viable solvent to reduce the efficiency penalty. • Retrofit of a coal-fired power plant with a chilled ammonia process was analysed. • A base case scenario showed that efficiency penalty fell between 10.4% and 10.9%. • Alternative process configurations for the efficiency improvement were investigated. • The efficiency penalty was reduced to 8.7%. - Abstract: Development of clean coal technologies for power generation is crucial in meeting the European Union 2050 target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. CO2 capture technology using chemical solvents currently has the highest potential to decarbonise coal-based power generation. Substitution of amine solvent with NH3 has been proposed as a viable option to reduce the efficiency penalty. In this study, the scenario of a supercritical coal-fired power plant retrofitted with a chilled ammonia process capture plant and CO2 compression unit was modelled in a common simulation environment. To fully assess the integration impact on power plant performance, the pressure loss due to steam extraction has been taken into account by using the Stodola ellipse law. Analysis of a basic integration scenario revealed that the efficiency penalty fell between 10.4% and 10.9% points depending on the stripper pressure. The quality of extracted steam became insufficient to meet the reboiler heat requirement above a stripper pressure of 21.8 bar, and the lowest efficiency penalty was obtained when reboiler condensate was returned to the deaerator in the power plant. In evaluating measures to improve integration, the efficiency penalty was reduced to 8.7–8.8% points through the integration of a single-stage or two-stage auxiliary steam turbine, respectively, and a back-pressure turbine. Nevertheless, the analysis has indicated that the net impact on power plant performance is similar to that of an amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture plant

  4. Quantitation of DNA Adducts Induced by 1,3-Butadiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Villalta, Peter W.; Wickramaratne, Susith; Swenberg, James; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires is of great concern because of its potent carcinogenicity. The adverse health effects of BD are mediated by its epoxide metabolites such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), which covalently modify genomic DNA to form promutagenic nucleobase adducts. Because of their direct role in cancer, BD-DNA adducts can be used as mechanism-based biomarkers of BD exposure. In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and precise quantification of EB-induced N-7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) DNA adducts in vivo. In our approach, EB-GII adducts are selectively released from DNA backbone by neutral thermal hydrolysis, followed by ultrafiltration, offline HPLC purification, and isotope dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, EB-GII lesions were quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of EB and in liver tissues of rats exposed to sub-ppm concentrations of BD (0.5-1.5 ppm). EB-GII concentrations increased linearly from 1.15 ± 0.23 to 10.11 ± 0.45 adducts per 106 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 0.5-10 μM DEB. EB-GII concentrations in DNA of laboratory rats exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm BD were 0.17 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08, and 0.50 ± 0.04 adducts per 106 nucleotides, respectively. We also used the new method to determine the in vivo half-life of EB-GII adducts in rat liver DNA (2.20 ± 0.12 d) and to detect EB-GII in human blood DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first application of nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Orbitrap methodology to quantitative analysis of DNA adducts in vivo.

  5. Rapsodie first core manufacture. 1. part: processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the first in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. A detailed study of manufacturing processes(pellets, pins, fissile sub-assemblies), the associated testings (raw materials, processed pellets and pins, sub-assemblies before delivery), manufacturing facilities and improvements for a second campaign are described. (author)

  6. 75 FR 31713 - 2-Propenoic acid polymer, with 1,3-butadiene and ethenylbenzene; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...,3- butadiene and ethenylbenzene, minimum number average molecular weight (in AMU) 9400 (CAS Reg. No..., minimum number average molecular weight (in AMU) 9400; CAS Reg. No. 25085-39-6. That notice included a... absorbing polymer with a number average molecular weight (MW) greater than or equal to 10,000...

  7. 40 CFR 80.55 - Measurement methods for benzene and 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Analysis, 55 Analytical Chemistry 14, at 2210-2218 (1983) (copies may be obtained from the...,3-butadiene. 80.55 Section 80.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline §...

  8. Polymer composites prepared from heat-treated starch and styrene-butadiene latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoplastic starch/latex polymer composites were prepared using styrene–butadiene (SB) latex and heat-treated cornstarch. The composites were prepared in a compression mold at 130 °C, with starch content 20%. An amylose-free cornstarch, waxy maize, was used for this research and the heat treatment...

  9. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86 w

  10. St. Louis demonstration final report: refuse processing plant equipment, facilities, and environmental evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscus, D.E.; Gorman, P.G.; Schrag, M.P.; Shannon, L.J.

    1977-09-01

    The results are presented of processing plant evaluations of the St. Louis-Union Electric Refuse Fuel Project, including equipment and facilities as well as assessment of environmental emissions at both the processing and the power plants. Data on plant material flows and operating parameters, plant operating costs, characteristics of plant material flows, and emissions from various processing operations were obtained during a testing program encompassing 53 calendar weeks. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is the major product (80.6% by weight) of the refuse processing plant, the other being ferrous metal scrap, a marketable by-product. Average operating costs for the entire evaluation period were $8.26/Mg ($7.49/ton). The average overall processing rate for the period was 168 Mg/8-h day (185.5 tons/8-h day) at 31.0 Mg/h (34.2 tons/h). Future plants using an air classification system of the type used at the St. Louis demonstration plant will need an emissions control device for particulates from the large de-entrainment cyclone. Also in the air exhaust from the cyclone were total counts of bacteria and viruses several times higher than those of suburban ambient air. No water effluent or noise exposure problems were encountered, although landfill leachate mixed with ground water could result in contamination, given low dilution rates.

  11. A Largely Unsatisfied Need: Continuing Professional Development for Process and Process Plant Industries. A Summary. FEU/PICKUP Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhart, D.; Brown, A. S.

    This summary report outlines the aims of a project that focused on provision of short courses for technical professionals in the chemical and allied process industry and the process plant industry. Continuing education needs of both companies and individuals, as well as corporate policies and attitudes toward continuing education and constraints…

  12. Microbial mineralization processes in Antarctic soils and on plant material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples and different plant material from the maritime and continental Antarctic were analyzed for their actual and potential respiration by different methods: total CO2-evolution, biological oxygen demand and use of 14C-labeled glucose which may serve as a model for dissolved organic carbohydrates. Since these methods are argued to indicate the mineralization of different fractions of the total organic material by different actual populations, a comparison between the data from these techniques is carried out with regard to their contributions of the total organic matter debris in these environments. The part of respired material calculated from 14C-studies may contribute to nearly 90% of the metabolized material. Results show that the individual fractions differ significantly with respect to the parent material. There are several aspects which have to be taken into account when looking at these data: the original content of water; the contents of dissolved and particulate carbohydrates; and, other edaphic factors. Of special interest is the overall respiration of plant material (mainly lichens) which is strongly influenced by the bacterial respiration of dissolved carbohydrates, probably by ongrowing organisms due to their efficiency in using dissolved organic matter. In terms of respiratory activity, the (bacterial) respiration of glucose may contribute to more than 50% of the total CO2-evolution. This influences considerably the modeling of overall respiration of plant material in those environments where close interactions between different parts of the system are very important for their life strategy. Further, the bacterial part may be an overlooked part of metabolic rates in Antarctic lichens

  13. HACCP Assessment of Virginia Meat and Poultry Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Brenton Peter

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-eight meat and poultry plants in Virginia were assessed during spring and summer of 2000. These assessments were all conducted in the presence of state inspection and were designed to be non-regulatory. The audit team included N.G. Marriott, M.A. Tolbert and B.P. Quinn. The audits consisted of a tour of the facility and a review of SSOPs and all HACCP related documentation. To assist in these audits, a HACCP check sheet was developed and utilized to indicate suggestions or deficienc...

  14. Measuring process solutions in a reprocessing plant to 0. 1%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, J.M.; Ehinger, M.H.; Ellis, J.H.

    1980-03-01

    Measurement of SNM in reprocessing plant solutions involves two major problems; measurement of bulk solution quantities and analysis of highly radioactive samples. It has been shown at the BNFP that bulk measurements can be made routinely under operating conditions to less than 0.1% total uncertainty. Two specific advances in measurement technology have been largely responsible for this improved performance. The quartz bourdon tube electromanometer replaces the fluid manometer for differential pressure measurements. The vibrating tube densimeter provides accurate measurement of density in lab samples. These instruments, coupled with a rigorous measurement and quality control procedures, are the means to achieve better than 0.1% performance.

  15. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing the mobility of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, affecting radionuclide mobility. These changes were assessed for coniferous and deciduous trees grown in lysimeter systems by examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. Our studies demonstrated the formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management or exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed

  16. Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design

  17. Emission of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-driven motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    This study reports the measurement of 1,3-butadiene emissions from 30 petrol-driven vehicles from the Australian car fleet using the Australian Design Rule 37/00 vehicle test procedure. Six of the cars tested were not equipped with catalytic converters and used leaded petrol as fuel. The remaining 24 cars were fitted with catalytic converters and used unleaded petrol. 1,3-Butadiene in exhaust samples was found to degrade rapidly in SUMMA treated stainless steel canisters and the degradation followed first-order kinetics. The rate coefficient of the decay can be represented by a linear dependence on the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust ( r2 = 0.79, n = 43), and the gas-phase reaction of NO 2 and 1,3-butadiene may have a major role in this loss. The 1,3-butadiene concentrations used to estimate vehicle emissions were corrected for this loss using the decay rate constant either observed from replicate analyses or from the NO x concentrations in the samples. The measurements showed that 1,3-butadiene was emitted at a rate of 20.7 ± 9.2 mg km -1 from 6 non-catalyst vehicles. There was considerable scatter in the observations from catalyst equipped vehicles and we infer that this was due to the malfunction of the emission control devices on some vehicles. The 19 vehicles that appeared to have functioning catalyst emission control devices had an average emission rate of 2.1 ± 1.5 mg km -1. These emission rates are consistent with atmospheric observations and are much higher than those reported previously. We calculate that more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene in engine exhaust comes from the common alkane and aromatic constituents of the fuel. A comparison of emissions in the different phases of the drive cycle indicates that current emission controls remove more than 90% of the 1,3-butadiene from the initial exhaust mixture.

  18. Secondary organic aerosol formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene under high NOx conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cocker III

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene has been the subject of multiple studies in recent years; however, reactions of other conjugated dienes emitted from anthropogenic sources remain poorly understood. SOA formation from the photooxidation of isoprene, isoprene-1-13C, 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene is investigated for high NOx conditions. The SOA yield measured in the 1,3-butadiene/NOx/H2O2 irradiation system (0.089–0.178 was close to or slightly higher than that measured with isoprene under similar NOx conditions (0.077–0.103, suggesting that the photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene is a possible source of SOA in urban air. In contrast, a very small amount of SOA particles was produced in experiments with 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. Off-line liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the signals of oligoesters comprise a major fraction (0.10–0.33 of the signals of the SOA products observed from all dienes investigated. The oligoesters originate from the unsaturated aldehyde gas phase diene reaction products; namely, semi-volatile compounds produced by the oxidation of the unsaturated aldehyde undergo particle-phase oligoester formation. Oligoesters produced by the dehydration reaction between nitrooxypolyol and 2-methylglyceric acid monomer or its oligomer were also characterized in these experiments with isoprene as the starting diene. These oligomers are possible sources of the 2-methyltetrols found in ambient aerosol samples collected under high NOx conditions. Furthermore, in low-temperature experiments also conducted in this study, the SOA yield measured with isoprene at 278 K was 2–3 times as high as that measured at 300 K under similar concentration conditions. Although oligomerization plays an important role in SOA formation from isoprene photooxidation, the observed temperature dependence of SOA yield is largely explained by gas/particle partitioning

  19. Hazards of combustible gases accidentally released from the process plant of HTGR process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the preliminary work on reformer explosions for the indirect cycle plant design effort of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor for Process Heat (HTGR-PH). Models were completed for the determination of the combustible behavior of the releases (either instantaneous like puffs or continuous like jets or plumes), the amount of combustible material, and the propagation of detonation and shock waves (i.e., blast) as a consequence of potential explosions. A preliminary analysis reveals that (1) incombustible or flammable but nonexplosive mixtures can be formed by accidental releases from the reformer inlet flow and (2) the addition of sufficient steam to the reformer flow renders nonexplosive any accidental release from the reformer area. The explosion of combustible releases is then analyzed with reference to the worst contributor: synthesis gas. The explosions of instantaneous releases, while enroute, are analyzed under different meteorological conditions. The explosions of continuous releases are analyzed in situ for determining the effects on structures and equipment in the vicinity of the jets by considering (1) detonations inside the combustible region of jets and (2) blasts outside the combustible region of jets

  20. Advance purex process for the new reprocessing plants in France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early Eighties, Japanese utilities formed the Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co (JNFS), which is in charge of the construction and the operation of the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan to be erected in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture. Following a thorough worldwide examination of available processes and technologies, JNFS selected the French technology developed for UP3 and UP2 800 for the plants' main facilities. For these three new plants, the 40-year old PUREX process which is used worldwide for spent fuel reprocessing, has been significantly improved. This paper describes some of the innovative features of the selected processes

  1. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, C.R.; Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid. 37 figs.

  2. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Christopher R. (Portola Valley, CA); Nawrath, Christiane (Palo Alto, CA); Poirier, Yves (Palo Alto, CA)

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

  3. Evaluation of regulatory processes affecting nuclear power plant early site approval and standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a survey and evaluation of existing federal, state and local regulatory considerations affecting siting approval of power plants in the United States. Those factors that may impede early site approval of nuclear power plants are identified, and findings related to the removal of these impediments and the general improvement of the approval process are presented. A brief evaluation of standardization of nuclear plant design is also presented

  4. Performance and Loading of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants Receiving Aquaculture Processing Effluent.

    OpenAIRE

    GOVERE; SIMBARASHE; MAHLATINI PRECIOUS; NDABANINGI ANGELINE

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with the loading and performance of a domestic wastewater treatment plant when receiving combined influent from an aquaculture processing factory and an urban settlement in Kariba town, Zimbabwe. The methodological framework was a case study approach involving a local aquaculture factory and two treatment plants. In the study effluent from Nyamhunga treatment plant, which receives both domestic and aquaculture effluent, acted as the treatment. Effluent from a similarsized pla...

  5. Opportunities for process control optimisation in Irish municipal wastewater treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Phelan, Thomas; McNamara, Greg; Horrigan, Matthew; Delaure, Yan; Corcoran, Brian; Fitzsimons, Lorna; Clifford, Eoghan

    2014-01-01

    As societies ever increasing reliance on electrical energy continues, the role of process optimisation becomes more and more prevalent. This paper presents an energy audit of a typical Irish wastewater treatment plant (P.E. 30,000 ) and attempts to investigate measures to increase the energy efficiencies within treatment plants across Ireland. Based on an in depth review of international energy efficient wastewater treatment plants, energy savings opportunities exist via the use of variable ...

  6. A PROMISING TREND IN THE PROCESSING OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) WHOLE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Timasheva, Lidiya; Gorbunova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic plants are a valuable source of biologically active substances. The use of aromatic plant processing products in the pharmaceutical, perfume and cosmetic, and food industries is of great interest. The search for new plant sources of biologically active substances and the study of their composition and properties are still topical. Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ) is a promising aromatic raw material containing a number of biologically active substances. Until now, essential oils w...

  7. Shoot branching of the aquatic carnivorous plant Utricularia australis as the key process of plant growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2011), 133-148. ISSN 0079-2047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : aquatic carnivorous plant * branching characteristics * mathematical model Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2011

  8. Low-level radioactive waste processing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey was limited to systems and materials used to process waste liquids contaminated with radionuclides. Since the chemical and radiological character of collected liquids may change dramatically, the survey describes waste and cleanup process streams encountered during normal outage or power production conditions. Influents containing specific organic compounds, salts, or solids common to local sources, and the special techniques developed to remove or concentrate these materials are not detailed in this report. The names and phone numbers of the individuals responsible for investigating and solving these problems, however, provides easy access to data which will save time and expense when facing abnormal processing, purchasing, or engineering challenges. The Liquid Radwaste Source Book contains information collected from 31 of 36 BWR's as well as contact information from all licensed commercial units. Since some sites share common radwaste processing facilities, not all units are represented by individual data sheets

  9. Control systems of technological processes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of development and adoption of television system,s are considered to observe and check technological processes at NPP, Robot installations for survey, decontamination, control and repair of equipment

  10. Colonization of a Newly Constructed Commercial Chicken Further Processing Plant with Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly constructed chicken further processing plant and document the eventual colonization of the facility by this pathogen. To ascertain the colonization status of the plant, floor drains were sampled after a pr...

  11. Actin based processes that could determine the cytoplasmic architecture of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Actin polymerisation can generate forces that are necessary for cell movement, such as the propulsion of a class of bacteria, including Listeria, and the protrusion of migrating animal cells. Force generation by the actin cytoskeleton in plant cells has not been studied. One process in plant cells t

  12. Performance and Model Calibration of R-D-N Processes in Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Sota, A.; Larrea, L.; Novak, L.;

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the first part of an experimental programme in a pilot plant configured for advanced biological nutrient removal processes treating domestic wastewater of Bilbao. The IAWPRC Model No.1 was calibrated in order to optimize the design of the full-scale plant. In this first phas...

