Sample records for business aviation pilots

  1. Pilots and Flight Engineers. Aviation Careers Series. (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available for airplane pilots and flight engineers. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers for pilots and summarizes the information in a table. In the main part of the booklet, the following 11 job categories are outlined: flight…

  2. Russian Aviation Business: Critical Areas For Benchmarking


    Natalia Vepreva


    Russian aviation business has faced a challenge. There are only two ways to proceed - either to change quickly and effectively or stay and slowly loose positions. Best practices of production systems creation from 3 world famous production companies were analyzed in order to come to the result, which is a basic fundament for production system. Fundament consists of four major columns living under major ideologies: first, supply chain management, production and internal logistics processes wit...

  3. Russian Aviation Business: Critical Areas For Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vepreva


    Full Text Available Russian aviation business has faced a challenge. There are only two ways to proceed - either to change quickly and effectively or stay and slowly loose positions. Best practices of production systems creation from 3 world famous production companies were analyzed in order to come to the result, which is a basic fundament for production system. Fundament consists of four major columns living under major ideologies: first, supply chain management, production and internal logistics processes with supplier-customer ideology, second, human resources management process with deployed function of personnel development, third, quality management process serving and steering the production process and forth, management structure adjusted according to the process value-based approach.

  4. Job Satisfaction among Turkish Business Aviation Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Uyar


    Full Text Available The most applicable models in safety management put the human factors, employers’ attitudes and behaviors at the center. This study reports an investigation of job satisfaction among business aviation technicians. A demographic information form and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS were used to collect data from 44 individuals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Our results show that there is significant difference in total job satisfaction levels with regard to marital status while other personal factors are not related to the total job satisfaction levels. However several sub dimensions of job satisfaction are affected by the workers’ military or civilian origin, their training background, types of companies they work in or their license category. No difference is found in age and position groups. Secondly, study shows that technicians are the most satisfied from the nature of their work, while they are the least satisfied by operational procedures.

  5. General Aviation Pilots' Perceived Usage and Valuation of Aviation Weather Information Sources (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Lane, Suzanne; Garland, Daniel


    Aviation suffers many accidents due to the lack of good weather information in flight. Existing aviation weather information is difficult to obtain when it is most needed and is not well formatted for in-flight use. Because it is generally presented aurally, aviation weather information is difficult to integrate with spatial flight information and retain for reference. Efforts, by NASA's Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) team and others, to improve weather information accessibility, usability and decision aiding will enhance General Aviation (GA) pilots' weather situation awareness and decision-making and therefore should improve the safety of GA flight. Consideration of pilots' economic concerns will ensure that in-flight weather information systems are financially accessible to GA pilots as well. The purpose of this survey was to describe how aviation operator communities gather and use weather information as well as how weather related decisions are made between flight crews and supporting personnel. Pilots of small GA aircraft experience the most weather-related accidents as well as the most fatal weather related accident. For this reason, the survey design and advertisement focused on encouraging participation from GA pilots. Perhaps as a result of this emphasis, most responses, 97 responses or 85% of the entire response set, were from GA pilots, This paper presents only analysis of these GA pilots' responses. The insights provided by this survey regarding GA pilots' perceived value and usage of current aviation weather information. services, and products provide a basis for technological approaches to improve GA safety. Results of this survey are discussed in the context of survey limitations and prior work, and serve as the foundation for a model of weather information value, guidance for the design of in-flight weather information systems, and definition of further research toward their development.

  6. Cognitive aging and flight performances in general aviation pilots


    Causse, Mickael; Dehais, Frédéric; Arexis, Mahé; Pastor, Josette


    International audience Unlike professional pilots who are limited by the FAA's age rule, no age limit is defined in general aviation. Our overall goal was to examine how age-related cognitive decline impacts piloting performance and weather-related decision-making. This study relied on three components: cognitive assessment (in particular executive functioning), pilot characteristics (age and flight experience), and flight performance. The results suggest that in comparison to chronologica...

  7. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  8. Comparative analysis of social, demographic, and flight-related attributes between accident and nonaccident general aviation pilots. (United States)

    Urban, R F


    This investigation represents an exploratory examination of several differentiating social and demographic characteristics for a sample of calendar year 1978 Colorado-resident nonfatal accident-involved pilots and a random sample of nonaccident general aviation (i.e., nonairline) pilots. During 1979-1980 80 currently active pilots were interviewed by the author, and information concerning the standard demographic variables, in addition to several social, psychological, and flying-related items, was obtained. The sample was generated from commercially available data files derived from U.S. Government records and consisted of 46 accident and 34 nonaccident pilots who resided within a 100-mi radius of Denver, east of the Rocky Mountains. Descriptively, the respondents represented a broad spectrum of general aviation, including: corporate pilots, "crop dusters," builders of amateur experimental aircraft, and recreational fliers. Application of stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that the pilots' education, political orientation, birth order, percent of flying for business purposes, participation in nonflying aviation activities, number of years of flying experience, and an index of aviation procedural noncompliance yielded statistically significant results. Furthermore, utilization of the classification capability of discriminant analysis produced a mathematical function which correctly allocated 78.5% of the cases into the appropriate groups, thus contributing to a 56.5% proportionate reduction in error over a random effects model. No relationship was found between accident involvement and several indicators of social attachments, socioeconomic status, and a number of measures of flying exposure. PMID:6732683

  9. Attention in aviation. [to aircraft design and pilot performance (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.


    The relevance of four principles or mechanisms of human attention to the design of aviation systems and the performance of pilots in multitask environments, including workload prediction and measurement, control-display integration, and the use of voice and head-up displays is discussed. The principles are: the mental energy that supplies task performance (resources), the resulting cross-talk between tasks as they are made more similar (confusion), the combination of different task elements (integration), and the way in which one task is processed and another is ignored (selection or tunneling). The introduction of greater levels of complexity into the validation of attentional theories in order to approach the demands of the cockpit or ATC console is proposed.

  10. Developing an ICAO Criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for CAAC Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Aisha


    Since the ICAO new aviation language requirement comes into being in 2003, several tester organizations try to develop tests for pilots. Recently CAAC has tried to develop ICAO criteria Aviation English Proficiency Test for Pilots. But, does Chinese pilots' language proficiency satisfy the ICAO requirements? How to test a pilot's language ability? How to develop ICAO standard test? To explore the keys to these questions, the paper has applied the theoretical framework in development of the test, in construction of the tests and in scoring.

  11. Cognitive Task Analysis of Business Jet Pilots' Weather Flying Behaviors: Preliminary Results (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Pliske, Rebecca; Hutton, Robert; Chrenka, Jason


    This report presents preliminary findings from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of business aviation piloting. Results describe challenging weather-related aviation decisions and the information and cues used to support these decisions. Further, these results demonstrate the role of expertise in business aviation decision-making in weather flying, and how weather information is acquired and assessed for reliability. The challenging weather scenarios and novice errors identified in the results provide the basis for experimental scenarios and dependent measures to be used in future flight simulation evaluations of candidate aviation weather information systems. Finally, we analyzed these preliminary results to recommend design and training interventions to improve business aviation decision-making with weather information. The primary objective of this report is to present these preliminary findings and to document the extended CTA methodology used to elicit and represent expert business aviator decision-making with weather information. These preliminary findings will be augmented with results from additional subjects using this methodology. A summary of the complete results, absent the detailed treatment of methodology provided in this report, will be documented in a separate publication.

  12. Experience-based decision-making, non-technical skills and general decision-making styles among aviation pilots


    Rotbring, Lina


    Aviation pilots are trained to base cockpit decisions on strategic and analytic reasoning, while naturalistic decision-making theory suggests that experts in naturalistic settings, like pilots, make decisions based on experience. In the present study, a scenario-based questionnaire was used, to explore the effects of aviation pilots´ non-technical skills and experience-based decision-making in a cockpit decision-making situation. Also, a negative relation between non-technical skills and deci...

  13. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis (United States)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  14. Improving aviation safety with information visualization: Airflow hazard display for helicopter pilots (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia Rodriguez

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with airflow hazards near the ground, such as vortices or other turbulence. While such hazards frequently pose problems to fixed-wing aircraft, they are especially dangerous to helicopters, whose pilots often have to operate into confined areas or under operationally stressful conditions. Pilots are often unaware of these invisible hazards while simultaneously attending to other aspects of aircraft operation close to the ground. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real time. This development is likely to lead to the production of onboard detection systems that can convey detailed, specific information about imminent airflow hazards to pilots. A user interface is required that can present extensive amounts of data to the pilot in a useful manner in real time, yet not distract from the pilot's primary task of flying the aircraft. In this dissertation, we address the question of how best to present safety-critical visual information to a cognitively overloaded user in real time. We designed an airflow hazard visualization system according to user-centered design principles, implemented the system in a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic rotorcraft flight simulator, and evaluated it via usability studies with experienced military and civilian helicopter pilots. We gathered both subjective data from the pilots' evaluations of the visualizations, and objective data from the pilots' performance during the landing simulations. Our study demonstrated that information visualization of airflow hazards, when presented to helicopter pilots in the simulator, dramatically improved their ability to land safely under turbulent conditions. Although we focused on one particular aviation application, the results may be relevant to user interfaces and information visualization in other safety

  15. Integrating Safety in the Aviation System: Interdepartmental Training for Pilots and Maintenance Technicians (United States)

    Mattson, Marifran; Petrin, Donald A.; Young, John P.


    The study of human factors has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, the entire aviation system often is not considered in researching, training, and evaluating human factors issues especially with regard to safety. In both conceptual and practical terms, we argue for the proactive management of human error from both an individual and organizational systems perspective. The results of a multidisciplinary research project incorporating survey data from professional pilots and maintenance technicians and an exploratory study integrating students from relevant disciplines are reported. Survey findings suggest that latent safety errors may occur during the maintenance discrepancy reporting process because pilots and maintenance technicians do not effectively interact with one another. The importance of interdepartmental or cross-disciplinary training for decreasing these errors and increasing safety is discussed as a primary implication.

  16. A critical analysis of airline safety management with reference to pilots and aviation authority officers


    Ho, Li-Chi


    When we consider regional differences in air safety, a call for regional solutions is needed. This research probes the current situation in Taiwan and part of Asia from a regional perspective, aiming to better understand safety management in this region. Data was drawn from an extensive survey involving both airline pilots and aviation authority officers. The research investigated respondents' perceptions in airline safety management, and examined at their opinions about the ro...

