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Sample records for bustarviejo spain mobility

  1. Historia de las minas de plata de Bustarviejo

    OpenAIRE

    Jordá Bordehore, Luis; Octavio PUCHE RIART; Mazadiego Martínez, Luis Felipe

    2005-01-01

    En las proximidades de la localidad de Bustarviejo, se encuentra una de las minas de metales más importantes de toda la Sierra de Guadarrama. Se trata de una explotación de plata, que contó también con varias fundiciones, tanto a pie de mina como en el propio pueblo; en ésta última se obtuvieron lingotes en los siglos XVII y XVIII. Las crónicas hablan incluso de la obtención de oro. Las minas de la Cuesta de la Plata de Bustarviejo han estado activas desde el siglo XVII (aunque hay pequeños t...

  2. Residential mobile phone users complaints' in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amaral, Teodosio; Gijón, Covadonga; Garín-Muñoz, Teresa; López, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction is a key determinant of customer retention, profitability of operators, consumer welfare and a strategic variable for competition and international comparisons. Spain's mobile customer satisfaction is the lowest in the European Union according to recent EU studies (SMREC, 2013). Consumer complaints are numerous according to official statistics. In turn, consumer complaints (and how well they are dealt with) influence customer satisfaction and retention. This paper analyz...

  3. Mobile Applications and Destination Branding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article sets out the findings of research carried out in 2013 on the Spanish tourism mobile applications. The research that covered 66 apps combined a quantitative description of this sector with qualitative categories based on a semiotic analysis. The article evaluates and compares the apps, identifies their main traits, and proposes a taxonomy: the content-based app, the participatory app and the leisure app.

  4. The labour trajectories of immigrant women in Spain: Are there signs of upward social mobility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vidal-Coso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Spain, foreign-born women are disproportionately employed in housework or care work, and quantitative research has shown that female migrants are disadvantaged relative to male migrants in the occupational status of their first job in Spain. However, the process that created this female penalty has not yet been explored. Objective: In this paper, we focus on female occupational mobility at migration and during settlement in Spain. First, we compare female and male labour mobility at migration. Second, we identify the main socio-demographic factors which increase the likelihood that the first job a foreign-born woman holds in Spain will be as a cleaner or a domestic worker. Third, we investigate female labour mobility from the time of migration, particularly trajectories that lead away from the cleaning and domestic occupations, and consider the importance of the assimilation process in occupational mobility. Methods: We apply quantitative methods to Spain's 2007 National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, using descriptive (mobility matrixes and simple and multinomial logistic regression analyses. We include the main socio-demographic, family, and migratory characteristics of immigrants in the explanatory models. Results: The results of our analysis revealed that female migrants to Spain are more likely than their male counterparts to experience occupational downgrading at the time of migration, and that 41.6Š of women work in domestic services in their first job in Spain. Finally, our results have demonstrated that, although occupational immobility is common among female migrants in Spain, movement out of domestic services is possible, especially for the most assimilated immigrant women. Conclusions: This paper contextualises female immigration in Spain, attributing the labour market choices made by female migrants to the externalisation of domestic and cleaning occupations in private households, and to the

  5. TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY IN A BORDER TERRITORY: ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Beltrán Antolín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.

  6. Romanian Migration to the Community of Madrid (Spain: Patterns of Mobility and Return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the process by which Romanian immigrants to the Autonomous Community of Madrid (Spain return to their country. Starting with the empirical reality and the theoretical focuses on human mobility as a form of transnationalism, the article emphasises on the characteristics which distinguish the Romanian collective from other collectives of immigrants living in Spain; circular migration that creates work networks. The paper reflects how the intensive mobility contributes to a process that is continuous and partial—hardly ever final. The first part of the article presents the phases of Romanian migration to the Autonomous Community of Madrid. It then delves into the process by which Romanians return to their country of origin, while detailing those factors that influence their decision. The conclusions point towards a renewal of studies on mobility within the framework of the European Union that links the border dynamic with the migration process.

  7. Web 2.0 Goes Mobile: Motivations and Barriers of Mobile Social Networks Use in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Martí Parreño, José

    2013-01-01

    Mobile social networking sites have become one of the fastest growing Web 2.0 services worldwide both in developing and developed countries and have a major interest for the information systems research community. This chapter aims to give managers and students insight into the mobile social networking industry and the different drivers and barriers to mobile social networking sites adoption. The chapter’s specific goals are to: (i) Identify consumer segments more likely to adopt mobile socia...

  8. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  9. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2014. (10th, Madrid, Spain, February 28-March 2, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madrid, Spain, February 28-March 2, 2014. The Mobile Learning 2014 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and…

  10. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Spain for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  11. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  12. PPCPs wet weather mobilization in a combined sewer in NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, Héctor; Suárez, Joaquín; Puertas, Jerónimo; Ures, Pablo

    2013-04-01

    An intense campaign was carried out over a 14 month period to characterize concentrations and loads of 7 well-known Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs), during dry and wet weather conditions, in an urban combined catchment in the northwest of Spain, a geographical zone with an average annual rainfall over 1500 mm. The main objective was to gather more in-depth knowledge of the mobilization of these "micropollutants" in an urban combined sewer and the possible pressures on water receiving bodies due to combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Hydrographs and pollutographs of these substances in dry weather flows (DWF), on weekdays and weekends, and wet weather flows (WWF) during 10 rain events have been characterized to obtain data that are sufficiently representative for statistical analysis. The research findings show that there is a considerable mobilization of these substances during rain events, mainly in the first part of the hydrographs, especially HHCB galaxolide, ibuprofen and paracetamol with maximum concentrations of 9.76, 8.51 and 5.71 μg/L respectively, whereas these concentrations in dry weather only reached 2.57, 2.11 and 0.72 μg/L respectively. There is a good correlation between the degree of mobilization in wet weather flows and the percentage of dry weather particulate phase of each studied substance, indicating that such mobilization may be associated with adsorption on the sediments deposited on the collectors during the antecedent dry period. These results are in good agreement with removal in conventional WWTP, especially for compounds that tend to adsorb onto sewage sludge. PMID:23425796

  13. Clast mobility within boulder beaches over two winters in Galicia, northwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alberti, Augusto; Trenhaile, Alan S.

    2015-11-01

    A micro-drone was used to make low altitude flights over boulder beaches at Laxe Brava and Oia in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Flights were made in July 2012, May 2013, and spring 2014. High resolution digital terrain models and orthophotographs, combined with GIS mapping, were used to monitor changes in the position of thousands of boulders. Maximum storm wave height was higher in the winter of 2013-2014 than in winter 2012-2013, and this was reflected in an increase in the proportion of the boulders that moved in the two winters, from 17% to almost 48% at Laxe Brava, and from 53% to almost 88% at Oia. The greater mobility of the boulders at Oia can be attributed in part to their generally smaller size, although there was considerable overlap between the size of boulders that moved and those that did not move within and between the two beaches. There were mobile boulders in areas up to several metres above the high tidal level on both beaches, and boulder transport in the shore-normal and alongshore directions triggered some changes in the beach profiles, particularly in the middle to upper parts of the beaches. Estimates of threshold transport conditions, scaled to boulder mass, breaker height, and other variables, suggested that all but the very largest boulders on the two beaches should have been mobile, even during the summer months when the waves were much lower than in winter. Model over-prediction can be attributed to a number of factors, including: constraints on movement imposed by surrounding boulders; differences in boulder size and their effect on pivoting angles and on the degree to which boulders are exposed or sheltered from wave impact; and difficulties in assigning appropriate values to model coefficients.

  14. The relation between international mobility and the modern prejudice of Spaniards toward the immigrant collective in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carmona Vescance

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although international migration has increased in volume during the last decades, prejudice against immigrants is still present in contemporary societies. In the present article, we study transnational human capital and modern prejudice in Spain. The sample consists of 255 Spaniards (born in Spain that were living in Spain at the moment of the survey. The age range of the sample is between 18 and 63 years (M = 33,24; SD = 9,38 and 58,4% of them are women. The sample is non-probabilistic and was taken through the Internet. To study the relationship between transnational human capital and modern prejudice, we created a survey with closed questions to measure mobility effects. To measure modern prejudice, we used the instrument created by Pettigrew and Meertens (1995 and adapted by Frias- Navarro (2009 to the Spanish population. The statistics analysis was done by correlations and anova. The results show that the more mobility effects, the more (and better contact with immigrants, and also lower levels of prejudice. The implications of the study are that the measure of the scale of mobility effects is an appropriate instrument to study the relationship between international mobility and modern prejudice, based on the properties, structure and correlates of that scale.

  15. Are commuting and residential mobility decisions simultaneous? : the case of Catalonia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Romaní Fernández, Javier, 1969-; Suriñach Caralt, Jordi; Artís Ortuño, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study the commuting and moving decisions of workers in Catalonia (Spain) and its evolution in the 1986-1996 period. Using a microdata sample from the 1991 Spanish Population Census, we estimate a simultaneous, discrete choice model of commuting and moves, thus indirectly addressing the home and job location decisions. The econometrical framework is a simultaneous, binary probit model with a commute equation and a move equation

  16. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  17. Heavy metal mobility in the river Almanzora delta aquifer, Almeria Spain; Movilidad de los metales pesados en el acuifero deltaico del rio Almanzora (Almeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Flores, A. [Universidad Politecnica Catalunya (Spain); Collado Fernandez, D. [Universidad de Almeria. Almeria (Spain); Font Cistero, X. [Universidad de Barcelona. Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-04-01

    Heavy metal mobility in the river Almanzora delta aquifer in Almeria (Spain) was examined by carrying out a ground water hydro chemistry field study and a laboratory study of the transportation of certain metals in a saturated column. The field work and laboratory data reveal little mobility in the saturated area for Pb, ZnFe, Mn, Cu in oxidising conditions in acid medium, a possible mobilization of Ba and Sr in the same conditions, and the practical immobility of other metals such as Ni, Sb and As detected in the contamination foci. The propagation of these metals from soil contaminated by mining in the delta aquifer appears to be controlled not just by the pH-Eh conditions of the medium, but also by absorption phenomena (surface complexification and cationic change) in the unsaturated part of the aquifer. (Author) 45 refs.

  18. Changes in mobility of toxic elements during the production of phosphoric acid in the fertilizer industry of Huelva (SW Spain) and environmental impact of phosphogypsum wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Nieto, José Miguel

    2007-09-30

    Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100Mt (approximately 1200ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste. PMID:17683858

  19. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: Testing a Novelty-Detection Algorithm on Two Mobile Exploration Systems at Rivas Vaciamadrid in Spain and at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah

    CERN Document Server

    McGuire, P C; Wendt, L; Bonnici, A; Souza-Egipsy, V; Ormo, J; Diaz-Martinez, E; Foing, B H; Bose, R; Walter, S; Oesker, M; Ontrup, J; Haschke, R; Ritter, H

    2009-01-01

    (ABRIDGED)In previous work, two platforms have been developed for testing computer-vision algorithms for robotic planetary exploration (McGuire et al. 2004b,2005; Bartolo et al. 2007). The wearable-computer platform has been tested at geological and astrobiological field sites in Spain (Rivas Vaciamadrid and Riba de Santiuste), and the phone-camera has been tested at a geological field site in Malta. In this work, we (i) apply a Hopfield neural-network algorithm for novelty detection based upon color, (ii) integrate a field-capable digital microscope on the wearable computer platform, (iii) test this novelty detection with the digital microscope at Rivas Vaciamadrid, (iv) develop a Bluetooth communication mode for the phone-camera platform, in order to allow access to a mobile processing computer at the field sites, and (v) test the novelty detection on the Bluetooth-enabled phone-camera connected to a netbook computer at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. This systems engineering and field testing hav...

  20. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    simple movements of people, goods, and information from A to B. The ‘mobilities turn’ has made it its hallmark to explore the ‘more than’ effects of a world increasingly on the move. This new title in the Routledge Series ‘Critical Concepts in Built Environment’ creates a state-of-the-art reference work...... to social networks, personal identities, and our relationship to the built environment. The omnipresence of mobilities within everyday life, high politics, technology, and tourism (to mention but a few) all point to a key insight harnessed by the ‘mobilities turn’. Namely that mobilities is much more than...... will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical issues of refugees...

  1. Plain Language in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cassany, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the communicative style Spain inherited from the dictatorship, Spain???s conception of plain language, the goals it set for the four most widely used languages, and the results achieved.

  2. Mobility of Po and U-isotopes under acid mine drainage conditions: an experimental approach with samples from Río Tinto area (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions, the solubilities and mobilities of many elements are vastly different from conditions prevailing in most natural waters. Studies are underway in the Río Tinto area (Iberian Pyrite Belt), in order to understand the behavior and mobility of long-lived U-series radionuclides under AMD conditions. A set of leaching experiments utilizing typical country rocks from the Tinto River basin, waste rock pile composite materials, iron-rich riverbed sediments and gossan (weathered naturally rock) were performed towards this purpose. Initial leaching experiments using distilled water kept in contact with solid material for 300, 100, 50 and 1 h resulted in very low concentrations of U with 234U/238U activity ratios close to equilibrium and activity concentrations of 210Po < 0.03 mBq/g. Leaching experiments performed with sulfuric acid media (0.1 and 0.01 M), and contact times between the solid and solution for 24 h were conducted to quantify the amount of U-isotopes and 210Po leached, and the radioactive disequilibria generated between the radionuclides in the leachate. These experiments show that Po mobility in acidic conditions (pH around 1–2) is very low, with 210Po activity in the leachate to be 6% in average for the solid sample. By contrast, mobility of U-isotopes is higher than that of Po, around 1.2%

  3. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas

  4. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: epinilla@unex.es; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  5. Mobile genetic elements related to the diffusion of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases or carbapenemases from Enterobacteriaceae: findings from a multicenter study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, L; Miró, E; Juan, C; Gómez, L; Bou, G; González-López, J J; Martínez-Martínez, L; Aracil, B; Conejo, M C; Oliver, A; Navarro, F

    2015-09-01

    We examined the genetic context of 74 acquired ampC genes and 17 carbapenemase genes from 85 of 640 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in 2009. Using S1 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization, 37 of 74 bla AmpC genes were located on large plasmids of different sizes belonging to six incompatibility groups. We used sequencing and PCR mapping to investigate the regions flanking the acquired ampC genes. The bla CMY-2-like genes were associated with ISEcp1; the surrounding bla DHA genes were similar to Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid pTN60013 associated with IS26 and the psp and sap operons; and the bla ACC-1 genes were associated with IS26 elements inserted into ISEcp1. All of the carbapenemase genes (bla VIM-1, bla IMP-22, and bla IMP-28) were located in class 1 integrons. Therefore, although plasmids are the main cause of the rapid dissemination of ampC genes among Enterobacteriaceae, we need to be aware that other mobile genetic elements, such as insertion sequences, transposons, or integrons, can be involved in the mobilization of these genes of chromosomal origin. Additionally, three new integrons (In846 to In848) are described in this study. PMID:26077249

  6. Mobilities Mobilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pompeyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.Urry, John (2007 Mobilities.Oxford: Polity Press.John Urry (1946-, profesor en la Universidad de Lancaster, es un sociólogo de sobra conocido y altamente reputado en el panorama internacional de las ciencias sociales. Su dilatada carrera, aparentemente dispersa y diversificada, ha seguido senderos bastante bien definidos dejando tras de sí un catálogo extenso de obras sociológicas de primer nivel. Sus primeros trabajos se centraban en el campo de la teoría social y la filosofía de las ciencias sociales o de la sociología del poder [...

  7. The L120 Mobile Project

    OpenAIRE

    Demouy, Valérie; Eardley, Annie; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Thomas, Rhodri

    2009-01-01

    This is the abstract and the powerpoint presentation used for the L120 Mobile Project presentation at the conference on Mobile Learning and autonomy in second language acquisition (MLASLA) held at the University of Castilla-La Macha, Toledo, Spain (September 2009) Abstract: The Department of Languages at the Open University has always been keen to explore the use of new technologies to deliver its language courses more effectively and dynamically. As mobile learning is playing an incr...

  8. Factors affecting quits and layoffs in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Caparrós Ruiz; Mª Lucía Navarro Gómez

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade, unemployment rates in the European Union have been higher than in other regions, e.g., the United States, and these are even higher in Spain. It has been argued that the different degrees of labour mobility between the European and the American labour markets can account for the differences in the pattern observed. This paper follows the McLaughlin's model (1991) and provides empirical evidence regarding the factors determining quits and layoffs due to contract termina...

  9. Andalucian (Spain, sw)

    OpenAIRE

    Orihuela, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    We present the main types of vernacular architecture in Andalucia (Spain): city houses, mountain village houses and those of the villages on the plains. Also the flat roof houses in the Alpujarras and the caves are studied.

  10. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    as people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility...

  11. Worst in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotarelo, P. [Ecologistas en Accion (Spain)

    2004-09-01

    The As Pontes coal-fired power plant in northwest Spain is the largest single emitter of sulphur dioxide in the 'old' EU15. The plant is also among the largest emitters of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the region, according to the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register). But Spain has also several other large emitters of air pollutants. The Andorra which is located in the province of Teruel is one of them. The Andorra power plant emitted 209,148 tones of SO{sub 2} in 2002 which makes it the second largest single emitter of SO{sub 2} in the EU15. It also emitts large quantities of NOx. Also in the northwest of Spain, the Composilla and La Robla power plants are the SO{sub 2} and NOx emitters.

  12. Spain to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  13. Networking in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Miguel .; Keefer, Alice C.

    1993-01-01

    Spain is a country whose development level falls in the middle ränge within the European Community; in fact, when measured for certain industry and infrastructure indicators, it resembles the industrialized countries of the north more than other southern-tier countries. All analyses coincide in showing that Spain has experienced strong growth in the last decade and this also holds true in the area of library Services. However, libraries are not at a comparative level with the rest of Europe i...

  14. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  15. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  16. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.;

    2014-01-01

    in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worldwide, and renowned international chefs and many restaurants and companies committed to the collaboration...

  17. La movilidad residencial europea actual en el contexto de la relación histórica España-Europa (Current European residential mobility in the context of the historic relationship between Spain and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Jiménez, Modesto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En la primera década del presente siglo, España, que ya tenía una larga trayectoria como destino turístico privilegiado, se dispone a acoger una verdadera avalancha de personas del norte y centro de Europa que eligen nuestro país como lugar de residencia. El fenómeno puede caracterizarse como un paso más en la elección de estilos de vida propios de las sociedades contemporáneas, y como uno de los más importantes ensayos de libertad de circulación internacional y de ejercicio de los derechos de la ciudadanía de todos los europeos. Este texto quiere ahondar en aspectos de la interacción social y la relación antropológica de los nuevos residentes y la población autóctona, también europeos; a la vez que hacerse eco de las diversas actitudes críticas que este experimento social despierta en las ciencias sociales. Y va a procurar hacerlo ubicándolo en el contexto de las relaciones históricas de España y Europa y de cierta desesperanza que provoca la situación de crisis mundial que vivimos. Abstract: In the first decade of this century, Spain, which already had a long trajectory as an exceptional tourist destination, prepared to receive a deluge of people from North and Central Europe, who chose our country as their place of residence. The phenomenon could be characterised as a further step in the choosing of lifestyles in contemporary societies, and as one of the most important tests of international freedom of movement and the rights of citizenship of all Europeans. This text wishes to expand on aspects of social interaction and the anthropological relationship of the new residents and the native population, also European; at the same time as echoing the diverse critical attitudes that this social experiment provokes in the social sciences. It will attempt to achieve this by placing it in the context of the historical relations between Spain and Europe and the sense of desperation caused by the situation of the world

  18. Restructuring in SMEs: Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Durán, Jessica; Isusi, Iñigo

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Spain.

  19. Liver transplantation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Gloria; Fondevila, Constantino; Navasa, Miquel

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) activity started in Spain in 1984 and has exceeded 23,700 interventions, with more than 1000 transplants performed yearly. Every hospital needs official authorization to perform a LT, which implies the obligation to register all patients on the national waiting list. The Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) provides essential support for organ procurement, allocation, and management of the waiting list at a national level. Liver allocation is center-oriented as all available organs are referred to the ONT for the whole country. The allocation rules for LT are made according to disease severity after consensus among professionals from every transplant center and ratified by representatives of the regional health authorities. Authorization and location/distribution of transplant centers are regulated by the country (Spain) and by the different regions according to the Real Decreto 1723/2012. For a total population of 47,850,795 inhabitants, there are 24 centers for LT for adults (1 team/2 million people) and 5 for LT for children (1 team/9.5 million people). Nonbiliary cirrhosis, particularly alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (60%), and tumors, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), are the most common indications for LT in Spain. Unusual causes of LT include metabolic diseases like Wilson's disease, familial amyloid polyneuropathy and hyperoxaluria type I, polycystic kidney and liver disease, and some tumors (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and neuroendocrine tumors). Important efforts are now being undertaken to improve the quality and transplantability of extended criteria livers, in particular those arising from DCD, which represent the greatest opportunity to expand the donor pool. These efforts have to be addressed to adapt the organ preservation procedures, be it through the application of regional perfusion in situ or the use of machine perfusion preservation ex situ. Liver Transplantation 22 1259-1264 2016

  20. Measuring deprivation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Mayo, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the deprivation in Spain based on ECHP data for 1996. Usually, an indirect approach for measuring deprivation or poverty is used with poverty lines. That is, income is used as a proxy for analysing living conditions. However, some studies have used a direct approach to measure deprivation or poverty (Townsend 1988, Mayer and Jencks 1988, Muffels 1993, Callan et al 1993, Dirven and Fouarge 1995, Layte et al 1999, Whelan et al 2000). The aim of this paper is improving the id...

  1. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.)

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  3. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  5. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous and have completely transformed the way we live, work, learn and conduct our everyday activities. Mobile phones have also changed the way users access lexicographic data. In fact, it can be argued that mobile phones and lexicography are not yet compatible. Modern users...... are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app Medicin...... lexicography....

  6. SPAIN: FROM IMMIGRATION TO EMIGRATION?

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Izquierdo; Juan F. Jimeno; Aitor Lacuesta

    2015-01-01

    Since the start of the Great Recession the unemployment rate in Spain has risen by almost 18 percentage points. The unemployment crisis is affecting all population groups, including the more highly educated; but it is even more acute for the foreign population, whose unemployment rate is close to 40%. This situation follows a period of very high immigration flows (1995-2007) that set the number of foreigners living in Spain at 11% of the population. This paper documents the characteristics of...