  13. Modeling photosynthesis of discontinuous plant canopies by linking Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with biochemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Q; P. Gong; Li, W.

    2015-01-01

    Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we a...

  14. Spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern for a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a...

  15. Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illian, Janine B.; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maximum...

  16. Factors influencing the design of the Remote Analytical Laboratory at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Analytical Laboratory is a special purpose laboratory designed specifically to provide routine analytical chemistry support for the fuel reprocessing operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant near Idaho Falls. It was built to replace the obsolete Remote Analytical Facility, a double line of 30 shielded cubicles equipped with Castle manipulators, which had served the plant since 1953

  17. Optimal process design for thermochemical biofuel production plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gassner, Martin; Maréchal, François; Favrat, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Transport applications are a major global source of greenhouse gas emissions and the production of fuels that are renewable and neutral in CO2 is an important issue in chemical process research and development. Contrary to the biological routes that produce bioethanol and -diesel on industrial scale through fermentation or esterification, 2nd generation biofuels obtained through thermochemical processing of lignocellulosic and waste biomass by means of gasification and fuel reforming are expe...

  18. Mechanical and tribological properties of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber filled with graphite and carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Graphite/carbon black/rubber micro- and nano-composites were prepared. ► Nanocomposites showed better mechanical properties and wear resistance. ► The effect of load and sliding speed on friction and wear is significant. ► Graphite lubricant film can reduce friction coefficient and wear rate. -- Abstract: In this work, acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (NBR)/expanded graphite (EG)/carbon black (CB) micro- and nanocomposites were prepared by two different methods, and the resulting mechanical and tribological properties were compared with those of NBR/CB composites. Meanwhile, the effects of graphite dispersion and loading content, as well as the applied load and sliding velocity on the tribological behavior of the above composites under dry friction condition were also evaluated. The worn surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to disclose wear mechanism. As expected, the better the dispersion of graphite, the more remarkable enhancement on tensile and dynamic mechanical properties, and the greater reduction in the coefficient of friction (COF) and specific wear rate (Ws). It was found that a small amount of EG could effectively decrease COF and Ws of NBR/CB composites because of the formation of graphite lubricant films. The COF and Ws of NBR/CB/EG composites show a decreasing trend with a rise in applied load and sliding velocity. NBR/CB/EG nanocomposite always shows a stable wearing process with relatively low COF and Ws. It is thought that well-dispersed graphite nano-sheets were beneficial to the formation of a fine and durable lubricant film.

  19. Optimisation processes of energy efficiency for a drying plant: A case of study for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the optimisation processes of energy efficiency for a drying plant. The scope of this study was to find the optimum energy and exergy efficiencies for the drying plant (production of bulgur). First, mass and energy data were obtained from tests at drying plants. The exergy was analysed based on these data using the first and second laws of thermodynamics. These results were optimised by the changing mass and energy (temperature etc.) balance based on food guidance processes. This paper showed that the optimisation of the mass and energy balance increased the current energy and exergy efficiencies. Uncertainty analysis was also used for the data accuracy. In conclusion, the current drying process energy and exergy efficiencies were 24.95% and 44.05%, and the optimised drying process energy and exergy efficiencies were 35.40% and 63.20%. Therefore, the optimised process is more efficient than the current process. A techno-economic analysis was also researched for this study. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency of a drying plant depends more on mass than humidity. • Energy and exergy analyses are a proper tool to optimise the drying process. • The results show the optimisation of drying plant's construction and set a new isolation system. • Uncertainty analysis shows the data accuracy. • Techno-economic analysis performs the efficiency of the drying plant's optimisation

  20. Laser processing for underwater maintenance in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of material processing with a short-pulse visible laser has been investigated as a novel tool for underwater maintenance in nuclear facilities. The primary objective is to create a residual compressive stress in metal surface, which could be exploited as a preventive measure for stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The process developed uses a visible laser such as copper vapor laser (CVL) or second harmonic (SH) of YAG laser which can penetrate water and is transmissible through optical fiber. By taking advantage of these features, components in a rector pressure vessel (RPV) could be remotely processed without drainage work, which would be effective to reduce radiation dose. Thermal effects on the material are minimized because of ablative interaction of the short-pulse visible laser with the material, together with water cooling. Fundamental experiments were carried out and a residual compressive stress was successfully built in the surface layer of austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) with magnitude of 200 - 400 MPa and depth over 200 μm by incident of SH of a YAG laser on a 0.75 mmφ focal spot with an energy density of about 300 kJ/m2 and a pulse duration of 5 ns. In future applications of the process developed, the CVL will be used to reduce the time for the processing. (author)

  1. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    CERN Document Server

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  2. Process and device for cleaning of water-containing machine oil from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive contaminants produced in water-containing machine oil in plants operated with nuclear power are removed from the contaminated machine oil by adsorption on water-adsorbing material. This document discusses this process. 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. MULTISPECTRAL DETECTION OF ORGANIC RESIDUES ON POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT EQUIPMENT BASED ON HYPERSPECTRAL REFLECTANCE IMAGING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diluted organic residues, such as feces, ingesta and other biological substances on poultry processing plant equipment surfaces, not easily discernible by human eye, are potential contamination sources for poultry carcasses. Development of sensitive detection methods for diluted organic residues is ...

  4. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... CFR Part 50 as they apply to software development processes. The criteria of Appendices A and B apply... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power...

  5. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang;

    2013-01-01

    A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extrac...... artemisinin obtained in individual unit operations of maceration, flash column chromatography, and crystallization are 90.0%, 87.1, and 47.6%, respectively. Results showed that the crystallization step is dominant to the overall yield of the process which was 37.3%.......A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract...

  6. Modelling of the application of near real time accountancy and process monitoring to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many statistical tests have been proposed for the analysis of accountancy data from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The purpose of this programme was to assess the performance of these tests by applying them to data streams which simulate the information that would be available from a real plant. In addition the problems of pre-processing the raw data from a plant were considered. A suite of programs to analyse the data has been written, which include colour graphical output to allow effective interpretation of the results. The commercial software package VisiCalc has been evaluated and found to be effective for the rapid production of material balances from plant data. (author)

  7. Process Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Kodama; Kazuya Goto; Hidetoshi Sekiguchi

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture is a promising technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal from large stationary CO2 sources. The effects of carbon dioxide capture process on output efficiency of fossil power plants were investigated. Supercritical pulverized coal and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) were assumed as model coal-fired power plants for this investigation. Heat-driven and pressure-driven CO2 capture processes such as chemical absorption and physical adsorption were assumed for C...

  8. Preslaughter stress and muscle energy largely determine pork quality at two commercial processing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Nooijen, R.I.J.; Ducro, B.J.; Smits, C.H.M.; Hartog, den, D.N.; M.W. A. Verstegen

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study physiological changes elicited in response to stress in the immediate preslaughter period and to link them to pork quality characteristics. Crossbred, halothane-free pigs (n = 192) were processed in eight groups (24 pigs per group) on various days at one of two commercial processing plants operating different stunning systems (electrical and CO2 stunning in Plants A and B, respectively). In each group, half the pigs were exposed to either m...

  9. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  10. Computer and control applications in a vegetable processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many advantages to the use of computers and control in food industry. Software in the food industry takes 2 forms - general purpose commercial computer software and software for specialized applications, such as drying and thermal processing of foods. Many applied simulation models for d...

  11. ECOS 2010 Volume IV (Power plants & Industrial processes)

    OpenAIRE

    Favrat, Daniel; François MARÉCHAL

    2011-01-01

    ECOS2010 - 23rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, June 14-17 2010, Lausanne, Switzerland Ecoefficiency and renewable energy for a sustainable world + Developments, application and teaching of methods in: - Basic and applied thermodynamics - Thermoeconomics and environomics - Simulation, improvement and optimization of energy conversion systems - Process design, analysis and integration of thermal and c...

  12. Decontamination of airborne bacteria in meat processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air has been established as a source of bacterial contamination in meat processing facilities. Airborne bacteria may affect product shelf life, and have food safety implications. The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in...

  13. Reduced stress welding process for nuclear plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development and application of FineLineTM welding (FLW). FLW is a modified gas-tungsten-arc welding mechanized process developed by GE Nuclear Energy. The FLW process offers significant improvements over standard and narrow-gap welding. For piping, FLW reduces the weld groove width and volume of weld metal compared to standard 'V' or J-bevel welds by approximately 30% for smaller pipe and 70% or more for larger sizes. Also, extremely low heat inputs are achieved, and typically result in: (1) significant reductions in welding elapsed time, particularly for thicker walls, (2) compressive/very low tensile residual stresses on the pipe inside surface, and (3) improved heat-affected-zone microstructure, with reduced shrinkage/distortion. The improved residual stress and metallurgical states provide increased resistance to stress corrosion cracking in high temperature, oxidizing water. The FLW process is successful in eliminating the need for secondary stress improvement processes such as induction-heating stress improvement. Verifications of the stress improvement were performed on standard V-groove and narrow-gap welds, which were compared to thin and thick-wall stainless steel pipe FLW welds. Testing included strain-gage, X-ray diffraction, magnesium chloride and metallographic evaluations. The results show significant improvement in the residual stress level and uniformity of the FLW welds. (orig.)

  14. Decontamination of airborne bacteria in meat processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Bacterial strains found in ground beef were used to artificially contaminate the air using a 6-jet Collison nebulizer. Airborne bact...

  15. Barriers, pathways and processes for uptake, translocation and accumulation of nanomaterials in plants - Critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Fabienne; Zhai, Guangshu; Kern, Meaghan; Turner, Amalia; Schnoor, Jerald L; Wiesner, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Uptake, transport and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into plant cells are complex processes that are currently still not well understood. Parts of this problem are the multifaceted plant anatomy, and analytical challenges to visualize and quantify ENMs in plants. We critically reviewed the currently known ENM uptake, translocation, and accumulation processes in plants. A vast number of studies showed uptake, clogging, or translocation in the apoplast of plants, most notably of nanoparticles with diameters much larger than the commonly assumed size exclusion limit of the cell walls of ∼5-20 nm. Plants that tended to translocate less ENMs were those with low transpiration, drought-tolerance, tough cell wall architecture, and tall growth. In the absence of toxicity, accumulation was often linearly proportional to exposure concentration. Further important factors strongly affecting ENM internalization are the cell wall composition, mucilage, symbiotic microorganisms (mycorrhiza), the absence of a cuticle (submerged plants) and stomata aperture. Mostly unexplored are the roles of root hairs, leaf repellency, pit membrane porosity, xylem segmentation, wounding, lateral roots, nodes, the Casparian band, hydathodes, lenticels and trichomes. The next steps towards a realistic risk assessment of nanoparticles in plants are to measure ENM uptake rates, the size exclusion limit of the apoplast and to unravel plant physiological features favoring uptake. PMID:26067571

  16. Modern processes for Indian power plant coal beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, F.; Schwerdtfeger, J.

    1997-12-31

    Presently in India 160 Mio tonnes per year of non-coking coal are mined for power generation, which have not been at all beneficiated until today. In order to beneficiate the whole amount of raw coal, an investment of approximately 45 billion Rupees is required. Due to the fact that the beneficiation costs are increasing drastically, when beneficiating finer material, it is recommended to wash in a first step the grainsize 400-30 mm only. This amounts to 110 Mio tonnes per year. The required beneficiation plants will need an investment of approximately 8 billion INR. The washed grain size {gt}40 mm, which is approximately 65% of the entire raw coal, dewaters without any mechanical assistance to 4% moisture. It can be crushed down and mixed with the unwashed fine coal without increasing the moisture content compared to the r.o.m. coal. For this duty - to wash the raw coal 400-30 mm - in close cooperation with Indian mining engineers the ROMJIG has been developed and tested during the operation. 3 figs.

  17. Ignalina plant licensing process, international co-operation and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenge for Lithuania as a country with regained independence was to perform a licensing review in a way never done before in the country and in a time schedule that was extremely short. The work included establishing of the licensing base, strengthening the regulatory authority and organising the technical support, establish and implement a safety improvement program, production of the safety case and review of the safety case, and to derive a conclusion regarding whether to issue a licence or not. This was to be done together with other tasks, such as implementation of modifications included in the safety improvement programme at Ignalina, implementation of a new storage for spent fuel and, most important of all, to manage the operational safety at the plant. The achievements are impressive seen in view of the point of start and in view of the time and resources that have been available. Lithuania has put forward a unique safety documentation of an RBMK reactor and presented an in-depth safety evaluation in full openness to Western experts, giving the unique possibility to compare the safety of the Ignalina reactors to Western standards. The co-operation that has been established between Lithuania and Western experts through different assistance programmes is of outmost value, for all involved parties. Co-operation should continue as one element of the challenges for the future

  18. ANTIOXIDANT PLANT EXTRACTS IN THE MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the role of antioxidants in minimizing oxidative changes that may adversely affect the quality of meat and meat products, cause changes in their testing and nutritional properties. This applies particularly to the use of natural antioxidants based on plant extracts, which can be a good alternative to traditional antioxidants, thanks to its high content of phenolic compounds. From the literature it can be concluded that extracts of broccoli, rosemary, mint, grape seed and green tea have a significant antioxidant effect in the meat products. Broccoli and grape seeds extracts have a pronounced antioxidant activity compared to synthetic antioxidants. Laminarin/fucoidan extracts have prooxidative effect on lipid perperoxidation. Essential oils of L. angustifolia and M. piperita effectively inhibit E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in the chopped beef meat. The alcoholic extract of the dried leaves of oregano has the highest content of total phenols, however, does not exhibit antioxidant properties. The extracts of rosemary, orange, lemon, mint and curry have positive effect on the color of the meat products. When choosing natural antioxidants it is necessary to pay attention to their impact on testing and qualitative characteristics of these food products.

  19. Guidebook on design, construction and operation of pilot plants for uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and operation of a pilot plant are often important stages in the development of a project for the production of uranium concentrates. Since building and operating a pilot plant is very costly and may not always be required, it is important that such a plant be built only after several prerequisites have been met. The main purpose of this guidebook is to discuss the objectives of a pilot plant and its proper role in the overall project. Given the wide range of conditions under which a pilot plant may be designed and operated, it is not possible to provide specific details. Instead, this book discusses the rationale for a pilot plant and provides guidelines with suggested solutions for a variety of problems that may be encountered. This guidebook is part of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing being prepared by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management. 42 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  1. The use of mass and energy balances for observation in process plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described that uses the invariant mass and energy conservation laws in order to extract a detailed pattern of mass and energy flows from the instrumentation of a process plant. The basic feature of the method is that it is applicable to a large range of plant operational situations, such as those initiated by unforeseen failures during sequential operations. The authors' intensions with this interim progress report are to describe the basic ideas behind the method, as well as to discuss some of its implications for man-computer cooperation in process plant diagnosis. (author)

  2. Model of iodine-129 process distributions in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the development, demonstration and verification of a model of iodine-129 pathways in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Laboratory experimental results are presented on iodine-129 chemical forms and also on evaporator and solvent extraction behavior. In-plant sampling results for all accessable processes are also reported. A computer program using the developed model is documented. Although the ICPP is somewhat unique in its processes it is believed these results can be applied to other types of fuel reprocessing plants

  3. Conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene over Na doped ZnxZryOz mixed metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylon, Rebecca A.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on different oxide catalysts for the ethanol to 1,3-butadiene reaction, few have identified active sites (i.e., type of acidity) correlated to the catalytic performances. In this work, the type of acidity needed for ethanol to 1,3-butadiene conversion has been studied over Zn/Zr mixed oxide catalysts. Specifically, synthesis method, Zn/Zr ratio, and Na doping have been used to control the surface acid-base properties, as confirmed by characterizations such as NH3-TPD and IR-Py techniques. The 2000 ppm Na doped Zn1Zr10Oz-H with balanced base and weak Bronsted acid sites was found to give not only high selectivity to 1,3-butadiene (47%) at near complete ethanol conversion (97%), but also exhibited a much higher 1,3-butadiene productivity than other mixed oxides studied.

  4. Synthesis of novel N-, S-substituted-polyhalo-1, 3-butadienes and crystal structure of dibutadienyl homopiperazine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahide Gulsah Deniz; Cemil Ibis

    2013-07-01

    Polyhalogenated-2-nitro-1, 3-butadienes are important synthetic precursors for a variety of polyfunctionalized bioactive heterocycles. Herein, we report the reactions of 1, 1, 3, 4, 4-pentachloro-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene 1 and 4-bromo-1, 1, 3, 4-tetrachloro-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene 2 with amino and thiol containing nucleophiles to obtain highly functionalized (E)-polyhalodiene-2-nitro-1, 3-butadiene derivatives. Most of these reactions were found to be highly selective resulting in good to high yields of the products. All new compounds have been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopic data. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis of compound 8c is reported.