  17. An Investigation of General Aviation Problems and Issues: An Integration of Pilot-Cockpit Interface Research (United States)

    Bortolussi, Michael R.


    The General Aviation (GA) industry has suffered a ten-year decline in the number of airplanes sold. This decline is due mainly to the increase cost associated with purchasing, insuring, maintaining, operating, and pilot training a GA airplane. In response to this decline the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed a program (Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments - AGATE) to address these issues. The purpose of AGATE focused within this report is to reduce the costs to acquire and maintain instrument-flight-proficiency. The AGATE program defined four elements necessary to accomplish these goals: (1) new and intuitive cockpit displays and controls, (2) situation technologies for weather, traffic, and navigation, (3) expert systems for system monitoring, and (4) reduced cost training methods. One recognized need for the GA pilot and airplane is to provide cockpit displays and systems already available to transport category airplane. These displays such as Electronic Flight and Instrument System (EFIS), graphic weather and traffic displays, and flight management systems. The goal of this grant was to develop the AGATE GA Display Evaluation Workstation as a tool to test these existing and emerging technologies in the GA environment.

  18. [Clinico-diagnostic and expert characteristics of noncoronary cardiac rhythm disorders in state aviation pilots]. (United States)

    Nagovitsyn, A V; Ardashev, V N; Voronkov, Yu I


    Structure and prevalence of various forms of noncoronary heart diseases (NCHD) and cardiac rhythm disorders (CRD) in state aviation pilots, as well as rates of ensuing grounding were studied. The total of 220 NCHD and 100 essentially healthy pilots were examined. Cardiovascular clinical and functional investigations consisted of physical examination, ECG, dispersion mapping (DM ECG), provocative tests and other techniques used for pilots' certification. Effectiveness of the clinical and instrumental methods of diagnosing arrhythmias was evaluated. CRD presence was verified by Holter monitoring. Extrasystoles prevalence was recorded in NCHD pilots; clinically significant forms of the diseases were commonly detected in pilots with chronic infections of the tonsils. In addition, radiodiagnostics of the immune status was applied to confirm the role of infection and immunology factor. DM ECG screening for differentiation between the norm and pathology was found useful in detecting early metabolic shifts and CVS functional evaluation. These results provided the basis for guidelines concerning medical expertise of pilots with noncoronary arrhythmias. PMID:24032165

  19. Prospects of Russian industrial development on the global market (the case of business aviation industry)


    Anna A. Dokukina


    The global macroeconomic environment continues to be uncertain with the U.S. economy treading fastidiously on its recovery path, the Euro-zone debt crisis refusing to abate, and the most emerging markets at-tempting to stoke up economic growth momentum with a slight shift in overarching focus from merely combating inflation to adoption of a more balanced approach. The significance of Business Aviation as an important part of national economies and a tool for the progress of entrepreneurship t...

  20. Aviation System Safety and Pilot Risk Perception: Implications for Enhancing Decision-Making Skills (United States)

    Green, Mavis F.


    This research explores risk perception in a defined population of flight instructors and the implications of these views for flight training. Flight instructors and students engaged in collegiate aviation flight training were interviewed for this qualitative study. Thirty-three percent of the instructors interviewed reported that flying is not a risky activity. This is important because research identifies risk perception as one factor influencing instructional choices. These choices can then impact the subsequent decision-making processes of flight students. Facilitating pilot decision-making through the use of an appropriate type of learning that incorporates the modeling of consensually validated cognitive procedures and risk management processes is discussed.

  1. Emergence of green business models: The case of algae biofuel for aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergent business models seek to take advantage of new market mechanisms driven by technological changes, particularly those related to the production and delivery of clean or sustainable energy. Such business models often function at the intersection of various industries, with global views, and the resulting systems have distinct social, political, environmental, economic, technological, and business dimensions. Such holistic systems are not only difficult to develop but also require support from a broad range of actors with effective regulations and policies in place, such that the firm functions within a framework that integrates various factors. This study substantiates such a framework by detailing the nascent algae-based bio-fuel industry that caters to the aviation sector while arguing that businesses in the energy industry can emerge as a next-practice platform that drive a sixth wave of innovation. The framework begins with three basic enablers, innovation, flexibility, and sustainability, and explains how value from renewable energy technologies can be created and captured sustainably and innovatively with new market mechanisms implemented by firms with green business models. - Highlights: • We develop a framework that enables the emergence of green energy business models. • We present a case study on the algae based biofuel system for airline industry. • The green business models in energy are global in nature and are next practice platforms. • New market mechanisms and policy measures lead to sustainable energy business models. • Innovation, flexibility and sustainability are the basic enablers of the framework

  2. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Medicion de la dosis a pilotos aviadores usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J.; Cruz C, D. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, ESIME Culhuacan (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  3. Well Clear: General Aviation and Commercial Pilots' Perceptioin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System (United States)

    Ott, Joseph


    This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots' WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots' WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  4. Operator modeling in commerical aviation: Cognitive models, intelligent displays, and pilot's assistants (United States)

    Govindaraj, T.; Mitchell, C. M.


    One of the goals of the National Aviation Safety/Automation program is to address the issue of human-centered automation in the cockpit. Human-centered automation is automation that, in the cockpit, enhances or assists the crew rather than replacing them. The Georgia Tech research program focused on this general theme, with emphasis on designing a computer-based pilot's assistant, intelligent (i.e, context-sensitive) displays, and an intelligent tutoring system for understanding and operating the autoflight system. In particular, the aids and displays were designed to enhance the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew's situational awareness of the current state of the automated flight systems and to assist the crew in coordinating the autoflight system resources. The activities of this grant included: (1) an OFMspert to understand pilot navigation activities in a 727 class aircraft; (2) an extension of OFMspert to understand mode control in a glass cockpit, Georgia Tech Crew Activity Tracking System (GT-CATS); (3) the design of a training system to teach pilots about the vertical navigation portion of the flight management system -VNAV Tutor; and (4) a proof-of-concept display, using existing display technology, to facilitate mode awareness, particularly in situations in which controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) is a potential.

  5. Flight experience and executive functions predict unlike professional pilots who are limited by the FAA's age rule, no age limit is defined in general aviation (GA)


    Causse, Mickael; Dehais, Frédéric; Pastor, Josette


    Unlike professional pilots who are limited by the FAA's age rule, no age limit is defined in general aviation (GA). Some studies revealed significant aging issues on accident rates but these results are criticized. Our overall goal is to study how the effect of age on executive functions (EFs), high level cognitive abilities, impacts on the flying performance in GA pilots. This study relies on three components: EFs assessment, pilot characteristics (age, flight experience), and the naviga...

  6. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised. (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  7. Pilot Project Technology Business Case: Mobile Work Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lawrie, Sean [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Niedermuller, Josef [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on demonstrating actual cost reductions that can be credited to budgets and thereby truly reduce O&M or capital costs. Technology enhancements, while enhancing work methods and making work more efficient, often fail to eliminate workload such that it changes overall staffing and material cost requirements. It is critical to demonstrate cost reductions or impacts on non-cost performance objectives in order for the business case to justify investment by nuclear operators. The Business Case Methodology (BCM) was developed in September of 2015 to frame the benefit side of II&C technologies to address the “benefit” side of the analysis—as opposed to the cost side—and how the organization evaluates discretionary projects (net present value (NPV), accounting effects of taxes, discount rates, etc.). The cost and analysis side is not particularly difficult for the organization and can usually be determined with a fair amount of precision (not withstanding implementation project cost overruns). It is in determining the “benefits” side of the analysis that utilities have more difficulty in technology projects and that is the focus of this methodology. The methodology is presented in the context of the entire process, but the tool provided is limited to determining the organizational benefits only. This report describes a the use of the BCM in building a business case for mobile work packages, which includes computer-based procedures and other automated elements of a work package. Key to those impacts will be identifying where the savings are

  8. Making an impact: The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO2 reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. - Research highlights: →Ticket price rises can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights. → Corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to policy options. → Many companies measure emissions but few will apply in-house reduction policies before regulation.

  9. A Study of EL2 Pilots' Radio Communication in the General Aviation Environment (United States)

    Estival, Dominique; Molesworth, Brett


    This paper reports on the preliminary stages of a project designed to investigate communication problems in General Aviation and assess the utility of language technologies as a means of mitigation. The study presented in this paper is the first of a three-part study, in which we aim to investigate the extent to which the English language…

  10. Enterprises Business Intelligence System Design of Aviation Manufacturing%航空制造企业智能系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕重轶; 杨艳国; 成立权


    Aviation manufacturing enterprises in the analysis of a business intelligence system based on the needs,Using data mining techniques to build an aviation manufacturer to build business intelligence systems,proposed aviation manufacturing enterprise business intelligence standard structural model of the system.%本文在分析某航空制造企业商业智能系统需求的基础上,利用数据挖掘技术建立构建了航空制造企业商业智能系统,提出航空制造企业商业智能系统的标准结构模型。

  11. Human factors in aviation (United States)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)


    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  12. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  13. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  14. Practices to Perfect Aviation Physiological Training for the Pilot%完善飞行人员航空生理训练的做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To adapt to the airplane pilot's strategy transform, aviation weapon's rapid development and modem logistic construction, the aviation physiology training should be enhanced which will take more and more important roles in ensuring the fly safety, and developing troops fighting strength.In this article, a new idea, measures and opinions were proposed to construct our medical support system of military aviation pilots.%为适应我军飞行员战略转型、航空武器装备快速发展和现代后勤建设的形势要求,充分发挥航空生理训练保障在确保飞行安全、巩固和提高部队战斗力的重要作用;本文探讨我军飞行员航空医学保障新体系建设的新思路、新举措及建设性意见.