  7. First China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The first China-Spain Forum was held in Beijing from December 18 to 19, 2003. President HuJintao expressed his congratulations on the successful convening of the Forum.Opening Session of First China-Spain ForumThe theme of the first Forum was: 30 years of Sino-Spanish diplomatic ties from lack of understanding to cooperation for a common future-

  8. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  9. Mobile payment

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Paying with mobile devices such as mobile phones or smart phones will expand worldwide in the coming years. This development provides opportunities for various industries (banking, telecommunications, credit card business, manufacturers, suppliers, retail) and for consumers.

  10. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  11. Mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.J.; Marquina, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers given at a conference on mobile robots. Topics the conference included are the following: mobility systems for robotic vehicles; detection and control of mobile robot motion by real-time computer vision, obstacle avoidance algorithms for an autonomous land vehicle; hierarchical processor and matched filters for range image processing; asynchronous distributed control system for a mobile robot, and, planning in a hierarchical nested autonomous control system.

  12. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation and the mob...

  13. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  14. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided......In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  15. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the background of the ‘mobilities turn’ (e.g. Cresswell 2006, Urry 2007) this book articulates a new and emerging research field, namely that of ‘m...... enter into a fruitful relationship with mobilities research, offering a relational and mobile design thinking and a valuable base for a reflective design practice around the ubiquitous structures, spaces and systems of mobilities....... that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...... between mobilities and design research is twofold. To mobilities research this means getting closer to the ‘material’, and to engage in the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world which offer new potentials for innovative research. Design research, on the other hand, might...

  16. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was collected in the Cantabrian Mountains.

  17. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    a potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design...

  18. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, N.A.; Morón, S.V.; Berciano, José M.; Nicolas, O.; López, C.A.; Nevado, C.R.; Juste, Javier; Setién, A.A.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  19. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  20. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  1. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple...

  2. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...

  3. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  4. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    is a ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...

  5. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities...... are often still not engaged with in a sufficiently manner. Often social sciences keep distance to the physical and material as if the social was still to be understood as a realm separate of technology, architecture, and design (for a critique of this see; Latour 2005 and Urry 2000). This paper takes point...... of departure in the sociological perspective termed ‘Staging Mobilities’ (Jensen 2013a) and utilizes this as an analytical frame for exploring cases of mobility design. The paper put focus on how the material shape, design and architectures of technologies, spaces and sites influence mobilities practices...

  6. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  7. Understanding poverty persistence in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aylloón, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the mechanisms behind poverty persistence in Spain. We examine the importance of past poverty experiences for explaining current poverty as opposed to observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity. Our results are based on the model proposed by Cappellari and Jenkins (J Appl Econometr 19:593-610, 2004a) that estimates poverty transitions while simultaneously controlling for attrition and initial conditions. We find that about 50% of aggregate state depende...

  8. [History of microscopy in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Galiano, D

    1994-12-01

    Nowadays, many Spanish research centers have excellent electronic microscopy services. The current situation, however, should not allow us to forget that the initial steps of microscopy in Spain were very difficult. The construction of excellent optical microscopies in the late XIX century, and their almost immediate introduction in Spain, coincides with a period of thriving scientific activity in our country. Both micrography and histology saw the highlights of their development in Spain, with scientists such as Ramón y Cajal, Río Hortega, Ferrán, Simarro, among others, all of them widely known at present. This article evokes briefly the vicissitudes of Spanish microscopy, from its very beginning in 1843, when the Allgemeine Anatomie by Jacob Henle was translated into Spanish, to present. Scientific historical facts in this article are often accompanied with anecdotes, which show the human aspect of those great scientists. The persevering task carried out by researchers whose names have been recorded in the history of Spanish science and technology, have established the grounds in which our current development is based.

  9. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired...... by mobility management, a concept aiming to reduce carbon emissions from transportation in western societies. The article focuses on how municipal planners formulate the role of mobility management activities organized around private companies, and how their practices are connected to wider ideas on planning....

  10. Accentual mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olander, Thomas Kristoffer

    slaviske mobile accentparadigmer i høj grad stemmer overens med hinanden, er det sandsynligt at accentmobiliteten i de to sproggrupper går tilbage til et fælles udgangspunkt. Formålet med afhandlingen er at bestemme den urindoeuropæiske baggrund for de baltoslaviske mobile accentparadigmer. I de...... paradigmatiske accent i urbaltoslavisk på grundlag af materiale fra de tre baltiske sprog og urslavisk. I kapitel IV foretages af en undersøgelse af den foreslåede accentlov ud fra en sammenligning af de rekonstruerede urindoeuropæiske endelser og de tilsvarende former i de urbaltoslaviske mobile...

  11. Subversive Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The article approaches mobility through a cultural history of urban conflict. Using a case of “The Copenhagen Trouble,“ a series of riots in the Danish capital around 1900, a space of subversive mobilities is delineated. These turn-of-the-century riots points to a new pattern of mobile gathering......, the swarm; to a new aspect of public action, the staging; and to new ways of configuring public space. These different components indicate an urban assemblage of subversion, and a new characterization of the “throwntogetherness“ of the modern public....

  12. Going Mobile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2011-01-01

    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums & Mob...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  13. Does immigration cause crime? : evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Borrego, César; Garoupa, Nuno; Vázquez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between crime and immigration has been a matter of controversy in the US and around the world. This paper investigates empirically the case of Spain. From 1999 to 2009, Spain has had a large wave of immigration from different areas of the globe. At the same time, crime rates have increased. However, by comparison with other European countries that have received similar massive immigration waves during the same period, crime rates in Spain have increased less considerably. We ...

  14. Nuclear power introduction experiences in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In terms of its electrical system, Spain is an island weakly linked with its neighboring countries. Spain currently connects to the European market through a line with a capacity of 2000 MW. Moreover, Spain has few natural energy resources of its own and thus imports 82% of its domestic energy needs. This leaves Spain highly vulnerable to movements in market prices as well as to potential supply interruptions triggered by events occurring in the Spanish supplier countries, which are themselves not always stable. As a result, securing supply has become an important issue in the Spanish energy system

  15. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...... in the article is that the many mobility systems enable specialization of places that are targeted at a special section of the population. This means that various forms of motilities not only create new opportunities for urban life but it is also one of the most critical components of production of new exclusion......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...

  16. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    posts from the research project blog with three research articles: ‘Museum metamorphosis à la mode’, proposing a fashion perspective on ongoing museum developments; ‘Augmenting the agora: media and civic engagement in museums’, questioning the idea of social media holding a vital potential......Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards...... the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...

  17. Mobile Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-01-01

    Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  18. A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSPORT IN SPAIN USING THE FIVE FORCES MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ortega, Alba; Delgado Jalón, M. Luisa; Rivero Menéndez, José Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The transport sector in Spain is a branch of economic activity which is already of great importanceaccording to its own invoicing, value added and occupation figures, in addition to its indirect economic effects. It has an additional strategic value for economic policy, since it constitutes a fundamental part ofthe cost of placing products on increasing markets in a competitive manner. The mobility and trans-portation of passengers in cities in turn plays an essential role in the economic and...

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castellví Ballesté, Aleix

    2008-01-01

    This document would like to be clear information about the present and the future of the CO2 emissions in Spain. First of all greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases contribution are explained to know what is happening with the atmosphere. Secondly, Spain’s emissions are detailed by sectors and origin. These details are going to show in which sectors there are more work to do and which origins are more important. Evolution is being studied to know the trend and the possible future. F...

  20. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  1. The Dance of Spain: Classical Folkloric Flamenco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Clifford J.

    A text on the classical and folk dance of Spain includes a pretest, provided in both English and Spanish; text about the dance in general and the dance of Spain, both classical and folkloric; tests on the text, in both English and Spanish; more specific readings about the traditions of flamenco, castanets, and "el jaleo"; a glossary of flamenco…

  2. China-Spain Urban Transport Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Spain Seminar on Urban Transport jointly sponsored by the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum and the Agency of International Cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Ministry was held in Beijing from May 10 to 14, 2004. The Seminar was

  3. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  4. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  5. Occupational mobility of immigrants in a low skilled economy. The Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Simón, Hipólito; Ramos, Raul; Sanromá, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the occupational mobility of immigrants between their countries of origin and Spain, and its main determinants. It is based on microdata from the Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes and the use of an international index of occupational status, the International Socio-Economic Index. The empirical evidence shows that immigrants experience, in general, an intense occupational downgrading in Spain with regard to their countries of origin. This is explained largely by the inte...

  6. Mobile Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones...... personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey...

  7. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on human mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu-Ros, Oliva G; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Arias, Juan Murillo; Barthelemy, Marc; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, Jose J

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility has been traditionally studied using surveys that deliver snapshots of population displacement patterns. The growing accessibility to ICT information obtained from portable digital media has recently opened the possibility of going beyond such fixed pictures, exploring human behavior at high spatio-temporal resolutions. Mobile phone records, geolocated tweets, check-ins from Foursquare or geotagged photos, have contributed to this purpose at different scales from cities to countries and in different areas of the world. Many of these previous works have lacked, however, details on the attributes of the individuals. In this work, we analyze credit-card transaction records as mobility proxies and assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the way people move and spend their money in cities. In particular, we focus on Barcelona and Madrid, the two most populated cities of Spain, and by examining the geolocated credit-card transactions of individuals living in the two provinces, we ...

  8. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    of the mobility it enables. This article, thus, looks at the motives and manners in which young men in Bissau become caught up in transnational flows of cocaine. It shows how motion is emotively anchored and affectively bound: tied to and directed toward a feeling of worth and realisation of being, and how...

  9. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    How is the width of the pavement shaping the urban experience? How is the material design of transport infrastructure and mobile technology affording social interaction in everyday life spaces? How do people inhabit these spaces with their bodies and in accordance to social and cultural norms...

  10. Mobil nationalisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2006-01-01

    , varer, mennesker og kapital men derimod en integreret del af disse tendenser. Gennem begrebet mobil nationalisme argumenteres der for en analytisk optik, hvor nationalisme forstås som en proces hvorigennem skiftende relationer og bevægelser mellem forskellige socio-rumlige skalaer som kroppen...

  11. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  12. Key Organisational Choices for Financing Regional Governments in Democratic Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Toboso

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available How much power to tax do really enjoy the seventeen new regional governments created in democratic Spain? What other sources of income do they dispose of? Which rules have been implemented for regulating their tax and non-tax sources of income and how are these rules influencing the behaviour of relevant political agents? These are the questions addressed in the present paper. Although no econometric estimation has to my knowledge been provided yet, the arguments and figures provided indicate that the political mobilization and the overspending incentive generated at this level of government must be considered key factors in any explanatory model of the surprising path of growth and development registered in Spain since the mid 1980s. Physical and human capital stocks increased at a spectacular rate so as to substantially narrow the gap, in comparison to European standards, that had been generated over the previous forty years of dictatorship. Public deficits and outstanding public debt remained under control. Spanish per capita real GDP soared from 2,536 Euros in 1980 to 19,456 in 2004.

  13. Invasive Plants in the Coastal Vegetal Communities in Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco FERRER MERINO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A botanical survey has been conducted to determine the influence of invasive species on the main indigenous communities in the Spanish Mediterranean coast and evaluate the current status of these communities in the eastern coast of Spain. The work was done in about 35 km of coastline located in Valencia (Spain. A total of 361 species cataloged are present in the study area, belonging to 79 different families. 49 of them have been inventoried invasive species which currently affect 38 plant communities. For this cause, we have developed a map of location finding out the area occupied by the same at every point and key to indigenous communities it affects. The plant communities characteristic of semi-mobile dunes Centaureo maritimae-Echietum sabulicolae and Medicagini marinae-Ammophiletum australis have turned out to have a greater degree of invasion. Carpobrotus edulis, Agave americana, Arundo donax, Oxalis pes-caprae and Cortaderia sellowiana are invasive species that cause further encroachment, both in area as a number of vegetation communities they affect.

  14. [Cirurgia Taurina--emergency medical treatment of bullfighters in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, V; Lehmann, J

    2003-08-01

    A considerable risk of life-threatening injury is inherent to bullfighting. Thus, a unique form of emergency treatment has evolved over recent decades of organized bull-fighting. Today bullfight arenas in larger cities are equipped with emergency facilities including fully furnished operating rooms. During a fiesta these facilities are run by a medical team consisting of three surgeons, one intensive care specialist, and one anesthesiologist with their supporting medical personnel. In smaller arenas or villages immediate care units consist of emergency vehicles, and a mobile container equipped with a fully functional operating room. Of all toreros the matadores including the novilleros are most often injured in 56 % of cases. This rate decreases for banderillos (30 %), and for picadores (14 %). Parts of the body that are most frequently affected are thighs, and the inguinal region (54 %). Head and neck injuries are seen in 19 %, and 12 % of cases present with open abdominal wounds including liver or gastrointestinal tract traumas. 10 % of injuries affect the thorax, and 4 % the pelvic floor. The particular form of organised medical treatment for bullfighters in Spain has only developed since the nineteen-thirties. In 1972 a scientific society for bullfight surgery was founded in Spain by specialized surgeons, and immediate care specialists holding a first convention that year. The society is continuously striving to improve technical and logistical aspects of immediate medical care for injured bullfighters.

  15. Drought Management Strategies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Paneque

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate on water policies in Spain is characterised by a traditional paradigm, dominated by the intervention on hydrological systems through the construction and management of infrastructure, which is progressively being abandoned but is currently still strong while the emergence of new management approaches. Climate change and the Water Framework Directive (WFD are, in addition, the background to increasing challenges to traditional perspectives on drought, and important steps have been taken towards their replacement. This work analyzes the evolution of the normative structure and management models to identify recent shifts. The analysis is based on a fundamental conceptual change that places drought in the framework of risk, rather than that of crisis. I argue for the need to advance new prevention policies that can finally overcome productivist inertia and undertake essential tasks such as reallocating water flows, revising and controlling the water-concession system, and reinforcing and guaranteeing public participation.

  16. [Viper bite treatment in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefanía Díez, M; Alonso Peña, D; García Cano, P; López Gamo, A

    2016-01-01

    Viper snake bite is, by far, the most common ophidian accident in Spain. It is responsible for between 100 and 150 hospitalizations per year in this country, although it is difficult to determine the frequency of emergency admissions due to this cause. The cornerstone to their approach rests on the correct evaluation of the possible effects derived from envenomation and the use of anti-venoms. In spite of all the controversies surrounding the use of anti-venoms, they have become a powerful therapeutic weapon ever since the serum has been highly purified and the great decrease of related anaphylactic reactions. The aim of this article is to update the emergency room procedures when viper bites are suspected, and to clarify the main therapeutic recommendations. PMID:25440968

  17. Mobile-to-mobile wireless channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zajic, Alenka

    2013-01-01

    Present-day mobile communications systems can be classified as fixed-to-mobile because they allow mobility on only one end (e.g. the mobile phone to a fixed mobile operator's cell tower). In answer to the consumer demand for better coverage and quality of service, emerging mobile-to-mobile (M-to-M) communications systems allow mobile users or vehicles to directly communicate with each other. This practical book provides a detailed introduction to state-of-the-art M-to-M wireless propagation. Moreover, the book offers professionals guidance for rapid implementation of these communications syste

  18. Intensive mobilities:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience....... By exploring how experiences of long-distance workers become constituted by a range of different material forces enables us to more sensitively consider the practical, technical, and political implications of this increasingly prevalent yet underexplored regime of work....

  19. Network Mobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamali Masoud Alfrgani .Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are becoming increasingly popular for delivering multimedia content, particularly by means of streaming. The main disadvantage of these devices is their limited battery life. Unfortunately, streaming of multimedia content causes the battery of the device to discharge very fast, often causing the battery to deplete before the streaming task finishes, resulting in user dissatisfaction. It is generally not possible to charge the device while on the go as electricity socket and charger are required. Therefore, to avoid this user dissatisfaction, it is necessary to find ways to prolong the battery lifetime and to support the completion of the multimedia streaming tasks. A typical architecture for mobile multimedia streaming is presented In this architecture, a wired server streams multimedia content over a wireless IP network to a number of client devices. These devices could be PDAs, smartphones or any other mobile device with 802.11 connectivity. In relation to possible power savings, the multimedia streaming process can be described as consisting of three stages: reception, decoding and playing. Other researchers have shown that energy savings can be made in each stage, for example by using pre-buffering in the reception stage, feedback control during decoding and backlight adjustment for playing. However, it is not a common practice to combine energy savings in the three stages in order to achieve the best

  20. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  1. A new challenge for advertising on mobile devices: Social TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Quintas-Froufe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile device advertising is a rapidly growing market due to the penetration of mobile devices in Spanish society. Advertising communication in this digital ecosystem continually poses new challenges. One of these - the subject of this proposal - is the link-up between mobile advertising with social TV. It opens up new possibilities for the development of advertising strategies on mobile devices.The aim of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by the Spanish advertising industry with the recent introduction of Social TV. Spain has one of the most developed Social TV sectors in Europe. It will provide a global overview of this new reality and uncover the new possibilities and main challenges for the development of advertising strategies for mobile devices. To this end we propose an examination of the perception of two of Spain’s major broadcasting empires, Atresmedia and Mediaset España, of this phenomenon.

  2. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  3. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  4. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Larach

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to ...

  5. The evolution of obesity in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Goñi, Manuel; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Considered the epidemic of the 21st century, obesity is a worldwide problem, affecting 260 million adults and 12 million children in the European Union (EU) alone. In Spain, adult and child obesity rates are increasing, in particular for women. Income-related inequalities in adult obesity in Spain also have increased over time, especially for women aged over 45. Although some regulatory initiatives have been approved to tackle child obesity, an evaluation of the effective...

  6. Building a New Water Culture in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Mora Zapata, Nuria; Roca, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    For over 100 years, water policy and man­ agement in Spain have been instruments of economic and social transformation. Sig­ nificant public and private investments in water supply infrastructures have equipped Spain with over 1,200 major dams, 20 major desalination plants ? with more under construction ? and several inter­basin water transfers. The system has been apparently very successful, with an increase in overall water availability, strong associated eco­ nomic development and few urba...

  7. Robotique Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Filliat, David

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction I Les bases de la navigation 2 Les différents types de navigation 3 Les sources d'information 4 Matériels courants en robotique mobile II Navigation réactive 5 Navigation vers un but 6 Évitement d'obstacles 7 Apprentissage par renforcement III Navigation utilisant une carte 8 Localisation, Cartographie et Planification 9 Les représentations de l'environne 10 Localisation 11 Cartographie 12 Planification École d'ingénieur

  8. Optimum Mobility Performance with Mobile IP & SIP

    OpenAIRE

    B. Naresh Kumar; DR. R. V. KRISHNAIAH

    2013-01-01

    Mobility will place an efficient role in now days in the wireless communications. Mobile IP andSIP provide the mobility service to the handset users. The problems in Mobile IP and SIP s are triangular,handoff, Intra domain problems. These problems create signal lose and improper signalling to the user. Toovercome these we provide add of service to the Mobile IP and SIP with the integration of the two services.This service provides optimum performance of the system.

  9. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  10. Mobile Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis, STS-110 mission, deployed this railcar, called the Mobile Transporter, and an initial 43-foot section of track, the S0 (S-zero) truss, preparing the International Space Station (ISS) for future spacewalks. The first railroad in space, the Mobile Transporter will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The 27,000-pound S0 truss is the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002. STS-110's Extravehicular Activity (EVA) marked the first use of the Station's robotic arm to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station.

  11. Mobile shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalms, Michael; Jueptner, Werner

    2005-04-01

    By reason of their sensitivity, accuracy and non-contact as well as non-destructive characteristics, modern optical methods such as digital speckle shearography have found an increasing interest for NDT applications on the factory floor. With new carbon filter technologies and other lightweight constructions in aircraft and automotive manufacturing, adapted examination designs and especially developed testing methods are necessary. Shearography as a coherent optical method has been widely accepted as an useful NDT tool. It is a robust interferometric method to determine locations with maximum stress on various material structures. However, limitations of this technique can be found in the bulky equipment components, the interpretation of the complex sherographic result images and at the work with non-cooperative surfaces (dark absorber, bright shining reflectors). We report a mobile shearography system that was especially designed for investigations at aircraft and automotive constructions.

  12. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  13. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  14. China-Spain Economic and Trade Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On June 29, Chi na-Spain Eco nomic and Trade Forum, sponsored jointly by CCPIT, Federation of Spanish Entrepreneur Orga nizations and Spanish Trade and Investment Agency, was held in Madrid, capital of Spain.

  15. Research-mobility and job-stability: is there a trade-off?

    OpenAIRE

    MARINELLI ELISABETTA; ELENA PÉREZ SUSANA; Fernandez-Zubieta, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of international job-mobility on career success measured by obtaining an open-ended contract or tenure-track position. We use an original database that covers experienced researchers in ten European countries – Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. We develop a taxonomy of research-mobility and analyze its impact on the probability of holding a permanent position, controlling for individual and job cha...

  16. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  17. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving. PMID:15493468

  18. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  19. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  20. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location......, in our case a medium-sized retail supermarket. Two prototypes based on push and pull marketing strategies are implemented and evaluated. Taking outset in a synthesis of central issues in contemporary research on mobile marketing, we discuss their role in micro mobility marketing to point to similarities...

  1. On the Accession of Spain to the European Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the enlargement of the European Communities (hereinafter EC. Author outlines key questions of the accession of Spain to the EC. Main attention is paid to the characteristics of the conditions of the accession of Spain to the EC. The article explores the role of public authorities of Spain in the implementation of EC documents in Spain. Author investigates the doctrine of relationship between EC norms and Spanish national law.

  2. The Practice of Fiscal Federalism in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Julio López Laborda; Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Carlos Monasterio Escudero

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 25 years when the rapid decentralization was taking place, Spain enjoyed high rates of economic growth and prosperity, spotted with unusually high rates of unemployment associated with rigidities in labour market institutions. In 2005, GDP per capita was $ 25,500. Over the same period of 25 years, Spain underwent a considerable increase in tax effort. In 1975 total tax revenues as a percent of GDP stood at less than 20 percent. By comparison, at that time, the OECD average count...