  5. Steam gasification of coal, project prototype plant nuclear process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the tasks, which Bergbau-Forschung has carried out in the field of steam gasification of coal in cooperation with partners and contractors during the reference phase of the project. On the basis of the status achieved to date it can be stated, that the mode of operation of the gas-generator developed including the direct feeding of caking high volatile coal is technically feasible. Moreover through-put can be improved by 65% at minimum by using catalysts. On the whole industrial application of steam gasification - WKV - using nuclear process heat stays attractive compared with other gasification processes. Not only coal is conserved but also the costs of the gas manufactured are favourable. As confirmed by recent economic calculations these are 20 to 25% lower. (orig.)

  6. Software for the Simulation of Power Plant Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2002-01-01

    short description of many static and/or dynamic energy system or process simulators. It discusses the principal implementation of the model handling in DNA and finally, there is a small example illustrating that too simple component models may under certain circumstances result in an erroneous, singular......Modelling of energy systems has been increasingly more important. In particular the dynamic behaviour is critical when operating the systems closer to the limits (either of the process, the materials, the emissions or the economics, etc.). This enforces strong requirements on both the models and...... their numerical solution with respect to both accuracy and efficiency. In part A of this paper we give a survey on simulation of energy systems, from models and modelling, over numerical methods to implementational techniques. It covers important aspects of the different phases of modelling of a (energy...

  7. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Modeling of state recognition process of plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to automate Machine systems because they have become larger and more complicated these years. Generally speaking, humans hardly grasp the overall state in the automated systems. In fact it is reported that the accident caused by this problem occurs. To avoid such accidents, there were many studies to give human the authority of final decision making. In general it depends on circumstances whether the authority of decision making is given humans or machine systems. It is supposed therefore that humans and machine systems exchange their information each other and efficiently share their tasks. It is necessary that machine systems infer human intention in these systems. There were not enough considerations on state recognition process which is important to infer human intention. In this paper we first reconstructed human knowledge into a hierarchy and incorporated these knowledge into a Bayesian network. Next we modeled the state recognition process by using the Bayesian network. (author)

  9. Importance of design optimization of gamma processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing of food commodities using ionizing radiations is well established world wide. In India too, novel designs are coming up for food irradiation as well as for multiproduct irradiation. It has been observed that though the designs of the product movement systems are excelling, the actual purpose for which the designs are made are failing in some. In such situations it is difficult to achieve an effective dose delivery by controlling the process parameters or even by modifying the source activity distribution without compromising some other aspects like throughput. It is very essential to arrive at an optimization in all components such as radiation source geometry, source product geometry and protective barriers of an irradiator system. Optimization of the various parameters can be done by modeling and analysis of the design

  10. Large pilot plant alternatives for scaleup of the catalytic coal gasification process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    This is the final report for US Department of Energy Contract No. EX-76-C-01-2480, Scaleup Requirements of the Exxon Catalyzed Coal Gasification Process. The objective was to develop the information necessary to determine if an existing DOE large pilot plant could be used to obtain the scaleup data necessary to design and construct a Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) pioneer plant with acceptable risk. A pioneer plant is a stand-alone facility, whose primary function is to operate as a profitable commercial venture. The pioneer plant would contain all equipment of full commercial size, as defined by the requirements for an optimum-sized commercial plant. However, the pioneer plant could have a single train of equipment in some or all of the plant sections. The three tasks contained in this contract are discussed: study design and cost estimate for a grass-roots large pilot plant; selection of the preferred existing pilot plant; and study design and cost estimate for revamp of the preferred existing pilot plant.

  11. Integration of chemical product development, process design and operation based on a kilo-plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu; WU Zhihui; JIANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an integrated approach of computer-aided product development, process design and operation analysis based on a kilo-plant. The implemented kilo-plant, as a research platform to manufacture product in kilogram-scale, was designed especially for fine and specialty chemicals. The characteristics of product synthesis, process operation and product quality control are investigated coupled with computer-aided monitoring, online modeling, simulation and operation process optimization. In this way, chemical product discovery, process design and operation are integrated in a systematic approach, in the aim to respond to rapid changing marketplace demands to new products.

  12. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ► Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ► Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ► Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ► In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ► Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  13. Miniature DIAMEX processes in a hollow fibre module micro-plant: process development and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hollow fibre module (HFM) micro-plant was built to perform continuous liquid-liquid extraction tests with very small feed volumes, using miniature HFM as phase contactors. Spiked DIAMEX tests (i.e., co-extraction of americium, curium, and lanthanides from PUREX raffinate) were performed in this plant. Following some flow sheet modifications, raffinate decontamination factors of up to 30 000 and 900 were achieved for americium and curium, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Do the Czech Production Plants Measure the Performance of Energy Processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Tučková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was focused to the actual situation in Performance Measurement of the energy processes in Czech production plants. The results are back – upped by the previous researches which were aimed to performance measurement methods usage in the whole organizational structure of the plants. Although the most of big industrial companies declared using of modern Performance Measurements methods, the previous researches shown that it is not purely true. The bigger differences were found in the energy area – energy processes. The authors compared the Energy concepts of European Union (EU and Czech Republic (CZ which are very different and do not create any possibilities for manager’s clear decision in the process management strategy of energy processes in their companies. Next step included the Energy department’s analysis. The significant part of energy processes in the production plants is still not mapped, described and summarized to one methodical manual for managing and performance measurement.

  15. Application of laser processing for disassembly of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Gennady A.; Zinchenko, A. V.; Arutyunyan, R. B.

    1998-12-01

    Provision of safety and drop of ecological risk at salvaging of nuclear submarines (NSM) of Russia Navy Forces represents one of the most actual problems of nowadays. It is necessary to remove from services of Russian Navy Forces 170 - 180 nuclear submarines by 2000. At salvaging of Russian Navy Forces NSM it should be necessary to cut out reactor compartments with more than 150 thousand tons of gross weight and to fragment terminal carcasses of submarines with gross weight of 2 million tons. Taking into account overall dimensions of salvaging objects and Euro-standard requirement on the sizes of carcass fragments, for salvaging of one NSM it is necessary to execute more than 10 km of cuts. Using of conventional methods of gas and plasma cutting of ship constructions and equipment polluted with radioactive oxides and bedding of insulation and paint and varnish materials causes contamination of working zones and environment by a mix of radioactive substances and highly toxic combustion products, nomenclature of which includes up to 50 names. Calculations carried out in the Institute of industrial and Marine Medicine have shown that salvage of just one NSM with using of gas and plasma cutting are accompanied by discharge into an environment of up to 11.5 kg of chromium oxides, up to 22.5 kg of manganese oxides, up to 97 kg of carbon oxides and up to 650 kg of nitrogen oxides. Fragmentation of such equipment by a method of directional explosion or hydraulic jet is problematic because of complexity of treated constructions and necessity to create special protective facilities, which will accumulate a bulk of radioactive and toxic discharges, as a consequence of the explosion and spreaded by shock waves and water deluges. In a number of new technological processes the cutting with using of high-power industrial lasers radiation stands out. As compared with other technological processes, laser cutting has many advantages determined by such unique properties of laser

  16. A pre design processing of solid radioactive waste using microwave process from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pre design processing of solid radioactive waste using microwave process from nuclear power plant type 1000 MW has been carried out. The aims of study is to conduct pre design solid radioactive waste treatment in the form of incineration ash, ion exchange resins, solid concentrates and metal sludge by microwave process by melting them in a melter using a microwave technique. The results of the reduction of waste volume up to 1/20 times from the original waste volume and having shape very solids so that it will be easily stored and transferred at the waste storage place. Thus, the processing using microwave process has many advantages compared to the immobilization process which is more efficient and effective. In the pre design installation of solid radioactive waste processing is done by compilation of microwave conceptual design and process flow diagram of pre design. (author)

  17. Technical Characteristics of the Process Information System - Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    process Information System (PIS) of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NEK) is newly installed distributed and redundant process computer system which was built in NEK (Phase I: 1991-1995) to integrate the following main functions: - Signal Data Acquisition from the technological processes and environment - Implementation of the basic SCADA functions on the real time process signals data base - Execution of complex plant specific application programs - Advanced MMI (Man Machine Interface) features for users in MCR - Process data transfer to other than Main Control Room (MCR) locations - Process data archiving and capability to retrieve same data for future analysis PIS NEK architecture consists of three hierarchically interconnected hardware platforms: - PIS Level 1, DAS (Data Acquisition System) Level - PIS Level2, Level for MMI, application programs and process data archiving - PIS Level 3, Level for distribution of process data to remote users of PIS data. (author)

  18. The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. → Improvement in fatigue life of irradiated blends due to formation of irradiation-induced crosslinks. → Excessive crosslinking caused reduction of tensile properties of irradiated SBR/NBRr blends. -- Abstract: The effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the thermal properties, fatigue life and natural weathering of styrene butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (SBR/NBRr) blends were investigated. The SBR/NBRr blends were prepared at 95/5, 85/15, 75/25, 65/35, or 50/50 blend ratios with and without the presence of a 3 part per hundred rubber (phr) of polyfunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Results indicate that the crystallisation temperature (Tc) observed in polymeric blends is due to the alignment of polymer chains forming a semi-crystalline phase. Addition of TMPTA helps to align polymer chains through crosslinking. More crosslinking occurred between polymer blends with the help of TMPTA, upon irradiation. The improvement in fatigue life can also be associated with the stabilisation of SBR/NBRr blends upon irradiation and irradiation-induced crosslinking, which was accomplished with relatively low radiation-induced oxidative degradation in the presence of TMPTA. The tensile properties of both blends decreased over the periods of environmental exposure due to the effect of polymer degradation. After 6 months, the irradiated SBR/NBRr blends could not retain better retention [mainly with 25, 35 or 50 phr of recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBRr) particles] due to the samples becoming brittle over the long period of outdoor exposure.

  19. Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

    2012-07-01

    This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme. PMID:22609678

  20. A model framework to represent plant-physiology and rhizosphere processes in soil profile simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborght, J.; Javaux, M.; Couvreur, V.; Schröder, N.; Huber, K.; Abesha, B.; Schnepf, A.; Vereecken, H.

    2013-12-01

    Plant roots play a crucial role in several key processes in soils. Besides their impact on biogeochemical cycles and processes, they also have an important influence on physical processes such as water flow and transport of dissolved substances in soils. Interaction between plant roots and soil processes takes place at different scales and ranges from the scale of an individual root and its directly surrounding soil or rhizosphere over the scale of a root system of an individual plant in a soil profile to the scale of vegetation patterns in landscapes. Simulation models that are used to predict water flow and solute transport in soil-plant systems mainly focus on the individual plant root system scale, parameterize single-root scale phenomena, and aggregate the root system scale to the vegetation scale. In this presentation, we will focus on the transition from the single root to the root system scale. Using high resolution non-invasive imaging techniques and methods, gradients in soil properties and states around roots and their difference from the bulk soil properties could be demonstrated. Recent developments in plant sciences provide new insights in the mechanisms that control water fluxes in plants and in the adaptation of root properties or root plasticity to changing soil conditions. However, since currently used approaches to simulate root water uptake neither resolve these small scale processes nor represent processes and controls within the root system, transferring this information to the whole soil-plant system scale is a challenge. Using a simulation model that describes flow and transport processes in the soil, resolves flow and transport towards individual roots, and describes flow and transport within the root system, such a transfer could be achieved. We present a few examples that illustrate: (i) the impact of changed rhizosphere hydraulic properties, (ii) the effect of root hydraulic properties and root system architecture, (iii) the regulation

  1. Economics of a freeze desalting process using cold seawater effluent of a liquid natural gas plant. Final report. [AVCO Crystallex process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The technical feasibility and economic attractiveness of using cold seawater from an LNG plant in an adjacent seawater freeze desalting plant and the degree to which this would improve the environmental impact of the LNG plant is discussed. The basis for comparison is a secondary refrigerant process, the AVCO Crystallex process. (GRA)

  2. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  3. Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matanoski, G.M.; Santos-Burgoa, C.; Schwartz, L. (Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81) compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs.

  4. Mortality among male workers at a thorium-processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality is described in a cohort of 3039 men who were employed between 1940 and 1973 at a company involved in the production of thorium and rare earth chemicals from monazite sand. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes was 1.05. SMR's were high for cancers of the lung (1,44), rectum (1.90), and pancreas (2.01), and for motor vehicle accidents (1.64). A subgroup of 592 men who worked for one year or longer in selected jobs (laborer, operator, maintenance) was followed up more intensively. SMR's were high for both lung cancer (1.62; 95% CL = 0.78 and 2.98) and pancreatic cancer (4.01; 95% CL = 1.30 and 9.34). The higher proportion of smokers in this subgroup relative to US males could have explained at least part of the excess mortality from lung cancer. Continued follow-up of the cohort in morbidity and mortality studies is needed to evaluate further these possible long-term effects of exposure to radioactivity and chemicals in the thorium extraction process

  5. Application of an adaptive control system to a gold processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation and operation of a commercially available adaptive process control system in a gold processing plant in Nevada has proven technically and financially successful. Test results show that the system paid for itself through increased throughput within two weeks of commissioning. The control system uses an expert rule base written with both crisp and fuzzy logic rules integrated with continually adapting neural network models used by predictors, and optimizers. This allows the control system to provide optimum process performance under continually varying feed conditions. This paper describes the installation, rule and predictor configuration, and statistically verifiable testing of the control system in an operating plant. (author)

  6. Decomposition of Organic Compounds in Coke Plant Wastewater by Ultrasonic Irradiation and Its Combined Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-qiu; JIA Jin-ping; WANG Jing-wei

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the degradation of the organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge. The influence factors of the ultrasonic degradation effect such as air atmosphere, initial concentration, ultrasonic power density and the category and consumption of catalyst were investigated. A water quality model was used to explain the degradation of different kinds of organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by ultrasonic irradiation. After the wastewater was treated by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge, the COD degradation efficiency was 95. 74 %, which is 63. 49% higher than that by the process of activated sludge alone.

  7. Modelling biomass-fuelled small-scale CHP plants for process synthesis optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Savola, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    In this work possible process improvements for biomass-fuelled small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants are evaluated and a new mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for process synthesis optimisation of these processes is presented. Small-scale (1-20 MWe) CHP plants are of interest, as in Finland the potential to increase the CHP production is in converting small heating units to CHP production. However, the profitability of these small-scale CHP investments should be hig...

  8. The scale-up and design of pressure hydrometallurgical process plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, F.; Vardill, W. D.; Trytten, L.

    1999-09-01

    This article reviews more than 45 years of experience in the scale-up of pressure hydrometallurgical processes, from the pioneering collaboration between Sherritt and Chemical Construction Company to current process development by their successor, Dynatec Corporation. The evolution of test work is discussed, from traditional pilot-plant operations using semicommercial equipment to small scale or minipiloting with equipment several thousand times smaller than commercial units. Nickel, uranium, zinc, and gold processes have been developed and successfully implemented in worldwide operations treating a variety of feed materials, including concentrates, ores, and mattes. Data on test work duration and the ramp-up of commercial plants are presented.

  9. The potential of dry fractionation processes for sustainable plant protein production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Wet fractionation processes are mainstream technology for producing plant-derived protein isolates. Unfortunately, wet fractionation involves consumption of copious amounts of water and energy. In addition, much of the (native) functionality of proteins is lost during processing. This paper reviews

  10. Relationships at the aboveground-belowground interface: plants, soil biota and soil processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porazinska, D.L.; Bardgett, R.D.; Postma-Blaauw, M.B.; Hunt, H.W.; Parsons, A.N.; Seastedt, T.R.; Wall, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions at the aboveground-below ground interface provide important feedbacks that regulate ecosystem processes. Organisms within soil food webs are involved in processes of decomposition and nutrient mineralization, and their abundance and activity have been linked to plant ecophysiological tr

  11. Agronomics and economics of plant population density on processing sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed analysis of the effect of plant population density on processing sweet corn is lacking in the peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, field experiments were conducted utilizing six hybrids commonly grown in the North Central Region (NCR), a primary production region of processing sweet corn ...

  12. Conceptual design of a process plant for the production of plantain flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesan Peter Ayodeji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plantain has become an essential source of food in the Nigerian market today and to this effect, it is fast becoming a sought after fruit, especially for persons diagnosed with diabetics. Being a perishable fruit, plantain is usually processed into flour to extend its shelf life. Hence, there is a need to improve on the quantity and quality of the flour produced from it. This paper presents the conceptual design of a process plant for plantain flour production from green plantain pulp. The process plant consists of washing, slicing, drying, milling and sieving machines. The design analysis of constituent machines and its performance evaluation were carried out using SolidWorks and other appropriate design equations. The designed process plant was simulated to ensure its functionality. The results of its performance were analyzed and estimated cost of production presented.