  15. Pilot study comparing market orientation culture of businesses and schools of business. (United States)

    Harmon, Harry A; Webster, Robert L; Hammond, Kevin L


    A market orientation culture has been described as one that blends an organization's commitment to customer value with a process of continuously creating superior value for customers. Developing such a culture is further described as (1) obtaining information about customers, competitors, and markets, (2) examining the gathered information from a total organizational perspective, (3) deciding how to deliver superior customer value, and (4) implementing actions to provide value to customers. A market orientation culture focuses on the customer, identifies issues in the competitive environment, and coordinates all functional areas to achieve organizational objectives. Research has found businesses with higher market orientation are more successful in achieving organizational objectives. The measurement of market orientation within businesses has been empirically tested and validated. However, empirical research on market orientation in nonprofit organizations such as universities has not been examined. This study investigated market orientation within the university setting, specifically Schools of Business Administration, and compared these data with previously published data within the business sector. Data for comparative purposes were collected via a national survey. Hypothesis testing was conducted. Results indicated significantly lower market orientation culture within the schools of business as reported by AACSB Business School Deans vis-à-vis managers of business enterprises. PMID:14563058

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.


    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  17. Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh


    This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. An analysis of hourly load data indicates that the offices and retail stores in our sample provided significant demand response, while the restaurants did not. Thermostat data provides further evidence that restaurants attempted to precool and reduce AC service during event hours, but were unable to because their air-conditioning units were undersized. On a 100 F reference day, load impacts of all participants during events averaged 14%, while load impacts of office and retail buildings (excluding restaurants) reached 20%. Overall, pilot participants including restaurants had 2007-2008 summer energy savings of 20% and bill savings of 30%. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability

  18. Landing approach evaluation of an integrated CRT display for general aviation aircraft (United States)

    Talbot, P. D.; Stinnett, G. W., Jr.


    A flight director adaptable to general aviation aircraft was evaluated for the landing approach task in a twin turbojet business aircraft. The flight director combined aircraft heading, pitch and roll atitude, and ILS (Instrument Landing System) signals into a single picture on a small cathode ray tube (CRT) to give the pilot an integrated picture of the aircraft situation. The display is unique in that it presents the information on a CRT and gives quasi-command signals to the pilot. The particular display investigated was a preproduction version of the Kaiser Model FP-50 flight director. Approaches made with visual references only, with a conventional ILS displacement instrument, and with the CRT display were compared in terms of tracking performance and pilot workload. Tracking performance of three research pilots using the CRT display was superior to that using the conventional ILS instrument and comparable to that under VFR conditions. Pilot workload (based on pilot comments) was not clearly decreased.

  19. Curriculum Reform ofBusiness Process Reengineering based on the Demand of Aviation Logistics Major%基于航空物流专业需求的《业务流程重组》课程改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    基于航空物流人才的需求特点,针对《业务流程重组》课程当前存在的问题,从教学内容和模式、教学方法和手段、教学资料和成果、考核方式等方面进行改革,不仅能够丰富业务流程重组理论在航空物流领域的应用,更有助于提升新时期物流管理专业学生的基本知识技能,使其能够更好地适应未来岗位的需要,促进航空物流业的发展。%With the promotion and application of mobile internet technology and big data tools,traditional business proc-esses of aviation logistics are quietly changing.It is a basic skill for aviation logistics management personnel to master im-plementation methods and tools of process reengineering.This paper,based on required quality of aviation logistics talents,pinpoints existing problems in the course ofBusiness Process Reengineering and advocates a curriculumreform from the aspects of teaching content and mode,teaching methods and means,teaching materials and achievements, assessment methods and etc.This will not only enrich the theory of business process reengineering in the field of aviation logistics application,but also help to enhance the basic knowledge and skills of students in the logistics management major,who can better adapt to the needs of future job,and to promote the development of the aviation logistics industry.

  20. Aviation risk management


    El-Ashry, A.E.M.E.


    Risk management is considered to be an application of general concepts in scientific management of a particular problem of exposure to risk of loss. It is concerned with identifying objectives, analysing the data regarding the nature of the problem, evaluating the pure risks deriving from the nature of the business and choosing or finding the most suitable method or methods of handling these risks; aiming to control them and their effects as well as minimizing the cost. The field of aviation ...

  1. A Pilot Study of Small Business's Perception of Vendor Services: are these associated with small business IT educational requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. MacGregor


    Full Text Available Despite the extensive use of microcomputers in the small business environment, little research has been applied to the training needs of those small businesses. This study examines the computer related training needs of 131 small businesses and the factors which appear to impinge upon those needs. In particular the paper examines whether satisfaction with vendor provided services (both pre and post sales are associated specific educational requirements in small business. The results suggest that there a need for the development of a university/college IT training program directed specifically towards small business. These programs should avoid the more technical aspects of IT and concentrate on areas which involve the analysis and use of software in the small business. The results further show that a number of vendor provided services appear to be associated with the rating of importance of potential curricular inclusions in IT training programs.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin


    Full Text Available Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA and Seattle (WA, USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

  3. Global Microscope on the Microfinance Business Environment 2009: A Pilot Index and Study by the Economist Intelligence Unit


    Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)


    This report outlines the findings of the Economist Intelligence Unit¿s in-depth analysis of the microfinance business environment in 55 countries. The index that underlies this report allows countries and regions to be compared across three broad categories: regulatory framework, investment climate and institutional development. This study uses a methodology that has been employed for the last two years in a microfinance report on Latin America and the Caribbean, and is being piloted for the ...

  4. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape. (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J


    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore. PMID:21633764

  5. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael


    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  6. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.


    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  7. The E-Business Research Network: summary of the results of the Dutch pilot survey


    Wiele, Ton; Williams, Roger; Iwaarden, Jos; Wilson, Melanie; Dale, Barry


    textabstractA project has been started with the intention to develop an E-Business Research Network on E-business related research in business and management. The initiative has been taken in co-operation between Erasmus University and UMIST to develop a project in which the first stage concerns the development of a database of researchers and their activities in e-business related research in business and management. The next stage will be to investigate the needs in companies in relation to...

  8. Aviation Dentistry (United States)

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri


    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers. PMID:24783162

  9. National General Aviation Roadmap for a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Federal Aviation Administration, as well as state, industry, and academia partners have joined forces to pursue the NASA National General Aviation Roadmap leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). This long-term strategic undertaking has a goal to bring next-generation technologies and improve air access to small communities. The envisioned outcome is to improve travel between remote communities and transportation centers in urban areas by utilizing a new generation of single-pilot light planes for personal and business transportation between the nation's 5,400 public use general aviation airports. Current NASA investments in aircraft technologies are enabling industry to bring affordable, safe, and easy-to-use features to the marketplace, including "Highway in the Sky" glass cockpit operating capabilities, affordable crash worthy composite airframes, more efficient IFR flight training, and revolutionary engines. To facilitate this initiative, a comprehensive upgrade of public infrastructure must be planned, coordinated, and implemented within the framework of the national air transportation system. State partnerships are proposed to coordinate research support in key public infrastructure areas. Ultimately, SATS may permit more than tripling aviation system throughput capacity by tapping the under-utilized general aviation facilities to achieve the national goal of doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways for the nation's suburban, rural, and remote communities.

  10. Aviation Lubricants (United States)

    Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

    Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

  11. Aviation and externalities : #the #accomplishments and problems


    Janić, Milan


    Civil aviation has become a major industry and in one of the fastest growing sectors of the world economy. The growth of civil aviation has advantages and disadvantages for the society. The advantages include the direct and indirect generation of new jobs within and around the sector as well as providing a strong stimulus to the globalisation of the industry, business and long distance tourism. Disadvantages include its negative impacts on the environment. This paper presents an overview of t...

  12. Aviation Safety Issues Database (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.


    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.



    Shahrin Saad; Khulida Kirana Yahya; Faizuniah Pangil


    Since hotel industry is major contributor to the growth of Tourism Industry in Malaysia, it is vital to take into consideration of issues that are being carried by the industry. For example the high turnover of employee in hotel due to poor strategy conducted by hotels’ management. This paper explores the new strategy measurement which is the integrated business strategy dimensions in fitting the hotel industry due to the scarce of hospitality strategy at present. The new strategy is develope...

  14. Pilot Weather Reports (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  15. Analysis of disease spectrum of Army Aviation helicopter pilots in 2006%2006年陆军航空兵直升机飞行员疾病谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖丹; 周长明; 于晓春; 孟晨曦; 朱长远; 谢玮华; 苏檩; 任维乐; 李红; 吴新; 叶义财; 闫永平; 门可; 李海涛; 王波; 张磊; 张景霞; 张延亮; 肇刚; 潘建


    Objective To investigate the disease spectrum of Army Aviation helicopter pilots and provide suggestions to aeromedical service. Methods Cases of 516 helicopter pilots, who were in annual physical examination, were randomly sampled and divided into 3 groups by age. Process included reviewing diagnosis history, analyzing spectrum of disease and its distribution by age, as well as the prevalence of common diseases. Rank Sum Ratio was employed for comparing the distribution of common diseases in different age group. Results ① The top 10 diseases in helicopter pilots of the Army Aviation in 2006 were fatty liver (9.88%), hyperlipidemia (6.98%), gallbladder polypus (3.49%), lumbar disc herniation(2.33%), sinus bradycardia (2.33%), gall-stone(2.13%), chronic gastritis (1.74%), kidney cyst (1.55%), calcify of liver (1.36%) and hypertension (1.16%). ② The prevalence of fatty liver in each group was respectively 2.13%, 9. 29% and 45.59%, which was at a relative higher level The prevalence of fatty liver, chronic gastritis, hyperlipidemia, gallbladder polypus, calcify of liver, hypertension and diabetes was significantly different from each age group. ③ The WR of 3 age groups was 0.7486 and it showed a good concordance of common diagnoses in each age group (χ~2=17.97, P<0.05). Conclusions ①The common diseases of helicopter pilot of Army Aviation are prevalent as common as those of Chinese Air Force pilot on the whole. Compared to more frequent prevalence in other military pilots, no nero-related diseases appeared in the top 10 of helicopter pilots. ② The prevalence of fatty liver and hyperlipidemia increases rapidly with age. The accumulative effect of nosogenesis may exist and result in the diseases of lumber, back, neck and shoulder. ③ Rank Sum Ratio is an effective indication for comparing the concordance of common diagnoses in different group.%目的 研究陆军航空兵(陆航)直升机飞行员疾病谱,为航卫保障提供依据.方法 随机抽取2006

  16. Strategic Management as a Key to Educating the New Aviation Professional


    Dostaler, Isabelle; Flouris, Triant


    Differences and similarities between management and strategic management are discussed in this article and a framework for the aviation strategic management process is proposed. The steps of the aviation strategic management process include 1) scanning the aviation environment, 2) analyzing the aviation organization, 3) formulating the corporate strategy, 4) formulating the business strategy, and 5) implementing the corporate and business strategies through the formulation of functional strat...