  3. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  4. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Moya, Pedro R.; Ibarra, Ana; Herrero, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo d...

  5. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  6. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  7. Analyze Culture Difference between China and Spain from Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the world, the communication between china and spain become more and more frequently. and the building style between china and spain is very diferent. in this essay, we mainly learn the diferent culture of china and spain from its builing style.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31 Peppers from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain...

  9. Preliminary Conclusions after the Design and Implementation of Mobile Learning Apps for Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, María Dolores; Bárcena, Elena; Pareja-Lora, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent research carried out by Aruba Networks (2014) in the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Sweden, South Africa, Saudi Arabia and UAE, 86% of all respondents have two or more devices that can connect to the internet, and nearly two thirds (64%) already own three or more mobile devices with this feature; another 39% own four or…

  10. Runoff generation in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, E. N.; Kirkby, M. J.; Chapman, P. J.; Bracken, L. J.

    2007-12-01

    We are working to improve a hydrological model for prediction of runoff in medium-scale semi-arid catchments in SE Spain. The aim is to develop and improve understandings of runoff generation in semi-arid areas and to improve modelling of runoff. Objectives are to investigate the influence of geology, landuse and seasonality on infiltration rates and use remonte sensing (RS) and GIS to classify an area into Hydrologically Similar Surfaces (HYSS) categories. The research includes investigating the impact of different landscape elements on runoff within two 150 km2 catchments, the Rambla Nogalte and the Rambla de Torrealvilla. Most storms within these catchments are of short duration. HYSS are defined as areas with similar1-D (vertical) partitioning of net rainfall between infiltration and overland flow. HYSS are identified from field measurements of soils, micro and macro- topography and infiltration rates; then combined with analysis of multi-spectral airborne RS images. HYSS are selected to minimise internal variability in the relationship between rainfall and local runoff generation and are scaled up to cover larger areas. The overall sampling strategy for measurements has been to undertake constant intensity rainfall simulator measurements within provisional HYSS categories, and to augment this with a large number of minidisk infiltrometer measurements. This strategy captures as much of the variability in the landscape as possible. The wide variability within even small areas has led to the final adoption of only a few large classes that can be effectively distinguished. The final part of the research is to link the spatial partitioning of the two catchments into HYSS with the detailed rainfall records for the areas, and combine these two sets of data into a grid-based model for runoff generation across the area. The applied Green-Ampt modelling approach gave 63 possible combinations of surface properties (9 HYSS) and areas in the Rambla Nogalte each represented

  11. Trauma care systems in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queipo de Llano, E; Mantero Ruiz, A; Sanchez Vicioso, P; Bosca Crespo, A; Carpintero Avellaneda, J L; de la Torre Prado, M V

    2003-09-01

    Trauma care systems in Spain are provided by the Nacional Health Service in a decentralized way by the seventeen autonomous communities whose process of decentralization was completed in January 2002. Its organisation is similar in all of them. Public sector companies of sanitary emergencies look after the health of citizens in relation to medical and trauma emergencies with a wide range of up to date resources both technical and human. In the following piece there is a description of the emergency response teams divided into ground and air that are responsible for the on site care of the patients in coordination with other public services. They also elaborate the prehospital clinical history that is going to be a valuable piece of information for the teams that receive the patient in the Emergency Hospital Unit (EHU). From 1980 to 1996 the mortality rate per 10.000 vehicles and the deaths per 1.000 accidents dropped significantly: in 1980 6.4 and 96.19% and in 1996, 2.8 and 64.06% respectively. In the intrahospital organisation there are two differentiated areas to receive trauma patients the casualty department and the EHU. In the EHU the severe and multiple injured patients are treated by the emergency hospital doctors; first in the triage or resuscitation areas and after when stabilised they are passed too the observation area or to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and from there the EHU or ICU doctors call the appropriate specialists. There is a close collaboration and coordination between the orthopaedic surgeon the EHU doctors and the other specialists surgeons in order to comply with treatment prioritization protocols. Once the patient has been transferred an entire process of assistance continuity is developed based on interdisciplinary teams formed in the hospital from the services areas involved in trauma assistance and usually coordinated by the ICU doctors. There is also mentioned the assistance registry of trauma patients, the ICU professional training

  12. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  13. Th/U dating of Strombus bubonius-bearing marine terraces in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Carro, O.; Causse, C.; Goy, J.; Zazo, C.

    1986-07-01

    Single dates obtained on mollusk shells by the U-series nuclides method are highly unreliable, primarily because of the mobility of uranium isotopes. However, in several cases, a statistical approach was demonstrated to yield coherent chronologies in both continental and marine environments. The authors report on 34 new Th and U isotope measurements on Strombus Bubonius and Glycymeris glycymeris fossils from raised marine terraces in the Almeria area, southeastern Spain. The results yield a coherent chronology that indicates the presence of the warm water S. bubonius fauna in the Mediterranean basin. Reconsideration of the Tyrrhenian stratigraphy based on the presence of S. bubonius is thus required.

  14. Feasibility of a Vietnamese café in Spain : Case: Café Hanoi, Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tra My

    2016-01-01

    This study covers the feasibility of a business idea – a Vietnamese café in the city of Barcelona, Spain. The study is the preliminary of a business plan. Therefore, it aims to discover the environment surrounding the café in Barcelona, Spain. The study employs descriptive approach, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data collection includes both primary and secondary data. The primary data is collected through focus group, interviews and questionnaire. The secondary dat...

  15. Cross platform Mobile Applications Development: Mobile Apps Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Redda, Yonathan Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the mobile computing sector has been having quite a revolution.Mobile computing devices have shed loads of weight, gone slim, achieved mass popularityand a great market penetration. But one of the challenges that has been part ofmobile computing is technology and device fragmentation leaving application developersfor mobile phones bewildered. Platform developers, device manufacturers comewith so many features and functionalities that it has been dicult to provide developerswi...

  16. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  17. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through t

  18. Related variety and regional growth in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Minondo, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether related variety, among other types of spatial externalities, affected regional growth in Spain at the NUTS 3 level during the period 1995–2007. We found evidence that related variety matters for growth across regions, especially when using two new methods that measure

  19. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  20. Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Kamboj; Hitesh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  1. TYPOLOGIES OF MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Ivan; Alin Zamfiroiu; Dragoş Palaghiţă3

    2013-01-01

    Mobile applications and their particularities are analyzed. Mobile application specific characteristics are defined. Types of applications are identified and analyzed. The paper established differences between mobile applications and mobile application categories. For each identified type the specific structures and development model are identified.

  2. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  3. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  4. Tenured Public Servant Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Pauron

    2003-01-01

    The mobility of tenured public servants is studied from three points of view: geographic mobility (defined by a change of regional study and planning area (ZEAT) or department within a ZEAT), socio-economic mobility (change of socio-economic group) and structural mobility (change of ministry or service within a ministry). Geographic mobility is the most frequent, concerning an average 4.2% of staff every year. Not including upgrading (from grade D to grade C and from primary school teacher to...

  5. MOBILE MARKETING FUTURE TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    CĂTOIU, Iacob; GÂRDAN, Daniel Adrian; GÂRDAN, Doru Lucian

    2010-01-01

    The present article proposes an introspection into the field of a new marketing specialization – mobile marketing. The concept mainly refers to all marketing activities related to the new communication channel – Short Message Service, Multimedia Messaging Service, and internet access from mobile phone. The article provides, at the same time, a marketing perspective about future trends of mobile marketing and mobile media, and also a technical perspective related to the future mobile communica...

  6. ON MOBILE MESH NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Namiot, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in mobile computing technologies and the growth of the Net, mobile mesh networks are going through a set of important evolutionary steps. In this paper, we survey architectural aspects of mobile mesh networks and their use cases and deployment models. Also, we survey challenging areas of mobile mesh networks and describe our vision of promising mobile services. This paper presents a basic introductory material for Masters of Open Information Technologies Lab, interested in m...

  7. The necessity of reconceptualizing the migration of unaccompanied minors to the Canary Islands of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of unaccompanied foreign minors (menores extranjeros no acompañados, MENA represents a new model for international mobility in Spain, one with its own particularities compared with other migratory flows. The dual nature of being unaccompanied and unauthorized leads to conflicts in the care and integration of these new migrants. However, this dual nature is one of the main prerequisites for the development of this mobility model (but not the only one and for developing strategies specific to this group. The Canary Islands, because of their position on the southern intercontinental border and their insularity, offer particular models of individual migration flows of primarily highly vulnerable African children and a close relationship with human smuggling and trafficking networks.

  8. MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES AND MOBILE HEALTH DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Meghisan; Georgeta-Madalina Meghisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the potential of mobile health devices with a positive impact on the public health care system from Romania. More people monitoring their health situation with the help of mobile health applications could lead to less money spent by the public health sector with treating more advanced diseases. Approach/ methodology. The analysis of the Romanian mobile telecommunications market and health situation of the population from Romania was based on s...

  9. Mobile Notes: Mobile Devices in Creative Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Lars; Juarez, Guillermo; Hoppe, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The trendy notion of "mobile learning" has different connotations: On the one hand, it can be understood as "learning on the move" - often referred to as "learning any time anywhere". Of course this interpretation relies on specific kinds of technological enabling, but the definition aims at the general setting of learning activities. Particularly, it includes informal learning settings (cf. [1]). A second interpretation sees mobile learning somewhat more pragmatically as learning with mobile...

  10. Mobile services in the Rector Gabriel Ferraté Library - Technical University of Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Codina Vila, Miquel; Pérez Gálvez, Andrés; Clavero Campos, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compile and explain the mobile services developed by the Rector Gabriel Ferraté Library (BRGF) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), in Barcelona, Spain. From a larger amount of technological features that distinguish the BRGF, only those with a main mobile component are grouped here. Design/methodology/approach – A case study perspective is used to give a detailed picture of the mobile services and features offered by the library in bot...

  11. Mobility Charters and Manifestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explore a number of different cases of articulating notions of ‘correct’ mobility behavior and practice by looking into charters, manifestos and codes of mobility regulation. Within such discourses of ‘correct mobility’ more or less subtle expressions of power as well as normative...... and ethical positions on mobility prevail. Such ‘imagined correct mobility behavior’ are drawing on larger issues of societal change that need to be brought out in a critical analysis and discussion reflecting the attempts to control, design and orchestrate mobility patterns. The paper therefore argues within...... the ‘mobility turn’ that mobility is much more than movement from A to B. Seeing the cultural dimension as well as the underpinning power plays of normative mobility discourses opens up the reflection about imagined futures and imagined mobile subjects. Theoretically the paper bridges discourse studies...

  12. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  13. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship. PMID:26054209

  14. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  15. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  16. Studies of archaeoastronomy in Spain: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerdeño, Mª Luisa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Arqueoastronomy have a long tradition in Europe and, to a lesser extent, in Spain. This research is mainly done by astronomers. The recognition of this studies is still lacking in archaeology. This paper reviews current research projects in Spain and the main problems raised by Archaeoastronomy.

    Los estudios de Arqueoastronomía tienen una larga trayectoria en algunos países europeos y, en menor medida, en España. Mayoritariamente se llevan a cabo desde el campo de los astrónomos y todavía no han alcanzado un definitivo reconocimiento en el ámbito arqueológico. En este trabajo se revisan las líneas de trabajo existentes en España, con la inevitable referencia al marco europeo, y se analizan los principales problemas que tiene planteados esta disciplina académica.

  17. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce......, and can be generalized to studying other networked technologies...

  18. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  19. Phenolic Profile of Asturian (Spain) Natural Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Roberto; Picinelli, A.M. (Anna); Suárez, Belén

    2011-01-01

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2¢-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, aviculari...

  20. Generational Differences at Work in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lasierra, Jose Manuel; Molina, Jose Alberto; Ortega, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore differentials in the job satisfaction and the organizational commitment of Baby Boomers and Generation X. In light of multiple age segments in the workforce, and the ageing population, human resource management strategies aimed at attracting, engaging, and retaining employees of all ages are of strategic importance. Through the use of the large-scale Quality of Life at Work, 2006-2010 survey (Spain), we have carried out an empirical approach that points...

  1. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Ortega, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on b...

  2. Media and Informational Literacy Policies in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Grandío, María del Mar; Vicente, Miguel; Matilla, Agustín; Guitierrez Martín, Alfonso; Marta Lazo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Media education in Spain has never received a public acknowledgment according to its importance within our time’s society. While the presence of media education in the curricula of European countries was growing during the 1970’s, Spanish scholars refused to grant this topic a priority attention. Alternatively, they let the task of raising awareness about the need to develop a critical and creative media education system in hands of other professional groups, like journalists or teachers.

  3. Occupational segregation of immigrant women in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Coral del Río; Olga Alonso-Villar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze occupational segregation in the Spanish labor market from a gender and an immigration perspective. In doing so, several local and overall segregation measures are used. Our results suggest that immigrant women in Spain suffer a double segregation since segregation affects them to a greater extent than it does either native women or immigrant men. There are, however, remarkable discrepancies among the segregation of immigrant women depending on their region ...

  4. Seismic hazard in Andalucia region (Southern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Navarro Bernal, Manuel; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Vidal Sánchez, Francisco; Góngora, Ana; García Rodríguez, María José; Martínez Solares, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The global objective of the SISMOSAN Project has been to provide a general seismic risk assessment of Andalusian region (Southern Spain) associated with the ground motions expected for a return period of 475 years. The project was financed by Civil Defence of Andalusia and its results will be applied to the definition of regional emergency plans. We present here the study and main results of the first phase of the project, aimed at evaluating seismic hazard. In contrast to most of the previou...

  5. A population density grid for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarino Martí, Isidro; Goerlich, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an author's accepted manuscript of an article published in "International Journal of Geographical Information Science"; Volume 27, Issue 12, 2013; copyright Taylor & Francis; available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13658816.2013.799283 This article describes a high-resolution land cover data set for Spain and its application to dasymetric population mapping (at census tract level). Eventually, this vector layer is transformed into a grid format. The wo...

  6. Community nutrition in Spain: advances and drawbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Aranceta, Javier; Lobo, Félix; Viedma, Pilar; Salvador-Castell, Gemma; Martínez de Victoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M.; Bello, Luis; Tur-Marí, Josep A

    2009-01-01

    Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front-line strategies in health promotion. Community nutrition in different regions of Spain has developed at an unequal pace. Early initiatives in the mid 1980s provided good-quality population data and established a basis for nutrition surveillance including individual body measurements, dietary intake data, information on physical activity, and biomarkers. The Nutrition and Physical Activity for Obesity Preventi...

  7. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés Nuria; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Pollán Marina; Ramis Rebeca; Boldo Elena; García-Pérez Javier; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activit...

  8. Technological spillovers and industrial location in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo, Jose G.

    1998-01-01

    While different studies have supported the existence of knowledge spillovers and shown their importance for economic growth, very few have focused on analysing their relation with the propensity for industrial activity to cluster spatially. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the geographic concentration of industrial activity in Spain, specially of innovative activity, and to link it with the existence of knowledge externalities. This analysis will be based in the marshallian concep...

  9. Aids in Spain and Immigration: Epidemiological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ualberto Buela-Casal****; Ángel Castro; María Paz-Bermúdez**

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the current HIV/AIDS situation in Spain according to Spanish regions. Epidemiological HIV and AIDS Spanish data are analyzed and adjusted by population rates. Prevalence indexes and distribution by gender, age and way of transmission in the Spanish regions are compared. In addition, it is paid special attention to immigrant population as people who can take HIV/AIDS risk behaviors. Results revealed that the Spanish regions with the highest prevalence rates ...

  10. Wage Assimilation of Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zenón Jiménez-Ridruejo; Carlos Borondo Arribas

    2011-01-01

    In this study we quantify the effect of the years of residence in Spain on the earnings of immigrants. We take sex, origin, education and age into account. The results are clearly positive, the longer the length of residence the more earnings, confirming the hypothesis of wage assimilation of immigrants as their human capital is adapted to the Spanish labor market. The information used comes from the Social Security’s Continuous Sample of Working Lives 2007. Additionally, we merge the earning...

  11. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palomo-Hierro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  12. Exploring the Mobility of Mobile Phone Users

    CERN Document Server

    Csáji, Balázs Cs; Traag, V A; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Huens, Etienne; Van Dooren, Paul; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone datasets allow for the analysis of human behavior on an unprecedented scale. The social network, temporal dynamics and mobile behavior of mobile phone users have often been analyzed independently from each other using mobile phone datasets. In this article, we explore the connections between various features of human behavior extracted from a large mobile phone dataset. Our observations are based on the analysis of communication data of 100000 anonymized and randomly chosen individuals in a dataset of communications in Portugal. We show that clustering and principal component analysis allow for a significant dimension reduction with limited loss of information. The most important features are related to geographical location. In particular, we observe that most people spend most of their time at only a few locations. With the help of clustering methods, we then robustly identify home and office locations and compare the results with official census data. Finally, we analyze the geographic spread ...

  13. Quaternary fauna of bats in Spain: Paleoecologic and biogeographic interest

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma

    1989-01-01

    The study of fossil bat material collected in Quaternary localities in Spain has yielded interesting information on the characteristics of this fauna during the Pleistocene and Holocene in Spain. Out of the 25 species of Chiroptera actually living in Spain, 15 have been detected from the Middle Pleistocene onwards: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. euryale, R. mehelyi, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. bechsteini, M. nattereri, M. emarginatus, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus ser...

  14. Transsexualism in Spain: a Cultural and Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Soley-Beltran

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I will present an overview of the current legal, social and political situation of transsexual and transgendered people in Spain. The study is based on qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews with transsexual people, transgendered activists and legal experts in Spain, including some aspects of a cross-cultural comparison between Spain and the UK. The empirical study accounts for the development of social policies related to sex-reassignment and their evolution in the ...

  15. Description of industrial pollution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. Methods All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. Results The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. Conclusion A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two

  16. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  17. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... 2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...... repercussions. Moreover, family mobility does not simply happen, rather the successful performance of everyday mobility is a creative process that requires labour, skill and knowledge (Vannini 2012). It is proposed that families cope with everyday life through the on-going making and performance of mobility...

  18. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  19. Tandem mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  20. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  1. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  2. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  3. Mobile internet protocol analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brachfeld, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is a proposed standard that builds on the current Internet Protocol by making the fact that a user is mobile transparent to applications and higher level protocols such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet while maintaining any current conne...

  4. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous stud...... and seat reservations. To reach these aims, the research design intertwines multi-sited ethnography, netnography, survey and interviews. The conclusion offers theoretical reflections pertaining to the role of mobilities designs and methodical hybrids in tourism mobilities research....

  5. PSiS Mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, Ricardo; Luz, Nuno; Figueiredo, Lino

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a state of the art on applications of mobile devices to support decision of a tourist running on a trip. We focus on two types of applications, tourism recommendation and tourism guide, making a brief description of the main characteristics of each one of them. We also refer the main problems encountered on the development of applications for mobile devices, and present PSiS (Personalized Sightseeing Tours Recommendation System) Mobile, our proposal to a mobile recom...

  6. Mobile connections : curator's statement.

    OpenAIRE

    Hemment, Drew

    2004-01-01

    The Mobile Connections exhibition at the Futuresonic 2004 festival explored how mobile and locative media reconfigure social, cultural and information space. It looked beyond computing in its current form, towards the social and cultural possibilities opened by a new generation of networked, location-aware media. It sought an art of mobile communications: asking, are there any forms of expression that are intrinsic or unique to mobile and locative media?

  7. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  8. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  9. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  10. Superintendent Vulnerability and Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Phyllis

    1996-01-01

    Examined Callahan's vulnerability thesis to determine its ability to explain the mobility of superintendents in Texas between 1985 and 1990. Questionnaire and interview data indicated that, at least in Texas where superintendent mobility reached 50% in that time period, vulnerability did not appear to account for much of superintendent mobility.…

  11. Distributed mobility management - framework & analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebsch, M.; Seite, P.; Karagiannis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile operators consider the distribution of mobility anchors to enable offloading some traffic from their core network. The Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) Working Group is investigating the impact of decentralized mobility management to existing protocol solutions, while taking into account

  12. Mobile Virtual Private Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny

    Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.

  13. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  14. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  15. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  16. Status of the nuclear sector in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio González Jiménez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain began to show interest in nuclear energy in the late 1940’s. In 1964 the Nuclear Energy Law was approved, and in 1972 the Nuclear and Radioactive Sites Regulation was developed. Safety and regulation activities were entrusted to the Nuclear Safety Council (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear created in 1980, and the research and management of radioactive waste to the National Radioactive Waste Company (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, created in 1985. The structure of Spain’s nuclear industry began to be created in the 1960’s, as a consequence of the decision to build the nuclear power plants of José Cabrera, Santa María de Garoña and Vandellós I. In the next stage, during the 1970’s, the Almaraz, Ascó and Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants were built. During the third stage, in the 1980’s, the Vandellós II and Trillo I Nuclear Power Plants were built. Nowadays, the expert and efficient Spanish nuclear industry is a guarantee that nuclear technology is maintained in Spain, and not only to support the operating plants but also a reactivated international nuclear market. Spain has the necessary infrastructure, the technical capacity, the financial resources and the companies’ willpower in a common effort to provide Spaniards with reliable, cheap and sustainable electric energy that respects the environment and guarantees security for citizens. Nuclear energy is, definitively, a key component today and in the future.