  13. UDAD, Radiation Exposure to Man at Uranium Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground- deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant. 2 - Method of solution: The removal of radioactive particles from a contaminated area such as uranium tailings by wind action is estimated from theoretical and empirical wind-erosion equations according to the wind speed, particle size distribution, surface roughness, and other parameters. Atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity from specific sources are calculated by means of a dispersion-deposition-resuspension model. Source depletion as a result of deposition, fallout of the heavier particulates, and radioactive decay and ingrowth of radon daughters are included in a sector-averaged, Gaussian plume dispersion model. The average air concentration at any given receptor location is assumed to be constant during each annual release period, but to increase from year to year because of resuspension. Surface contamination is estimated by including buildup from deposition, ingrowth of radio- active daughters, and removal by radioactive decay, weathering, and other environmental processes. Deposition velocity is estimated on the basis of particle size, density, and physical and chemical environmental conditions which influence the behavior of the smaller particles. Calculation of the inhalation dose to an individual is based on the ICRP Task Group Lung Model (TGLM). Estimates of the dose to

  14. Preliminary assessment of key process steps for converting Savannah River Plant high-level wastes to tailored ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the process design description and of the processing studies for the preparation of the Tailored Ceramics waste form from Savannah River Plant high-level wastes is presented. The topics included are the (1) general requirements for the process; (2) design, analytical, and experimental work to verify that the process can be scaled to plant-size operation; and (3) suggested improvements in processing, equipment selection, and plant layout. Suggestions are also given for the direction of future work

  15. Advanced qualification process of ANAV NPP integral dynamic models for supporting plant operation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive technical literature exists aimed at establishing the requirements needed to qualify a Nuclear Power Plant model. Most of this literature is focused on qualifying a model for licensing uses. Less documentation is available nowadays on the requirements needed when an Integral Plant Model is used for supporting plant operation and control of an actual commercial facility, while fulfilling its goals of safety and competitiveness. For the last 15 years the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) has been working in this field along with Asociacion Nuclear Asco-Vandellos (ANAV), which is a utility that presently runs three operating PWRs. The paper develops an advanced qualification process (AQP) of plant models for operation support, introduces the concept of plant configuration and explains how this activity complements other usual validation tasks

  16. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Butane to Butadiene and Butene Using a Novel Inert Membrane Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene and butene was studied using a conventional fixed-bed ractor (FBR), inert membrane reactor (IMR) and mixed inert membrane reactor (MIMR). When IMR and MIMR were employed, a ceramic membrane modified by partially coating with glaze was used to distribute oxygen to a fixed-bed of 24-V-Mg-O catalyst. The oxygen partial pressure in the catalyst bed could be decreased. The effect of feeding modes and operation conditions were investigated. The selectivity of C4 dehydrogenation products (butene and butadiene) was found to be higher in IMR than in FBR. The feeding mode with 20% of air mixing with butane in MIMR was found to be more efficient than the feeding mode with all air permeating through ceramic membrane. The MIMR gave the most smooth temperature profile along the bed.

  17. Activation of CO2 in reaction with butadiene catalyzed by palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the fixation of CO2 by transition-metal complexes has stimulated the authors to research the catalytic activation of CO2 in reactions with monoolefins, alkynes, allene, butadiene, and isoprene. To develop highly efficient and selectively acting catalysts, capable of activating CO2 under mild conditions, the authors studied the reaction of CO2 with butadiene in a DMFA solution by the action of the catalytic system Pd(acac)2-PPh3, widely used in telomerization of 1,3-dienes with H2O. Under the reaction conditions, low-valence phosphonic complexes of palladium catalyze the oxidation of triphenylphosphine to triphenylphosphine oxide and the reduction of CO2 to CO

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed Telomerization of Butadiene with Polyols: From Mono to Polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquillon, Sandrine; Muzart, Jacques; Pinel, Catherine; Rataboul, Franck

    The telomerization of butadiene with alcohols is an elegant way to synthesize ethers with minimal environmental impact since this reaction is 100% atom efficient. Besides telomerization of butadiene with methanol and water that is industrially developed, the modification of polyols is still under development. Recently, a series of new substrates has been involved in this reaction, including diols, pure or crude glycerol, protected or unprotected monosaccharides, as well as polysaccharides. This opens up the formation of new products having specific physicochemical properties. We will describe recent advances in this field, focusing on the reaction of renewable products and more specifically on saccharides. The efficient catalytic systems as well as the optimized reaction conditions will be described and some physicochemical properties of the products will be reported.

  19. Innovative Neutron Shielding Material Composing of Natural Rubber-Styrene Butadiene Rubber Blends Diboron Trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimized flexible and lightweight neutron shielding materials were designed using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The neutron shielding materials thickness for 10 mm and 100 mm were considered for the neutron shielding performance. Results indicated that 10 mm shielding material of rubber compound between natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blend (1:1) compose with diboron trioxide 60 phr and 100 mm shielding material for 4 layers structure of rubber compound between natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blend compose with diboron trioxide 10 phr and rubber compound with iron oxide 100 phr offered advantages on neutron shielding compared to other designs. Experimental for these shielding material results verified the correctness of the optimal design and fabrication. The designed shielding materials are highly suitable for applications in nuclear science and technology.

  20. Modification of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) [SBS] with phosphorus containing fire retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Ullah, Saif; Jomaas, Grunde;

    2015-01-01

    An elaborate survey of the chemical modification methods for endowing highly flammable SBS with increased fire resistant properties by means of chemical modification of the polymer backbone with phosphorus containing fire retardant species is presented. Optimal conditions for free radical addition...... of the Psingle bondH containing fire retardants to a double bonds of poly(butadiene) block of SBS were found, affording varied degree of the modification (0.2–21 mol%). Alternatively, a two-step procedure based on an epoxidation step followed by hydrolysis of the epoxides with phosphoric acid was...... developed resulting in 20 mol% of poly(butadiene) block modification. Based on TGA results, organophosporus-modified SBS was found to be amenable to charring – a property which correlated directly with the reduced flammability of the modified polymer observed in Cone Calorimetry tests. Furthermore...

  1. Gamma Radiation Shielding Properties of Styrene- Butadiene Rubber/Lead Oxide Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites were prepared as gamma-radiation shields. The composites were prepared with different concentrations of red lead oxide (Pb3O4). The assessment of the linear attenuation coefficient of the SBR/lead oxide composites for gamma -rays from 137Cs gamma -radiation point source was studied. The styrene-butadiene rubber/lead oxide composites can attain up to about 43% of the shielding capacity of pure lead. The incorporation of high concentrations of lead oxide and the effect of accumulative irradiation doses up to 3000 kGy on the physico-mechanical properties of the composites were studied. These led to hardening of the SBR rubber/lead oxide composites

  2. System integration of a multivariable process plant utilising an intelligent control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naidoo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research objective is to maintain a desired process outlet temperature. Firstly, communicationbetween the control system and the process field devices by means of Profibus-PA and Profibus-DP isestablished. Secondly the process flow rate and level in the supply vessel must be controlled in the same system.The final manipulated variable, an air-to-open control valve is regulated to achieve the research objective [2].The paper will discuss introductory aspects of Profibus and simulated results on the knowledge based controlleras the research is on-going.Design/methodology/approach: The research project comprises the design, engineering and analysis of a multiinput/output rule-based process control system on the Profibus communication platform. A programmable logiccontroller is configured to control the plant and a Profibus system is used to communicate input and outputsignals between the field instrumentation and the process control system.Findings: The plant and control knowledge derived for the design of the decision-making control algorithm inthe research was obtained from available data in the open-loop mode as the plant is still to be commissioned.The designed algorithm will be tested on the process plant in comparison with the simulated results in orderto evaluate its feasibility in a networked control system for temperature, level and flow on a Profibus-DP andProfibus-PA network. A mathematically-based control strategy will contribute to increasing the settling timetremendously thereby impacting negatively on factors like production time and quality.Practical implications: The process control system will monitor and control measured variables such as flow,temperature and level on a typical industrial plant. The plant will be used to transfer technology education andtraining to industry and practitioners alike.Originality/value: The control strategy emerging from this research may be applied to similar process plantsin industry.

  3. External and internal sources which inhibit the nitrification process in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinkjær, O.; Bøgebjerg, P.; Grüttner, Henrik;

    1996-01-01

    In connection with the upgrading of the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the Copenhagen area to nutrient removal special attention has been paid to the nitrification process regarding inhibition effects. Inhibitory substances in the wastewater could be identified by simple batch tests......, and the long-term effects on the nitrification process were tested in pilot plants or at full-scale. A distinction could be made between effects produced by wastewater from external sources in the catchment area and internally circulated flows in the wastewater treatment plant. Results from programmes...... the nitrification capacity monitored at the pilot plants has been in agreement with the design basis. The recycling of the scrubber water from the cleaning of sludge incineration flue gas was found to be an important internal source of inhibition at the Lynetten WWTP. Investigations show that it is...

  4. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  5. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko;

    2006-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...... streams on the performance of a WWTP is assessed in a simulation study, using the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2), that includes the processes describing sludge treatment and in this way allows for plant-wide evaluation. Comparison of performance of a WWTP without reject water with a WWTP where...... treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios is...

  6. Genotoxicity of 1,3-butadiene and its epoxy intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vernon E; Walker, Dale M; Meng, Quanxin; McDonald, Jacob D; Scott, Bobby R; Seilkop, Steven K; Claffey, David J; Upton, Patricia B; Powley, Mark W; Swenberg, James A; Henderson, Rogene F

    2009-08-01

    Current risk assessments of 1,3-butadiene (BD*) are complicated by limited evidence of its carcinogenicity in humans. Hence, there is a critical need to identify early events and factors that account for the heightened sensitivity of mice to BD-induced carcinogenesis and to deter-mine which animal model, mouse or rat, is the more useful surrogate of potency for predicting health effects in BD-exposed humans. HEI sponsored an earlier investigation of mutagenic responses in mice and rats exposed to BD, or to the racemic mixture of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (BDO) or of 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (BDO2; Walker and Meng 2000). In that study, our research team demonstrated (1) that the frequency of mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene of splenic T cells from BD-exposed mice and rats could be correlated with the species-related differences in cancer susceptibility; (2) that mutagenic-potency and mutagenic-specificity data from mice and rats exposed to BD or its individual epoxy intermediates could provide useful information about the BD metabolites responsible for mutations in each species; and (3) that our novel approach to measuring the mutagenic potency of a given chemical exposure as the change in Hprt mutant frequencies (Mfs) over time was valuable for estimating species-specific differences in mutagenic responses to BD exposure and for predicting the effect of BD metabolites in each species. To gain additional mode-of-action information that can be used to inform studies of human responses to BD exposure, experiments in the current investigation tested a new set of five hypotheses about species-specific patterns in the mutagenic effects in rodents of exposure to BD and BD metabolites: 1. Repeated BD exposures at low levels that approach the occupational exposure limit for BD workers (set by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) are mutagenic in female mice. 2. The differences in mutagenic responses of the Hprt gene to BD

  7. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  8. HPRT Mutations in Lymphocytes from 1,3-Butadiene-Exposed Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shengxue; Ao, Lin; Du, Bing; Zhou, Yanhong; Yuan, Jian; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2007-01-01

    Background 1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial chemical and an environmental and occupational pollutant. The carcinogenicity of BD in rodents has been proved, but its carcinogenic and mutagenic molecular mechanism(s) are not fully elucidated in humans. Objectives In the present study, we compared the mutation frequencies and exon deletions of BD-exposed workers with that of control subjects in China to identify the characteristic mutations associated with BD exposure in the human HP...

  9. New Piperazine Derivatives Synthesized from Thio-Substituted Polyhalogeno-2-nitro-1,3-butadienes

    OpenAIRE

    S. Goksin Aydinli; Cemil Ibis

    2010-01-01

    It is known that polyhalogeno-nitro-1,3-butadienes are important starting materials for the synthesis of polyfunctionalized bioactive heterocycles. Novel N,S-substituted nitrobutadienes (4a-j) were synthesized from the reaction of the monothio-substituted nitrodiene derivatives (2a) and (2b) with some piperazine derivatives. These new compounds are stable and the structures of these products were characterized by spectroscopic data. The structure of the novel N,S-substituted nitrodiene compou...

  10. Thermal Stability and Flammability of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber-Based (SBR) Ceramifiable Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Anyszka; Dariusz M. Bieliński; Zbigniew Pędzich; Przemysław Rybiński; Mateusz Imiela; Mariusz Siciński; Magdalena Zarzecka-Napierała; Tomasz Gozdek; Paweł Rutkowski

    2016-01-01

    Ceramifiable styrene-butadiene (SBR)-based composites containing low-softening-point-temperature glassy frit promoting ceramification, precipitated silica, one of four thermally stable refractory fillers (halloysite, calcined kaolin, mica or wollastonite) and a sulfur-based curing system were prepared. Kinetics of vulcanization and basic mechanical properties were analyzed and added as Supplementary Materials. Combustibility of the composites was measured by means of cone calorimetry. Their t...

  11. Performance Analysis of Styrene Butadiene Rubber-Latex on Cement Concrete Mixes.

    OpenAIRE

    Er. Kapil Soni; Dr. Y. P Joshi

    2014-01-01

    To improve the performance of concrete, polymers are mixed with concrete. It has been observed that polymer-modified concrete (PMC) is more durable than conventional concrete due to superior strength and high durability. In this research, effect of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) latex on compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete has been studied and also the optimum polymer (SBR-Latex) content for concrete is calculated. This research was carried out to establish t...

  12. Advanced PUREX process for the new reprocessing plants in France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the late 1970s, COGEMA decided to build two reprocessing plants at La Hague. One is the completely new UP3 plant with the capacity of 800t per year of spent fuel from LWRs, which was put in operation in two steps, November, 1989 and August, 1990. Another is the UP2 800 plant, an extension of the existing UP2 facility to achieve the same annual capacity of 800t at the beginning of 1993, by the commissioning of a new head end and high active chemical process facilities. In the early 1980s, Japanese utilities formed the Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co. which is in charge of the construction and the operation of the first commercial reprocessing plant in Japan to be constructed in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. For these three new plants, the 40 year old PUREX process has been significantly improved. In this paper, some of the innovative features of the selected process are described. The criteria for process selection, the main features of the process, iodine management, the clarification of dissolution liquor, technetium behavior in the first extraction cycle, tritium decontamination and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C; Campbell, Malachy T; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. PMID:27141917

  14. Managing Process Hazards in Lab-Scale Pilot Plant for Safe Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanida Abdul Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the OSHA Laboratory and Hazards Communication Standards, incidents which result in injuries and property loss continue to occur in the research and teaching locations. Application of Process Hazard Analysis (PHA of OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM to laboratory pilot plant operations has the potential to further reduce risk associated with this location. However, a major challenge is unavailability of the easy and effective system to comply with PHA requirements. This study presents a system to manage the implementation of PHA in pilot plant namely Process Hazards Management for Lab Scale Pilot Plant (PHM-LabPP. It provides organized strategies to manage and track information, documents, recommendations and corrective actions related to the process hazards. Application of PHM-LabPP at High Gravitational Natural Gas pilot plant as a case study is examined and discussed. The implementation of this system could help end users to overcome inadequate of managing and controlling process hazards in pilot plant that had contributed to numbers of accidents.

  15. 'Virtual' monitoring in LabVIEW 8 and process simulation of the cryogenic pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The implementation of the new software and hardware's technologies for tritium processing nuclear plants, and especially those with an experimental character or of new technology developments shows a coefficient of complexity due to issues raised by the use of the performing instrumentation and equipment into a unitary monitoring system of the nuclear technological process of tritium removal. Keeping the system's flexibility is a demand of the nuclear experimental plants for which the change of configuration, process and parameters is something usual. The big amount of data that needs to be processed, stored and accessed for real time simulation and optimization demands the achievement of the virtual technologic platform where the data acquiring, control and analysis systems of the technological process can be integrated with a developed technological monitoring system. Thus, integrated computing and monitoring systems needed for the supervising of the technological process will be carried out, and continued with the optimization of the system, by choosing new and performing methods corresponding to the technological processes within the tritium removal processing nuclear plants. The developing software applications is carried out by means of the program packages dedicated to industrial processes and they will include acquisition and monitoring sub-modules, named 'virtual' as well as the storage sub-module of the process data later required for the software of optimization and simulation of the technological process for tritium removal. The system plays an important role in the environment protection and sustainable development through new technologies, that is - the reduction of and fight against industrial accidents in the case of tritium processing nuclear plants. Research for monitoring optimization of nuclear processes is also a major driving force for economic and social development. (authors)

  16. Assessing temporal flux of plant hormones in stored processing potatoes using high definition accurate mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Ordaz-Ortiz; Sofia Foukaraki; Leon Alexander Terry

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormones are important molecules which at low concentration can regulate various physiological processes. Mass spectrometry has become a powerful technique for the quantification of multiple classes of plant hormones because of its high sensitivity and selectivity. We developed a new ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography–full-scan high-definition accurate mass spectrometry method, for simultaneous determination of abscisic acid and four metabolites phaseic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, ...