  17. Review of aviation safety measures which have application to aviation accident prevention. (United States)

    Doughtery, J D


    Introduction of certain human-factors techniques has been followed by market reduction in military and airline accident rates. In this study, these safety measures are analyzed to determine the value of their application to general aviation activity. Some techniques are already in use. They are: 1. medical evaluation of iarcrews; 2. aeronautical innovations which tailor the machine to the man; 3. imporvement of precision navigational air traffic control and flight procedures; 4. standardization of flight training and flight procedures. A remaining field of interest, and one which appears to be underused, is that of supervision. After ending his association with the flight instructor, the general aviation pilot is essentially unsupervised. Accident data gathered over several years show that with increases in the proportion of pilots who have not maintained an association with a flight instructor, the general aviation fatal accident rate is increased. Current regulations, which require revalidation of airman's certificates, provide a method by which this association can be maintained. The flight instructor, or some similar aviation professional, can maintain an element of supervision with otherwise independent general aviation pilots. Data from previous years supports the hypothesis that such a program would make a substantial improvement in general aviation safety. PMID:1115703


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永进; 田丰; 倪兆阳


    For the operation features of civil aviation business such as numerous real-time concurrent requests,complicated and changeable operation functions,large amount data,high reliability,etc.,we analysed the advantages and disadvantages of currently prevalent server architectures.We divided the service into stages and introduced the staged event-driven architecture (SEDA)into civil aviation passengers service information system (CAPSIS),and carried out an experiment for comparative verification.It is proved by the experimental result that the server software architecture applying SEDA has better capacity than those thread pool model-based architectures in dealing with high concurrent requests,which can make large-scale CAPSIS respond effectively to high-concurrency and high-load environment.%针对民航业务实时并发请求多、业务功能复杂多变、数据量大、可靠性要求高等业务特点,分析当前流行的服务器架构的优缺点,将服务划分阶段,在民航旅客服务信息系统中引入分阶段的事件驱动架构 SEDA(Staged Event-Driven Architecture),并进行实验对比验证。实验结果表明,基于 SEDA 的服务器软件架构比基于线程池模型的服务器软件架构拥有更好的处理高并发请求的能力,能够使大规模民航旅客服务信息系统有效应对高并发高负载环境。

  19. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel


    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  20. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel


    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  1. Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation (United States)

    Gillen, David; Morrison, William


    Our focus is the evolution of business strategies and network structure decisions in the commercial passenger aviation industry. The paper reviews the growth of hub-and-spoke networks as the dominant business model following deregulation in the latter part of the 20 century, followed by the emergence of value-based airlines as a global phenomenon at the end of the century. The paper highlights the link between airline business strategies and network structures, and examines the resulting competition between divergent network structure business models. In this context we discuss issues of market structure stability and the role played by competition policy.

  2. Aviation safety and ICAO


    Huang, Jiefang


    The thesis addresses the issue of aviation safety under the rule of law. Aviation safety is a global concern. While air transport is considered a safe mode of travel, it is susceptible to inherent risks of flight, the use of force, and terrorist acts. Consequently, within the framework of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), global efforts have been made to establish individual and collective responsibility of States to provide safety oversight, to refrain from the use of wea...

  3. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...



    Вакуленко, Тетяна Олександрівна


    The article dwells upon linguistic aspects of aviation safety. The substantial communication issues, arising between pilots and air traffic controllers during takeoff, flight navigation and landing were analyzed. Problem areas include linguistic (accent, ambiguous and non-standard phraseology), paralinguistic (voice intonation, intelligibility of speech, stress, rate of delivery) and pragmatic (context, expectations), factors. The article also deals with the measures taken by ICAO to improve ...

  5. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.


    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  6. Integrated Modeling of Air Traffic, Aviation Weather, and Communication Systems


    Quan, Chuanwen


    Aviation suffers many delays due to the lack of timely air traffic flow management. These delays are also caused by the uncertainty weather information; and the lack of efficient dissemination of weather products to pilots. It is clear that better models are needed to quantify air traffic flow in three flight regions - en-route, in the terminal, and on the ground, to determine aviation weather information requirements at each region, and to quantify their bandwidth requirements. Furthermore,...

  7. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft (United States)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  8. General aviation in China (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  9. Aspects of the business success important to female entrepreneurs in urban areas of the Republic of Serbia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Danijela


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of an empirical study of the importance of qualitative and quantitative dimensions of business success for female entrepreneurs in the Republic of Serbia. There is empirical evidence that qualitative components, such as customer and employee satisfaction, relations with stakeholders, and family-work balance are more important to Serbian female entrepreneurs. Quantitative components (profit and employment growth, personal wealth, and other personal goals, although lower ranked, are also an important aspect of business success. These results also confirm that female entrepreneurs in Serbia have a diverse perception of business success.

  10. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1995. (United States)

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Aviation/Aerospace Teacher Education Workshops: Program Development and Implementation" (Mavis F. Green) discusses practical issues in the development of an aviation/aerospace teacher education workshop designed to help elementary school teachers promote aviation to their students.…

  11. Using the Balanced Scorecard to Enhance Undergraduate Education in a First Year Business Course: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Hunt, Irma; Taylor, Ronald K.; Winter, Anthony; Mackie, J. Jay; Fisher, Daniel


    Several research studies found that managers lacked a basic understanding of a balanced scorecard (BSC) approach to evaluate an organization. Because of this, the authors saw an opportunity to reorganize a course in order to provide students with an opportunity to address this issue. Therefore, a recent pilot study was conducted to ascertain…

  12. Stress and Job Satisfaction among Air Force Military Pilots


    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi; Kolivand Alireza


    Stress induces impairment of performance is a relatively common issue in pilots of military aviation. The present study aimed at gathering preliminary data on the relationship between stress and job satisfaction among military pilots, so determine to what extent military pilots suffering from job satisfaction. This study was cross- sectional in design and used survey methodology. The survey was offered to 89 military pilots. Subjects completed a Questionnaire with 32-item on Aviation Stress a...

  13. Towards sustainable aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upham, Paul; Maughan, Janet; Raper, David; Thomas, Callum (eds.)


    Aviation is integral to the global economy but it is also one of the main obstacles to environmentally sustainable development. It is one of the world's fastest growing - and most polluting - industries. What can be done to retain the economic and other benefits it brings, without the associated pollution, noise, congestion and loss of countryside? In this volume, industry, policy and research experts examine how to address the problems, and what it would take to achieve genuinely sustainable aviation - looking at technological, policy and demand-management options. Without far-reaching changes the problems caused by aviation can only multiply and worsen. This work seeks to take an important step in diagnosing the problems and in pointing towards their solutions. Contents: Part 1: Trends and Issues - Introduction - Organizational and growth trends in air transport - Social and economic benefits - Human health impacts - Global atmospheric impacts - Aircraft noise, community relations and stakeholder involvement. Part 2: Mitigations and Potential Solutions - Environmental management and the aviation industry - The potential for modal substitution - Airfreight and global supply chains - The potential offered by aircraft and engine technologies - Climate policy for civil aviation. Part 3: Multi-sector commentaries. (Author)

  14. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner. (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of measurement and assessment of language proficiency ofaviation personnel. The types of tests appropriate for use in aviation context are being describedand approaches to Aviation English test design are being identified in compliance with thelanguage ICAO requirements for pilots and controllers.Розглянуто проблему вимірювання та оцінки рівня володіння англійською мовоюфахівцями авіаційної галузі. Описано види тестування і типи тестів. Обґрунтовано підходидо розроблення тестів для авіаційного персоналу з урахуванням міжнародних вимог ІСАО домовної підготовки фахівців льотного і диспетчерського складу. Запропоновано шляхиудосконалення процедури вимірювання та оцінки рівня володіння англійською мовою вавіаційному контексті.Рассмотрена проблема измерения и оценки уровня владения английским языкомспециалистами авиационной отрасли. Описаны виды тестирования и типы тестов.Обоснованы подходы к разработке тестов для авиационного персонала с учетоммеждународных требований IСАО к языковой подготовке специалистов летного идиспетчерского состава. Предложены пути совершенствования процедуры измерения иоценки уровня владения английским языком в авиационном контексте.

  16. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J. [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)


    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  17. Politics of aviation fields (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques


    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  18. Collegiate Aviation Review. (United States)

    Lehrer, Henry R., Ed.

    This document contains five research papers devoted to aviation education and training. The first paper, "An Examination of the U.S. Airline Policy Regarding Child Restraint Systems" (Larry Carstenson, Donald Sluti, and Jacqueline Luedtke), examines communication of airline policy from airline management to airline personnel to the traveling…

  19. A psychologist's view of validating aviation systems (United States)

    Stein, Earl S.; Wagner, Dan


    All systems, no matter what they are designed to do, have shortcomings that may make them less productive than was hoped during the initial development. Such shortcomings can arise at any stage of development: from conception to the end of the implementation life cycle. While systems failure and errors of a lesser magnitude can occur as a function of mechanical or software breakdown, the majority of such problems, in aviation are usually laid on the shoulders of the human operator and, to a lesser extent, on human factors. The operator bears the responsibility and blame even though, from a human factors perspective, error may have been designed into the system. Human factors is not a new concept in aviation. The name may be new, but the issues related to operators in the loop date back to the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and certainly to the aviation build-up for World War I. During this first global confrontation, military services from all sides discovered rather quickly that poor selection and training led to drastically increased personnel losses. While hardware design became an issue later, the early efforts were primarily focused on increased care in pilot selection and on their training. This actually involved early labor-intensive simulation, using such devices as sticks and chairs mounted on rope networks which could be manually moved in response to control input. The use of selection criteria and improved training led to more viable person-machine systems. More pilots survived training and their first ten missions in the air, a rule of thumb arrived at by experience which predicted ultimate survival better than any other. This rule was to hold through World War II. At that time, personnel selection and training became very sophisticated based on previous standards. Also, many psychologists were drafted into Army Air Corps programs which were geared towards refining the human factor. However, despite the talent involved in these programs

  20. Effects of long and short simulated flights on the saccadic eye movement velocity of aviators. (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Gayles, Ellis; Hoare, Chad; Foster, Michael; Catena, Andrés; Macknik, Stephen L


    Aircrew fatigue is a major contributor to operational errors in civil and military aviation. Objective detection of pilot fatigue is thus critical to prevent aviation catastrophes. Previous work has linked fatigue to changes in oculomotor dynamics, but few studies have studied this relationship in critical safety environments. Here we measured the eye movements of US Marine Corps combat helicopter pilots before and after simulated flight missions of different durations.We found a decrease in saccadic velocities after long simulated flights compared to short simulated flights. These results suggest that saccadic velocity could serve as a biomarker of aviator fatigue. PMID:26597121

  1. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). (United States)


    ... check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 91.1093: (1) A check... simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type aircraft. (2) A check pilot (simulator) is...