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  18. A personal view of nutrition in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Zamora

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain, following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS, in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1 The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2 The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the synthesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3 The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4 In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  19. [Medicine and enlightenment in New Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, A

    1998-01-01

    Fundamental ideas of the cultural movement of Enlightenment were drawn up and encouraged in England by John Locke and introduced into continental Europe by Voltaire. The essence of this movement was defined by I. Kant in 1784. These new ideas were projected into the field of medicine initially with the systematization of anatomical studies by Winslow, Vicq d' Azyr and Sénac in France, by S. Th. Sömmerring and von Haller in Germany, and by Paolo Mascagni and other anatomists in Italy. This movement settled in Spain toward the middle of the XVIII century, due to Father Feijóo and his pupils such as Piquer and Casal. In New Spain, which maintained cultural and scientific relationship with the Old World, the leaders of the movement were José Antonio Alzate in the field of biology and José Ignacio Bartolache in that of medicine. These were the founders of the first scientific journals: the "Diario Literario" (Literary Journal) by Alzate (1768) and the "Mercurio Volante" (Flying Mercury) by Bartolache (1772). Latter this physician had to face the great epidemic outbreak of smallpox in 1779. Due to that, he attributed great importance to the psychological aspect of the problem and supported the variolization proceeding introduced into Mexico by Doctor Henri Morel. Moreover, two scientific expeditions, which reached New Spain at the end of the XVIII century, allowed to systematize the study of the American vegetables and to acknowledge the usefulness of botany and chemistry as auxiliary sciences of medicine. PMID:9780494

  20. Import of fruits from Spain to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    The research is made for company named Karamelo Citrus S.L.L. It has already business links to many countries and they are working on the link to Finland when my help was needed to finish this project. As the project is huge it was divided in two parts. My part is registering company and start import fruits/vegetables to Finland. This is part number two and it will show how to import fruits/vegetables from Spain to Finland and what techniques are needed to provide fruits for the Finnish ma...

  1. Databases on disability and employment in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Rodríguez Álvarez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the different databases that allow us to obtain information about disability and employment in Spain. In general, each of them uses different variables to measure disability, giving rise to different rates of prevalence. From their different definitions, the strengths and weaknesses of each of them are shown to study the involvement of people with disabilities in the labour market. Furthermore, it is also suggested to use the Working Lives Longitudinal Sample as a source of information, since it allows examining various aspects of the employment of people with disabilities, especially those related to working conditions and career paths.

  2. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by ...

  3. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pension system in Spain. The introduction is followed by such a topic paragraphs as: the general information about the country, the historical development of its pension system, the present situation and challenges, and foreseen changes. There, the authors goal was to present both past and present solutions employed by the Spanishs pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular Spanish approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of existing in the Spanish reality the special old age pension system for domestic servants.

  4. Criminality among Romanian Emigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Ilie

    2014-01-01

    The current community of Romanians in Spain is a very active and integrated one at all levels in the host society. There is a mass media developed by Romanians, a large number of churches and associations of our countrymen and, also, there are a high number of cultural and artistic events in the community. Unfortunately, the Spanish public perception on Romanian immigrants is not very good one, as they are seen as the most disagreeable group of emigrants. This is due to the high degree of ant...

  5. Employment transitions of young workers in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Alfonso

    1996-01-01

    In this article, we study the youth labour market in Spain. We focus on the transition from unemployment to employment and out of the labour force among two groups of workers: those who are looking for the first job, and workers who have already acquired sorne work experience. According to the Spanísh labour force survey (EPA), fírst job seekers represent more than fífty per cent of youth unemployment. By using matched files from the same data source we find that the employment transition rat...

  6. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. PMID:24880817

  7. Nuptiality patterns in Spain in the eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret-gamundi, P

    1997-01-01

    "The marriage patterns in Spain are analysed, highlighting some associated socio-economic, political and cultural factors.... It seems there is a quite clear match between economic and nuptiality trends; as accompanying the rise of unemployment and the general economic crisis, there was undoubtedly a decrease in the levels of adult nuptiality. But this is not enough to fully explain the nuptiality age patterns, and we need to refer to other possible reasons for the trends in nuptiality, as we do here with the evolution of the housing market." (EXCERPT)

  8. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter.

  9. Sixth Meeting of China-Spain Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The sixth meeting of the China- Spain Forum (CSF) was held in the World Trade Center in Barcelona from July 5 to 6, 2011. Uyunqimg, Vice Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chairperson of the CSF Chinese Committee, headed the Chinese delegation; Trinidad Jimenez, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation; Miguel Sebastian Gascon, Spanish Minister of Industry, Trade and Tourism; and Pedro Solbes, Chairman of the CSF Spanish Committee, were among the 350 participants.

  10. Wage determinants in Spain (1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aixalá

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence about the nominal wage determinants in Spain during the period 1980-2000. We estimate a wage equation, using time series analysis applying an error correction mechanism. Our aim is to analyse the extent to which the evolution of wages is influenced by the unemployment, prices and productivity. The results reveal that the unemployment rate has no effect on the evolution of nominal wages. The variable that explains the evolution of nominal wages in the long term is prices, showing slightly inflationary behaviour. In the short term, wages are explained by their past values, reflecting a nominal inertia.

  11. China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar Held in Barcelona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On April 24,the China-Spain Investment & Trade Seminar was jointly held in Barcelona,Spain.As the first event of the Chinese Products Promotion Week (Europe),the seminar aims to help the Chinese export enterprises and local governments learn about relevant laws and regulations and product quality standards of the EU.

  12. 78 FR 6222 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... described in a notice we published on May 10, 2006, in the Federal Register (71 FR 27221-27224, Docket No... of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balaeric Islands and Canary Islands) into...

  13. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Marimón, José Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  14. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  15. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  16. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  17. Muridae (Rodentia) from the lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín Suárez, E.; Freudenthal, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fauna of Muridae (Rodentia) from the Lower Turolian of Crevillente (Alicante, SE Spain) contains species attributed to the genera Huerzelerimys, Parapodemus, and Occitanomys. The material described allows a detailed biostratigraphy of Upper Miocene deposits of SE Spain. En este trabajo se estudi

  18. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  19. [International academic mobility program in nursing experience report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mariana Gonçalves; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2012-03-01

    An experience of studying abroad or of academic exchange, really adds value to the professional and personal development of exchange students. This report aims to describe a student's experience in an international academic mobility program. It was developed from 2008 to 2009 in Brazil and Spain. The experiences, observations and activities of the student were emphasized believing that the training of students and researchers is not only restricted to the university and the students' home country, and that it is important to have possibilities of new experiences and differentiated knowledge. The conclusion is that this opportunity promoted a profound effect on psychological, cultural social and scientific development of the exchange student. PMID:22737814

  20. Mobile VLE vs. Mobile PLE: How Informal is Mobile Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Pin; Millard, David; Wills, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Mobile Learning Systems are often described as supporting informal learning; as such they are a good fit to the idea of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs), software systems that users choose and tailor to fit their own learning preferences. This paper explores the question of whether existing m-learning research is more in the spirit of PLEs or Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). To do this we survey the mobile learning systems presented at M-Learn 2007 in order to see if they might be r...

  1. Geo-based Mobility Control for Mobile Traffic Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Most mobile traffic simulators of today depend on the user to supply the mobility behavior of the simulated UEs. This becomes a problem when certain wanted mobility characteristics are to be tested, since the user have to go trough a trial-and-error procedure to come up with the proper mobility behavior. This thesis presents two approaches to mobility control, where the aim is to control UE mobility based on certain mobility characteristics supplied by the end user. The first approach introdu...

  2. The state of psychiatry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Parellada, Mara; Bascaran, Maria-Teresa; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bousoño, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2012-08-01

    The 1986 General Health Act and the so-called 'psychiatric reform' were key issues in the development of the mental healthcare system (MHCS) in Spain. The World Health Organization Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health in 2005 gave it a revitalizing impetus and resulted in the first National Health System (NHS) Mental Health Strategy in 2006. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Spanish journals, reference lists, national databases, and European and Spanish official documents to describe the current state of the MHCS in Spain. The main results were: (1) existence of great variability among the autonomous communities with respect to mental health resources and provision of care; (2) lack of national epidemiological information on mental disorders with the exception of substance use disorders and suicide, which comprise powerful longitudinal national data, (3) training in psychiatry is well established, although there is no specialism of child and adolescent psychiatry, and (4) a dramatic increase in scientific productivity in the last decade among research groups, in part due to the creation of the Spanish Mental Health Network, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM). Quantifiable and reliable indicators are needed to provide efficient monitoring and analysis of epidemiological events and subsequently to understand the status of the Spanish MHCS.

  3. Nuclear power training programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of nuclear power in Spain is developing very rapidly. At present 1.1GW(e) are installed in Spain and this is expected to increase to 8GW(e) in 1980 and to 28GW(e) in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel, which is estimated to become approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: (a) in engineering schools; (b) in the Nuclear Studies Institute; (c) in the electric companies with nuclear programmes. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programmes. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism dependent on the Nuclear Energy Commission and responsible, among other subjects, for training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the training programmes. (author)

  4. Radon and lung cancer in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the incidence of lung cancer is related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters. However, the magnitude of the risk and its dependence upon physiological and environmental factors are still not well defined either experimentally or epidemiologically. Occupational studies of underground miners are the only available human epidemiological information to estimate the risk of exposure to radon daughters in the indoor environment. The results are shown of a study carried out to determine whether lung cancer mortality rates in Spain are significantly correlated with the average indoor radon levels. For this purpose, we have used indoor radon data generated from the national survey carried out in 1989. Lung cancer distribution by cities and deaths, by year of death and sex, were retrieved for each of the different provinces of Spain for the period 1960-1985, showing the evolution and changes in the incidence of lung cancer in the population. Data referring to the evolution of lung cancer for males and females from 1940 until 1985 are also shown. Since cigarette smoking has been linked to lung cancer the effect of smoking habits in the Spanish population was also considered in this analysis. The first results of this study establish no clear evidence of any substantial association between lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon for males. However, a relationship was evident for females. (author)

  5. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure that...... within a small territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of...

  6. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure...... that the livestock are in good condition. The paper shows that it is important to distinguish between mobility of pastoralists and of their herd; even though the pastoralists of northern Senegal have become semi-sedentary, their herds are still quite mobile. The pastoralists are willing to move around within a small...

  7. CERN Mobility Survey

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Shipping and Transport of the University of the Aegean and the National Technical University of Athens are partners with CERN in a study of mobility patterns between and within the CERN sites and to that effect have realized a mobility survey dedicated to the CERN community.         The study aims to understand: How you presently get around the CERN sites; What problems you encounter regarding mobility; What your needs are; What improvements you’d like to see; What measures you would like to see implemented most. The replies we receive will enable us to define a general policy promoting the diversity of mobility at CERN and to establish and quantify the strategic actions to be implemented for both the short and medium term. The objectives of the transport mobility plans are to: Facilitate mobility within and between the CERN sites by identifying adequate solutions in response to individual ...

  8. Mobile Learning Project Report

    OpenAIRE

    Folley, Susan; Jabbar, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Mobile learning is not a new concept, learning whilst on the move or away from formal educational settings has been happening a long time with the use of books, journal articles, television, radio etc. However what is new is the vast array of devices now available to access learning and to take advantage of being mobile but still being able to capture information and share, collaborate and upload it to a worldwide audience. Mobile learning (mlearning) is a growing area of pedagogic res...

  9. Inequality and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    John Hassler; José Vicente Rodríguez Mora; Joseph Zeira

    2003-01-01

    We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...

  10. Inequality and Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Mora, Sevi; Hassler, John; Zeira, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    We use a general equilibrium OLG model to analyse the relation between intergenerational social mobility and wage inequality. We show that the correlation between mobility and inequality depends on which factor caused the change in inequality. The model can thus help discriminate between different competing explanations of the recent rise in US wage inequality. Under reasonable assumptions, skill-biased technical change tends to increase upward mobility, thereby causing a positive correlation...

  11. Mobile computing for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Sharma, Arjun; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Kung, Justin W; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Sherry, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advances in mobile computing technology have the potential to change the way radiology and medicine as a whole are practiced. Several mobile computing advances have not yet found application to the practice of radiology, while others have already been applied to radiology but are not in widespread clinical use. This review addresses several areas where radiology and medicine in general may benefit from adoption of the latest mobile computing technologies and speculates on potential future applications. PMID:24200475

  12. Mobile Exergaming Heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Monika Patrice

    2014-01-01

    An alarming number of adolescents experience obesity and related health issues, in part because of a lack of exercise. Increased mobile technology availability can have negative effects on amount of exercise, but they can have positive effects as well. Leveraging mobile technology to encourage and motivate exercise has potential to decrease unhealthy lifestyles, especially among young people. Mobile exergaming is an emerging field that has the potential to motivate users to exercise while als...

  13. Perancangan Dashboard Mobil Pedesaan Multiguna

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Madinah; I Made Londen Batan

    2013-01-01

    Mobil GEA yang merupakan mobil nasional akan dikembangkan menjadi mobil pedesaan multiguna. Salah satu bagian dalam mobil GEA yang menjadi perhatian adalah dashboard. Selama ini dashboard mobil GEA diproduksi secara manual, yaitu menggunakan proses wet lay-up dengan bahan komposit. Rencana ke depan produksi mobil pedesaan multiguna adalah produksi massa. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut dirancang proses cetakan injeksi plastik (injection molding) untuk pembuatan dashboard mobil pedesaan mult...

  14. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to pro...... to promote mobility in old age.......Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways...

  15. Pig Manure Application for Remediation of Mine Soils in Murcia Province, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In southern Spain, specifically in Murcia Province, an increased pig population causes large amounts of slurry production that creates a very serious environmental concern. Our aim was to use this waste to reduce the acid mine drainage process, heavy metal mobilization, and to improve soil conditions to enhance plant establishment in mine soils. Pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime were used as soil amendments in a field experiment and in undisturbed soil column. Field experiments showed an increase in pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and carbonate contents; a reduction of diethylene-tetramine pentaacetic acid (DTPA– and water-extractable metals; and an improvement of plant establishment. The field studies showed that pig manure could be utilized to remediate polluted soils. Column studies in the laboratory showed that amendment of mine soil with pig manure initially increased soil pH from 2.21 to 6.34, promoted reduced conditions in the surface soil, and decreased the metal mobility. After 21 weeks, while the leachate was slightly acidic, however, the mobility of metals was substantially low. Additions of 7 and 14% of pig manure were insufficient to maintain a neutral pH in the leachate. Therefore, continuous application of the pig manure may be advised.

  16. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  17. Disability and mobile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Goggin, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    As the World Wide Web turns 25, it is an appropriate time to ask: where are we are now with disability and the Internet? A good place to look is in the burgeoning area of Internet and mobile technology. Accordingly, this paper explores the issues and prospect for disability and mobile Internet. It provides a brief history of the entwined nature of the rise of disability and the Internet, discusses the emergence of mobile Internets, and then turns to a discussion of mobile Web accessibility. I...

  18. Guest Editorial ~ Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ally

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This special IRRODL issue on mobile learning is timely because of the proliferation of mobile technology in society, globalization, and the need to re-examine how learning materials are designed and delivered for the new generation of learners. In today’s world, people are on the move and are demanding access to learning materials and information anytime and anywhere. At the same time, there is increasing use of mobile technology in different sectors of society to meet the needs of people on the move. In business, there is increasing use of mobile technologies for individuals to conduct their business anywhere and anytime. In healthcare, medical staff are using mobile technologies to access just-in-time information and to enter information in real time. People working in the field away from the central office use mobile technologies to access information and to communicate with other workers. Also, younger generations of learners are using mobile technologies for entertainment and socialization. These learners are using mobile devices to access information and multimedia materials and to communicate with friends. These new generations of learners do not see technology as something foreign. They readily accept technology and consider technology to be part of their lives. Moreover, the use of mobile technology is a 21st Century skill that students and workers must have to function in society.

  19. Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Clawson, James; Lyons, Kent;

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus......-smaller computers, ones that can be worn on our wrists or other parts of the body. The focus of this workshop is to bring together a community of researchers, designers and practitioners to explore the potential of extending mobile collocated interactions to the use of wearable devices....

  20. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Kristiansen, Martin Lund; Kammersgaard, Marc N.;

    2007-01-01

    development teams in the mobile software industry. By taking a process view on development of mobile systems we seek to explore the strengths and limitations of eXtreme Programming (XP) in the context of mobile software development. Following an experimental approach a mobile systems development project...... components whenever possible. Test regularly oil real devices, since the difference between emulators and real devices are significant. Take advantage of spikes. Do not use pair programming when spiking, and remember to write unit tests for production code that was initially created during spikes. Monitor...

  1. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  2. Mobile computing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING Wearable Computing,A. Smailagic and D.P. Siewiorek Developing Mobile Applications: A Lime Primer,G.P. Picco, A.L. Murphy, and G.-C. Roman Pervasive Application Development: Approaches and Pitfalls,G. Banavar, N. Cohen, and D. Soroker ISAM, Joining Context-Awareness and Mobility to Building Pervasive Applications,I. Augustin, A. Corrêa Yamin, J.L. Victória Barbosa, L. Cavalheiro da Silva, R. Araújo Real, G. Frainer, G.G. Honrich Cavalheiro, and C.F. Resin Geyer Integrating Mobile Wireless Devices into the Computational Grid,T. Phan, L. Huan

  3. Programming the Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Firtman, Maximiliano

    2010-01-01

    Today's market for mobile apps goes beyond the iPhone to include BlackBerry, Nokia, Windows Phone, and smartphones powered by Android, webOS, and other platforms. If you're an experienced web developer, this book shows you how to build a standard app core that you can extend to work with specific devices. You'll learn the particulars and pitfalls of building mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and other standard web tools. You'll also explore platform variations, finicky mobile browsers, Ajax design patterns for mobile, and much more. Before you know it, you'll be able to create mashups using Web 2.

  4. Doctors going mobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ron; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Having a Web page and a blog site are the minimum requirements for an Internet presence in the new millennium. However, a Web page that loads on a personal computer or a laptop will be ineffective on a mobile or cellular phone. Today, with more existing and potential patients having access to cellular technology, it is necessary to reconfigure the appearance of your Web site that appears on a mobile phone. This article discusses mobile computing and suggestions for improving the appearance of your Web site on a mobile or cellular phone. PMID:25807610

  5. Mobile lifestyles : Conceptualizing heterogeneity in mobile youth culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanden Abeele, M.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ characteristic understanding and use of mobile phones have led observers to speak of a “mobile youth culture.” This article explores whether we can differentiate lifestyles within mobile youth culture. We construct a user typology of Flemish adolescent mobile phone users based on mobile

  6. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  7. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  8. Mobilizing community energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities. - Highlights: ► Explains how/why community energy groups mobilize and the political dynamics surrounding it. ► Draws on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland. ► Identifies two particular sets of resources (structural and symbolic) and their importance. ► Explains how these resources shape community energy mobilization in Scotland. ► Provides an original application of resource mobilization theory to the field of energy studies.

  9. Th/U dating of Strombus bubonius-bearing marine terraces in southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Carro, Odette; Causse, Christiane; Goy, José-Luis; Zazo, Cari

    1986-07-01

    Single dates obtained on mollusk shells by the U-series nuclides method are highly unreliable, primarily because of the mobility of uranium isotopes. However, in several cases, a statistical approach was demonstrated to yield coherent chronologies in both continental and marine environments. We report on 34 new Th and U isotope measurements on Strombus bubonius and Glycymeris glycymeris fossils from raised marine terraces in the Almeria area, southeastern Spain. The results yield a coherent chronology that indicates the presence of the warm water S. bubonius fauna in the Mediterranean basin at the end of the Mindel-Riss interglacial (18O stage 7) and during each high sea-level episode of the Riss-Würm interglacial (18O stage 5). Reconsideration of the Tyrrhenian stratigraphy based on the presence of S. bubonius is thus required. *Permanent address: Laboratoire de Geologic du Quaternaire, C.N.R.S., Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 09, France

  10. Telemedicine by mobile communication

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have proposed some techniques for mobile telemedicine and have verified their practical feasibility in experiments. This article presents technical considerations required to realize a practical mobile telemedicine system, techniques developed for multiple medical data transmission, and the satisfactory results of their applications to telemedicine in moving vehicles

  11. Mobile Media Photography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Shanks, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media photography marks a shift in orientation from the image towards photography as a mode of engagement. This leads is to explore the processes of experience and documentation that mobile media help to constitute. We unfold two aspects of the process of photography: photography as temporal...

  12. Global Mobile Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Global Mobile Communications System is a satellite-based, wireless personal communications network designed to permit any type of telephone transmission -- voice, data, fax, paging -- to reach its destination anywhere on earth, at any time. It is bringing a new dimension of capability to the commercial, rural and mobile sectors by providing universal, portable service.

  13. Mobile banking in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Ho

    2010-01-01

    Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.

  14. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young

    2013-01-01

      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  15. Mobile-first Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Magno, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step tutorial on developing websites for mobile using Bootstrap.This book is for anyone who wants to get acquainted with the new features available in Bootstrap 3 and who wants to develop websites with the mobile-first feature of Bootstrap. The reader should have a basic knowledge of Bootstrap as a frontend framework.

  16. Utopias of Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary global challenges to the distribution and organization of mobilities require new ways of envisioning and imagining to bring forward the discussion about new visions and thus policies of future mobilities. This chapter explores the imaginary visioning by using earlier utopian thoughts...

  17. Proxemic Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés; Quigley, Aaron;

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices. However, existing practices fail to fully account for the culturally-dependent spatial relationships between people and their d...

  18. Children, mobility, and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pia; Mikkelsen, Miguel Romero; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the potentials of a mixed methods approach to the study of children’s mobility patterns. The methodology presented here combined ethnographic fieldwork with global positioning system technology and an interactive questionnaire that children completed via mobile phone. This ...

  19. Mastering Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Without proper security, mobile devices are easy targets for worms, viruses, and so-called robot ("bot") networks. Hackers increasingly use bot networks to launch massive attacks against eCommerce websites--potentially targeting one's online tuition payment or fundraising/financial development systems. How can one defend his mobile systems against…

  20. Understanding Mobile Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Items Tips for Using Public Wi-Fi Networks Computer Security Kids and Mobile Phones If you have ... Free" Security Scans Computer Security Disposing of Old Computers Disposing of Your Mobile ... Your Wireless Network Tech Support Scams Tips for Using Public Wi- ...

  1. Security for Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Buchholtz, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    We show how to use static analysis to provide information about security issues related to mobility. First the syntax and semantics of Mobile Ambients is reviewed and we show how to obtain a so-called 0CFA analysis that can be implemented in polynomial time. Next we consider discretionary access...

  2. Security for Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Buchholtz, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    We show how to use static analysis to provide information about security issues related to mobility. First the syntax and semantics of Mobile Ambients is reviewed and we show how to obtain a so-called 0CFA analysis that can be implemented in polynomial time. Next we consider discretionary access...