  17. Manufacturing plant location selection in logistics network using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-Yu Chang; Hsin-Yi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years, numerous companies have moved their manufacturing plants to China to capitalize on lower cost and tax. Plant location has such an impact on cost, stocks, and logistics network but location selection in the company is usually based on subjective preference of high ranking managers. Such a decision-making process might result in selecting a location with a lower fixed cost but a higher operational cost. Therefore, this research adapts real data from an electronics comp...

  18. Information processes in maintenance contractor activity surveillance at a nuclear power plant. Pt 1. Observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the introductory part of a series of papers devoted to the information processes in the surveillance and supervision of contractor’s activities regarding maintenance and engineering services at the Dukovany nuclear power plant. This article describes the overall surveillance and supervision framework and the monitoring personnel information behavior. The Dukovany nuclear power plant records and analytic results serve as a basis for discussion and conclusions. (orig.)

  19. Scenario based analysis of fire escalation in a gas process plant

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørge, Joachim Søreng

    2013-01-01

    This study takes place on a medium sized gas process plant called reference plant. In this thesis several escalation scenarios, as well as gas dispersion, is evaluated through Kameleon KFX and Vessfire. It has previously been conducted similar escalation studies. However, a normal approach to conduct these studies is to use reference values of a uniform property for heat flux both global and peak, and will only record/evaluate if rupture occurs. In this thesis uses every scenario tran...

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of CO2 capture processes for power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Biyouki, Zeinab Amrollahi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work presents an evaluation of various processes for reducing CO2 emissions from natural-gas-fired combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. The scope of the thesis is to focus mainly on post-combustion chemical absorption for NGCC. For the post-combustion capture plant, an important interface is the steam extraction from the steam turbine in order to supply the heat for solvent regeneration. The steam extraction imposes a power production penalty. The thesis includes analysis and compa...

  1. NATURE OF WAVE PROCESSES AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH Tidal power PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseeva Ol'ga Aleksandrovna

    2012-01-01

    The author examines the nature of wave processes and their impact on the operation of tidal power plants. The article also has an overview of both operating and prospective tidal power plants in Russia and worldwide. Patterns of tidal fluctuations and the intensity of their driving forces are also considered in the article. The author discloses the origin of tides in terms of elementary physics and hydraulics. The author covers various aspects of formation of different types of inequality of ...

  2. Actin based processes that could determine the cytoplasmic architecture of plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Honing; Emons, A.M.C.; Ketelaar, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Actin polymerisation can generate forces that are necessary for cell movement, such as the propulsion of a class of bacteria, including Listeria, and the protrusion of migrating animal cells. Force generation by the actin cytoskeleton in plant cells has not been studied. One process in plant cells that is likely to depend on actin-based force generation is the organisation of the cytoplasm. We compare the function of actin binding proteins of three well-studied mammalian models that depend on...

  3. Identification and Control of Nutrient Removing Processes in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik; Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    1994-01-01

    Today the use of on-line control for wastewater treatment plants is very low. A main reason is the lack of quality of the data, and the fact that more sophisticated control strategies must be based on a model of the dynamics of the biological processes. This paper discusses the historical reasons...... for the limited use of modern control strategies for wastewater treatment plants. Today, however, on-line nutrient sensors are more reliable. In the present context the use of on-line monitored values of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate from a full scale plant are used as the background for discussing...

  4. Business data processing in the service of quality and safety in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of a nuclear power plant implies collection and correlation of several thousand items of information which must be identified and which must remain retrievable throughout the service life of the plant. The Framatome Corporation, which has one of the largest nuclear power plant construction programs in the world, therefore set up a processing and checking system for the documents containing this information. The author describes the functions and principles of this system (known as SHARAD), together with its technical data and its operation

  5. The ATHLET code as a process model for the nuclear plant analyzer atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic process model of the nuclear plant analyzer ATLAS is the thermalhydraulic computer code ATHLET. A remarkable code feature is the optional use of different fluid dynamic models. Depending on the type of problem to be analyzed fast running or more detailed models can be selected from essentially the same input deck. The simulation of a PWR using the fast running options of ATHLET and some additional balance-of-plants models is described in this paper, together with an example of code application for the testing of emergency procedures within the plant analyzer. (author)

  6. Synthesis and mutagenesis of the butadiene-derived N3 2'-deoxyuridine adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Priscilla H; Hackfeld, Linda C; Kozekov, Ivan D; Hodge, Richard P; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2006-07-01

    1,3-Butadiene is a known carcinogen and mutagen that acts through a variety of metabolic intermediates that react with DNA, forming stable and unstable lesions on dG, dA, dC, and dT. The N3 2'-deoxyuridine adducts are a highly stable, stereoisomeric mixture of adducts derived from the reaction of cytosine with the monoepoxide metabolite of butadiene, followed by spontaneous deamination. In this study, the phosphoramidites and subsequent oligodeoxynucleotides containing the N3 2'-deoxyuridine adducts have been constructed and characterized. Using a single-stranded shuttle vector DNA, the mutagenic potential of these adducts has been tested following replication in mammalian cells. Replication past the N3 2'-deoxyuridine adducts was found to be highly mutagenic with an overall mutation yield of approximately 97%. The major mutations that were observed were C to T transitions and C to A transversions. In vitro, these adducts posed a complete block to both the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli polymerase I and polymerase epsilon, while these lesions significantly blocked polymerase delta. These data suggested a possible involvement of bypass polymerases in the in vivo replication of these lesions. Overall, these findings indicate that the N3 2'-deoxyuridine adducts are highly mutagenic lesions that may contribute to butadiene-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:16841966

  7. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  8. Effect of post-Chernobyl chronic irradiation on some important plant processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of photosynthetic plant apparatus characterized by photochemical activity of chloroplasts (the Hill reaction), cyclic photophosphorylation and activity of ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase (RuBC) is investigated. These characteristics are used to show the state of plant growing under increased background radiation. There is a trend towards increase of chlorophyll content per unit wet weight of a leaf and reduction in the concentration of soluble protein in irradiated plants. However, the photochemical reactions, as indicated by RuBC activity, are similar. The low hydrolytic activity of chlorophyllase, an enzyme of chlorophyll degradation, indicates a high activity of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants growing under increased background radiation conditions. Thus, the observed resistance of photosynthetic apparatus to ionizing radiation and stimulation of pigment metabolism and activity of photochemical and enzyme reactions reveals a high adaptive ability of plants. Under conditions of elevated radiation background, the processes of photosynthesis in plants may become more active. This in turn may favour the accumulation of green mass and the crop raising. The prolonged chronic action of radionuclides on plants in contaminated zones will be determined by their specific accumulation in individual plant species, their radiosensitivity and factors connected with their growth - type of soil, kind of radionuclide fallout, chemical and physical effects. (author)

  9. Common processes in pathogenesis by fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, described with Gene Ontology terms

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Shaowu; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Chibucos, Marcus C.; Tyler, Brett M.; Dean, Ralph A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes result in significant economic losses every year. Although phylogenetically distant, the infection processes by these organisms share many common features. These include dispersal of an infectious particle, host adhesion, recognition, penetration, invasive growth, and lesion development. Previously, many of these common processes did not have corresponding Gene Ontology (GO) terms. For example, no GO terms existed to describe processes related to t...

  10. Some Aspects of Process Computers Configuration Control in Nuclear Power Plant Krsko - Process Computer Signal Configuration Database (PCSCDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation of NEK and other nuclear power plants it has been recognized that certain issues related to the usage of digital equipment and associated software in NPP technological process protection, control and monitoring, is not adequately addressed in the existing programs and procedures. The term and the process of Process Computers Configuration Control joins three 10CFR50 Appendix B quality requirements of Process Computers application in NPP: Design Control, Document Control and Identification and Control of Materials, Parts and Components. This paper describes Process Computer Signal Configuration Database (PCSCDB), that was developed and implemented in order to resolve some aspects of Process Computer Configuration Control related to the signals or database points that exist in the life cycle of different Process Computer Systems (PCS) in Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. PCSCDB is controlled, master database, related to the definition and description of the configurable database points associated with all Process Computer Systems in NEK. PCSCDB holds attributes related to the configuration of addressable and configurable real time database points and attributes related to the signal life cycle references and history data such as: Input/Output signals, Manually Input database points, Program constants, Setpoints, Calculated (by application program or SCADA calculation tools) database points, Control Flags (example: enable / disable certain program feature) Signal acquisition design references to the DCM (Document Control Module Application software for document control within Management Information System - MIS) and MECL (Master Equipment and Component List MIS Application software for identification and configuration control of plant equipment and components) Usage of particular database point in particular application software packages, and in the man-machine interface features (display mimics, printout reports, ...) Signals history (EEAR Engineering

  11. The KALPUREX-process – A new vacuum pumping process for exhaust gases in fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new vacuum pumping process for fusion power plants has been developed and is presented in this paper. • This process works continuously and non-cryogenic what leads to a strong reduction of the tritium inventory in the fuel cycle. • This pumping process is based on the use of a liquid metal (mercury) as working fluid and is called KALPUREX process. • The KALPUREX process is the technical realization of the DIR concept using a set of three vacuum pumps (metal foil pump/diffusion pump/liquid ring pump). • This paper discusses the arrangement of the pumps and also the required infrastructure for operation. - Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is developing a continuously working and non-cryogenic pumping solution for torus exhaust pumping of a demonstration power plant (DEMO) including Direct Internal Recycling (DIR). This full pumping system consists of three pumps, namely a metal foil pump for gas separation, a linear diffusion pump as primary pump and a liquid ring pump as backing pump. The latter two pumps apply mercury as working fluid due to its perfect tritium compatibility. This asks for a baffle system on both sides of the pumping train to control working fluid vapour and to avoid any mercury propagation in the machine. In this paper, the arrangement of all torus pumps required for a power plant reactor as well as the corresponding infrastructure and its effect on the DEMO machine design is presented and discussed. The full pumping process is called ‘Karlsruhe liquid metal based pumping process for fusion reactor exhaust gases’ (KALPUREX process, patent pending)

  12. Application of process simulation for evaluation of ecologically benefical developments in thermal power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responsibility for the environment and a sustainable utilization of resources gain also in the production of electric power more and more importance. For this reason existing power generation processes have to be improved and alternatives to existing processes have to be developed. As a first step in this procedure process simulation is a powerful tool to evaluate the potentials of new developments. In this work it is shown, how new thermal power processes are modeled and simulated based on well-known thermodynamic and chemical correlations. Processes for thermal power plants using lignite with high water content and biomass as fuel are studied. In each case simulations are carried out for complete plants including all important unit operations. Based on a conventional thermal power plant for lignite different variants for efficiency improvement by fuel drying are examined. Additionally the potential of a process with gasification and gas turbine is discussed. Compared to a lignite power plant the preconditions for a biomass power plant are different. A promising option for the future seems to be small, decentralized combined heat and power plants. Therefore a process with simple and compact design including gasifier and gas turbine is regarded and sensitivity analyses are carried out. As well as for the lignite processes possible improvements by fuel drying are studied. The basis lignite power plant (drying in an impact rotor mill with hot flue gas) has an overall electric efficiency of 36 %. Alternative fuel drying processes (reducing water content from 54 w % to 10 w %) can increase efficiency to nearly 43 %. Using integrated air-blown gasification combined with gas turbine and steam turbine and additional fuel drying raises the efficiency up to 49 % in the case of cold gas cleanup and up to 50 percent in the case of hot gas cleanup. Efficiencies of the regarded biomass power plants are in the range of about 20 % (with a biomass water content of 25 w %). By

  13. THE EFFECT OF WASTEWATER OF DOMESTIC AND MEAT PROCESSING PLANT ON THE RIVER OF KARASU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmühan DANIŞ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewaters of the slaughterhouse and meat processing plant in Erzurum city, which don't have any wastewater treatment plant is discharged to the Karasu river. The wastewater, especially occured during slaughtering and processing of meat, contained high level of COD, BOD5, total suspended solid, fat and grease and total solid. Therefore these wastewaters cause some environmental problems in the city. This paper presents the effect of wastewaters from resident area slaughterhouse, and meat processing plants on the river of Karasu. For this purpose some samples taken from eight different points around the river were analysed in order to obtain values of dissolved oxygen, BOD5, COD, total phosphorus, total kjeldahl nitrojen, total suspended solid, total solid, total volatile suspended solid, fat and grease, chlorides and coliform. From the results obtained, it is found out that the wastewaters from the slaughterhouse has the biggest pollutant effect in the river.

  14. Development of NOx recycle process for practical use at reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize the NOx recycle process using the vacuum pressure swing adsorption method reported previously, development experiments were carried out. Among such experiments were the removal of volatile ruthenium tetroxide from the off-gas, 23-month operation of a bench-scale apparatus and 100-day operation of a pilot plant 1/5 the size of actual scale. After evaluation of the results for operability and durability of components under acidic conditions, this process was concluded applicable to an actual plant. Compared to the conventional NOx production method using chemical reaction, it has the great advantage of-reducing largely low-level radioactive and non-radioactive sodium nitrate waste. With this conclusion, the procedure to install the process at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant has been commenced. (author)

  15. Nuclear power plant and fuel process simulators for educational purposes and quantitative analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excellence of today's technique for plant and fuel process simulators (both in hardware and software) has reached a level that permits a multitude of additional applications beyond the traditional educational purpose. A duplex real-time simulation system, developed by Studsvik, representing the dynamics of a nuclear power plant and the performance of the fuel pins, may be utilized for a number of different important applications. The plant process simulator (Studsvik simulator) and the fuel pin process simulator (INTERPIN-FRPS) have been developed independently and may be operated on an individual basis. However, the combination of the two simulators, as established, implies two major advantages: The hardware (computer and graphics) can be saved, and the Studsvik simulator, particularly its core model, will serve the INTERPIN-FRPS with the necessary and accurate dynamic real-time input data for any local position of the fuel pins in the reactor core

  16. Thorium base fuels reprocessing at the L.P.R. (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) experimental plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of the LPR (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) plant offers the possibility to demonstrate and create the necessary technological basis for thorium fuels reprocessing. To this purpose, the solvents extraction technique is used, employing TBP (at 30%) as solvent. The process is named THOREX, a one-cycle acid, which permits an adequate separation of Th232 and U233 components and fission products. For thorium oxide elements dissolution, the 'chopp-leach' process (installed at LPR) is used, employing a NO3 H 13N, 0.05M FH and 0.1M Al (NO3)3, as solvent. To adapt the pilot plant to the flow-sheet requirements proposed, minor modifications must be carried out in the interconnection of the existing decanting mixers. The input of the plant has been calculated by Origin Code modified for irradiations in reactors of the HWR type. (Author)

  17. Design criteria for the new waste calcining facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) is being built to replace the existing fluidized-bed, high-level waste calcining facility (WCF). Performance of the WCF is reviewed, equipment failures in WCF operation are examined, and pilot-plant studies on calciner improvements are given in relation to NWCF design. Design features of the NWCF are given with emphasis on process and equipment improvements. A major feature of the NWCF is the use of remote maintenance facilities for equipment with high maintenance requirements, thereby reducing personnel exposures during maintenance and reducing downtime resulting from plant decontamination. The NWCF will have a design net processing rate of 11.36 m3 of high-level waste per day, and will incorporate in-bed combustion of kerosene for heating the fluidized bed calciner. The off-gas cleaning system will be similar to that for the WCF

  18. Some recent improvements in a uranium processing pilot-plant at the Ningyo-toge mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1964 the uranium processing plant at the Ningyo-toge mine has been modified and extended. In 1970 an ammonium diuranate (ADU) producing process was added to the plant, and a pilot plant with an ore-processing capacity of 50t/d was brought into operation. As a result of this operation the process which produces high-purity ADU was confirmed. An electrolytic reduction plant for the pilot operation was constructed by the Asahi Chemical Industry Co. in 1972. Experiments on the reduction of uranyl chloride solution were carried out with good results. Hydrofluorination facilities were added to the plant in 1974 and experiments on the hydrofluorination of UCl4 started. The experiments also studied the characteristics of hydrated UF4. Preliminary experiments on dehydration from hydrated UF4 were carried out to determine the dehydration conditions and the properties of the UF4 in the laboratory at the Tokai Works, PNC. The results of these dehydration experiments and UF4 conversion tests were excellent. (author)

  19. Diagnosis and optimization of the composting process in full-scale mechanical-biological treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marco; Antunes, Fernando; Silveira, Ana

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the performance of the composting process operation in full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants, (ii) to estimate their performance under optimized conditions and (iii) to propose specific guidelines on how to improve the efficiency of the composting process. To fulfil these objectives, a first-order kinetic model was used. This model was calibrated with experimental data to account for the limitations imposed by less-than-optimal environmental conditions during operation of the composting process. Data treatment and simulation showed that two of the three MBT plants studied were poorly operated. Optimization of process management with measures of simple practical implementation was estimated to be highly significant in these poorly managed plants, increasing performance by 103% in MBT1 and 53% in MBT2. In MBT3, the potential for optimization was estimated at 17%. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of other published data, suggesting that poor process management in MBT composting is widespread. These findings highlight the importance of having programmes for monitoring and optimizing process performance in full-scale composting systems. The procedures developed here are simple to apply and can routinely be implemented in full-scale plants. PMID:21216924

  20. Mapping dairy plants and location strategies for whey processing in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Mello Cortez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the use of whey resulting from the cheese making process in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Data was collected from 52 dairy plants that produce or buy whey, by means of questionnaires. Based on the data obtained, a mathematical model for the location of processing plants was built, considering production logistics, sample collection, regions with potential to locate whey processing plants and possible areas of environmental impact from cheese industries.  Whey processing was more concentrated in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro, with 59.5% during the season, and 58.4% in the off-season period. The production in the season and off-season periods was stable, with good distribution throughout the State. Only 30.7% of the total whey generated was used by industries to produce dairy beverages and ricotta, and 70.3% was discarded. According to the present study, the ideal solution for the use of whey in the referred region, should consider the establishment of two processing plants and the definition of strategic convergence points (whey drying facilities, in Macuco and Valença, and the subsequent transport of the products for final processing.