  2. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1996. (United States)

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate Aviation Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate aviation education if students expect to…

  3. Aviation environmental technology and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanzhong


    Expatiating on the impact of aviation on the environment and aviation environmental protection projects are ex- pounded, and analyzing on the atmosphere pollution and effects on the aviation noise of aircraft discharge. Researching the approach to control aircraft exhaust pollution and noise pollution, and proposing the technology and management measures to reduce air pollution.

  4. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1994. (United States)

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains four papers on aviation education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of aviation research into the causes of human performance errors in aviation and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…

  5. National Survey Results: Retention of Women in Collegiate Aviation (United States)

    Turney, Mary Ann; Bishop, James C.; Karp, Merrill R.; Niemczyk, Mary; Sitler, Ruth L.; Green, Mavis F.


    Since the numbers of women pursuing technical careers in aviation continues to remain very low, a study on retention of women was undertaken by a team of university faculty from Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Arizona State University, and Kent State University. The study was initiated to discover the factors that influence women once they have already selected an aviation career and to ascertain what could be done to support those women who have demonstrated a serious interest in an aviation career by enrolling in a collegiate aviation program. This paper reports preliminary results of data collected in the first and second years of the study. The data was collected from surveys of 390 college students (195 women and 195 men) majoring in aviation programs in nine colleges and universities, representing widely varied geographic areas and including both two- and four-year institutions. Results revealed significant areas of concern among women in pilot training. When queried about these concerns, differences were evident in the responses of the male and female groups. These differences were expected. However, a surprising finding was that women in early stages of pilot training responded differently from women in more experienced stages, These response differences did not occur among the men surveyed. The results, therefore, suggest that women in experienced stages of training may have gone through an adaptation process and reflect more male-like attitudes about a number of objects, including social issues, confidence, family, and career.

  6. Safety is the indicator of physiological traits aviation specialists as a socio-psychological aspect


    Орленко, Н.А.


     Influence of human factors on safety in the process of training future pilots in high school vocational and applied by means of physical training as one of the most important components in ensuring the development and improvement of physical and psychophysical properties with regard to the characteristics of future employment, allowing prospective pilots successfully learn, and Aviation industry experts - to work effectively.

  7. Automating aviation training records.


    Reinholt, Kurt B.


    Over the years with advances in computer technology, the navy has gradually transitioned into a paperless operation. Personnel training records have provided a standardized, documentable individual qualification record for Navy aviation maintenance personnel, however these records continue to be kept in folders, stored in file cabinets. In addition, paper records create a maintenance burden, in that the continued handling and possibility of errors made during data entry and normal wear and te...

  8. 14 CFR 61.315 - What are the privileges and limits of my sport pilot certificate? (United States)


    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.315 Section 61.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.315 What are the privileges and limits of my sport pilot certificate? (a) If you hold a sport pilot certificate you may act as pilot in command of a light-sport aircraft, except...

  9. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff (United States)

    Ravage, Barbara


    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  10. Reassessing the position of Aviation English: from a special language to English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Aiguo


    Full Text Available “Aviation English” is not only confined to pilots and air traffic controllers (ATC, it also refers to English on general terms in aeronautical and/or aviation universities. It can be designed as integrated ESP (English for Specific Purposes curricula for students in the fields of aeronautics and/or aviation. Learners of ESP are supposed to master the vocabulary in their specific discipline as well as the English language skills. This paper explores the possibility of establishing Aviation English as an ESP specialty in aeronautical and/or aviation colleges and universities. Needs analysis has been made and curricula designed for an integrated course of study in the Chinese context, so that learners of ESP can learn the target language more effectively and meet the standards set by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It reconsiders the ESP theories and aims to develop a possible approach to ESP teaching more suitable for the Chinese learners.

  11. University Aviation Degree Courses: A Study of Labour Market and Student Retention Challenges for Sustainable Course Development (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder K.


    Universities offering aviation degree courses face a dilemma when integrating flying training, which is vocational skills training, into an academic degree programme. Whilst flying training for a pilot's licence is provided by flying schools regulated by a country's Civil Aviation Authority, the HE sector is responsible for the academic standards…

  12. Aviation and insurance (United States)

    Mayo, R H


    This article considers some of the causes which hinder the development of aircraft insurance. Different risks are discussed as well as the causes of aircraft accidents. Pilot error, poor airdromes, weather conditions, poorly adapted airplanes, and engine failures are all examined and some conclusions are made.

  13. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program (United States)


    ... Community Advantage Pilot Program (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). Pursuant to the authority provided to... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a...

  14. 77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of extension of and changes to Community Advantage Pilot Program and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Community Advantage (``CA'') Pilot Program is a pilot program to increase SBA-guaranteed loans to...

  15. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pilotos de aviación civil en Colombia en el año 2005 Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in civil aviation pilots in Colombia during 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Arteaga-Arredondo


    Full Text Available Objetivo La seguridad aérea depende de la interfase hombre-avión. La enfermedad coronaria es la causa más frecuente de incapacitación súbita en vuelo y como factores se encuentran los descritos como riesgo cardiovascular. Los pilotos probablemente tienen una prevalencia diferente a la población general. Metodología Estudio descriptivo transversal. Se revisaron los registros médicos de los pilotos certificados por la Aeronáutica Civil de Colombia, entre enero y diciembre de 2005, seleccionándolos aleatoriamente hasta completar 614 historias clínicas, según muestras tomadas con un nivel de confianza del 95 % y una precisión del 0.5 %. Se extrajeron los siguientes datos: Edad, presión arterial, tabaquismo, colesterol, glicemia, ejercicio, antecedentes, sexo, talla, horas de vuelo, tipo de licencia. Los datos fueron analizados mediante STATG 6 y los resultados se expresaron según la estadística descriptiva. Resultados La prevalencia de factores de riesgo en pilotos fue: HTA 7,8 %, Diabetes 1,3 %, Hipercolesterolemia 36 %, Hipertrigliceridemia 36 %, HDL Bajo 36 %, LDL Alto 32 %, Tabaquismo 12.8 %, Obesidad 7 % y Síndrome Metabólico en el 6 %. Hubo diferencia entre pilotos de primera y segunda clase, siendo los factores de riesgo más frecuentes en la segunda categoría. Conclusiones La prevalencia de factores de riesgo difiere entre pilotos y la población general, se identifican como de alto riesgo según la escala de Framingham al 8 % de pilotos, los cuales requieren de programas específicos y seguimiento estrecho para modificar el perfil de riesgo y mejorar la seguridad aérea.Objective The human-flying machine interface relies heavily on flight safety. Coronary disease is the most commonly occurring sudden incapacitation during flight and involves factors described as leading to cardiovascular risk. Pilots probably have risk prevalence different to the rest of the population. Method This was a descriptive cross-sectional study

  16. COPRA Aviation Security Research Roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasberg, M.P.; Leisman, L.; Voorde, I. van de; Weissbrodt, J.


    The EU funded project COPRA (Comprehensive European Approach to the Protection of Civil Aviation) developed a roadmap for future research activities, which could lead to a more resilient, flexible and comprehensive approach. Tackling 70 existing and potential threats to aviation (security) identifie

  17. 75 FR 53007 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) (United States)


    ... Agency regulations for the 7(a) Business Loan Program. (70 FR 69645). Because the pilot was designed as a... regulations identified in the Federal Register notice at 70 FR 69645 through September 30, 2011. SBA's waiver... ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...

  18. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  19. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhaus C


    Full Text Available Christopher Neuhaus,1,2 Jochen Hinkelbein2,31Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue Working Group, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.Keywords: cognitive response, aviation training, pilot, hypoxia, oxygen, loss of consciousness

  20. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office,...

  1. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  2. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct,...

  3. 75 FR 22352 - Aviation Service Rules (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Federal Communications Commission we address pending issues regarding certain Aviation Service... Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and supported by the Federal Aviation Administration...

  4. Safer Aviation Materials Tested (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.


    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  5. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  6. Workload Influence on Fatigue Related Psychological and Physiological Performance Changes of Aviators


    Jin Ma; Ru-Meng Ma; Xi-Wen Liu; Ka Bian; Zhi-Hong Wen; Xiao-Jing Li; Zuo-Ming Zhang; Wen-Dong Hu


    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated a variety of non-invasive physiological technologies and a series of test approaches for examination of aviator performances under conditions of mental workload in order to provide a standard real-time test for physiological and psychological pilot fatigue assessments. METHODS: Twenty-one male aviators were selected for a simulated flight in a hypobaric cabin with artificial altitude conditions of 2400 meter above sea level. The simulated flight lasted for 1.5 h, and w...

  7. International Aviation and the EU ETS : Inclusion of aviation from the point of view of non-EU countries and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities



    From 2012 international aviation is to be included in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). The EU ETS has no differentiation between the airlines which means that the trading scheme applies to all airlines regardless of the nationality and business model. Several non-EU states and airlines have opposed the inclusion because according to them the inclusion contravenes international law and they urge the EU and its member states to refrain from including the aviation in the EU ...

  8. Faculty Internships in Family Business


    Greg Filbeck; Debbe Skutch; Deborah J. Dwyer


    Faculty internships in family business offer potential benefits to faculty, students, and the community by blending academics with real world business. The purpose of the paper is to report how faculty internship experiences in family businesses enhance the goals of continuous improvement of curriculum and research output in a business school. The University of Toledo Center for Family Business embarked on a pilot faculty internship program during the summer of 1998. We detail the back ground...

  9. General Aviation Synthesis Program (United States)

    Galloway, T.; Schairer, E.; Bowles, J.; Waters, M.