  3. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Börner, D., Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presentation for the Education in the Wild: contextual and location-based mobile learning in action workshop at the STELLAR Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30-December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.

  4. Summer birth and deficit schizophrenia: Cantabria, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Herrera Castanedo, Sara; Vazquez-Barquero, Jose L

    2002-08-01

    An association between deficit schizophrenia and summer birth has previously been reported. The authors attempted to replicate this association in a population-based study of incident cases of psychosis in the autonomous region of Cantabria, in northern Spain. Schizophrenia patients were categorized into deficit (N = 22) and nondeficit (N = 55) groups, and the pattern in the two groups was compared. After accounting for the variance due to disorganization, hallucinations and delusions, and demographic variables, deficit schizophrenia had a significant association with summer birth; this association did not depend on a single definition of summer. For instance, among the deficit patients, 59% were born from May to August, in contrast to 18% of nondeficit patients and 34% of the general population. These results confirm the association between summer birth in the Northern Hemisphere and deficit as opposed to nondeficit schizophrenia. The existence of a different risk factor for the two groups suggests a difference in etiology and pathophysiology. PMID:12193837

  5. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard VINCENT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by numerous celebrations and his eventual canonization in 1807. The fervour which surrounded him fade gradually because of the competition represented by the devotion to other black saints and by the very visible decline of slavery. However, thanks to the efforts of the franciscan order, the worship of Saint Benoît of Palermo continued until our days, particularly in Galicia.

  6. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  7. Phenolic profile of Asturian (Spain) natural cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Madrera, Roberto; Picinelli Lobo, Anna; Suárez Valles, Belén

    2006-01-11

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2'-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, avicularin, and quercitrin) were identified and quantified. A fourth quercetin derivative, one dihydrochalcone-related compound, two unknown procyanidins, three hydroxycinnamic derivatives, and two unknown compounds were also found. Among the low-molecular-mass polyphenols analyzed, hydrocaffeic acid was the most abundant compound, representing more than 80% of the total polyphenolic acids. Procyanidins were the most important family among the flavonoid compounds. Discriminant analysis was allowed to correctly classify more than 93% of the ciders, according to the harvest year; the most discriminant variables were an unknown procyanidin and quercitrin. PMID:16390187

  8. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M

    2008-03-01

    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated. PMID:18217916

  9. Cocaine abuse among heroin addicts in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, M; San, L; Peri, J M; Olle, J M

    1991-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine is becoming a major problem among heroin addicts in Spain. Between 1987 and 1988, 75% of patients admitted as inpatients for detoxification from opiate dependence had consumed cocaine during the 6 months prior to admission and 25% had abused cocaine daily or several times/week. These cocaine abusers showed more toxicologic and psychopathologic problems than opiate addicts who did not abuse cocaine. The opiate addicts who also abused cocaine had begun using illicit drugs earlier and showed a higher frequency of anti-HIV antibodies. They also had more antisocial personality disorders and persistence of depressive symptoms during opiate detoxification than heroin addicts who did not abuse cocaine. Based on these findings, we insist on the need to develop different treatments for detoxifying patients with this dual addiction. PMID:2029857

  10. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano;

    2012-01-01

    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented...... a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...... resolution of 3 km ×3 km. The probabilistic models were based on the logistic regression, aiming to explain the probability of having at least a lightning-fire during the three year period. Results showed that the number of thunderstorms during the three-year period was the most significantvariable...

  11. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  12. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  13. Thirty years of ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain's experience with the processing of uranium ores covers pegmatitic ores, vein-type deposits, sandstone ores, enrichments in metamorphic sediments, radioactive coals and nonconventional sources such as phosphoric acid and copper waters. Studies have also been conducted for the treatment of very poor ores, such as palaeozoic quartzites. The recovery of by-products (copper) is included in this experience. The technologies employed range from physical concentration, combustion and calcination to conventional treatment with acids and alkalis and leaching under pressure, static leaching and bacterial leaching. Special attention has been devoted to the recovery of uranium from liquids and the development of equipment for this purpose (especially for solvent extraction and continuous ion-exchange techniques). This activity has not been limited to conventional-size plants of 500-3000t/d. Interest in the development of small or remote mines has led to the creation of transportable and re-usable modular plants. Reducing the environmental impact is another aspect of interest. The purification of uranium concentrates and the manufacture of products of nuclear purity, both by wet (nitric acid - TBP) and by dry processes (fluidized beds), is another field in which Spain has made progress. The experience acquired in these 30 years of research and industrial practice and the innovative projets set up for the future could well serve as a good basis for other medium-sized countries wishing to establish a uranium industry. A description of the Spanish experience, indicating what is worth pursuing and what should be avoided, may help new countries to join the circle of uranium producers. (author)

  14. Skylab mobile laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, G. R.; Larue, M. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab mobile laboratory was designed to provide the capability to obtain necessary data on the Skylab crewmen 30 days before lift-off, within 1 hour after recovery, and until preflight physiological baselines were reattained. The mobile laboratory complex consisted of six laboratories that supported cardiovascular, metabolic, nutrition and endocrinology, operational medicine, blood, and microbiology experiments; a utility package; and two shipping containers. The objectives and equipment requirements of the Skylab mobile laboratory and the data acquisition systems are discussed along with processes such as permanently mounting equipment in the individual laboratories and methods of testing and transporting the units. The operational performance, in terms of amounts of data collected, and the concept of mobile laboratories for medical and scientific experiments are evaluated. The Skylab mobile laboratory succeeded in facilitating the data collection and sample preservation associated with the three Skylab manned flights.

  15. Talk, Mobility and Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    The intersection of the quotidian practices of social interaction, learning and mobility outside of the classroom – for example, the ways in which talk shapes how children learn to be actively mobile – has been little studied until recently. This paper develops a social interactional approach...... to analysing talk and mobile action in what are arguably two quintessentially Nordic mobility practices, namely cycling and skiing. More specifically the focus is on investigating and comparing how a child learns to cycle in a bike-friendly urban infrastructure, and how a child learns to ski cross......-country, both within the context of familial social interaction. Audiovisual data was collected with mobile video cameras from family bike rides in Denmark and family skiing in Finland, in which among other things a parent instructs and guides a child to bike or to ski. Using an EMCA approach, the analysis...

  16. [Cognition and mobility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A

    2015-04-01

    Felix Platter Hospital, University Center for Medicine of Aging, Basel, Switzerland; There is a strong association between cognition and mobility. Older adults with gait deficits have an increased risk of developing cognitive deficits, even dementia. Cognitive deficits, on the other hand, are associated with worsening gait. Cognitive as well as mobility deficits are associated with an increased fall risk. Assessments of cognition, particularly the executive functions, and functional mobility should therefore be an integral part of every comprehensive geriatric assessment. Some quick screening tests for mobility disorders can be performed in a clinical praxis. If those assessments provide pathological results, then consider patient referral for an in-depth gait analysis. Gait analyses that utilize dual task paradigms (walking and simultaneously performing a second task) are particularly meaningful for early detection of mobility and cognitive deficits. Early detection permits timely implementation of targeted interventions to improve gait and brain function. PMID:25791044

  17. MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2011-01-01

    competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge......Knowledge mobilization is not only a new expression in a Danish context. It is also an interesting concept to introduce and discuss. For doesn’t knowledge mobilization have more – or, at least, as much – to do with politics as with education research or education in itself? Doesn’t modern knowledge...... mobilization have to do with a new political will to mobilize the population by creating a connection between education research and education? On the basis of this report on the Danish efforts with respect to ’knowledge mobilization’, these questions can be answered affirmatively; the extent of knowledge...

  18. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......, "green cyclists" and "convenience drivers" - differed not only in their travel-related variables but also in their socio-economic background, IT-affinity, and life satisfaction, with green cyclist showing the highest life satisfaction and two car-oriented styles having the highest socio...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  19. mSpace Mobile: Exploring Support for Mobile Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Max L.; Russell, Alistair; Smith, Daniel A.; Schraefel, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    In the following paper we present a formative study comparing two Web application interfaces, mSpace Mobile and Google Local in supporting Web-based location discovery tasks on mobile devices while stationary and while on the move. While mSpace Mobile performed well in both stationary and mobile conditions, performance in Google Local dropped significantly in the mobile condition. We postulate that mSpace Mobile performed better because it breaks the paradigm of the page for delivering Web co...

  20. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  1. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  2. Marasmiellus phaeomarasmioides spec. nov. (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales) from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, G.; Heykoop, M.; Esteve-Raventós, F.; Horak, E.

    1997-01-01

    Marasmiellus phaeomarasmioides, a new species growing on bark of Juniperus thurifera trees in Spain, is described and illustrated. Besides, it is compared with other related species of subsect. Sphaerosporini Singer, viz. M. guzmanii Singer and M. parlatorei Singer.

  3. Madrid Symposium Promotes China-Spain Local Government Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>With the concerted efforts of the CPAFFC and the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces (SFMP), the China-Spain Local Government Cooperation Symposium was held in Madrid on March 24, 2010.

  4. Client Mobile Software Design Principles for Mobile Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a client-server mobile learning system, client mobile software must run on the mobile phone to acquire, package, and send student’s interaction data via the mobile communications network to the connected mobile application server. The server will receive and process the client data in order to offer appropriate content and learning activities. To develop the mobile learning systems there are a number of very important issues that must be addressed. Mobile phones have scarce computing resources. They consist of heterogeneous devices and use various mobile operating systems, they have limitations with their user/device interaction capabilities, high data communications cost, and must provide for device mobility and portability. In this paper we propose five principles for designing Client mobile learning software. A location-based adaptive mobile learning system is presented as a proof of concept to demonstrate the applicability of these design principles.

  5. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  6. Mobile and contextual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kukulska-Hulme

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Is mobile learning just a part of everyday learning? This is a relevant question in an age when most people throughout the world now have access to mobile phones and mobility is increasingly taken for granted. In one sense, mobile learning is no different to carrying a textbook or learning through conversations at home, as part of formal education or in the workplace. The technology may be more engaging, but is the learning any different? Despite the ubiquity of mobile phones, smartphones, mp3 players and, increasingly, access to Wi-Fi connections and GPS navigation, the reasons for using mobile and wireless technologies in education are not yet widely known. There is significant specialist expertise, built from ten years of research (and more recently, reflective practice to demonstrate the unique characteristics of mobile learning, which include orchestrating shared learning with personal devices across formal and informal settings, providing immediately useful information, offering timely revision and reflection, connecting real and virtual locations, and enriching field trips and cultural visits. This knowledge needs to be disseminated and examined from new perspectives.

  7. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  8. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Perrucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  9. Mobile sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  10. The impact of informal networks on labour mobility: Immigrants' first job in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marika Gruber

    2012-01-01

    Integrating migration populations into settled communities presents a major challenge especially for municipalities. Consequently, this research project investigated how municipalities can support the integration process of people with a migration background in eight different municipal fields of integration. The examples of two Austrian cities (Linz and Dornbirn), which have many years of experience in designing and developing an integration process, activities and projects, have been analys...

  11. Editorial: Mobile (March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kunz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Open source software and hardware has become an accepted way of developing new and interesting applications in many information and communication technology domains: operating systems, databases, Web infrastructure, and applications. It's not surprising that with the increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices, users and researchers have explored the power of open approaches to providing innovative new applications and services in this domain. However, unlike personal computers and the Internet, mobile handsets were tightly controlled by mobile network operators (MNOs who developed a vertical ecosystem by integrating the communication infrastructure, the handheld device hardware, and often the applications installed on those devices. The software and protocols running the mobile communications infrastructure and devices are often standardized by membership-only bodies, where large MNOs and manufacturers have a predominant influence. These players invest significant financial resources into shaping the industry along their vision to gain a competitive advantage. A current example is the ongoing battle about the dominant radio access technology for 4G cellular systems: LTE vs. Wimax. These trends have changed recently. Companies such as Google, Nokia, or Openmoko and Industry Alliances such as the Open Handset Alliance are providing the core building blocks, both in hardware as well as software, of increasingly open mobile devices. This issue of the OSBR reviews the relevant trends in the open mobile platform space from a number of perspectives. As the articles in these issue show, there is a lot of exciting ongoing work that brings the power of open source development to the mobile space. This trend is not just confined to the mobile devices as there are also efforts in the development of open mobile infrastructure elements and whole systems.

  12. Dimensions of Financial Audit in Romania and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona LAPTEŞ; Ioana SOFIAN

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to realize a comparative study regarding the theory and practice of financial audit in Ro mania and Spain. To achieve this goal, we performed a documentary research of the main papers in this area and of the applicable regulations research that allowed us to identify convergences and differences as concerns the financial audit in Romania and Spain. There are many divergences, on different levels: the perimeter of regulations, the conditions for becoming ...

  13. Older adults and sport and physical activity professionals in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    María Martín-Rodríguez; María Dolores González-Rivera; José Emilio Jiménez-Beatty; Antonio Campos-Izquierdo; David del Hierro-Pinés

    2010-01-01

    Presence of monitors in physical activities and sports practiced by adults older than 64 years of age in Spain is analyzed in this research. The objective of this study is to determine the existence of monitors in relation to the sociodemographic features of older adults, the size of municipalities, the activities practiced, and the organizations where they are performed. The methodology used included a cross-sectional survey applied to a sample of older adults in Spain. The most relevant ...

  14. Increasing inequalities: Recent School Failure Trends in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Mellizo-Soto, María; Martínez-García, José Saturnino

    2014-01-01

    School failure is substantive in Spain. The percentage of students that do not achieve the compulsory education diploma is around 20%. Students who “fail” cannot continue to post-compulsory education and, sooner or later, have to leave formal education. School failure is usually higher for students from lower socio-economic backgrounds. This article explores the evolution of Inequality of Educational Opportunities (IEO) in compulsory education from the seventies in Spain. Using logit models o...

  15. Developing a business plan for language school in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Dufek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The Master's Thesis analyses and evaluates the conditions for the development of language school in Alicante, Spain. Also, the thesis shows main concepts, as well as an illustration of specific steps and actions in a realistic business plan. Firstly, it introduces theoretical background of legal environment of Spain, business model and the business plan. Secondly, the thesis portrays the results of an empirical research conducted on the target audience that are together with the market analys...

  16. Hontoria’s stone (Burgos, Spain): Characteristics and weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Grado, Aurelio de; Puche Riart, Octavio; Calvo Pérez, Benjamín

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with petrological and petrophysical features of the Hontaria's stone, Burgos (Spain), with which many important monuments were built in northern Spain, in orderr to establish a basis for individual monument restoration. The study contains an historical reference to sorne buildings in which this stone was employed, geological considerations of the origin area, laboratory analysis of the samples, and results of the most common characterization tests. As a conclusion, it can be ...

  17. Single-Layer Cubipod Armored Breakwaters in Punta Langosteira (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor, Antonio; Santos, Moisés; Peña, Enrique; Maciñeira, Enrique; GÓMEZ MARTÍN, MARÍA ESTHER; Medina, Josep R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design process, hydraulic stability tests and construction of two single-layer Cubipod armored breakwaters in the Port of Punta Langosteira (A Coruña, Spain), located on the Atlantic coast of Spain, the first single-layer armors of randomly placed massive concrete armor units. The environmental, geotechnical, economic and logistic conditions favored randomly-placed Cubipods in single-layer armoring. 3D hydraulic stability tests of single-layer Cubipod armored breakwat...

  18. Sexual health and socioeconomic-related factors in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Muñoz, Dolores, 1978-; Wellings, Kaye; Castellanos Torres, Esther; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Casals Cases, Mariona; Pérez, Glòria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to describe sexual health in Spain according to three important indicators of the World Health Organization definition and explore the influence of socioeconomic factors. Methods: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study of sexually active people aged 16-44 years residing in Spain in 2009 (2365 women and 2532 men). Three main aspects of sexual health were explored: sexual satisfaction, safe sex, and sexual abuse. The independent variables...

  19. Scientific Output by Gender in Spain (Web of Science, 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Corera-Álvarez, Elena; González-Molina, Antonio; Guerrero-Bote, Vicente; Gómez-Crisóstomo, Rocío

    2007-01-01

    Moya-Anegón, F., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., Vargas-Quesada, B., Corera-Álvarez, E., González-Molina, A., Muñoz-Fernández, F.J., Guerrero-Bote, V.P., Gómez-Crisóstomo, R. (2007) Scientific Output by Gender in Spain (Web of Science, 2004) 11 International Conference of the International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics. Madrid, Spain, 25-27 June

  20. Hunting for sustainability: a summary of research findings from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Beatriz; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The HUNTing for Sustainability multi-discplinary research project has been funded by the European Union’s 7th Framework Research Programme. The project involved cooperation with a range of institutions and included case studies from Norway, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, Slovenia, Croatia, Ethiopia and Tanzania. The primary research activity in Spain has been related to assessing costs and benefits of different management styles for red-legged partridge hunting.

  1. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  2. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  3. Mother's educational level and single motherhood: Comparing Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Garriga; Sebastià Sarasa; Paolo Berta

    2015-01-01

    Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993) and McLanahan (2004) suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressi...

  4. Mother's educational level and family structure: Comparing Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Alsina, Anna; Sarasa Urdiola, Sebasti??; Berta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, there has been a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother???s educational level in Spain and Italy. However, several important transformations contemplated in Goode???s theory suggest that this relationship might have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis using EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. We found the relations...

  5. Fourth Meeting of China-Spain Forum Held in Madrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chairman Hu Qili and Executive Chairman Chen Haosu of the Chinese Committee of the China-Spain Forum(CSF) led a Chinese delegation to attend the Fourth Meeting of the CSF in Madrid from November 27 to 28,2007.The meeting with the theme of "Harmony,Development and Gaining Win-Win Results" was jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC,the CSF Chinese Committee,the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Spain China Council Foundation.

  6. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes a systems development perspective on mobility, building on preliminary findings of an on-going multiple case study covering 7 companies. The questions driving this paper are: What are the challenges facing development practice in the mobile industry, how do they affect practice...... and how are they dealt with? Analysis of the empirical data is done following a structured and inductive approach. A framework showing the segmentation of the mobile industry into five layers is proposed and challenges are presented according to two dimensions, namely a business dimension...... and a development dimension. Finally, implications stemming from these challenges are discussed and issues inviting for future research are proposed....

  7. Embodied Cultures of Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    on a re-reading and re-interpretation of Gibson’s theories of visual perception and motion, Lynch’s theories of the mobile experiences of the city, and Goffman’s notions of ‘presentation of self’ and elaborations on ideas about interaction in motion. The new and innovative dimension to this paper...... contemporary theorists understanding bodily movement, material sites of mobility, and social interactions must be consulted along the road (e.g. Latour’s work on objects and ANT, Thrift’s work on the body and ‘non-representational theory, and Massumi’s notions of affects and emotions related to bodily mobility...

  8. Windows Azure mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Get up and running with Windows Azure Mobile Services Windows Azure Mobile Services (WAMS) is a turn-key backend solution for applications, mobile or otherwise, to utilize structured storage in the cloud. It includes basic data access functionality and built-in authentication with Microsoft Account, Facebook, Twitter and Google, as well as push notification to the client app. This compact, to the point book gives you just what you need to get up and running with these tools. Demonstrates how to add, update, delete and retrieve data using standard .NET classes or REST-based requestsDescribes h

  9. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  10. To practice mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    Children’s perspectives are practically absent in new mobility studies. In this article, I wish to describe and analyze how a number of children handle having to move between homes, parents and siblings, and how they practically, emotionally and socially navigate in this changeable landscape. My...... aim is to explore mobility as an embodied and emotional practice in which children employ different strategies. I focus on bodily micro practices, routines and coping strategies, the intermediate space that occurs on their continual journeys, and the feeling of being dispensable. It is an ethnographic...... exploration of how mobile and domestic lives are intertwined – on a small scale....

  11. Mobility Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is today an undisputed superiority of cars on any other means of transportation, both practically and psychologically. However, the reliance on cars as the main means of transportation has led to a number of social and environmental problems. Mobility Management aims at managing the way...... people fulfil their mobility needs so that they rely less on their cars and start using alternatives such as bicycles and public transport. This article analyses the possibility to use businesses as vectors for introducing Mobility Management within social practices in Denmark in the light of the recent...

  12. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  13. Mobile sociology. 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to develop a manifesto for a sociology concerned with the diverse mobilities of peoples, objects, images, information, and wastes; and of the complex interdependencies between, and social consequences of, such diverse mobilities. A number of key concepts relevant for such a sociology are elaborated: 'gamekeeping', networks, fluids, scapes, flows, complexity and iteration. The article concludes by suggesting that a 'global civil society' might constitute the social base of a sociology of mobilities as we move into the twenty-first century.

  14. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaj Ali Jalila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  15. Erokovnik mobile application

    OpenAIRE

    Barlič, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The object of this dissertation is to describe a mobile application eRokovnik for managing different types of events. The application is primarily intended for modern mobile phones and as such allows to effectively monitor all functions and other events by user. The user has a transparent, simple and efficient user interface for easy management of data. Data is stored in the database on your mobile device locally. A backup copy of saved data can be made on user request using the integrate...

  16. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  17. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  18. Mobile networks architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the evolutions of architecture for mobiles and summarizes the different technologies:- 2G: the GSM (Global System for Mobile) network, the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) network and the EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) evolution;- 3G: the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) network and the HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) evolutions:- HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access),- HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access),- HSPA+;- 4G: the EPS (Evolved Packet System) network.The telephone service and data transmission are the

  19. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  20. Mobility of Hellenistic women

    OpenAIRE

    Loman, Pasi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current thesis is to study various aspects of women’s mobility in the so-called Hellenistic period. It will attempt to provide answers to the questions ‘why did women travel,’ ‘how common was it for women to travel,’ and most importantly, ‘did women take part in the Hellenistic colonisation processes.’ The importance of women’s mobility for the Greek societies as a whole will also be evaluated. To study the mobility of Hellenistic women we shall use a wide variety of li...

  1. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data...... extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short...

  2. Mobile Context Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomail, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights...

  3. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain: rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Castaño-Vinyals

    2015-07-01

    Discussion: This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP, is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain.