  1. Studies on the runaway reaction of ABS polymerization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, K.-H. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.-S. [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, Taiwan (China); Duh, Y.-S. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: yihshingduh@yahoo.com.tw

    2008-11-15

    Taiwan has the largest acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymer production in the world. Preventing on unexpected exothermic reactions and related emergency relief hazard is essential in the safety control of ABS emulsion polymerization. A VSP2 (Vent Sizing Package 2) apparatus is capable of studying both normal and abnormal conditions (e.g., cooling failure, mischarge, etc.) of industrial process. In this study, the scenarios were verified from the following abnormal conditions: loss of cooling, double charge of initiator, overcharge of monomer, without charge of solvent, and external fire. An external fire with constant heating will promote higher self-heat rate and this is recommended as the worst case scenario of emulsion polymerization on butadiene. Cooling failure coupled with bulk system of reactant was determined to be the credible worst case in ABS emulsion polymerization. Finally, the emergency vent sizing based on thermokinetics from VSP associated with DIERS methodology were used for evaluating the vent sizing and compared to that of the industrial plants.

  2. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NOx, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed

  3. Proposal for field sampling of plants and processing in the lab for environmental metabolic fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Samples for plant metabolic fingerprinting are prepared generally by metabolism quenching, grinding of plant material and extraction of metabolites in solvents. Further concentration and derivatisation steps follow in dependence of the sample nature and the available analytical platform. For plant material sampled in the field, several methods are not applicable, such as, e.g., collection in liquid nitrogen. Therefore, a protocol was established for sample pre-treatment, grinding, extraction and storage, which can be used for analysis of field-collected plant material, which is further processed in the laboratory. Ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., Plantaginaceae was used as model plant. The quality criteria for method suitability were high reproducibility, extraction efficiency and handling comfort of each subsequent processing step. Results Highest reproducibility of results was achieved by sampling fresh plant material in a solvent mixture of methanol:dichloromethane (2:1, crushing the tissue with a hand-held disperser and storing the material until further processing. In the laboratory the material was extracted threefold at different pH. The gained extracts were separated with water (2:1:1 methanol:dichloromethane:water and the aqueous phases used for analysis by LC-MS, because the polar metabolites were in focus. Chromatograms were compared by calculating a value Ξ for similarities. Advantages and disadvantages of different sample pre-treatment methods, use of solvents and solvent mixtures, influence of pH, extraction frequency and duration, and storing temperature are discussed with regard to the quality criteria. Conclusions The proposed extraction protocol leads to highly reproducible metabolic fingerprints and allows optimal handling of field-collected plant material and further processing in the laboratory, which is demonstrated for an exemplary field data-set. Calculation of Ξ values is a useful tool to

  4. Life cycle management for components in nuclear power plant based on Weibull process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment life cycle management, including mean replacement time and life reliability, was determined based on distribution fitting of historical life data for most nuclear power plants. This method is used widely but it ignores the influence on facilities life of the repair and operating time. To solve this problem, based on the specialties of components in nuclear power plant, a new approach of data processing and life deciding was proposed with empirical method and failure rate indicator combined by Weibull process. The calculation of actual example proves that this new approach overcomes defects such as waste of information and risk of assumption error. (authors)

  5. Dynamic process simulation as an engineering tool. A case of analysing a coal plant evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, Jari; Juslin, Kaj [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Blom, Harri [Fortum Power and Heat Oy, Naantali (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Methods relying on mathematical models, such as simulation and optimisation, have been adopted in process industry and routinely used in various engineering tasks. This paper discusses the current status of simulation, especially dynamic simulation (DS), in engineering projects, which provides means to study process behaviour in both normal operation and during incidents. A case example of solving an engineering problem with DS at the power plant is presented. A model of a once-through evaporator of a coal-fired power plant was developed, and used to analyse thermal behaviour of the evaporator pipes. (orig.)

  6. Characterization on the phase separation behavior of styrene-butadiene rubber/polyisoprene/organoclay ternary blends under oscillatory shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianggui; Dong, Xia; Liu, Wei; Xing, Qian; Zou, Fasheng; Han, Charles C.; Wang, Dujin; Liang, Aimin; Li, Chuanqing; Xie, Ximing

    2015-09-01

    The present work investigated the influence of organoclay (organo-montmorillonite, OMMT) on the phase separation behavior and morphology evolution of solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (SSBR)/low vinyl content polyisoprene (LPI) blends with rheological methodology. It was found that the incorporation of OMMT not only reduced the droplet size of the dispersion phase, slowed down the phase separation kinetics, also enlarged the processing miscibility window of the blends. The determination on the wetting parameters indicated that due to the oscillatory shear effect, the OMMT sheets might localize at the interface between the two phases and act as compatibilizer or rigid barrier to prevent domain coarsening, resulting in slow phase separation kinetics, small droplet size, and stable morphology. The analysis of rheological data by the Palierne model provided further confirmation that the addition of OMMT can decrease the interfacial tension and restrict the relaxation of melt droplets. Therefore, a vivid "sea-fish-net" model was proposed to describe the effect of OMMT on the phase separation behavior of SSBR/LPI blends, in which the OMMT sheets acted as the barrier (net) to slow down the domain coarsening/coalescence in phase separation process of SSBR/LPI blends.

  7. CONTROL PARAMETERS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING PROCESS IMBALANCES IN BIOGAS PLANTS. EMPHAS IS ON VFA DYNAMICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    control and understanding are necessary. The work of present study was directed towards this challenge. Initially, the response of the anaerobic digestion process to various types of process imbalances was investigated with special focus on volatile fatty acid dynamics (VFA), methane production and p...... indication of process imbalances in biogas plants. At Danish full-scale biogas plants the biogas production is normally the only continuously measured parameter. In order to examine the usability of propionate as control parameter a reactor experiment was constructed in which the reactor operation either was...... carried out on the basis of the methane production or on the basis of fluctuations in the concentration of propionate. The experiment confirmed that propionate is a useful parameter for (1) indication of process imbalances and (2) for regulation and optimization of the anaerobic digestion process in CSTRs...

  8. Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six phases, and the primary tool used for the design of heat recovery network was Pinch Analysis. Performance of preliminary design are obtained by targeting procedure, for three process stream sets, and evaluated by the economic criteria. The results of process integration study are presented in the form of heat exchanger networks which fulfilled the utilization of waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.

  9. Plants as Natural Dyes for Jonegoroan Batik Processing in Jono Cultural Tourism Village, Bojonegoro, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurizza Fauziyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Batik Jonegoroan is one of the potential tourism product in Jono Village, Bojonegoro. Batik was processed by traditional procedure using natural dyes from plants. In order to preserve the traditional batik which was colored by natural dyes from plant, the preservation of such plant were important. As far, there are no scientific data related to the species usage in Batik production. The aims of the research were identifying plant which were used as natural dyes in Batik processing. Data were collected ​​through observation, and  semi-structured interviews to batik craftsmen. Results of interviews were analyzed descriptively. The importance of plant was analyzed using Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC index. Based on the results, there are 12 plant species used as batik dye. It is consisted of Teak, Mahogany, Ketapang, Tamarind, Mangosteen, Mango, Suji, Pandan, Indigofera, Guava, Banana and Onion. Teak (Tectonagrandis L. and Mahogany (Swietenia mahogany L. have the highest value of RFC, 1.00. Both species were the most frequently cited species as sources of natural dyes. Extraction of Teak leaves produce red hearts and extraction of mahogany tree bark produces red-brown dye. Both of the color is the most important color in batik motifs. Keywords: batik Jonegoroan, Jono Cultural Tourism Village, perception, quality, RFC

  10. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. PMID:26540146

  11. Process and Economic Optimisation of a Milk Processing Plant with Solar Thermal Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the integration of solar thermal systems for process energy use. A shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy could be beneficial both from environmental and economic perspectives, after the process itself has been optimised and efficiency measures have been implemented. B...

  12. Evaluation of power plants in Turkey using Analytic Network Process (ANP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is one of the most important parameters of the development of societies. Low cost, clean and secure energy supply is a common issue for all countries. Every country spends commercial and political effort to avoid not having sufficient energy and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply. This study attempts to determine the suitability of existing power plants in Turkey and the plants that are being considered for establishment in the near future. The alternatives which are being considered are natural gas, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, and coal/lignite energy plants as well as nuclear energy plants. By using the multi-criteria decision making technique of Analytic Network Process (ANP), a multi-criteria evaluations of six different energy plants were performed with respect to the major criteria such as technology and sustainability, economical suitability, life quality and socio-economic impacts. -- Highlights: ► The study attempted to lay out the criteria based on which power plant investments are evaluated. ► In the energy industry in Turkey and in the world, it is considerably difficult to access data on energy. ► This study will provide significant support for people working in the energy area and related decision makers in Turkey. ► The study is also thought to provide benefit decision makers in the world energy industry. ► It can provide great benefit in ensuring the security of the energy to be produced from power plant investments.

  13. Hydroponic potato production on nutrients derived from anaerobically-processed potato plant residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Garland, J. L.; Finger, B. W.; Ruffe, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Bioregenerative methods are being developed for recycling plant minerals from harvested inedible biomass as part of NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) research. Anaerobic processing produces secondary metabolites, a food source for yeast production, while providing a source of water soluble nutrients for plant growth. Since NH_4-N is the nitrogen product, processing the effluent through a nitrification reactor was used to convert this to NO_3-N, a more acceptable form for plants. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were used to test the effects of anaerobically-produced effluent after processing through a yeast reactor or nitrification reactor. These treatments were compared to a mixed-N treatment (75:25, NO_3:NH_4) or a NO_3-N control, both containing only reagent-grade salts. Plant growth and tuber yields were greatest in the NO_3-N control and yeast reactor effluent treatments, which is noteworthy, considering the yeast reactor treatment had high organic loading in the nutrient solution and concomitant microbial activity.

  14. Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  15. Future-oriented computerized information system for power plant process control in a pilot project at Philippsburg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motivation for the pilot project at Philippsburg nuclear power plant resulted from the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. The primary task embraces an efficient computer-aided reduction of information when a fault occurs based on a process engineering analysis of the information accrued. Accompanying this are a consolidation and evaluation of the information available in the control room. In this pilot project the new tasks of status monitoring, information reduction and operationalcontrol have been realized for the first time using a computer-aided process information system. In addition to the existing control computer, an information computer with approximately 1200 analogue and about 10000 binary signals has been installed. The installation of the system was completed in 1984 and in the meantime initial operational experience has become available. (orig.)

  16. [Design of a HACCP Plan for the Gouda-type cheesemaking process in a milk processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Jacqueline; Reyes, Genara; Corzo, Otoniel

    2006-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive and systematic method used to identify, assess and control of the hazards related with raw material, ingredients, processing, marketing and intended consumer in order to assure the safety of the food. The aim of this study was to design a HACCP plan for implementing in a Gouda-type cheese-making process in a dairy processing plant. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven principles of the HACCP, the information from the plant about the compliment of the pre-requisite programs (70-80%), the experience of the HACCP team and the sequence of stages settles down by the COVENIN standard 3802 for implementing the HACCP system. A HACCP plan was proposed with the scope, the selection of HACCP team, the description of the product and the intended use, the flow diagram of the process, the hazard analysis and the control table of the plan with the critical control points (CCP). The following CCP were identified in the process: pasteurization, coagulation and ripening. PMID:16786735

  17. People detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the development of a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The final objective is to track people online in videos, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during the execution of working tasks in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a real nuclear plant at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Argonauta nuclear research reactor. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta's room, supplying the data needed. Both video processing and statistical signal processing techniques may be used for detection, segmentation and tracking people in video. This first paper reports people segmentation in video using background subtraction, by two different approaches, namely frame differences, and blind signal separation based on the independent component analysis method. Results are commented, along with perspectives for further work. (author)

  18. People detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B., E-mail: seixas@lps.ufrj.b, E-mail: eduardo@lps.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica; Cota, Raphael E.; Ramos, Bruno L., E-mail: brunolange@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica e de Computacao

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the development of a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The final objective is to track people online in videos, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during the execution of working tasks in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a real nuclear plant at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Argonauta nuclear research reactor. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta's room, supplying the data needed. Both video processing and statistical signal processing techniques may be used for detection, segmentation and tracking people in video. This first paper reports people segmentation in video using background subtraction, by two different approaches, namely frame differences, and blind signal separation based on the independent component analysis method. Results are commented, along with perspectives for further work. (author)

  19. Model predictive control as a tool for improving the process operation of MSW combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a feasibility study is presented on the application of the advanced control strategy called model predictive control (MPC) as a tool for obtaining improved process operation performance for municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion plants. The paper starts with a discussion of the operational objectives and control of such plants, from which a motivation follows for applying MPC to them. This is followed by a discussion on the basic idea behind this advanced control strategy. After that, an MPC-based combustion control system is proposed aimed at tackling a typical MSW combustion control problem and, using this proposed control system, an assessment is made of the improvement in performance that an MPC-based MSW combustion control system can provide in comparison to conventional MSW combustion control systems. This assessment is based on simulations using an experimentally obtained process and disturbance model of a real-life large-scale MSW combustion plant

  20. An alarm processing system for a nuclear power plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an alarm processing system (APS) developed that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help operators to make decisions. Alarms in nuclear power plants are classified into generalized and special alarms. Generalized alarms are further classified into global and local alarms. For each type of alarm, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The processing for the generalized alarms is based on model-based reasoning. The special alarms are processed by the cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to both the plant state and the consistencies among the alarms. This APS is built on a workstation using the Prolog language

  1. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations of...... conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate...... process surveillance, especially with regard to volatile fatty acids, and 4) insufficient pre-storage capacity causing inexpedient mixing and hindering exact dosing of the different waste products....

  2. A proposed strategy for upgrade of the ORNL Process Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to the upgrade of the radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed that, if adopted, will result in significant cost reductions and improved water quality. The strategy described in this report satisfies the short-term upgrade needs of the PWTP and ultimately results in replacement of existing PWTP softening/ion- exchange technology with a zeolite molecular sieve treatment system for removal of radioactive contaminants from process wastewater. Use of zeolites will improve wastewater quality while reducing operating and disposal costs. The zeolite system would be constructed adjacent to the site now occupied by the Non-Radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), thereby consolidating all process wastewater treatment systems at one location. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Development of licensing process of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrack, A. K. [Radiation Protection Board, Mombasa (Kenya)

    2012-03-15

    This research paper presents the findings of a comprehensive survey and analysis of the licensing procedures of six leading countries with nuclear power technology. The main objective of this study was to develop a generic reference licensing procedure of nuclear power plants for Kenya based on the best practices from the licensing procedures of six countries such as US, republic of Korea Canada, Japan, UK, France and Japan. Based on the analysis results, a generic reference licensing process for Kenya was developed and two future research areas significant for the establishment of nuclear regulation infrastructure for Kenya recommended. The analysis process classified the licensing process according to licensing stages, licensing steps, and levels of authorization. Finally, a two - step licensing procedures for Kenya was established comprising of 3 licensing stages, 3 licensing steps, and 3 levels of authorization. This research paper is useful as a draft for legislation process for nuclear power plants sitting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning in Kenya.