    Program performs preliminary design of fixed-wing aircraft. Emphasis placed on fixed wing aircraft with propulsion systems varying from single piston engine with fixed-pitch propeller through twin turbo-prop/turbofan systems used in business or transport aircraft. GASP written in FORTRAN IV.

  10. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) (United States)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)


    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  11. 77 FR 12373 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations (United States)


    ..., International Air Transport Association (IATA), Pilot Career Initiative (PCI), Society of Aviation and Flight... Transport Pilot FOQ ARC--First Officer Qualifications Aviation Rulemaking Committee FSTD--Flight Simulation... substitute for actual flight experience. Other commenters, including Air Transport Association of...

  12. 飞行人员英语等级考试模拟练习系统的研究与实现%Research on Aviation English Test Simulation System for Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Visual Basic is an excellent visual programming tool. This paper mainly discusses the multimedia audio control technology with VB, and how to achieve an English Test Simulation System for air pilots with MCI media control interface and API method.%Visual Basic是优秀的可视化编程工具。本文首先论述了应用VB实现多媒体音频控制的几种方法和特点,并通过MCI媒体控制接口技术和API函数设计实现了飞行人员英语等级考试模拟练习系统。

  13. 14 CFR 61.113 - Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command. 61.113 Section 61.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... least 200 hours of logged flight time may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a prospective buyer....

  14. 75 FR 67805 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Labor and World-Class Workforce... (United States)


    ... culture of dignity and respect in the workplace by incorporating core workers' human rights conventions into international aviation agreements; (3) the creation of a biannual Aviation Industry Workforce... ``Special Accommodations'' listed in the subject line of the message by close of business on...

  15. Real Language Meets Real Business (United States)

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah


    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  16. The Use of the Internet to Support General Aviation Research (United States)

    Rowbottom, James H.


    For the past few years, innovation in the field of General Aviation (GA) has declined. The reason for this decline has not been because of a lack of ideas, but rather a lack of funds necessary to convert these ideas into reality. NASA implemented the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program in an effort to promote new technology in General Aviation. Under this program, small business with good ideas present them to NASA who reviews them and determines their value potential in the GA market. If the company's idea proves worthy, NASA subsidizes their research in three phases that include the research, testing, development, and production of their product. The purpose of my internship this summer was to use the Internet to promote the work of SBIR companies globally to prospective investors.

  17. Damage Adaptive Guidance for Piloted Upset Recovery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Loss-Of-Control (LOC) has been a longstanding contributor to fatal aviation accidents. Inappropriate pilot action for healthy aircraft, control failures,...


    Galloway, T. L.


    The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft

  19. Aviation and Remote Sensing Programs (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Efficiency and effectiveness of aerial photograph acquisition by the Region 3 Aviation Program will be improved with use of newly purchased upgrades for the...

  20. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  1. 76 FR 17347 - Aviation Communications (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or...

  2. 76 FR 17353 - Aviation Communications (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; suspension of effectiveness. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications...

  3. Occupational fatigue: Implications for aviation


    Oliveira, Teresa Cristina Clímaco Monteiro d'


    Occupational fatigue has been considered a major contribution to decreases in well-being and performance in a variety of industries. The objective of the chapter is to review the main issues associated with occupational fatigue and to consider the implications for the globalized aviation industry. Fatigue management in aviation has been associated with rostering practices, countermeasures and the development of international regulations. Recently research has proposed that p...

  4. China Gradually Deregulates Aviation Fuels Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China will gradually deregulate the aviation fuels market to allow the oil and petrochemical enterprises to become shareholders of China Aviation Fuels Corporation (CAFC) so that the aviation fuels suppliers can operate at a lower cost. Deregulation of the air fuels market aims at reduction of aviation fuels price to spur development of China's air transportation industry.

  5. The Carrier Readiness Team realizing the vision of the Naval Aviation Enterprise


    LeFon, Carroll F.


    Naval aviation is a large and complex operation, with multiple stakeholders and an ingrained tension between generating combat readiness for current operations and procurement funds for future capabilities. Naval aviation leadership has developed an enterprise approach to managing these often competing requirements that uses modern business process tools under the fundamental principle of alignment. This process showed remarkable results at the factory-level, with production efforts gener...

  6. 76 FR 9626 - Community Advantage Pilot Program (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice... Advantage'' to provide 7(a) loan guaranties to small businesses in underserved markets, including Veterans and members of the military community. The Community Advantage Pilot Program will allow...

  7. Synthetic vision in the cockpit: 3D systems for general aviation (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J.; Rybacki, Richard M.; Smith, W. Garth


    Synthetic vision has the potential to improve safety in aviation through better pilot situational awareness and enhanced navigational guidance. The technological advances enabling synthetic vision are GPS based navigation (position and attitude) systems and efficient graphical systems for rendering 3D displays in the cockpit. A benefit for military, commercial, and general aviation platforms alike is the relentless drive to miniaturize computer subsystems. Processors, data storage, graphical and digital signal processing chips, RF circuitry, and bus architectures are at or out-pacing Moore's Law with the transition to mobile computing and embedded systems. The tandem of fundamental GPS navigation services such as the US FAA's Wide Area and Local Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS) and commercially viable mobile rendering systems puts synthetic vision well with the the technological reach of general aviation. Given the appropriate navigational inputs, low cost and power efficient graphics solutions are capable of rendering a pilot's out-the-window view into visual databases with photo-specific imagery and geo-specific elevation and feature content. Looking beyond the single airframe, proposed aviation technologies such as ADS-B would provide a communication channel for bringing traffic information on-board and into the cockpit visually via the 3D display for additional pilot awareness. This paper gives a view of current 3D graphics system capability suitable for general aviation and presents a potential road map following the current trends.

  8. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of changes to Community Advantage Pilot Program. SUMMARY: On February 18, 2011, SBA published a notice introducing the Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice, SBA provided an overview of the...

  9. 14 CFR 61.309 - What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate? (United States)


    ... apply for a sport pilot certificate? 61.309 Section 61.309 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.309 What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate? Except as specified in § 61.329, to apply for a sport pilot certificate you...

  10. 14 CFR 61.305 - What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate? (United States)


    ... for a sport pilot certificate? 61.305 Section 61.305 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.305 What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate? (a) To be eligible for a sport pilot certificate you must: (1) Be at least 17 years old (or...

  11. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? (United States)


    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section 61.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must pass the following tests: (a) Knowledge test. You must pass...

  12. Scientific Contributions to Aviation Safety: A User's Perspective (United States)

    Stills, M.; Guffanti, M.; Salinas, L.


    Volcanic ash poses a significant threat to aviation, and steps are taken by commercial operators to avoid encounters in order to protect the safety of passengers and crews. To minimize the risk of damage to aircraft, pilots, dispatchers, and meteorologists plan routes that avoid ash and sometimes execute fuel stops and/or diversions when necessary. Preventing damaging encounters to ensure safety is paramount, but route changes and diversions need to be as efficient as possible in terms of time and fuel expended. Many airlines have experience dealing with possible ash hazards, and dispatchers, pilots, and weather units rely heavily on information from volcano and meteorological scientists. Formal warning messages from civil aviation authorities and aviation weather offices also are an integral part of all operational decisions. Airline operation centers need a range of products and services from scientific groups, including: global synoptic views of activity that may impact flight routes; specific forecasts (predictions) of impending volcanic activity; clear descriptions of ash-dispersion model capabilities and remote-sensing detection techniques. More in-depth issues may also need to be addressed such as dispersion model differences; satellite sensor inadequacy, as it relates to the detection of specific physical phenomena; clarity of labeling of time-series data, such as sequential remote-sensing imagery; and direct access to subject matter experts during events. Information flow needs to be consistent and issued at specific intervals and in specific formats to facilitate procedural development in the aviation community. These issues provide a strong argument in the United States for continued collaboration among air carriers, Volcano Observatories, and Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers.

  13. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.


    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  14. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...

  15. The "Three-Platform and Three-Module" Curriculum System Construction for Higher Vocational Civil Aviation Business Major:A Survey and Investigation Based on Qingdao Airline Company and Its Agency Enterprises%高职民航商务专业“三平台、三模块”课程体系构建--基于青岛市航空公司及代理企业调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 霍连才


    为调整专业建设目标,提升人才培养质量,民航商务专业成立了专业调研小组,走访了山东省周边地区有关的机场和航空公司及其航空代理机构,并充分以民航销售代理人培训为契机,向培训学员开展了问卷调查。本次调研采用现场调研法、查阅资料法、问卷法、访谈(座谈)法、电话访谈法等方式,共调研30多家行业企业,并抽样问卷调查了本专业近三年毕业生,查询了民航局和政治机关等权威部门公布的数据,获得了大量的基础性数据和资料,通过对这些数据分析,明确了我院民航商务专业的专业定位、服务面向、职业岗位群等问题,并以岗位调研为起点,建议构建“三平台、三模块”的课程体系。%In order to adjust professional construction objectives and improve talent cultivation quality, the civil aviation business major has established a professional survey group, and visited relevant airports, airline companies and airline agency institutes in Shandong Province and its surrounding areas, and by virtue of civil aviation marketing agent training, carried out a questionnaire survey on the trainees. On-the-spot survey, materials consulta-tion, questionnaire and interview were adopted in the survey, and over 30 enterprises were included.A sampling questionnaire sur-vey was made on the graduates of the major in recent three years, and the data released by authorized departments such as civil aviation administration and political organs was consulted, so a large number of fundamental data and resources have been ob-tained. Through the analysis on the data, we have clarified the professional orientation,service orientation,and occupation groups of the civil aviation business major in our college, and starting from occupation survey,we suggested that we should construct a "three-platform and three-module" curriculum system.

  16. 78 FR 61203 - Aviation Services (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... aircraft and airport ground vehicles. In addition, we establish service rules for audio visual warning... manage the movement of service vehicles as well as aircraft in the runway movement area. 2. The...

  17. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III


    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  18. Quality Training and Learning in Aviation: Problems of Alignment (United States)

    Moore, Phillip J.; Lehrer, Henry R.; Telfer, Ross A.


    The challenge of producing training programs that lead to quality learning outcomes is ever present in aviation, especially when economic and regulatory pressures are brought into the equation. Previous research by Telfer & Moore (1997) indicates the importance of appropriate alignment of beliefs about learning across all levels of an organization from the managerial level, through the instructor/check and training level, to the pilots and other crew. This paper argues for a central focus on approaches to learning and training that encourage understanding, problem solving and application. Recent research in the area is emphasized as are methods and techniques for enhancing deeper learning.