  4. Mobile Internet: Politics of Mobile Code and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mosemghvdlishvili (Lela)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term mobile internet refers to accessing the internet through (cellular) mobile devices and represents the convergence of mobile telephony, internet services, and personal computing. Whereas iMode (mobile internet and data services) was introduced in Japan as long a

  5. Research in Mobile Intelligence Mobile Computing and Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Laurence T

    2010-01-01

    * Focuses on learning patterns and knowledge from data generated by mobile users and mobile technology. * Covers research and application issues in applying computational intelligence applications to mobile computing. * Delivers benefits to a wide range of applications. * Introduces the state of the art of computational intelligence to the mobile paradigm

  6. jQuery Mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Native apps have distinct advantages, but the future belongs to mobile web apps that function on a broad range of smartphones and tablets. Get started with jQuery Mobile, the touch-optimized framework for creating apps that look and behave consistently across many devices. This concise book provides HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript code examples, screen shots, and step-by-step guidance to help you build a complete working app with jQuery Mobile. If you're already familiar with the jQuery JavaScript library, you can use your existing skills to build cross-platform mobile web apps right now. This b

  7. Mobile Learning Applications Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While mobile learning (m-learning applications have proven their value in educational activities, there is a need to measure their reliability, accessibility and further more their trustworthiness. Mobile devices are far more vulnerable then classic computers and present inconvenient interfaces due to their size, hardware limitations and their mobile connectivity. Mobile learning applications should be audited to determine if they should be trusted or not, while multimedia contents like automatic speech recognition (ASR can improve their accessibility. This article will start with a brief introduction on m-learning applications, then it will present the audit process for m-learning applications, it will iterate their specific security threats, it will define the ASR process, and it will elaborate how ASR can enhance accessibility of these types of applications.

  8. Towards urban mobility designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    Functionalist traffic design aims at a rational organisation of movement from A to B in a segregated and uniform physical environment. Such urban areas have been criticized for being exclusively functional and lacking sensuous and social qualities. Recent research on mobilities challenges the more...... are concerned with. - Third, we introduce an embodied mobile perspective through insights from the mobilities turn. - Fourth, through our own journey experience en route we present a mapping of the transit site. - We conclude by outlining a few propositions on the design challenge and design potentials......, in relation to re-conceptualisation of the transit site, to mapping, and to design intervention. These propositions form part of our on-going work with urban mobility designs....

  9. Territory, Rights and Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen

    2014-01-01

    The overarching objective of this dissertation is to conceptualise the spatiality of citizenship through an exposure to its various others – especially to mobile subjectivity. In particular, it examines the changing patterns of territorialising space, distributing rights and regulating mobility...... the governing structure and the acts of the governed that rupture, resist or appropriate it. In this framework, the thesis first of all looks at the spatial configurations of national citizenship by analysing the trajectories in which the interrelated concepts of territory, rights and mobility participate...... Tunnel project as one that involves competing patterns of territoriality and manifests the dynamics between facilitated and obstructed mobilities at a moving border. However, the permeability of this border is partly enabled by the uneven and ambiguous configurations of Schengenland itself, and draws...

  10. Sensing interrail mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    Tourism encapsulates human experiences driven by desires, affective urges and sensuous dispositions. This dissertation is a hymn to the embodied and affective experiences of one particular mode of tourism mobility, interrail. I suggest that mobility means much more than functional movement between...... A and B. Rather, mobility is explored as a socio-material, embodied and non-representational experience set in the mundanity of ordinary train travel. While such everyday experience may appear banal as we come across them they are in no ways trivial. By adopting and developing innovative and multimodal...... of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Campus Copenhagen. ’Sensing interrail mobility: Towards multimodal methodologies’ is his Ph.d. dissertation....

  11. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  12. Intergenerational earnings mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Azhar; Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This article gives various estimates of intergenerational earnings mobility by applying different earning periods, age brackets, and earning components. The methodology enables us to investigate how sensitive results are to different delimitations and, thereby, to make more accurate international...

  13. Persuasive Mobile Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Wylie, Carlos; Coulton, Paul

    With many industrialized societies bearing the cost of an increasingly sedentary lifestyle on the health of their populations there is a need to find new ways of encouraging physical activity to promote better health and well being. With the increasing power of mobile phones and the recent emergence of personal heart rate monitors, aimed at dedicated amateur runners, there is now a possibility to develop “Persuasive Mobile Health Applications” to promote well being through the use of real-time physiological data and persuade users to adopt a healthier lifestyle. In this paper we present a novel general health monitoring software for mobile phones called Heart Angel. This software is aimed at helping users monitor, record, as well as improve their fitness level through built-in cardio-respiratory tests, a location tracking application for analyzing heart rate exertion over time and location, and a fun mobile-exergame called Health Defender.

  14. Pervasive and mobile computing

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The Pervasive and Mobile Computing Journal (PMC) is a professional, peer-reviewed journal that publishes high-quality scientific articles (both theory and practice) covering all aspects of pervasive computing and communications.

  15. PUBLIC SAFETY MOBILE BROADBAND

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrús Ferré, Ramón Antonio; Pisz, Rafal; Sallent Roig, José Oriol; Baldini, Gianmarco

    2013-01-01

    Wireless communications are critical to supporting the operational capabilities of public protection and disaster relief (PPDR) organizations. The private/professional mobile radio (PMR) technologies currently used for PPDR communications offer a rich set of voice-centric services [e.g., push-to-talk (PTT) group calls] but have very limited data transmission capabilities and are unable to cope with increasing demands in the PPDR community for mobile data-centric applications. Introducing PPDR...

  16. Finnish Mobile Gaming Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Masira, Elijah; Chowdhury, Nafis Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Finnish mobile gaming cluster is one of the most promising industries that have been growing significantly in the past few years to become a substantial cultural export product / service of Finland. The main objective of this research was to gain a persuasive understanding about the emergence of the mobile gaming cluster in Finland and explore the factors behind its success. The literature review centers on M. E Porter’s publications on competitiveness and other publication...

  17. Capital mobility. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The article analyses the problem of international capital mobility which the Asian crisis has highlighted. It points out that the problem of capital mobility ("hot money" panics) has a long history, but globalization, the opening up of national economies and technological advance have increased the risks. The article discusses four policy debated which are being pursued in the large Asian crisis literature: (i) the pros and cons of capital controls; (ii) the choice of exchange rate regime; (i...

  18. The Consequences of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -to-face interaction • Language contact in society and in the world, and social hierarchies between languages: consequences of (mobility driven) language spread, and the ensuing processes of redefining linguistic differences and identities: language competition, language promotion and language discrimination...... • The complex relationship between language and culture: how can we envisage mobility and language spread across cultural areas without conceptualizing language as culturally neutral? (cp. the frequent conceptualization of English as culturally neutral) • Language contact in the individual: multiple language...

  19. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra R. Raol; Ajith Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS) is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i) perception and reasoning, (ii) mobility and navigation,(iii) haptics and teleoperation, (iv) image fusion/computervision, (v) modelling of manipulators, (vi) hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii) ve...

  20. Job mobility in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Bergin, Ms. Adel

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that determine job-to-job mobility in Ireland over the period 1995 to 2001. It finds that labour market experience, working in the public sector, whether a person is overskilled, the sector they work in and their occupation are important determinants of voluntary job change. The paper finds the rate of voluntary job mobility in Ireland trebled over the period 1995 to 2000. The sample is divided into two time periods and a decomposition technique is applied ...

  1. Towards mobile collaborative exergaming

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgu, Levent; O'Hare, G. M. P. (Greg M. P.); O'Grady, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Today’s high calorie diets and low physical activity levels contributes towards childhood obesity. Exergaming, a combination of ”exercise” and ”gaming” was conceived as a means of addressing this problem. In this paper a mobile collaborative exergame, which is designed to be enjoyable and physically challenging, is presented. The long term objective is to harness conventional mobile computing technologies to deliver a platform for games that are adaptive to the exercise requirements ...

  2. Mobile media and children

    OpenAIRE

    Haddon, L.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores a range of research issues relating to children and mobile media, including the potential growth of children’s screen time, the regulation of children’s use of these media, the challenge of managing increasing media options, effects on children’s perception of time, problems posed for parental surveillance and the domestication of mobile media within peer groups. All of these are viewed in the context of broader societal change, evolving norms of childhood and parenthood...

  3. Mobile Phone on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成

    2005-01-01

    Communication revolution has brought a great convenience to modem society and people. Especially, the occurrence of mobile phone, in away, has changed the world where we live. Maybe the mobile phone was a luxury for only a decade ago. Now, it is no exaggeration4 to say that the difference between the parts and the present is as vast as that between earth and heaven. With no exception6, campus students also fall into the category called “cell-phone school”.

  4. Mobile-Phone Microscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰

    2008-01-01

    Simple accessories could turn mobile phones into useful medical devices Robi Marrmari stares intently at the screen of his mobile phone.The student is not squinting to tap out yet another daft text message,but looking carefully for the faint blue dots that are the tell-tale diagnostic signature of malaria.Mr.Maamari is a member of a research team led by Dan Fletcher,a professor of bioengineering

  5. Brave New Mobile World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid

    2011-01-01

    An oral history of the mobile app boom in East Africa APPS are taking East Africa by storm.As mobile phone penetration rates increase,technologists and software developers in the region are scrambling to provide bigger and better services for an evergrowing consumer base. At the center of this flurry of activity is Nairobi,Kenya. But Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania and Uganda’s

  6. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  7. Mobility and QoS Support in Mobile IP Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Lian; WU Wei-ling

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art of the Quality of Service (QoS) and mobility support mechanisms for mobile IP networks, which includes the issues and challenges in QoS support, an overview of the Mobile IP protocol, a general description of the QoS and Mobility framework, and the End-To-End QoS architecture in the next-generation all-IP mobile network.

  8. Compatibility Heuristics for Modern Mobile Games : Mobile games, Game testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Gitau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate ways to perform a compatibility test for a modern mobile game. These tests were performed by running a tastephone midlet to the mobile handset to determine its characteristics and the equivalent implementation. Compatibility check test was also aimed to help a specified mobile game application to run successfully into a mobile phone. Compatibility heuristics for modern mobile games was also designed to study the factors that shoul...

  9. Telemedicine Based on Mobile Devices and Mobile Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Lidong Wang; Cheryl Ann Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets support kinds of mobile computing and services. They can access to the cloud or offload the computation-intensive part to the cloud computing resources. Mobile cloud computing (MCC) integrates the cloud computing into the mobile environment, which extends mobile devices’ battery lifetime, improves their data storage capacity and processing power, and improves their reliability and information security. In this paper, the applications of smartphon...

  10. The environmental radiation monitoring system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Salas Collantes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of environmental radiation monitoring established in Spain is composed of several networks with different objectives, a monitoring network in the vicinity of the facilities and several national networks financed and managed by public agencies. The operators of the facilities are responsible for the conduct of its Environmental Radiological Surveillance Program as directed by the CSN. Moreover, the Directorate General of Civil Defense and Emergencies has a Radioactivity Warning Network (RAR consisting of over 900 automatic stations measuring dose rate distributed nationwide. The Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Network (Revira, managed by the CSN, is a nationwide network, consists of a Network of Sampling Stations (REM and a Network of Automatic Stations for continuous monitoring (REA. The autonomous communities of Valencia, Catalonia, Extremadura and the Basque Country have their own automated networks similar to that of the CSN. Revira provides information on the radioactivity in the air, soil, water (drinking, inland and sea and of food. The sampling and analysis programs are tailored to radiological recommendations laid down in the European Union Commission. The REM has the collaboration of laboratories in universities and the Centre for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT for execution. The monitoring of inland and coastal waters is undertaken by the Centre for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, Ministry of Public Works (CEDEX.

  11. Linguistic analysis of suicide notes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández-Cabana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Text analysis software like "Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count" (LIWC has been used for the analysis of suicide notes and suicidal texts in English. This is the first analysis of suicide notes using this method in Spanish and, as far as we know, its first application to suicide notes in Europe. To compare the sociodemographic and forensic characteristics of a consecutive sample of suicide victims studying the differences between those who left suicidal note and those who did not. To study a sample of suicidal notes from Spain using LIWC, comparing it's linguistic features by gender, age and environment. Methods: 144 consecutive suicide cases were analyzed. 23 suicide notes obtained from this sample were processed using LIWC, the results were compared by gender, age and environment of the author. Results: People who left suicide notes were younger than non- writers; more frequently single, divorced or widowed and emotional troubles were reported as frequent triggers. Suicide notes written by women were significantly longer, had more emotional content, tentative expressions, denials, pronouns in first person plural and verbs in past and future tenses. Urban cases showed higher emotional expression and word complexity whereas rural cases showed a higher use of social words. Conclusions: Our study shows some differences between people who left suicide note and those who didn't and confirms the LIWC ability to detect differences in suicidal speech by gender and by the rural/ urban background of its authors.

  12. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  13. Mobility. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents information on student mobility for 2011. It offers data on the following: (1) Mobility Rates by Student Enrollment Status; (2) Mobile Student Enrollment at 2-/4-Year Institutions; and (3) Mobile Student Enrollment at Public/Private Institutions.

  14. Mobility decline in old age

    OpenAIRE

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways to promote mobility in old age.

  15. Mastering jQuery mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Chip

    2015-01-01

    You've started down the path of jQuery Mobile, now begin mastering some of jQuery Mobile's higher level topics. Go beyond jQuery Mobile's documentation and master one of the hottest mobile technologies out there. Previous JavaScript and PHP experience can help you get the most out of this book.

  16. Interactive TV meets Mobile Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Rauschenbach, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    The talk presents some recent developments in interactive digital television and discusses the trends and challenges of bringing TV services to mobile devices. Two areas will be addressed: portable use of mobile devices to complement the TV set in the home and mobile TV services while on the move using mobile broadcasting technology.

  17. Mobile library services best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Harmon, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Mobile Library Services provides 11 proven ways to reach out to mobile users and increase your library's relevance to their day-to-day lives. Librarians detail how they created mobile apps to how they went mobile on a shoestring budget. Written by public, academic, and special librarians, these 11 best practices offer models for libraries of every type and size.

  18. Mobile medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  19. Sustainable energy communities: a study contrasting Spain and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, several governments and organisations in the developed world have encouraged the creation of sustainable energy communities (SECs) as a strategy for achieving their energy and environmental targets. However, whereas in some of these countries (e.g., Germany), numerous SECs have been founded, there are other countries, such as Spain, where the creation and growth of SECs has been much slower. The purpose of this article is to analyse the case of Spain, to determine the causes of the lack of SECs in this country, and to propose actions adapted to the Spanish context aimed at accelerating the creation of SECs. To facilitate these tasks, we have taken the German case as a reference. The key finding is that, in contrast to Germany, in Spain, SECs have scarcely contributed to the development of RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures, despite having similar incentives for renewable electricity (until recently). Moreover, in Spain, these incentives have been drastically cut recently. Therefore, it has become even more difficult to finance a renewable electricity generation plant. That is why strategies in sectors other than renewable electricity have been suggested for the encouragement of SECs in Spain. -- Highlights: •Collective-ownership models for RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures are very widespread in Germany. •Approximately 22% of the installed renewable electricity capacity in Germany is owned by SECs. •In contrast, collective ownership of RE infrastructures is rare in Spain. •In Spain, incentives for renewable electricity have been drastically cut recently. •To encourage SECs, energy activities other than renewable electricity production are proposed

  20. Mobility Network and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Galderisi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobility network is crucial for ensuring territorial safety with respect to natural and technological hazards. They represent a basic support to community’s everyday life although being exposed elements often characterized by high vulnerability to different hazards and, in the meanwhile, strategic equipments for emergency management. Physical damages or the lack in functioning of those networks may greatly increase the loss of human lives caused by hazardous events as well as produce relevant economic damages at medium and long term. Although the relevance of the mobility networks in assuring territorial safety is at present largely recognized, risk analyses have been long focused on buildings’ vulnerability or, even where they have paid attention to mobility network, they have been mainly focused on the physical damages that a given hazard could may induce on individual elements of such network. It is recent the awareness that mobility network represents a system, characterized by relevant interdependences both among its elements and among network infrastructures and urban systems. Based on these assumptions, this paper points out the heterogeneous aspects of the mobility network vulnerability and their relevance in increasing the overall territorial or urban vulnerability to hazardous events. Therefore, an in-depth investigation of the concept of mobility network vulnerability is provided, in order to highlight the aspects mostly investigated and more recent research perspectives. Finally, a case study in the Campania Region is presented in order to point out how traditional risk analyses, generally referred to individual hazards, can sometimes led to invest in the mobility network improvement or development which, targeted to increase the security of a territory result, on the opposite, in an increase of the territorial vulnerability.

  1. Barcode Payment System in Trusted Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Vibha Kaw Raina

    2012-01-01

    Mobile payment is an application of mobile commerce which facilitates mobile commerce transactions by providing the mobile customer with a convenient means to pay. Many mobile payment methods have been proposed and implemented like user friendly, customer centric, merchant centric where security concerns are highly addressed. This paper proposes a mobile payment model with barcodes for mobile users to improve mobile user experience in mobile payment. Unlike other existing mobile payment syste...

  2. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  3. Efficient Mobility Management Signalling in Network Mobility Supported PMIPV6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelraj, Ananthi Jebaseeli; Jayapal, Sundararajan

    2015-01-01

    Proxy Mobile IPV6 (PMIPV6) is a network based mobility management protocol which supports node's mobility without the contribution from the respective mobile node. PMIPV6 is initially designed to support individual node mobility and it should be enhanced to support mobile network movement. NEMO-BSP is an existing protocol to support network mobility (NEMO) in PMIPV6 network. Due to the underlying differences in basic protocols, NEMO-BSP cannot be directly applied to PMIPV6 network. Mobility management signaling and data structures used for individual node's mobility should be modified to support group nodes' mobility management efficiently. Though a lot of research work is in progress to implement mobile network movement in PMIPV6, it is not yet standardized and each suffers with different shortcomings. This research work proposes modifications in NEMO-BSP and PMIPV6 to achieve NEMO support in PMIPV6. It mainly concentrates on optimizing the number and size of mobility signaling exchanged while mobile network or mobile network node changes its access point.

  4. Mobile Communication Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuboye Bamidele Moses

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there is a wide establishment of mobile computing across the globe and the number of subscribers worldwide including Nigeria is on the increase every day. It started with mobile voice communication and has gradually been extended to the capability of sending and receiving data across the cellular networks. Also, the coming of this technology has changed the face of business all over the world and will soon dominate all strata of the society. Therefore, this paper is looking at the past, present and the future of this technology, the areas of applications and vectors of mobility that are likely to shape the future of the technology. The reviews of the mobile computing technology from the First generation (1G to fourth (4G are presented. The relationships of the generations were presented. The issues relating to the emergence of new technology are also reviewed. The interworking of the technologies and how they helped in promoting the mobile technologies were also reviewed. The deployments issues from First generation (1G to 3G and later to 4G are presented. The paper has reviewed how each of the technology came to being and thus served as an eye opener to those people that are not acquainted with these technologies.

  5. Mobile systems capability plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered

  6. Comparison and validation of gridded precipitation datasets for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two gridded precipitation datasets are compared and validated in Spain: the recently developed SAFRAN dataset and the Spain02 dataset. These are validated using rain gauges and they are also compared to the low resolution ERA-Interim reanalysis. The SAFRAN precipitation dataset has been recently produced, using the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, which is extensively used in France (Durand et al. 1993, 1999; Quintana-Seguí et al. 2008; Vidal et al., 2010) and which has recently been applied to Spain (Quintana-Seguí et al., 2015). SAFRAN uses an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm and uses all available rain gauges from the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET). The product has a spatial resolution of 5 km and it spans from September 1979 to August 2014. This dataset has been produced mainly to be used in large scale hydrological applications. Spain02 (Herrera et al. 2012, 2015) is another high quality precipitation dataset for Spain based on a dense network of quality-controlled stations and it has different versions at different resolutions. In this study we used the version with a resolution of 0.11°. The product spans from 1971 to 2010. Spain02 is well tested and widely used, mainly, but not exclusively, for RCM model validation and statistical downscliang. ERA-Interim is a well known global reanalysis with a spatial resolution of ˜79 km. It has been included in the comparison because it is a widely used product for continental and global scale studies and also in smaller scale studies in data poor countries. Thus, its comparison with higher resolution products of a data rich country, such as Spain, allows us to quantify the errors made when using such datasets for national scale studies, in line with some of the objectives of the EU-FP7 eartH2Observe project. The comparison shows that SAFRAN and Spain02 perform similarly, even though their underlying principles are different. Both products are largely

  7. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  8. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals. PMID:15171842

  9. 10 MW wind farm in Tarifa, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.; Prats, J.; Casanova, M. (ECOTECNIA, S.C.C.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-09-01

    The use of wind energy in Spain has taken an important step forward in 1992. The installation of the Tarifa 10 MW wind farm was begun in March this year and will finish in November: 50 ECOTECNIA 20/150 wind turbines and 16 MADE AE-20 will be installed. The most notable aspects of the project are the following: double Spanish technology; highly complex orography; very deficient level of existing civil and electrical infrastructure; substantial corrective measures on the environmental impact, due to the special location of the project in the zone of influence of the Strait of Gibraltar; the participation of two electrical companies; the financing strucure; and the guarantees offered by the manufacturers. Of all these aspects, the one which merits special attention is the set of characeristics of the site. The wind farm is situated on a very abrupt ridge with an average height of 500 m above sea level, at a distance of approximately 2500 m from the sea. The temperature difference between summer and winter is substantial, and produces significant effects on the wind characteristics at the top of the ridge. The site is at a considerable distance from the existing electrical grid, and the access track was totally unusable: this added a substantial cost to the project which, together with the difficulty of predicting the wind-energy potential, demanded a great effort from the manufacturers in terms of both the price of the plant and the operating guarantees. The estimated electrical production is 25,000 MWh/year, with a coefficient of 1,206 kWh/m2. (au).