  4. In-can melting demonstration of wastes from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immobilization of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) zirconia calcine using Idaho glass composition (ICPP-127) was evaluated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in two engineering-scale in-can melter tests. The glass was initially characterized in the laboratory to verify processing parameters. Glass was then produced in a pilot-scale melter and then in a full-scale melter to evaluate the processing and the resultant product. Potential corrosion problems were identified with the glass and some processing problems were encountered, but neither is insurmountable. The product is a durable leach-resistant glass. The glass appears to be nonhomogeneous, but chemically it is quite uniform

  5. Results of the safety evaluation for the AVR-modification into a nuclear process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 the Juelich Nuclear Research Center (KFA) proposed the modification of the AVR for high-temperature process heat systems demonstration. This would represent the achievement of an important HTR target. The work for the modification performed so far has given evidence that the plant will continue to run reliably and has led to an optimized plant concept. Most of the investigations were devoted to safety issues. The safety and licensing questions were discussed by an advisory group of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior which gave its vote in March 1985 and came to very positive conclusions. The AVR fulfils the current safety and licensing requirements; for the proposed plant modification no severe backfitting has to be taken into account. The AVR-building and the reactor itself turned out to be earthquake-proof, even according to current licensing demands if realistic site-specific earthquake spectra are applied. Risk assessment of an airplane crash show that the public risk is negligible even in the case of unrealistically pessimistic assumptions concerning the release of radioactivity. The modified plant will have a confinement similar to the modern German HTR-design. The investigations have shown that the safety questions related to a steam reformer in a primary circuit system are solved. All consequences of process gas release into the safety enclosure or into the primary system are controlled effectively by active and passive measures. Process gas release in the vicinity of the nuclear plant is excluded by the plant concept. Furthermore, even the hypothetical assumption of process gas explosions cannot damage the essential safety functions. (author)

  6. Low and medium level liquid waste processing at the new La Hague reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels produces low and medium activity liquid wastes. These radioactive wastes are decontamined before release in environment. The new effluent processing plant, which is being built at La Hague, is briefly described. Radionuclides are removed from liquid wastes by coprecipitation. The effluent is released after decantation and filtration. Insoluble sludges are conditioned in bitumen

  7. Plant process control system of full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functions and constitution of Plant Process Control System of Full Scope Simulator for Qinshan 300 MW Nuclear Power Unit are introduced. The methods of realizing these functions such as how to generate the database, to communicate, to display and to operate the graph, to alarm and print out, are described in detail

  8. Process for removal of adhering or dust deposits in plants handling uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposits containing oxygen, of the type UO2F2 or its hydrate are removed in a UF6 plant by this process. The deposits are first treated with gaseous BBr3 or PBr and then with fluorine, iodine heptafluoride or other halogen fluorides. (DG)

  9. Application of data-processing to the technical and economical management of the plants of Simo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The firm Simo is entrusted with the processing of the uranium ores extracted from the mines of Cogema in France, in its three plants. The paper describes the conception and the functioning of the information system. Among the advantages contributed by the system, the coherence between the technical follow-up and the economical follow-up constitutes one of the principal progressive features

  10. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Blue Crab Meat and Blue Crab Processing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen associated with severe invasive disease in both humans and animals. It can inhabit different niches within food processing plants, including food contact equipment, leading to cross-contamination of finished products. However, there is only ...

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  12. Methods of Dust Air Flows Reduction at Ore Transfer Facilities of Mining and Processing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulmira K. Saparova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the most typical schemes of ore stationary transfers. Aspirate units, depending on dust intensity are divided into three groups. Typical schemes of stationary transfers were presented. On the ground of the research, the classification of ore transfer facilities types at mining and processing plants was offered

  13. Mortality in workers in poultry slaughtering/processing plants: the Missouri poultry cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, G; Johnson, E.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Subjects who work in poultry slaughtering and processing plants have one of the highest human exposures to viruses that cause cancer in chickens and turkeys. It is not known whether these viruses cause cancer in humans also. Epidemiological studies investigating this issue are scarce.

  14. The Diffusion Process of planting (Grevillea robusta) among Rural Households in North-Central Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    YASU, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the characteristics of planting Grevillea robusta, a popular exotic tree in east Africa, and to know the conditions stimulating its diffusion process among rural households, taking as an example north-sentral Tanzania. It makes clear that the process was promoted by various time-specific incentives and motivations, such as introduction of coffee growing, need for securing right on the farm during the villagization, enforcement of new agricultural policy, and free...

  15. The UO2 pellets plant experimental background of the established process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account of the UO2 research and development carried out at the JEN is first given. This includes a 10 tons/year pellet Plant construction. Experimental background of the process is established, pointing out both milling advantages and risks, granulation devices, automatic press selection, binder removing and sintering furnaces. Origin, surface area, grain size and 0/U rate are considered as raw material reception parameters, although this process shows a wide scope. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Management Hazards Assessment (EMHA) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Management Hazards Assessment (EMHA) process used by the lead and all event contractors at the Y-12 Plant for emergency planning and preparedness. The EMHA process provides the technical basis for the Y-12 emergency management program. The instructions provides in this report include methods and requirements for performing the following emergency management activities at Y-12: hazards identification; hazards survey, and hazards assessment

  17. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Farhana Sharmin; Steve Wakelin; Flavia Huygens; Megan Hargreaves

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Signif...

  18. Nucleotide-Dependent Processes in the Thylakoid Lumen of Plant Chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria are able to harvest the sunlight and use its energy to transform water and carbon dioxide to carbohydrate molecules and oxygen, both important to sustain life on Earth. This process is called photosynthesis and is the route by which almost all energy enters the biosphere. As most simple things in life, the process of photosynthesis is easily explained but unfortunately not that easy to reproduce. If we could, we would be living in a much different wor...

  19. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrohydroxyalkylation of Butadiene: The Role of the Formyl Hydrogen Bond in Stereochemical Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Matthew N.; Krische, Michael J.; Houk, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    The catalyst generated in situ from RuH2(CO)(PPh3)3, (S)-SEGPHOS, and a chiral phosphoric acid promotes asymmetric hydrohydroxyalkylation of butadiene and affords enantioenriched α-methyl homoallylic alcohols. The observed diastereo- and enantioselectivities are determined by both the chiral phosphine and chiral phosphate ligands. Density functional theory calculations (M06/SDD-6-311G(d,p)-IEFPCM(acetone)//B3LYP/SDD-6-31G(d)) predict that the product distribution is controlled by the kinetics of carbon-carbon bond formation, and this process occurs via a closed-chair Zimmerman-Traxler-type transition structure (TS). Chiral phosphate-dependent stereoselectivity arising from this TS is enabled through a hydrogen bond between the phosphoryl oxygen and the aldehyde formyl proton present in TADDOL-derived catalysts. This interaction is absent in the corresponding BINOL-derived systems and the opposite sense of attack on the aldehyde occurs. Additional factors influencing stereochemical control are determined. PMID:26107070

  20. Effect of Thermal and Nonthermal Processing on Textural Quality of Plant Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Kumar; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi; Shanmugam, Nadanasabapathi

    2016-12-01

    In the current fast revolving world, the consumption of processed food is increasing drastically. The population who depend on these processed foods are also cautious about the quality and safety of what they consume. This being the case, in order to satisfy the consumer it is the responsibility of the researcher and the manufacturer to check what happens to food on processing. Plant-derived foods such as fruits and vegetables are sensitive producers which are to be handled cautiously through each steps involved in processing, starting from harvest to storage, processing to package, transportation to distribution, till it reaches the consumer. During processing, the plant materials, which are made up of complex structural components such as lignin, cellulose, pectin, etc. undergo changes which has its effect on the quality attributes of the final product. Texture is an important quality parameter of all the sensory properties. The relation between the structure of the plant tissue and the texture of the final product is reviewed in this paper comprehensively. PMID:26046712

  1. Towards quantification of butadiene content in styrene-butadiene block copolymers and their blends with general purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and the relation between mechanical properties and NMR relaxation times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) block copolymers do not only depend on the butadiene content and the degree of polymerisation but also on their chain architecture. In this contribution we present the results of a low-field time domain (TD) NMR study in which the transverse relaxation behaviour of different SBS block copolymers was analysed and correlated with findings from mechanical testing on pure and blended materials and transmission electron microscopy data which provide information on the microphase separation. The results indicate that while a straightforward determination of the butadiene content as in blended materials like ABS is not possible for these materials, the TD-NMR results correlate quite well with the mechanical performance of blends from SBS block copolymers with general purpose polystyrene (GPPS), i.e. industrial grade homopolymer polystyrene. Temperature-dependent experiments on pure and blended materials revealed a slight reduction in the softening temperature of the GPPS fraction in the blends

  2. Process optimization in the main process area of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main process area contains the first extraction cycle, the plutonium and uranium cleaning and the concentration of the medium and high activity waste. Optimisation was carried out by: integration of uranium in the main process building, electrolytic Pu reduction in the plutonium cleaning, omission of the second medium activity waste evaporation line, the omission of high activity waste denitrating and the omission of high activity waste denitrating and the omission of the high activity waste buffer store and by improving the U/Pu separation in the first cycle. (orig./DG)

  3. Bibliographical survey of radiostrontium uptake capacity and processes in aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers 302 articles published between 1949 and 1980 on the contamination of freshwater and marine aquatic plants by radioactive strontium. For the marine and continental environments, the results of laboratory experiments on the dynamics of radiostrontium buildup and localization, concentration factors, elimination processes, the effects of biological factors and of the environment, the activity levels and concentration factors measured in areas directly and indirectly affected by waste discharges, discrimination factors and the role of plants as radiation indicators, are examined. The radioactive strontium uptake potentials are higher for freshwater plants -especially mosses and characeae- than for marine plants. In zones not directly affected by waste discharges, the maximum activity measured is 82 pCi/kg wet weight, compared with 750 pCi/kg for freshwater plants. The peak values were observed in 1964-1965. In zones directly affected by waste discharges, the activity levels range from 15 to 1700 pCi of 90Sr per kilogram of wet weight in the marine environment, and from 20 to 207000 pCi/kg in fresh water. This work underlines the need for greater accuracy in allowing for the ecological characteristics of each site when assessing the impact of nuclear facilities, and for thoroughly correlating field observations with laboratory experiments in order to obtain a prospective view of the potentials for radioactive strontium uptake by plants according to the activity levels present in the liquid effluents

  4. Staffing decision processes and issues: Case studies of seven US Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to identify how decisions are made regarding staffing levels and positions for a sample of U.S. nuclear power plants. In this report, a framework is provided for understanding the major forces driving staffing and the implications of staffing decisions for plant safety. The focus of this report is on driving forces that have led to changes in staffing levels and to the establishment of new positions between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Processes used at utilities and nuclear power plants to make and implement these staffing decisions are also discussed in the report. While general trends affecting the plant as a whole are presented, the major emphasis of this report is on staffing changes and practices in the operations department, including the operations shift crew. The findings in this report are based on interviews conducted at seven nuclear power plants and their parent utilities. A discussion of the key findings is followed by a summary of the implications of staffing issues for plant safety

  5. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. PMID:26028558

  6. Insect herbivores change the outcome of plant competition through both inter- and intraspecific processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tania N; Underwood, Nora; Inouye, Brian D

    2013-08-01

    Insect herbivores can affect plant abundance and community composition, and theory suggests that herbivores influence plant communities by altering interspecific interactions among plants. Because the outcome of interspecific interactions is influenced by the per capita competitive ability of plants, density dependence, and intrinsic rates of increase, measuring herbivore effects on all these processes is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which herbivores influence plant communities. We fit alternative competition models to data from a response surface experiment conducted over four years to examine how herbivores affected the outcome of competition between two perennial plants, Solidago altissima and Solanum carolinense. Within a growing season, herbivores reduced S. carolinense plant size but did not affect the size of S. altissima, which exhibited compensatory growth. Across seasons, herbivores did not affect S. carolinense density or biomass but reduced both the density and population growth of S. altissima. The best-fit models indicated that the effects of herbivores varied with year. In some years, herbivores increased the per capita competitive effect of S. altissima on S. carolinense; in other years, herbivores influenced the intrinsic rate of increase of S. altissima. We examined possible herbivore effects on the longer-term outcome of competition (over the time scale of a typical old-field habitat), using simulations based on the best-fit models. In the absence of herbivores, plant coexistence was observed. In the presence of herbivores, S. carolinense was excluded by S. altissima in 72.3% of the simulations. We demonstrate that herbivores can influence the outcome of competition through changes in both per capita competitive effects and intrinsic rates of increase. We discuss the implications of these results for ecological succession and biocontrol. PMID:24015519

  7. Design of process cell equipment layout and its associated piping in typical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plant processes spent nuclear fuel discharged from the nuclear reactor to separate chemically the uranium and plutonium. Spent nuclear fuel emits radiation due to the presence of fission products, actinides and activation products. The major operation steps in reprocessing plant are dismantling of spent fuel subassemblies, chopping of fuel pins and dissolution in concentrated nitric acid. Subsequently, this solution containing uranium and plutonium, fission products and actinides is subjected to solvent extraction with tributyl phosphate in diluent as solvent for separating uranium and plutonium from fission products and other actinides. In the design of a fuel reprocessing plant, apart from problems associated with conventional chemical process industries such as corrosion, materials handling, industrial and fire safety and economy, specific considerations such as health hazards from radioactivity (radiological safety) and damage to material by radiation are considered. This necessitates the processing of spent fuel inside the shielded process cells (concrete and lead cells) with remote operation and maintenance philosophy to prevent the contamination as well as radiation exposure to the operators and prevention of criticality in process tanks and equipments. Reprocessing plant consists of number of shielded process cells depending on the processing capacity and type of spent fuel handled. Concrete cells and lead cells houses various type of storage tanks, equipments, liquid transfer devices, etc with interconnecting small bore pipe lines for liquid transfer and supply of services, which runs in multiple layers, forming a high density piping inside the cells. In addition to this, cells have remote handling systems and gadgets for remote operation and maintenance wherever required. This paper highlights the design of process cells, its equipment layout and piping in typical reprocessing plant; the suitable material of construction

  8. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  9. Process improvement technology for petrochemical plant; Sekiyu kagaku puranto ni okesu purosesu kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shin

    1999-05-05

    Before, GTC technology Co. was a manufacturer of the tray as a Greenwich technology. It is the subsidiary, which undertakes technology and licence of the engineering firm in U.S.A. at present. It carries out besides the technology licence support in the startup for the prolonged driving of technical service, operating condition of the plant of improvement and optimization and, etc. Has made separation and purification technology, which made extractive distillation to be a beginning good and has the process improvement technology to the PTA (high-pure terephthalic acid) from BTX (benzene toluene xylene) of petrochemical plant. (NEDO)

  10. Process technique and safety features of the German VEK vitrification plant currently under commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of the VEK vitrification plant is the immobilization of approx. 70 m3 of a highly radioactive waste solution, in total containing 7.7·1017 Bq of β/γ-radioactivity. The solidification of the waste is a major step on the way to the further decommissioning and dismantling of the former German pilot reprocessing plant WAK. The VEK plant, which recently entered the phase of commissioning, will use the German vitrification technology based on a liquid-fed ceramic melter. The advanced melter design enables the vitrification of highly noble metals-containing wastes. Other special features of the glass melter include the mature bottom drain system, improved process control equipment and an effective cleaning system for the melter off-gas pipe. The multi-stage off-gas treatment system along with two recycling pathways for secondary liquid waste ensures the minimization of radioactive effluents and emissions. The safety features of the plant cover resistance against external impacts occurring from potential earthquakes and aircraft accidents. The core process is installed in highly shielded cells for remote maintenance. A process control system that includes also a safety-related system serves for operational control and protection against severe accidents. The safety concept of VEK has been confirmed by a detailed accident analysis. (author)

  11. Mutations induced by 1,3-butadiene metabolites, butadiene diolepoxide, and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane at the Hprt locus in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Jo; Rhee, Seung Keun; Yoon, ByoungSu; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Lee, Chong-Soon

    2002-12-31

    Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial chemical that is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Butadiene diolepoxide (BDE) and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) are metabolites of carcinogenic BD and contain the DNA-reactive one and two epoxides, respectively. In this study, the mutation frequencies and mutation spectra that are induced by BDE and DEB have been investigated at the hprt locus in CHO-K1 cells. The BDE- and DEB-treated CHO-K1 cells were allowed to grow for several days, then seeded in a medium that contained 6-thioguanine in order to select the hprt mutants. BDE exhibited the mutagenic activity at concentrations that were approximately 100-times higher than DEB. The mutation spectra for BDE and DEB were determined by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of hprt mRNA, which was followed by automatic DNA sequencing of the PCR products. The mutational spectrum for BDE was exon deletions (16/41), G x C --> A x T transitions (11/41), and A x T --> G x C transitions (5/41). The mutational spectrum for DEB was exon deletions (15/39), G x C --> A x T transitions (11/39), and A x T --> T x A transversions (5/39). The most common base substitution that was induced by both BDE and DEB was G x C --> A x T transitions. The sites of the single base substitutions that were induced by BDE and DEB were guanine and adenine, which was consistent with the DNA adduct profiles. The high frequencies of the exon deletions by each metabolite occurred in the regions of exons 2, 3, or 4. These data indicate that BDE and DEB are mutagenic carcinogens by forming DNA adducts at the site of adenine and guanine, and inducing large exon deletions and single base substitutions. PMID:12521305

  12. Advanced treatment of landfill leachate by a new combination process in a full-scale plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced treatment of mature landfill leachate from a municipal landfill located in southern China (Jiangmen) was carried out in a full-scale plant using a new process. The combined process has a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) serving as the primary treatment, with polyferric sulfate (PFS) coagulation coupled with a Fenton system as secondary treatment, and a pair of upflow biological aerated filters (UBAFs) in parallel as tertiary treatment. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in this process was 97.3%, with an effluent COD less than 100 mg/L. Up to 99% ammonia (N-NH3) removal efficiency was achieved in the SBR, with an effluent of less than 3 mg/L, which meets the discharge standard (≤25 mg/L) with only primary treatment. The total phosphorus (TP) and suspended solids (SS) in the final effluent were reduced to less than 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The experience gained in the operation and maintenance will lead to a more stable performance of this combined process. An economic analysis shows that the overall operating cost of the advanced treatment was $2.70/m3. This new combination process was proved to be highly compatible and efficient in a small-scale landfill leachate treatment plant and is recommended for small-scale landfill leachate treatment plants.