    J.J. Oberholzer


    In "Militaria" 2/1 (1970) mention was made of M. J. L. Weston, D.Sc., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.A., A.I.E.E. in relation to the training of our first military aircraft pilots and the proposed establishment of a South African Air Force as well as a South African Flying School (p. 14 et seq). He was a consulting engineer and one of the foremost stalwarts in the field of civil and military aviation and the manufacture of aircraft in our country. Dr. Weston directed a request at the beginning of 1913, as m...

  20. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... of October 23, 2012 (77 FR 64836) would require placement of fill on submerged lands jointly managed... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  1. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special...

  2. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter. (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  3. Development of Business Models of Low-Cost Airlines


    Andrija Vidović; Igor Štimac; Damir Vince


    The global economic crisis that affects all industries, including the aviation industry, has forced airlines to adjust their business models to existing market conditions. Low-cost airlines, which till the onset of economic crises in most cases followed the base low-cost business model, have adapted their business model in such a way that they have implemented segments of traditional airlines business models and thus created a hybrid between traditional and low-cost business models. This pape...

  4. Evaluation of Naval Aviation Enterprise airspeed's generation of measurable cost savings and reinvestiment for recapitalization of the future Navy and Marine Corps


    Williams, Robert J.


    Naval Aviation, faced with budgetary pressures, decreasing buying power and increasing costs of aircraft and equipment, realized it had to change the way it did business in order to recapitalize. The Naval Aviation Enterprise (NAE) was formed to implement the aviation components of Sea Power 21 and Sea Enterprise, including modernization and recapitalization. Through the implementation of AIRSpeed, the NAE strives to provide the right amount of readiness at the right cost, so that money can b...

  5. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  6. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II. (United States)

    Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.

    This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter…

  7. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (United States)


    ...: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate holder... relieve that pilot of all duty with it during that rest period. (b) No pilot of an airplane that has...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Oberholzer


    Full Text Available In "Militaria" 2/1 (1970 mention was made of M. J. L. Weston, D.Sc., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.A., A.I.E.E. in relation to the training of our first military aircraft pilots and the proposed establishment of a South African Air Force as well as a South African Flying School (p. 14 et seq. He was a consulting engineer and one of the foremost stalwarts in the field of civil and military aviation and the manufacture of aircraft in our country. Dr. Weston directed a request at the beginning of 1913, as mentioned in this publication, to the then Under Secretary for Defence, with a view to acquiring the authority to train military aircraft pilots, but without success.

  9. 76 FR 60960 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) (United States)


    ... Program. (70 FR 69645). The pilot, including the waiver of regulations, was designed as a temporary... its waiver of the Agency regulations identified in the Federal Register notice at 70 FR 69645 with the... ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Olasunkanmi Oriola


    Full Text Available Aviation crashes all over the world have recently been on the high rise, stemming from negligence, mechanical faults, weather, ground control errors, pilot errors, taxing and maintenance crew errors as probable reasons for such accidents. This study models the probabilistic risk assessment of runway accident hazards in Nigeria aviation sector. Six categories of runway accident hazards with their corresponding basic events were identified and modeled using fault tree analysis method of probabilistic risk assessment. The six categories of runway accident hazards are runway surface conditions, weather conditions, collision risk, aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures and human factors. The Fault Tree developed is a system of OR-gates and the weights for each hazard were derived through a domain/expert opinion. The estimated probability of occurrence of runway accident which is the top event of the Fault Tree model is 0.2624. Fault Tree Analysis; thus, identifies the most likely root causes of runway accident through importance measures. The results of the analysis show close relationship of runway accidents in Nigeria aviation sector with aircraft system failure, approach/takeoff procedures, human factor, weather conditions and collision risk.

  11. Factsheet on developments in aviation


    Joost Kolkman


    The economic recession has had a worldwide impact on the aviation sector. In 2008 and 2009, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol also experienced a steep decline in passenger volumes, freight volumes and flight movements. Compared to three other major European hubs (Paris Charles de Gaulle, London Heathrow and Frankfurt), Schiphol experienced the steepest decline. By late 2009 however the first signs of recovery were apparent. These findings stem from a factsheet the KiM Netherlands Institute for Trans...



    Аrefieva, Оlena; National Aviation University; Miagkykh, Irina; National Aviation University


    The article substantiates the notion of strategy, examines the issues of the formation and implementation of aviation company development strategy, and delineates the contingence of strategy formation upon internal and external factors influencing the long-term stability of companies’ business operation formation.

  13. 76 FR 11845 - Notice of Intent To Review Structure of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Docket: To.... SUMMARY: The FAA is considering restructuring the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC)....

  14. AGATE animation - business theme (United States)


    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  15. Visual analysis of orthokeratology on myopia reduction for aviators (United States)

    Mitsui, Iwane


    Ortho-K was indicated for sixty eyes of thirty aviators, twenty-one pilots and nine flight attendants, with age of 34.5 on the average. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was originally 20/30 or worse in all cases. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) was -3.69 Diopters (D). The same ophthalmologist designed full costumed reverse geometry Advanced Orthokeratology lenses for each patient. All the patients were followed at least two years wearing of Advanced Ortho-K lenses. The follow up examinations on auto-refraction, auto-keratometry, uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness and curve, and corneal shape were performed in the morning, 10am to 12am. 94% of the patients improved in UCVA up to 20/20 or better, 87% of them improved up to 20/15 or better, and 67% of them improved up to 20/10. The mean SEs improved to -1.90+/-1.00D during six months, -1.49+/-1.03D during one year, and -0.73+/-0.94D during two years. Astigmatism slightly increased by 0.38D on the average, however, it did not cause any serious problems for aviation tasks even during night. Intraocular pressure did not increase and corneal endothelial cells did not decrease. Other ophthalmologic examinations showed normal conditions and any complications were not observed throughout the period. Advanced Ortho-K was evaluated to be safe and effective enough for also aviators with myopia. It can be recommended one of the options of reduction of myopia for aviators. Evaluations on night vision and night glare are planned for further studies.

  16. Health physics concerns in commercial aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airline pilots and flight attendants are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation. There has been uncertainty about how to handle the radiation protection requirements of their unique situation. Calculated dose equivalents associated with typical flight routes and crewmember work patterns have recently been published. The results show that flight attendants and pilots on ordinary subsonic aircraft can receive annual doses approaching 10 mSv y-1. I argue that flight crewmembers should receive specific education regarding the risks to their health from radiation exposure. I also argue that a suitable dosimeter system should be employed to provide crewmembers with information on their total doses. This is of particular importance for pregnant crewmembers who risk exceeding recommended fetal dose limits by working some routes during their pregnancy. In addition to airline crewmembers, business frequent flyers may receive significant occupational exposures while traveling. They too need appropriate education in order to assist them in assessing their risks from such exposures. Finally, flying during a large solar proton event would significantly increase the dose that would be received. During such an event, the total dose to the fetus of a pregnant crewmember or passenger might exceed the 0.5 mSv recommended monthly maximum. Warnings and action plans for these special circumstances should be improved

  17. The sales of empty legs in business aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav BELORID


    Full Text Available This article contains case study of empty legs that consists of three basic cases that explain possible scenarios that serve for risk evaluation using variability of time as well as number of other entering factors.

  18. Airborne volcanic ash; a global threat to aviation (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Guffanti, Marianne C.


    The world's busy air traffic corridors pass over or downwind of hundreds of volcanoes capable of hazardous explosive eruptions. The risk to aviation from volcanic activity is significant - in the United States alone, aircraft carry about 300,000 passengers and hundreds of millions of dollars of cargo near active volcanoes each day. Costly disruption of flight operations in Europe and North America in 2010 in the wake of a moderate-size eruption in Iceland clearly demonstrates how eruptions can have global impacts on the aviation industry. Airborne volcanic ash can be a serious hazard to aviation even hundreds of miles from an eruption. Encounters with high-concentration ash clouds can diminish visibility, damage flight control systems, and cause jet engines to fail. Encounters with low-concentration clouds of volcanic ash and aerosols can accelerate wear on engine and aircraft components, resulting in premature replacement. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with national and international partners, is playing a leading role in the international effort to reduce the risk posed to aircraft by volcanic eruptions.

  19. Taxation of United States general aviation (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  20. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd


    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.



    Chen, Sainan


    With the social and economic development, the civil aviation industry of China is experiencing rapid growth. This growth will lead to more CO2 emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse effect are already serious problems especially in China, but also all over the world. Civil aviation has brought environmental pollution in the context of improving social activity and economic growth. Because of civil aviation, the rapid increase of the total amount of air pollutants are also in...

  2. Trends and Analyses of General Aviation Fatalities


    Nordyke, Shane


    Recent publications have shown that general aviation accident rates in the United States are decreasing, though they remain much higher than other segments of aviation. What is behind this safety improvement? Are all types of accidents decreasing or are certain types of accidents driving the overall decrease? This study provides the preliminary results of an in depth analysis of the causes of fatal general aviation accidents from 1992 through 2002. First a database of all fatal Part 91 accide...

  3. Beyond 'Inop': Logbook Communication Between Airline Mechanics and Pilots (United States)

    Munro, Pamela A.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Jordan, Kevin


    When mechanical discrepancies occur on aircraft, effective communication between pilots and mechanics can facilitate identification of the problem. A survey of pilots and mechanics was conducted to determine how often they were able to discuss discrepancies directly and to identify factors that influenced the detail they provided about discrepancies in the aircraft logbook. Logistical factors such as short turn times between flights and crew schedules appeared to present barriers to face-to-face meetings between pilots and mechanics. Guidelines for pilot logbook entries. Pilots reported receiving significantly less training on writing logbook entries and spent significantly less time making individual entries than mechanics. Mechanics indicated greater concern about the Federal Aviation Administration reading their entries than pilots. Mechanics indicated they had little opportunity to follow up with pilots to clarify a logbook entry once pilots departed the aircraft.

  4. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.





    The aim of the research is to highlight and analysis of opportunities for implementing interaction management "business external environment - the company". In accordance with the order named, it outlines the following objectives: to identify opportunities and threats to the aviation sector level and application of interaction management "business external environment - the company", the study of factors influencing the external environment of business aviation company, determining interdepen...