  10. The Radioactive Waste Management Programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Ministry of Industry and Energy. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Industry and Energy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)

  11. VOC methods and levels in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomboi, M.T. [Area de Contaminacion Atmosferica, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Ozone precursors began to be studied in the eighties in Spain, in order to know their levels and composition in areas, which had high concentrations of other atmospheric polluting agents. At the end of the eighties, VOC were incorporated into the air quality networks in urban areas in order to anticipate at the derived amendments of the entrance into force on the Directive 92/72/CEE of 1992 on air pollution by ozone. At the same time, field campaigns for VOC toxics were started in specific industrial areas and the zones with high traffic. More recently, the air quality networks have been orientated to non-urban areas, to cover the knowledge of VOC in semi-urban and rural areas. On the other hand, the role of the biogenic emissions and the role that their chemical and photochemical products play in atmospheric chemistry was becoming important in the nineties. Therefore some research projects, e.g. 'Biogenic Emissions in the Mediterranean Area (BEMA)', were developed in order to understand the vegetation emissions in the Mediterranean area in relation to anthropogenic compounds and to get information on their participation in tropospheric ozone formation. VOC have been sampled at European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) sites since 1999, based on recommendations from the EMEP Workshop on Measurements of Hydrocarbons/VOC in Lindau 1989. Collection of light hydrocarbons started in 1999, whereas measurements of carbonyls have just started in 2003. In this work, the most important sampling and analysis techniques to determine ozone precursors and to control VOC are shown, as well as the main results obtained in projects, networks and measurement campaigns performed with these methods.

  12. Coal restructuring in Spain: Continuity and uncertainty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policies of coal energy are currently undergoing a significant change. At the European Community level, energy concerns are dominated by environmental commitments that seem to demand coal's disappearance. The countries that for years have supplied the European energy market with this resource have confronted their future challenges in differing ways. The history of the energy sector in Spain has been marked by important changes, and coal has been a key factor in this process. Membership in the European Union has constituted a clear transition for a historically subsidized and protected sector that now faces an uncertain role in the national energy market. The aim of this paper is to offer an overview and analysis of the mechanisms that have been implemented in the energy sector. The first part analyzes the rationalization policies that preceded Spanish entry into the EU, giving a detailed description of the complex programs designed by the government to help mining companies. The second part analyzes later systems aimed at helping the coal industry that were implemented after the EU imposed new criteria and objectives. These systems led to the so-called 'mixed model' of rationalization. This model, which is completely different from that implemented in other member states, is based on maintaining a system of subsidies that discriminate between public and private companies. The third part examines the objectives of the current system and the plans projected for the future in the context of the EU's adoption of an energy strategy that seeks to reconcile a self-sufficient energy supply with adherence to environmental commitments.

  13. Compatibility Heuristics for Modern Mobile games. : Mobile games.Mobile Game testing

    OpenAIRE

    Gitau, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate ways to perform a compatibility test for a modern mobile game. These tests were performed by running a tastephone midlet to the mobile handset to determine its characteristics and the equivalent implementation.Compatibility check test was also aimed to help a specified mobile game application to run successfully into a mobile phone. Compatibility heuristics for modern mobile games was also designed to study the factors that should be considered...

  14. Graphene mobility mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jepsen, Peter Uhd;

    2015-01-01

    Carrier mobility and chemical doping level are essential figures of merit for graphene, and large-scale characterization of these properties and their uniformity is a prerequisite for commercialization of graphene for electronics and electrodes. However, existing mapping techniques cannot directly...... assess these vital parameters in a non-destructive way. By deconvoluting carrier mobility and density from non-contact terahertz spectroscopic measurements of conductance in graphene samples with terahertz-transparent backgates, we are able to present maps of the spatial variation of both quantities over...... graphene indicates dominance by charged scatterers. Unexpectedly, significant variations in mobility rather than doping are the cause of large conductance inhomogeneities, highlighting the importance of statistical approaches when assessing large-area graphene transport properties....

  15. Mobile Phone Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  16. Are mobile phones harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body......There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal...... in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data...

  17. Mobility decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.J.; Siersma, V.; Mänty, Minna Regina;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobility-related fatigue and low socioeconomic position predicts mobility limitations and disability in old age, but the interplay between these two factors is unknown. To evaluate whether mobility-related fatigue is a stronger risk factor for mobility limitations in certain...... socioeconomic groups, the aim of this study was to examine the combined effect of mobility-related fatigue and socioeconomic position on mobility limitations in a prospective study among older Danish men and women. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression models with combined exposure variables using generalised...... estimating equations were performed using four waves of data on 2874 individuals without mobility limitations at baseline from The Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. RESULTS: Low socioeconomic position and mobility-related fatigue are risk factors for mobility limitations in old age...

  18. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  19. Professional mobile application development

    CERN Document Server

    McWherter, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Create applications for all major smartphone platforms Creating applications for the myriad versions and varieties of mobile phone platforms on the market can be daunting to even the most seasoned developer. This authoritative guide is written in such as way that it takes your existing skills and experience and uses that background as a solid foundation for developing applications that cross over between platforms, thereby freeing you from having to learn a new platform from scratch each time. Concise explanations walk you through the tools and patterns for developing for all the mobile platfo

  20. Nokia and mobile gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the game market segments, size, and growth. Nokia’s participation in this market with its N-Gage product and N-Gage platform is examined in detail. Following is an industry analysis that produces a summary of the types of forces that affect Nokia’s ability to operate in this market. The value chain investigation looks at the inputs that make up the mobile game market and how Nokia uses these inputs to bring mobile gaming to the target market. The first recommendation f...

  1. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rohde, Steven B.

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  2. Mobile Collaborative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bye, Gunhild Griff

    2008-01-01

    Mobile technology is a well-known part of life for the most children and adults in Norway today. Over the last several years, a lot of research has been done to improve this technology and it seems like a mobile collaborative learning system can be an important tool for learning in the future. By using ubiquitous computing and context-aware computing, the technologies are integrated into the environment and enable the user to move around and learn in a natural environment. This leads to many ...

  3. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.;

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...

  4. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  5. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte;

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  6. Spain to Launch China Program,Aiming at Developing Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Duoduo

    2005-01-01

    @@ China has become the fifth supplier of Spain and has achieved great development in the Spanish market. But China's investment in Spain is not in a high level, which does not assort with her status of world's great economic country.

  7. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain. PMID:22332464

  8. Dimensions of Financial Audit in Romania and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona LAPTEŞ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to realize a comparative study regarding the theory and practice of financial audit in Ro mania and Spain. To achieve this goal, we performed a documentary research of the main papers in this area and of the applicable regulations research that allowed us to identify convergences and differences as concerns the financial audit in Romania and Spain. There are many divergences, on different levels: the perimeter of regulations, the conditions for becoming a financial auditor, but also regarding the evolution of the financial audit markets, the mandatory limits for auditing the financial statements, etc. Although Spain has a longer tradition in the area of financial audit, in Romania, there were also conducted financial audit missions in accordance with the international audit standards since the recognition of this activity, in 1999.

  9. The current situation of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, German Martinez; Prados Martin, Enrique; Ordonez Garcia, Javier [Ingeniero de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, ETS de Ingenieros de Caminos, Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    Successive international commitments relating to energy and climatic change (embodied in the Kyoto Protocol) and the need to rationalise the sources of generated energy, have meant that renewable energies have started to gain a great deal of importance within the worldwide energy network. In the case of Wind Energy, and in terms of production, Spain is the second most important country at European level and the third most important country at global level. Spain holds these positions as a result of the establishment of a stable regulatory framework, better understanding of the resource and improved technology that have afforded considerable cost reduction in terms of initial investment, maintenance and exploitation. This article focuses on these circumstances in view of their relevance at international level, which is due to the highly feasible possibility of exporting Spain's experiences to other countries with guarantees of success. (author)

  10. 3D modelling of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Merodo, Jose Antonio; Bru, Guadalupe; García-Davalillo, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Gerardo; Fernandez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Slow landslide deformation evolution is generally cast using 1D or 2D numerical models. This paper aims to explore 3D effects on the kinematic behavior of a real landslide, the Portalet landslide (Central Spanish Pyrenees). This is a very well characterized and documented active paleo-landslide that has been reactivated by the construction of a parking area at the toe of the slope. The proposed 3D model is based on a time dependent hydro-mechanical finite element formulation that takes into account i) groundwater changes due to daily rainfall records and ii) viscous behavior and delayed creep deformation through a viscoplastic constitutive model based on Perzyna's theory. The model reproduces the nearly constant strain rate (secondary creep) and the acceleration/deceleration of the moving mass due to hydrological changes. Furthermore, the model is a able to catch the superficial 3D kinematics revealed by advanced in-situ monitoring like ground based SAR or DInSAR processing of satellite SAR images. References [1] Herrera G, Fernández-Merodo JA, Mulas J, Pastor M, Luzi G, Monserrat O (2009) A landslide forecasting model using ground based SAR data: The Portalet case study. Engineering Geology 105: 220-230 [2] Fernández-Merodo JA, Herrera G, Mira P, Mulas J, Pastor M, Noferini L, Me-catti D and Luzi G (2008). Modelling the Portalet landslide mobility (Formigal, Spain). iEMSs 2008: International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software. Sànchez-Marrè M, Béjar J, Comas J, Rizzoli A and Guariso G (Eds.) International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs) [3] Fernández-Merodo JA, García-Davalillo JC, Herrera G, Mira P, Pastor M (2012). 2D visco-plastic finite element modelling of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Spain). Landslides, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-012-0370-4

  11. Instant XenMobile MDM

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhani, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written in a user friendly style, this guide will get readers up and running with XenMobile MDM.If you want to run your mobile enterprises on XenMobile, or work on a BYOD strategy within your organization, then this is the ideal book for you. XenMobile MDM comprehensively explores how to set up and use XenMobile to provision, secure, and manage mobile devices.

  12. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. Recent energy efficient techniques used to reduce the power consumption of mobile devices will also be summarized and discussed.

  13. Mobile Service Platform: A Middleware for Nomadic Mobile Service Provisioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halteren, van A.T.; Pawar, P.

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays mobile devices are characterized by higher processing power, lower costs, multiple network interfaces, ability to support multiple auxiliary devices and connect to the Internet using a wireless network. The applications collecting statistics concerning the mobile user, computational and com

  14. Mobile agents basic concepts, mobility models, and the tracy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mobile agents are software nomads that act as your personal representative, working autonomously through networks. They are able to visit network nodes directly using available computing power and are not limited by platform. This emerging field is now poised to become a cornerstone for new Web-based ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile Agents provides a practical introduction to mobile agent technology and surveys the state of the art in mobile agent research. Students and researchers can use the book as an introduction to the concepts and possibilities of this field and as an overview of ongoing research. Developers can use it to identify the capabilities of the technology to decide if mobile agents are the right solution for them. Practioners can also gain hands-on experience in programming mobile agents through exploration of the source code for a complete mobile agent environment available through the companion website.*Summarizes the state of the art in mobile agent research*Identifies the benefits...

  15. SPAIN IS DIFFERENT. AN OVERVIEW ON SPANISH TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Burzaco, P.

    2004-01-01

    Spain is not only Flamenco. With an heritage that gives theme to many books and interpretations, in this article, Pedro Burzaco, musician and investigatior of both musicology and ethnomusicology, just wants to give a light ride over the richness and variety of spanish folklore. Many regions and varieties are condensed to give a first look and give a notice of all the possibilities englobed in this multifaced country. As we think on Spain and it's music, flamenco rises as the one and only span...

  16. Mistakes in the fiscal policy in Spain before the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the mistakes made in the management of the fiscal policy in Spain before the crisis. The authors argue that the low size of the public expenditures, the adoption of a procyclical expansionary fiscal policy the years before the crisis, and the lack of a correct coordination between the Spanish fiscal policy and the ECB’s monetary policy, are key elements to understand the depth and length of the economic crisis and the current high fiscal imbalances in Spain.

  17. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2010-01-01

    Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/aliveness by periodic `hello' messages. Central to any hello protocol is the determination of `hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction based hello protocol, named ...

  18. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2011-01-01

    International audience Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/ aliveness by periodic 'hello' messages. Central to a hello protocol is the determination of 'hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction bas...

  19. Mobile Backhaul Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mo; Fei Yuan; Jian Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of mobile backhaul solutions and propose an MPLS-centered solution that takes intoaccount timing synchronization, OAM, and protection: We also propose an evolved protection bandwidth allocation mechanism that makes the transport network as efficient as possible.

  20. Mobility report 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Mobility in the Netherlands continues to increase, although less sharply than in the 1980s and 1990s. From 2000 to 2008, the number of kilometres travelled by car rose by 10 percent, while during the same time period, air travel grew much more rapidly at a rate of 21 percent. Similarly, freight tran

  1. When Mobility Disrupts Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jean Louise M.; Fien, Hank; Paine, Stan C.

    2008-01-01

    Student mobility is a common phenomenon that disproportionately affects students in high-poverty schools. Research shows that students who move repeatedly are likely to fall behind in reading and other academic areas. This article reviews proactive strategies that high-poverty districts and schools are using to reduce the harmful effects of…

  2. Mobility and emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global mobility has directed attention to the self-initiated relocation of workers from one country to another. However, not all individuals are equally suited to start up a new life in another country, and self-initiated expatriates (SIEs) could be particularly vulnerable due to having...

  3. Visions of Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    It is almost a foregone conclusion that the mobile device will become an indispensable tool for learning in the future. That's why "T.H.E. Journal" asked a number of educators to let their imaginations go wild and conjure up visions of the future of the device in the classroom. This paper presents the views of educators who conjure up the mobile…

  4. Lazy Mobile Intruders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    We present a new technique for analyzing platforms that execute potentially malicious code, such as web-browsers, mobile phones, or virtualized infrastructures. Rather than analyzing given code, we ask what code an intruder could create to break a security goal of the platform. To avoid searching...

  5. Lazy Mobile Intruders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2013-01-01

    We present a new technique for analyzing platforms that execute potentially malicious code, such as web-browsers, mobile phones, or virtualized infrastructures. Rather than analyzing given code, we ask what code an intruder could create to break a security goal of the platform. To avoid searching...

  6. Contextualizing mobile IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Brandt, Eva; Halse, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are moving into the era of ubiquitous computing, with increased density of technology and increased mobility and continuity in use. From a design perspective, addressing the accommodation and coordination of multiple devices and services in situated use ...

  7. Engaging with mobile methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    , the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...

  8. Children's velo-mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    2014-01-01

    embodying of know-how of traffic power relations and mobility technology. The paper examines how parents’ perception of risks are transgressed by cycle training and how cycling is fitted into complex household routines. By shedding light on the sensitive mechanisms that ‘make’ and sustain cycling children...

  9. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book demonstrates that mobillity reseacch is a key issue within social enquiry and brings together the latest interdisciplinary theoretivcally approaches with empirical case studies. The book is a result of research from FLUX - Centre of Transport Research at Roskilde University....

  10. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    Globalisation is heavily dependent on physical transport, as people and goods travel over longer distances and with higher frequency. Movement and mobility have become integrated parts of late modern identity and practice, and a state of flux can be sensed everywhere. Bringing together the latest...

  11. To practice mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2015-01-01

    aim is to explore mobility as an embodied and emotional practice in which children employ different strategies. I focus on bodily micro practices, routines and coping strategies, the intermediate space that occurs on their continual journeys, and the feeling of being dispensable. It is an ethnographic...

  12. Brave New Mobile World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2011-01-01

    APPS are taking East Africa by storm.As mobile phone penetration rates increase,technologisis and software developers in the provide bigger and better services for an evergrowing consumer base.At the center of this flurry of activity is Nairobi,Kenya.But Dar Es Salaam in Tanzania and Uganda's Kampala may not be far behind.

  13. Waves and mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports the methodology used to assess the exposure to radio-frequency of the population. The main radio-frequency emitters are transmitting antennas, mobile phones, Wi-Fi systems, cord-less home phones, and micro-wave ovens. We have to know that the level of exposure is very different depending on the device, for instance a 10 minutes long use of a mobile phone with a DAS (specific absorption dose rate) of 0.04 W/kg is equivalent to a 15 day long exposure to a transmitting antenna at a spot where the field is 0.6 V/m. It appears that for transmitting antennas the exposure levels of the population are always very low and far below the protection standards. As for mobile phones, today's results can not exclude a risk for people having used a phone for more than 10 years. Experts recommend for children a restraint use of mobile phones and for adults to keep a safety distance of a few tens of centimeters between the speaker and his phone. The passage to the new UMTS-3G standard will be favourable. (A.C.)

  14. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  15. Mobile Learning for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestwick, Angel; Campbell, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Parents and educational professionals are asking the question, "Are schools preparing students for their future lives?" Mobile technologies such as smart phones, iPods, GPS systems, iPads, and a constant stream of information drive much of people's world and work. The use of such technologies increases with each passing day. But how often do…

  16. Freedom of Expression and 'Right to Be Forgotten' Cases in the Netherlands after Google Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kulk; F. Zuiderveen Borgesius

    2015-01-01

    Since the Google Spain judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union, Europeans have, under certain conditions, the right to have search results for their name delisted. This paper examines how the Google Spain judgment has been applied in the Netherlands. Since the Google Spain judgment, D

  17. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  18. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  19. Mobility, Fertility, and Residential Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Earl W.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses predicting fertility and mobility in a sample of a metropolitan county in New York State indicate that residential mobility serves to release the negative pressure that residential crowding might exert on fertility behavior. (Author)

  20. Mobiler Lernalltag - Erfahrungsbasiert und informell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Specht, M. (2013, 26 April). Mobiler Lernalltag - Erfahrungsbasiert und informell. Invited talk given at the Speedlab Mobile Learning organized by the Kooperative Berlin und Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, Hannover, Germany.

  1. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  2. Development of Mobile Radiological Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile radiological monitor is used to detect gamma rays and neutron for personal and vehicle. It can be installed on a microbus as a mobile monitoring system. One large plastic scintillation detector is

  3. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  4. Structuring mobile and contextual learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2011). Structuring mobile and contextual learning. In Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (pp. 188-195). October, 18-21, 2011, Beijing, China.

  5. Mobile Telecommunications and Digital Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Syraya

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the most recent international trends in the development of mobile communications. The first part deals with the key sectors of the mobile communications market: mobile network, handsets and smartphone operating systems. We focus on the current deployment of Long Term Evolution networks and present the main factors of their worldwide success and their advantages over previous mobile technologies. Furthermore, special attention is given to the historical develo...

  6. Labor Mobility and Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, Pierre; De Sousa, José

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the effects of labor mobility constraints on racial discrimination. Our equilibrium search model shows that these effects follow an inverted U-shaped relationship. In particular, when mobility constraints are low, we find that discrimination disappears. We test this prediction with an exogenous mobility shock on the European soccer labor market. The Bosman ruling by the European Court of Justice in 1995 lifted restrictions on soccer player mobility. Using a panel of all cl...

  7. Mobile telephony in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of recent policy towards mobile telephony in the U.K., including (i) the level of retail charges for calls from fixed to mobile networks, (ii) the level of call termination charges on mobile networks, and (iii) the level of connection subsidies offered by mobile networks. A formal model of the market is introduced, which offers a direct linkage between call termination rates and the level of connection subsidy. This provides a framework for discussing the ideal ...

  8. Labor Mobility and Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, Pierre; De Sousa, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of labor mobility on racial discrimination. We present an equilibrium search model that reveals an inverted U-shaped relationship between labor mobility and race-based wage differentials. We explore this relationship empirically with an exogenous mobility shock on the European soccer labor market. The Bosman ruling by the European Court of Justice in 1995 lifted restrictions on soccer player mobility. Using a panel of all clubs in the English first division from...

  9. Tools for income mobility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Kerm

    2002-01-01

    A set of Stata routines to help analysis of `income mobility' are presented and illustrated. Income mobility is taken here as the pattern of income change from one time period to another within an income distribution. Multiple approaches have been advocated to assess the magnitude of income mobility. The macros presented provide tools for estimating several measures of income mobility, e.g. the Shorrocks (JET 1978) or King (Econometrica 1983) indices or summary statistics for transition matri...

  10. Mobile awareness: Design for connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Gargiulo, Eleonora; Ghajargar, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    This article describes our ongoing research project about design for behavior change, which is facilitated by Ubiquitous Computing technologies. In particular in this paper we discuss the potentiality of mobile devices to facilitate the mobility behavior change among people who are currently living at Turin, Italy. To this aim we illustrate our conceptual design of a mobile game, which is designed to facilitate mobility behavior change

  11. Mobile technologies for every library

    CERN Document Server

    Gleason, Ann Whitney

    2015-01-01

    If you are wondering what mobile technology adoption means for your library or how to get started, Mobile Technologies for Every Library will answer your questions! This book will detail the opportunities and pitfalls in using mobile technology in libraries. It will also address platforms, options, security, and best practices for starting new mobile services programs or improving existing services. Gleason previews many useful apps for libraries. Web links and resources are also included.

  12. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebeh Mosavi Miangah; Amin Nezarat

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of mobile learning (m-learning) are recognized as the potential for learning process to be personalized, spontaneous, informal and ubiquitous. Although learning through mobile phones may take longer time compared to computers, the learners feel a greater sense of freedom of time and place, so that they can take the advantage of spare time to learn a second language when and wherethey are. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) deals with the use of mobile technolog...

  13. Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyer, Nina; Pousttchi, Key; Turowski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs, security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedure can be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, ...

  14. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  15. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  16. The mobile devices and its mobile learning usage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Jacob; Issac, B.

    2014-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices for mobile learning is becoming increasingly popular. There is a new brand of students in the universities now-a-days who are easily connected to technology and innovative mobile devices. We attempt to do an analysis on a survey done with university students on mobile device usage for mobile learning purposes. This is to find the learning trends within the student community so that some of these popular practices could be encouraged to enhance learning among the st...

  17. Telemedicine Based on Mobile Devices and Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidong Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets support kinds of mobile computing and services. They can access to the cloud or offload the computation-intensive part to the cloud computing resources. Mobile cloud computing (MCC integrates the cloud computing into the mobile environment, which extends mobile devices’ battery lifetime, improves their data storage capacity and processing power, and improves their reliability and information security. In this paper, the applications of smartphones in telemedicine and MCC-based telemedicine were presented. Issues on the information security of smartphones and tablets, challenges of smartphones in telemedicine and challenges of MCC-based telemedicine were also introduced.

  18. The Mobile Robot "Little Helper"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Madsen, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    Increased customer needs and intensified global competition require intelligent and flexible automation. The interaction technology mobile robotics addresses this, so it holds great potential within the industry. This paper presents the concepts, ideas and working principles of the mobile robot...... this show promising results regarding industrial integration, exploitation and maturation of mobile robotics....