  13. Mathematic modelling of anaerobic degradation processes in biogas plants; Mathematische Modellierung der anaeroben Abbauprozesse in Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinrich, Soeren [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Mauky, Eric [DBFZ - Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Fachbereich Biochemische Konversion; Nelles, Michael

    2011-07-01

    In view of the ongoing political discussion on the enhanced utilization of renewable energy sources biogas technologies continue to gain significance. To develop economic plant concepts and guaranty high energy efficiency the knowledge of the dynamic degradation of various substrates at different operating conditions are of crucial importance. Within the field of modelling the dynamic changes in concentration of substantial components (mass balance) are commonly described by known physical laws or empirical observations. On the basis of a dynamic process model by the German Biomass Research Centre (DBFZ) the main functional principles and capabilities of a simulation of a real biogas plant are described exemplarily. Besides the choice of appropriate kinetic and stoichiometric parameters the model output depends significantly on the quality of the (measured) input variables. Thus the implementation of continuous accurate data logging and the development of important process parameters are also major research topics for modelling and parameter identification of the anaerobic digestion process. (orig.)

  14. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality.

  15. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  16. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  17. Design consideration on hydrogen production demonstration plant of thermochemical IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary design study was carried out on the hydrogen production demonstration plant of thermochemical IS process. In the pilot test, hydrogen production will be examined under prototypical condition using an apparatus made of industrial materials, which is driven by the sensible heat of helium gas heated by an electric heater that simulates the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Tentative system condition was defined considering the HTTR specification and the experience on the construction and the operation of the mock-up test facility using methane reforming for hydrogen production. The process condition and the system flow diagram were discussed to meet the system condition. Based on the defined process condition, types of the main components were discussed taking the corrosion resistance of the structural materials into consideration. Applicable rules and regulations were also surveyed regarding the plant construction and operation. (author)

  18. Process description and plant design for preparing ceramic high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ceramics process flow diagram has been simplified and upgraded to utilize only two major processing steps - fluid-bed calcination and hot isostatic press consolidating. Full-scale fluid-bed calcination has been used at INEL to calcine high-level waste for 18 y; and a second-generation calciner, a fully remotely operated and maintained calciner that meets ALARA guidelines, started calcining high-level waste in 1982. Full-scale hot isostatic consolidation has been used by DOE and commercial enterprises to consolidate radioactive components and to encapsulate spent fuel elements for several years. With further development aimed at process integration and parametric optimization, the operating knowledge of full-scale demonstration of the key process steps should be rapidly adaptable to scale-up of the ceramic process to full plant size. Process flowsheets used to prepare ceramic and glass waste forms from defense and commercial high-level liquid waste are described. Preliminary layouts of process flow diagrams in a high-level processing canyon were prepared and used to estimate the preliminary cost of the plant to fabricate both waste forms. The estimated costs for using both options were compared for total waste management costs of SRP high-level liquid waste. Using our design, for both the ceramic and glass plant, capital and operating costs are essentially the same for both defense and commercial wastes, but total waste management costs are calculated to be significantly less for defense wastes using the ceramic option. It is concluded from this and other studies that the ceramic form may offer important advantages over glass in leach resistance, waste loading, density, and process flexibility. Preliminary economic calculations indicate that ceramics must be considered a leading candidate for the form to immobilize high-level wastes

  19. SOFT SENSOR FOR BETTER CONTROL OF CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL PROCESS IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEEM M. KHALFE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon dioxide in cycle gas loop of ethylene glycol (EG plant improves catalyst selectivity and overall economics of the plant. Carbon dioxide produced as a byproduct in ethylene oxide reactor is removed by the Benfield process. In this process, the carbonate and bicarbonate ratio in lean carbonate solution is considered as an important quality control (QC variable as the efficiency of carbon dioxide removal largely depends on it. In the event of a process malfunction or operating under suboptimal condition, the CO2 content in the cycle gas loop will continue to rise until corrective action is taken after obtaining lab results for carbonate and bicarbonate ratio. This time consuming sampling process can be overcome by implementing a technological solution in form of an accurate and robust mathematical model capable of real time QC variable prediction. For well understood processes, the structure of the correlation for QC variables as well as the choice of the inputs may be well known in advance. However, the Benfield process is too complex and the appropriate form of the correlation and choice of input variables are not obvious. Here, knowledge of the processes, operating experience and statistical methods were applied in developing the soft sensor. This paper describes a systematic approach to the development of inferential measurements of carbonate and bi¬carbonate ratio using Support Vector Regression (SVR analysis. Given histo¬rical process data, a simple SVR-based soft sensor model is found capable of identifying and capturing the cause and effect relationship between operating variables (model inputs and QC variables (model outputs. Special care was taken to choose input variables, so that the final correlation and regression coefficient make senses from process engineering point of view. The developed soft sensor was implemented in commercial ethylene glycol plant in an Exa¬quantum interface and was found to satisfactorily predict

  20. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  1. The Conversion of a Zimbabwean Processing Plant from Manual to Smart Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Collier; Ernest; Bhero

    2010-01-01

    <正>The automation of several key processes in a factory in Zimbabwe is described.The plant is a producer of bolts and nails for the southern Africa region.Being built in the 1950s,the equipment was intended for manual operation.To improve efficiency and reduce overhead costs, this project was commissioned to add electronic intelligence to some of the processing equipment.In particular the conversion of forging furnaces to computer control and the intelligent implementation of heat-treatment processes are described.Results of the project in economic and quality terms are presented.

  2. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    OpenAIRE

    Bouallou, Chakib

    2010-01-01

    PDF file available for free at http://pubs.ub.ro/?pg=revues&rev=cscc6&num=201011&vol=1&aid=2975 International audience This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to giv...

  3. Process Simulation of Oxy-combustion CO2 Capture in Cement Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Skinnemoen, Maria Magnussen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this master thesis have been to model and simulate oxy-combustion CO2 capture in a cement plant. The model developed is a process simulation of the calcination process with varying degree of air in-leakage, where heat is supplied by combustion in an oxygen rich environment, followed by capture of the CO2. The further gas separation after H2O condensation to achieve the required CO2 quality was evaluated. In addition to the process simulations, a review of literature related ...

  4. A feasibility study on the industialization of catalytic process in connection with domestic chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economical feasibility on the polymer catalytic process for the production of heavy water in corporating domestic hydrogen reforming plants (RHEX) were performed. It was suggested to run the RHEX process as a closed system to reduce the loss of concentrated deuterium. As a part of solution to this problem the method of recycling methane gas out of the process and of purifying the water from the hydrogen reforming process have been considered. The controlling factor affecting the unit production cost depends on the cost of polymer catalyst rather than the investment cost. If the catalyst would be produced with the suitable price, the proposed process could be quite competitive comparing with other heavy water production processes. (Author)

  5. Process monitoring of the quality management system at the Pitesti Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results obtained by NFP (Nuclear Fuel Plant) during the development of the 'process monitoring' requested by the current reference documents applicable in Quality Management System (NMC-02, NMC-07, SR EN ISO 9001:2001). Based on reference requirements and taking into account the activity peculiarity, NFP issued the Process Record and established the specific targets and performance indicators for each process and department identified in the Management Manual. Then, the Process Manager was appointed and there were established the responsibilities for the follow-up and final reporting. The main expected achievements are the following: permanent control of the process, separately and in connection with the others, continuous improvement of the processes by identification of cases requiring corrective and/or preventive interventions. (author)

  6. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to ensure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  7. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to assure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  8. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies of 1,3-butadiene in the rat: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats during and following 6 hours/day, whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200, and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female rats (Ns = 24 to 28), which had mated with unexposed males, were exposed to the chemical from 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 20 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11, 16 and 20 dg; the rats were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. There were no significant differences among treatment groups in maternal body weights or extragestational weights of rats exposed to 1,3-butadiene concentrations of 40 or 200 ppM, but, in animals exposed to 1000 ppM, significantly depressed body weight gains were observed during the first 5 days of exposure and extragestational weight gains tended to be lower than control values. These results, and the absence of clinical signs of toxicity, were considered to indicate that there was no maternal toxicity at exposure levels of 200 ppM or lower. The percentage of pregnant animals and the number of litters with live fetuses were unaffected by treatment. Under the conditions of this exposure regimen, there was no evidence for a teratogenic response to 1,3-butadiene exposure.

  9. W-007H B Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippy, G.L.

    1995-01-20

    B Plant Process Condensate (BCP) liquid effluent stream is the condensed vapors originating from the operation of the B Plant low-level liquid waste concentration system. In the past, the BCP stream was discharged into the soil column under a compliance plan which expired January 1, 1987. Currently, the BCP stream is inactive, awaiting restart of the E-23-3 Concentrator. B Plant Steam Condensate (BCS) liquid effluent stream is the spent steam condensate used to supply heat to the E-23-3 Concentrator. The tube bundles in the E-23-3 Concentrator discharge to the BCS. In the past, the BCS stream was discharged into the soil column. Currently, the BCS stream is inactive. This project shall provide liquid effluent systems (BCP/BCS/BCE) capable of operating for a minimum of 20 years, which does not include the anticipated decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) period.

  10. Conduct of regulatory review and assessment during the licensing process for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It supplements the Code of Practice on Governmental Organization for the Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-G) and is concerned with the review and assessment by the regulatory body of all information submitted in support of licence applications, in the various phases of the licensing process. The purpose of the Guide is to provide information, recommendations and guidance for the conduct of these activities. The scope of the review and assessment will encompass the safety aspects of siting, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of each nuclear power plant

  11. W-007H B Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Plant Process Condensate (BCP) liquid effluent stream is the condensed vapors originating from the operation of the B Plant low-level liquid waste concentration system. In the past, the BCP stream was discharged into the soil column under a compliance plan which expired January 1, 1987. Currently, the BCP stream is inactive, awaiting restart of the E-23-3 Concentrator. B Plant Steam Condensate (BCS) liquid effluent stream is the spent steam condensate used to supply heat to the E-23-3 Concentrator. The tube bundles in the E-23-3 Concentrator discharge to the BCS. In the past, the BCS stream was discharged into the soil column. Currently, the BCS stream is inactive. This project shall provide liquid effluent systems (BCP/BCS/BCE) capable of operating for a minimum of 20 years, which does not include the anticipated decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) period

  12. Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R. E.

    1979-02-01

    A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

  13. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite dispersed within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipara, M; Skomski, R; Ali, N; Hui, D; Sellmyer, D J

    2009-06-01

    Magnetic properties of nanocomposite materials obtained by dispersing barium ferrite nanoparticles within polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer, in the temperature range, 300 to 500 K are reported. The temperature dependence of the magnetization at saturation, averaged uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and coercive field of thick films are analyzed. A "matrix effect" was noticed within the glass transition range of the hard component (polystyrene) of the polymeric matrix. The reported modifications of the magnetic properties were assigned to the competition between the magnetic and mechanical reorientation of nanoparticles within the polymeric matrix. Such modifications were not observed in barium ferrite dispersed in cement. PMID:19504902

  14. Reinforcing styrene butadiene rubber with lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, P.; He, H; Jiang, C; Wang, D; Jia, Y.; Zhou, L.; D. M. Jia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, lignin-novolac epoxy resin networks were fabricated in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) matrix by combination of latex compounding and melt mixing. Firstly, SBR/lignin compounds were co-coagulated by SBR latex and lignin aqueous solution. Then the novolac epoxy resin (F51) was added in the SBR/lignin compounds by melt compounding method. F51 was directly cured by lignin via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy groups of F51 and OH groups (or COOH groups) of lignin during the cu...

  15. 1,3-Butadiene hydrogenation on pd-supported systems: geometric effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza P.R.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong metal support interaction (SMSI effect was observed on Pd/Nb2O5 and Pd/TiO2 catalysts, and it produces small, exposed Pd ensembles. A decrease in the trans/cis 2-butene ratio was observed after reduction at 773 K. Selectivity changes were ascribed to the decoration model. Theoretical models were developed based on semi-empirical molecular-orbital calculations for 1,3-butadiene and Pd n clusters. Experimental results are in agreement with our theoretical model, which proposes a greater stabilization of the cisoid intermediate on small Pd ensembles.

  16. Improving compatibility of styrene-butadiene-styrene/polyamide 6 blends by radiation crosslinking of the SBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed at improving compatibility of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer / polyamide 6 (PA6) blends through radiation crosslinking of the blends by 60Co γ-rays, in which three-dimensional network structure is formed by the crosslinked SBS molecular chains. Micro-morphology, rheological properties, mechanical properties and water absorption of the PA6/SBS blend with different ratios irradiated to 100 kGy were characterized by relevant instrumental techniques. The results show that performance of the SBS/PA6 blends could be improved by radiation modification of the SBS copolymer. (authors)

  17. Reinforcement of hydrogenated carboxylated nitrile-butadiene rubber by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HXNBR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared. The dispersion of MWCNT in HXNBR matrix was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. HXNBR/MWCNT composite had shorter scorch time and optimum curing time compared with that of unfilled HXNBR. The tensile strength and modulus of HXNBR/MWCNT composites increased with increasing MWCNT content. Mooney-Rivlin equation was used to describe the stress-strain behavior of unfilled HXNBR and the strain amplification factor was taken into account for HXNBR/MWCNT composites. The Mullins effect and dynamic mechanical properties of HXNBR/MWCNT composite were also investigated.

  18. Self-Assembled Poly(butadiene)-b-Poly(ethylene oxide) Polymersomes as Paclitaxel Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuliang; Byrne, Belinda; Welsh, JoEllen; Palmer, Andre F.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, self-assembled poly(butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) polymersomes (polymer vesicles) and worm micelles were evaluated as paclitaxel carriers. Paclitaxel was successfully incorporated into PB-PEO polymersomes and worm micelles. The loading capacity of paclitaxel inside PB-PEO colloids ranged from 6.7-13.7% w/w, depending on the morphology of copolymer colloids and the molecular weight of diblock copolymer. Paclitaxel loaded OB4 (PB219-PEO121) polymersome formulations we...

  19. STUDY ON STYRENE-BUTADIENE BLOCK COPOLYMER FOR THE MODIFICATION OF TIRE TREAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; CHEN Weijie; MU Ruifeng; WANG Yongwei; YU Fengnian; LIU Qing

    1996-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with the design and synthesis of a novel styrene-butadiene block copolymer. When this copolymer is used in the tread portion of tyres, it can improve wet skid resistance and reduce rolling resistance without sacrificing its general physicalmechanical properties. The visco-elastic curve of tire tread using the novel copolymer as its rubber portion was showed. Reactivity ratios for two monomers in the polymerizing system were calculated. The diagrams of differential, integral and finite difference calculi throughout the whole molecular chain were presented. The influence of the micro- and macro-structure of the copolymer chain on wet skid resistance and rolling resistance was discussed.

  20. Study Tensile Strength and Wear Rate for Unsaturated Polyester Resin and Nitrile butadiene Rubber Polymer Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entihaa G. Daway

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary polymer blend was prepared by mechanical mixing method of unsaturated polyester resin with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR with different weight ratios (0, 5, 10 and 15 % of (NBR. Tensile characteristics and wear rates of these blends were studied for all mixing ratios. The microstructure of fracture surfaces of the prepared samples were investigated by optical microscope. The results were showed that strain rates of the resin material increase after blending it with rubber while the ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus values of it will decrease. It is also noticed that the wear rate of resin decreases with increasing of (NBR content.