  19. Fade-Free Mobile Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for mobile communication reduces multipath fading and interference between adjacent channels. Proposed communication system lends itself to almost completely digital implementation, eliminating costly and bulky crystal filters. Scheme suitable for satellite-aided or terrestrial mobile communication, including cellular mobile telephony, at frequencies in 150-to-900-MHz range.

  20. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    . This approach is illustrated in a case study of one urban transit system: the BTS Sky Train, Bangkok, Thailand. The analysis reveals the subtle hegemony of an elite mobility system that slowly becomes not only the ‘norm' but increasingly the desired mode of mobility, emphasising how mobile elites...

  1. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  2. Framework for Mobile Payments Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Fergal; Hedman, Jonas; Damsgaard, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    . This inertia has stalled the design of sustainable revenue models for a mobile payments ecosystem. Merchants and consumers in the meantime are being seduced by the convenience of on‑line and mobile payment solutions. Adopting the purchase and payment process as the unit of analysis, the current mobile payment...

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EU LAW ON THE INTERNAL MARKET IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Biriukov, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with questions of implementing of EU law in the fi eld of the internal market in Spain. The author outlines key documents regulating the implementation of EU law in Spain. Main attention is paid to the description of the existing concept of the relationship between the international law and the domestic law of Spain. The author describes the legal mechanism of the implementation in Spain of EU law. The article explores the role of public authorities of Spain in the implement...

  4. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  5. A panoramic view of fiber and integrated optics in spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Pereda, José Antonio; Gómez-Reino Carnota, Carlos

    1993-01-01

    A general view of the present status of optics and related fields in Spain is presented. The main emphasis is on the relation between optics and some emerging areas such as Optical Communications and Nonlinear Optics. Principal activities of the more important groups are summarized.

  6. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  7. Regionalism, Cultural Diversity and the State in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Andre

    2001-01-01

    Uses historical institutionalism to explain Spain's contemporary regional-cultural identities. Shows how these identities were molded by various historical forms of the Spanish state. Discusses four such forms in light of their impact on the country's identity landscape. (Author/VWL)

  8. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Enrique

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998, 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain, the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west. Eivissa (Balearic Islands and El Hierro (Canary Islands also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale.

  9. Reasons for Older Adult Participation in University Programs in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…

  10. Family Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Misuse in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…

  11. A nice textbook of silviculture published in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercurio R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive textbook of regional and functional silviculture, recently published in Spain by R. Serrada, G. Montero and J. A. Reque (eds., is presented here as a very useful reference text for all the people who is interested in the management of Mediterranean forests.

  12. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Federal Register (78 FR 6222-6227, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0002), a proposal \\1\\ to amend the fruits and... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and...

  13. The social crisis of the Eurozone: the case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the consequences of the austerity policies promoted by the European Central Bank, the European Commission, and the International Monetary Fund and applied to the peripheral countries of the Eurozone, including Spain. In addition to deteriorating the economic conditions of these countries, these policies are hurting the social well-being of their populations. PMID:23821901

  14. Spain gives science and technology a ministry of its own

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    2000-01-01

    Spain's re-elected prime minister announced the creation of a new Ministry of Science and Technology. It will be responsible for policy on basic and applied research, IT and telecommunications. It will also incorporate the country's Higher Council of Research (1/2 page).

  15. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  16. New Conceptions of Security in Spain: the Case of Hezbollah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hurtado de Ory

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The interview that Miguel Ángel Moratinos held with Hezbollah’s second-in-command, Naim Qassem, in July 2007, opened the doors to new ways of formulating relations with political groups in the Middle East, as well as to a new way of promoting Spain’s foreign policy, based on dialogue, cooperation and regional security. The two actors (Spain and Hezbollah may achieve many benefits from this meeting, which has also been strengthened through subsequent trips by the Spanish Foreign Affairs Minister and by his French and Italian counterparts. In spite of this, owing to the unstable situation that the region is suffering from, this new policy may also result in a total failure that would delegitimise Spain as a valid interlocutor in the area. Depending on how Spain manages the situation, manybenefits may be achieved, though also, depending on how the many actors in the region interact, possible failure may generate more threats and fractures, and not only for Spain but also for Europe and the international community.

  17. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agreement with the Government of Spain whereby the producer agrees to participate in and follow the... in any stage of development during an inspection, the entire consignment of clementines will be rejected. If a live Mediterranean fruit fly in any stage of development is found in any two lots of...

  19. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  20. A Late Pliocene rodent fauna from Alozaina (Malaga, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J.P.; Michaux, J.; Delannoy, J.J.; Guendon, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper 11 species of rodents are described, that have been found in the fossiliferous karst fissure of Alozaina (Malaga, Spain). Three species of Stephanomys (Murinae) are present in this fauna: S. thaleri, S. minor, and the new species S. prietaensis. The latter exhibits a lesser degree of e

  1. Education and Social Change in Spain: From Crisis to Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Pablo; Rivas-Flores, J.Ignacio; Leite-Méndez, Analía E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses a particular socio-educational experience in a marginalised neighbourhood in Malaga, Spain. This initiative came about as an institutional proposal to combat neoliberal austerity policies and is known as the "Casa de la Buena Vida". It aims to generate new educational practices based on solidarity, dignity and…

  2. On a new species of Mycena from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robich, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    Mycena calceata Robich, collected at L’Estartit in Spain in November 1993, during the Mycological Days of the European Confederation of Mediterranean Mycology, is described as new to science. It belongs to section Insignis, characterized by the radiating hairs at the base of the stipe, large spores

  3. The Theory, Research, and Practice of Communication in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    This paper discusses the theory, research, and practice of communication in Spain, from the perspective of language, political economy, and culture. The peoples of the Iberian Peninsula and surrounding islands communicate in a rich variety of languages. In the electronic age, communication has shifted away from the print media to the spoken media,…

  4. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  5. International accounting harmonisation - A comparison of Spain, Sweden and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, John; Amat, Oriol; Gowthorpe, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Despite attempts to secure harmonisation of accounting practice, significant variations in accounting rules and practice continue to arise in European countries, variations which give rise to compliance costs for multinational companies. Firstly, this paper considers the relevance of international accounting harmonisation for European business. It then proceeds to examine accounting regulation in three countries: Spain, Sweden and Austria, highlighting the key regulato...

  6. Mobile Multicast in Hierarchical Proxy Mobile IPV6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizah Mohd Aman, Azana; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Mustafa, Amin; Abdullah, Khaizuran

    2013-12-01

    Mobile Internet Protocol Version 6 (MIPv6) environments have been developing very rapidly. Many challenges arise with the fast progress of MIPv6 technologies and its environment. Therefore the importance of improving the existing architecture and operations increases. One of the many challenges which need to be addressed is the need for performance improvement to support mobile multicast. Numerous approaches have been proposed to improve mobile multicast performance. This includes Context Transfer Protocol (CXTP), Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6), Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6). This document describes multicast context transfer in hierarchical proxy mobile IPv6 (H-PMIPv6) to provide better multicasting performance in PMIPv6 domain.

  7. Internal Migration Patterns of Foreign-Born Immigrants in Spain. A study based on the National Immigrant Survey (ENI-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the existing literature on the internal migration patterns of the foreign-born in Spain. We analyze the spatial distribution of immigrants and their patterns of mobility at different levels. Socio-demographic characteristics of immigrants and characteristics of places of origin and destination are considered. We also examine repeat migration, duration of residence in each destination, as well as return migration within Spain. To this end, we make use of a new micro database corresponding to the National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

    Este artículo contribuye a la literatura sobre la migración interna de los inmigrantes nacidos fuera de España. En él se analiza la distribución espacial y las pautas de movilidad de los inmigrantes, considerando aspectos como las características sociodemográficas de los individuos y las características de los orígenes y destinos dentro de España. También se analiza la emigración repetida, la duración de la residencia en cada destino y la emigración de retorno (dentro de España. Para todo ello, se utiliza la nueva base de datos micro derivada de la Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

  8. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, with an area of 504 748 km''2, occupies a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. At present the country appears to have about 6300 t of reasonably assured uranium reserves and 8500 t of additional estimated reserves (all at less than $30/lb of U3O8). Spain has devoted some $33 million to prospecting for uranium since the beginning of such work. Most of the reasonably assured reserves are located in ores impregnating Cambrian schists intersected by Hercynian granites (of so-called 'Iberian type'); a small amount, however, is found in veins in Hercynian granites of the Spanish Meseta. The additional estimated reserves are situated in the peripheral post-Hercynian continental basins of the Meseta. Apart from these classical ores, sub-ores have been identified in Silurian quartzites with low concentrations of uranium associated with refractory minerals, totalling more than 200,000 t of U (at concentrations of a few hundred ppm); there are likewise uranium-bearing Oligocene lignites in the Ebro Basin with some 140,000 t of U. These facts, and also the very wide distribution of uranium in space and time (from the Cambrian to the Miocene!) and the country's favourable geological characteristics, suggest that Spain ought in fact to have large reserves of uranium, a conclusion unfortunately belied by the paucity of the economic reserves identified so far. Two things must be borne in mind, however; firstly, Spain's financial outlay for uranium prospecting up till now represents only a quarter of what has been invested in France, for example, and, secondly, the nature of the mineralised bodies in Spain makes exploration difficult. In conclusion it seems that prospecting both of the Iberian-type deposits in the Meseta region and of the deposits associated with detrital sediments in the peripheral continental basins - especially blind mineralized bodies - should hold out excellent prospects for Spain. Consequently we propose that Spain should be placed at least in category

  9. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  10. Mobility-Based Mobile Relay Selection in MANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gilnam; Lee, Hyoungjoo; Lee, Kwang Bok

    The future wireless mobile communication networks are expected to provide seamless wireless access and data exchange to mobile users. In particular, it is expected that the demand for ubiquitous data exchange between mobile users will increase with the widespread use of various wireless applications of the intelligent transportation system (ITS) and intelligent vehicles. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are one of the representative research areas pursuing the technology needed to satisfy the increasing mobile communication requirements. However, most of the works on MANET systems do not take into account the continuous and dynamic changes of nodal mobility to accommodate system design and performance evaluation. The mobility of nodes limits the reliability of communication between the source and the destination node since a link between two continuously moving nodes is established only when one node enters the transmission range of the other. To alleviate this problem, mobile relay has been studied. In particular, it is shown that relay selection is an efficient way to support nodal mobility in MANET systems. In this paper, we propose a mobility-based relay selection algorithm for the MANET environment. Firstly, we define the lifetime as the maximum link duration for which the link between two nodes remains active. Therefore, the lifetime indicates the reliability of the relay link which measures its capability to successfully support relayed communication when requested by the source node. Furthermore, we consider a series of realistic scenarios according to the randomness of nodal mobility. Thus, the proposed algorithm can be easily applied in practical MANET systems by choosing the appropriate node mobility behavior. The numerical results show that the improved reliability of the proposed algorithm's relayed communication is achieved with a proper number of mobile relay nodes rather than with the conventional selection algorithm. Lastly, we show that random

  11. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  12. Learning to Be Mobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    As an antidote to the fixation with automobility, cycling and other such highly mobile ‘carbon neutral’ leisure activities are the focus of recent studies that use mobile ‘travelling with’ methods such as the ‘ride along’ or headcam POV video technology with post-ride debriefing. Much of this cre...... are presented and discussed: 1) riding/talk formations; 2) stretchy participation frameworks; 3) navigating static and moving obstacles; 4) situated noticings: 5) learning safe riding; and 6) negotiating the appropriate road conduct of other road users....... of this creative cyclomobility research focuses on adult cycling or more extreme sports, such as BMX trials or mountain biking. There is, however, little qualitative research to date on family bike rides, eg. how children learn to sit in or ride a bike and how parents or caregivers talk and interact with children...

  13. Social mobility and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and inter-generational social mobility have in the past played an important role in attempts to explain fertility behaviour, and continue to do so today. The opinions expressed by social scientists in the first part of the 20th century are renewed and confirmed. More specifically: (1 intra-generational social mobility has been reinforced by the personal well-being aspirations and job careers of women; (2 status anxiety parents feel for their children pushes fertility down in large areas of the developed world (mainly in southern European and eastern Asian countries. Therefore, the provocative idea of Ariès that in the rich world, the child-king has now been replaced by the couple-queen does not perfectly hold.

  14. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  15. Mobile robot control system

    OpenAIRE

    Jiruška, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with differential drive wheeled mobile robot which is running under a real-time operating system. Introductory part is focused on theoretical description of robot and its original firmware. Practical part deals with creating software and implementation several methods that allow following the line by robot using reflectance sensor array. Significant part of this thesis is focused on design and implementation of communication protocol, based on IEEE 802.15.4 which provides co...

  16. Mobile parking system

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgionis, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    The automobiles parking system is designed in this project. This system has to make the automobiles parking payment easier, to save drivers dear time and money, to reduce traffics and pollution in the centre of the city. By implementing our automobiles parking system we will avoid all these problems. Our clients will be all users who has cars and terminal ware (personal computer with connection to the internet, mobile phone which has WAP or GPRS function, laptop). Usage and payment will be ve...

  17. Mobile Market现身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏小正

    2009-01-01

    2009年8月17日。中国移动筹备半年多的Mobile Market(以下简称MMarket)移动应用商场正式开通上线,目前主要为用户提供了手机软件、手机游戏、手机主题三类手机应用。

  18. Mobile Web applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nedyalkova, Stanislava

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the work that was elaborated at the company Present Technologies as part of the academic discipline Internship/Industrial Project for the Master’s degree in Informatics and Systems, Software Development branch, at Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra. The area of the mobile web applications has grown exponentially over the last few years turning it into a very dynamic field where new development platforms and frameworks are constantly emerging. Thus, the inter...

  19. Solar mobile power supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Libian

    2014-01-01

    The solar mobile power supply is a comprehensive energy saving and environment protective product. Besides, it consists of solar panels, storage battery and controller as well as other important components. Based on the traditional solar charging circuit, this solar power supply combines the 5V USB interface and 12V adjustable circuit as well as the 220V inverter and power adapter to greatly improve the function of the power system.

  20. Qualified Mobile Server Signature

    OpenAIRE

    Orthacker, Clemens; Centner, Martin; Kittl, Christian

    2010-01-01

    International audience A legal basis for the use of electronic signatures exists since the introduction of qualified electronic signatures in EU Directive 1999/ 93/EC. Although considered as key enablers for e-Government and e-Commerce, qualified electronic signatures are still not widely used. Introducing amobile component addresses most of the shortcomings of existing qualified signature approaches but poses certain difficulties in the security reasoning. The proposed server based mobile...

  1. Flywheels: Mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, D. W.

    1981-06-01

    The characteristics of modern flywheel energy storage systems uniquely qualify the flywheel for use in a variety of road vehicles, off road vehicles and rail vehicles. About sixty studies and vehicle demonstration programs in a dozen countries indicate that future such flywheel powered vehicles will have improved performance, reduced energy and fuel consumption and reduced life cycle cost. Flywheel capabilities and mobile applications were reviewed.

  2. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  3. Privacy issues in mobile advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of the wired Internet and mobile telecommunication networks is creating new opportunities for advertisers to generate new revenue streams through mobile users. As consumer adoption of mobile technology continues to increase, it is only a question of time when mobile advertising...... become extremely intrusive practices in an intimate personal space. This article focuses on the evaluation of legal problems raised by this novel form of advertising. It is assumed that a technological design, which is in line with the legal framework, will ensure that the benefits of mobile advertising...

  4. Mobile devices tools and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Mobile Devices: Tools and Technologies provides readers with an understanding of the mobile landscape available to app developers, system and network engineers, and the avid techie. As the trend of mobile technology has enabled the continuous development of ubiquitous applications, this book offers insights into tools and technologies critical to evaluating and implementing mobile strategies.The book is organized into four parts of 18 contributed chapters written by engineers in the areas of application and database development, mobile enterprise strategy, and networking and security. Througho

  5. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  6. Mother's educational level and single motherhood: Comparing Spain and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garriga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993 and McLanahan (2004 suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. Results: We found the relationship between the mother's educational level and being a single mother is negative in Spain, while it is not significant in Italy. However, we found that for Italian mothers aged 40 and younger and mothers from northwest Italy, this relationship is also negative. By contrast, for older mothers and mothers from the islands or southern Italy, this association is positive. Meanwhile, for mothers from the central and northeast regions, the relationship between educational level and single motherhood is not significant. Conclusions: These results show how Spain and some parts of Italian society are moving towards family models similar to those in the Northern European countries. As Sara McLanahan (2004 noted for the United States, this social transformation in Southern Europe cannot be considered without recognizing the potential negative consequence for future generations. The single-mother households dealing with the economic crisis that started in 2008 have lower socioeconomic backgrounds than the single mothers who suffered through previous crises, and therefore the consequences of this crisis for children in single-parent families might be even more negative, especially in Spain.

  7. Mobile Public Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Tilton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article will look at the impact that mobile technologies have had on the ability of people to document their everyday lives. What is important to note about this documentation is that it has become a public display of events and experiences via mediated content. This documentation becomes more interesting to observe when it is put in context of how people can now record their travels. This “public memory” of private travel is assisted via mobile technologies with applications designed to record locations through Global Positioning System data and mediated content. After the documentation, the consumption of this content is conducted through social media services and other public outlets as opposed to the traditional means of showing where people have traveled via postcards, slides, and souvenirs. Through a mixed-method study, this process of documentation is analyzed via the thematic dichotomies that emerged throughout the course of surveys and interviews. This article will explore this contrast between the digital and physical through an analysis of the “traditional tourist” versus the “archiver of experiences.” Finally, the impact of this documentation will be framed in the context of mobile communication.

  8. Conodont faunas from Portugal and southwestern Spain Part 5. Lower Carboniferous conodonts at Santa Olalla del Cala (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den M.; Guzmán, F.V.

    1981-01-01

    The conodont faunule of a limestone deposit at Santa Olalla del Cala (province of Huelva, Spain) is described. The age of the limestones, hitherto unknown, appears to be either Late Tournaisian or Early Viséan. Se describe la fauna de conodontos de unas calizas existentes en la Hoja de Santa Olalla

  9. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  10. Studies on deaf mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    The deaf normally considered to be disabled that do not need any mobile technology due to the inabilities of hearing and talking. However, many deaf are using mobile phone in their daily life for various purposes such as communication and learning. Many studies have attempted to identify the need of deaf people in mobile application and level of usage of the applications. This study aims in studying the recent research conducted on deaf mobile application to understand the level of importance of mobile technology for this disabled community. This paper enable identification of studies conducted are limited and the need of more research done of this disabled people to ensure their privilege of using mobile technology and its application, which leads to the identification of deaf user requirement for mobile application as future study.

  11. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  12. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues as...... European and claim a European identity. The article presents a theoretical framework and research design for measuring the degree of social movement Europeanization followed by results of a pilot study on mobilization in Spain and Greece during 2011. While many contentious action events studied only...

  13. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. PMID:26218566

  14. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  15. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system.

  16. A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSPORT IN SPAIN USING THE FIVE FORCES MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ortega, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector in Spain is a branch of economic activity which is already of great importanceaccording to its own invoicing, value added and occupation figures, in addition to its indirect economic effects. It has an additional strategic value for economic policy, since it constitutes a fundamental part ofthe cost of placing products on increasing markets in a competitive manner. The mobility and trans-portation of passengers in cities in turn plays an essential role in the economic and social activity. All of these reasons, in addition to the recent significant problems of ustainability which this priority sector is currently confronting in all aspects, justify an interest in a study which attempts to obtaina profile of this public service by using a strategic analysis through the application of the traditional Porter Five Forces Model. The application of this model will allow us to obtain a general strategic vision which, when combined with a maturity analysis, ill provide a more in-depth knowledge of the object under study, that will serve as a basis for subsequent analyses of the collective urban public transport service.

  17. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  18. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonés Nuria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE. The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas (SIGPAC enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data. The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100

  19. Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile intelligent autonomous systems (MIAS is a fast emerging research area. Although it can be regarded as a general R&D area, it is mainly directed towards robotics. Several important subtopics within MIAS research are:(i perception and reasoning, (ii mobility and navigation,(iii haptics and teleoperation, (iv image fusion/computervision, (v modelling of manipulators, (vi hardware/software architectures for planning and behaviour learning leadingto robotic architecture, (vii vehicle-robot path and motionplanning/control, (viii human-machine interfaces for interaction between humans and robots, and (ix application of artificial neural networks (ANNs, fuzzy logic/systems (FLS,probabilistic/approximate reasoning (PAR, Bayesian networks(BN and genetic algorithms (GA to the above-mentioned problems. Also, multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF playsvery crucial role at many levels of the data fusion process:(i kinematic fusion (position/bearing tracking, (ii imagefusion (for scene recognition, (iii information fusion (forbuilding world models, and (iv decision fusion (for tracking,control actions. The MIAS as a technology is useful for automation of complex tasks, surveillance in a hazardousand hostile environment, human-assistance in very difficultmanual works, medical robotics, hospital systems, autodiagnosticsystems, and many other related civil and military systems. Also, other important research areas for MIAScomprise sensor/actuator modelling, failure management/reconfiguration, scene understanding, knowledge representation, learning and decision-making. Examples ofdynamic systems considered within the MIAS would be:autonomous systems (unmanned ground vehicles, unmannedaerial vehicles, micro/mini air vehicles, and autonomousunder water vehicles, mobile/fixed robotic systems, dexterousmanipulator robots, mining robots, surveillance systems,and networked/multi-robot systems, to name a few.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.3-4,

  20. Mobile Design Pattern Gallery UI Patterns for Mobile Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Neil, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    When you're under pressure to produce a well designed, easy-to-navigate mobile app, there's no time to reinvent the wheel. This concise book provides a handy reference to 70 mobile app design patterns, illustrated by more than 400 screenshots from current iOS, Android, BlackBerry, WebOS, Windows Mobile, and Symbian apps. User experience professional Theresa Neil (Designing Web Interfaces) walks you through design patterns in 10 separate categories, including anti-patterns. Whether you're designing a simple iPhone application or one that's meant to work for every popular mobile OS on the mark