  6. Business ethics


    Raman Arora


    Ethics contain a set of principles of personal and professional conduct .The concept of Business ethics relates itself to the norms and the ideals businessman and business groups adopt in course of their activities in business .Business ethics is an assertion of “be good” and “do good” in business. Ethical business practices has been a blessing to the enterprises as it ensures faith in society ,government trust ,business partners trust .on the other hand unethical business pra...

  7. 14 CFR 61.415 - What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? (United States)


    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.415 Section 61.415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.415 What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a...

  8. 14 CFR 61.313 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate? (United States)


    ... apply for a sport pilot certificate? 61.313 Section 61.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.313 What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a sport... aeronautical experience you must have to apply for a sport pilot certificate: If you are applying for a...

  9. 14 CFR 61.427 - What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? (United States)


    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? 61.427 Section 61.427 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.427 What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? You may exchange your expired flight...

  10. Pilot mental health: expert working group recommendations. (United States)


    Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety. PMID:23316549

  11. Aviation Maintenance (Aircraft Mechanics & Aircraft & Instrument Repair Personnel). Aviation Careers Series. Revised. (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines career opportunities in aviation maintenance. The booklet provides the following information about aviation maintenance jobs: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs are, wages and benefits, opportunities for advancement, requirements to enter the job, opportunities for…

  12. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report. (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

  13. 76 FR 81009 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task (United States)


    ... recommendations related to aviation issues. On July 15, 2009, the FAA tasked ARAC (74 FR 34390) to provide advice... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  14. Brigadier General Theodore C Lyster [correction of Lister], MD: father of American aviation medicine. (United States)

    Barrios, J; O'Leary, J P


    Aviation medicine came into existence as a recognized entity when certain standards were established during and shortly after World War I. During this time, accident rates were high. In fact, a larger number of pilots were dying in accidents than in combat. Figures from Great Britain's casualty list at the close of the first year of World War I indicated that for every 100 aviators killed, 60 died as a result of some individual physical defect, 30 from some form of recklessness or careless behavior, 8 as a result of some mechanical defect in the airplane, and only 2 at the hands of the enemy. Aviators were found to be in poor physical condition. Because there were no established regulations with regard to workloads, aviators were frequently found to have been flying to a point beyond exhaustion. Because of workload, chronic fatigue, and emotional stress, aviators were constantly called upon to perform superhuman feats when not in peak physical condition. Errors in judgement were common. The majority of pilots lost weight as a somatic sign of stress. This was recognized by Theodore Lyster [corrected] who had recently been appointed as the Chief Surgeon, Aviation Section of the U.S. Army. Such problems were not diagnosed by medical officers because they were not trained to recognize them. Theodore Charles Lyster [corrected] was the son of Captain William J. and Martha Doughty Lyster [corrected]. He was an Army "brat" who entered the world on July 10, 1875. His childhood was spent in various posts around the country. At the age of 7, Lyster [corrected] contracted yellow fever while living in Fort Brown, TX. The boy was treated by William Gorgas, a young post surgeon. Gorgas was credited with the young boy's recovery. Later, Gorgas was to marry Lyster's [corrected] aunt making Lyster [corrected] his nephew by marriage. Having survived the yellow fever infection, young Lyster [corrected] had a lifelong immunity to the disease. PMID:10917489

  15. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  16. History of Turkish Air Force Aviation School and the Process of Transition to Air Force Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman YALÇIN


    Full Text Available Turkish aviation has started as a military entity. The foundation of ‘’Tayyare Komisyonu’’ (Airplane Comission in June 1, 1911 has been accepted as the official starting point. The organization of aviation includes pilot training, airplane supply, fondation of aviation school, establishment of combatant units, and building the air vehicles with local and national endeavour. Later, air defense systems, meteorology, training observers, machine specialist and technicians has gained importance as well. Turkish aviation has been built upon the ruins of the last wars of Ottoman Empire. After the invasion of the British and the French, Ottoman aviators moved to Maltepe and then to various parts of Anatolia eventually. During the Independence War, aviation school was founded in Eskişehir, moved to Adana, Konya, and came back to Adana again. After the Greek forces were expelled from Anatolia via İzmir, aviation school was moved to İzmir. In 1925, it was brought back to Eskişehir on October 1, 1951. After WWII, the duration of training in order to be a pilot was six years. In 1929, aviation school turned out to be an academic institution as well. On October 1, 1951, Air Force Academy was established in Eskişehir. Due to high sound of jet air planes, the academy was moved to İzmir in 1954. Education and training were restructured there and the quality was raised. In 1967, Air Force Academy was moved back to Yeşilköy where Turkish aviation was born some 47 years ago. Due to academic diversity and rich culture heritage, a productive period has started in Istanbul. Air Force Academy has been an institution offering BA level education since 2001 whose process goes back to 1990s. Around 90 civilian and 50 military academicians conduct education and research per year. Military training including Yalova encampment site, affective domain training, and sports activities are also conducted as well. With a 103 years history and around 16.000 graduates

  17. Military aviation noise:noise-induced hearing impairment and noise protection


    Kuronen, P. (Pentti)


    Abstract This research on military aviation noise was conducted because the personnel working with military aircraft were concerned about noise induced hearing damage. In addition, comprehensive data on hearing impairments and occupational exposure of military pilots in the Finnish Air Force was not available. Moreover, data on the effects of overflight noise of military jets was necessary for the evaluation of noise induced hearing deteriorations of members of the ...

  18. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any aircraft.... More severe penalties are provided in 19 U.S.C. 1590 if the smuggled merchandise is a...

  19. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  20. Air Age Education. Aviation Career Awareness Program. (United States)

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    Described is a program designed to help introduce the broad scope of occupational careers available with general aviation. The program is designed to aid the teacher in presenting the basic principles of flight, essential facts about general aviation as well as its occupational opportunities. It replaces previous elementary student materials, and…

  1. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP)

  2. PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION OF UKRAINE International aviation organizations




    Analyzed the classification of international aviation organizations and offered suggestions on the State Comprehensive program of aviation industry of Ukraine for the period until 2010, in accordance with the method, which is recommended by international aviation organizations.

  3. Flight Simulation for Tomorrow's Aviation


    Durak, Umut


    Flight simulators have been operated within the aeronautics community for human factor studies and flight systems development for the last half century. They are virtual test beds, to evaluate concepts, conduct pilot-in-the-loop experiments and collect valuable user experience data. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Flight Systems is involved in developing and employing research flight simulators for more than 40 years. The first generation ground based simulator of DLR was built...

  4. Keselamatan Penerbangan: Teori dan Problematika (Aviation Safety: Theory and Problematic)


    Adhy Riadhy


    “Keselamatan Penerbangan: Teori dan Problematika (Aviation Safety: Theory and Problematic)” is written by aviation practioner in Indonesia. The writer explores the aviation problematic based on his experience in more than three decades. Many issues out of box in aviation arise in this book, such as “Kebenaran Dalam Penerbangan (The Truth in Aviation)” which is focus on international aviation policy and regulations made by ICAO through research and development (scientific truth) and written on...

  5. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business name. 294.31 Section 294.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business...

  6. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally and...... globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines the...... organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  7. Pilot Mental Health: Expert Working Group Recommendations - Revised 2015. (United States)


    In September 2012, the Aerospace Medical Association published and distributed recommendations from its Pilot Mental Health Working Group to improve awareness and identification of pilot mental health issues during the aeromedical assessment of pilots. Following the crash of Germanwings Flight 9525 in March 2015 with pilot suicide as the probable cause, the Pilot Mental Health Working Group reconvened to review their recommendations. As a result, the working group revised the recommendations which are provided here and which were distributed worldwide. The Working Group continues to emphasize the importance of assessing and optimizing pilot mental health, while providing additional recommendations on building trust and rapport between the aeromedical examiner and the pilot, on utilizing aviation mental health and aeromedical specialists, and on the balance between medical confidentiality and risk to public safety. The working group encourages all organizations involved in flight safety to review and consider implementing these recommendations within their usual operations. PMID:27099091

  8. Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities Project (United States)

    Texter, P. Cardie


    standards for quality of teaching, and an educational agenda that promotes high standards for all students, Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities had as its aim to deliver products to schools, both in and outside the project sites, which attempt to incorporate multi-disciplined approaches in the presentation of a curriculum which would be appropriate in any classroom, while also aiming to appeal to young women and minorities. The curriculum was developed to provide students with fundamentals of aeronautics and aviation science. The curriculum also encouraged involving students and teachers in research projects, and further information gathering via electronic bulletin boards and internet capabilities. Though not entirely prescriptive, the curriculum was designed to guide teachers through recommended activities to supplement MCET's live telecast video presentations. Classroom teachers were encouraged to invite local pilots, meteorologists, and others from the field of aviation and aeronautics, particularly women and minorities to visit schools and to field questions from the students.

  9. [Aviation medicine problems in otorhinolaryngology]. (United States)

    Kressin, J


    The physico-technical conditions during flight change the physiology of the paranasal sinus, of the middle ear and of the teeth especially due to decompression. Clinical problems and the possibility of prophylaxis and therapy before and under flying conditions are declared. Aerosinusitis, -otitis and aerodontalgia are discussed. The hearing system under conditions of aircraft noise, noise protection for passengers and pilots are explained as some advises for flying with implanted hearing aids. The kinetosis as a disturbed physiological process connected with the kinetic stimulus of flying, the influence of their origin and their strengthening or prevention are described. PMID:10568253

  10. Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts demonstration project. Phase 1: Pilot's weather information requirements and implications for weather data systems design (United States)

    Crabill, Norman L.; Dash, Ernie R.


    The weather information requirements for pilots and the deficiencies of the current aviation weather support system in meeting these requirements are defined. As the amount of data available to pilots increases significantly in the near future, expert system technology will be needed to assist pilots in assimilating that information. Some other desirable characteristics of an automation-assisted system for weather data acquisition, dissemination, and assimilation are also described.

  11. Business Plan


    Neterda, Karel


    The objective of the diploma thesis is aimed at business plan for real estate agency. Theoretical part of the thesis focuses on basic definitions regarding new company establishment. As follows: business laws, legal form of companies, business grants and structure of the business plan. Practical part describes a business plan for real estate agency and evaluate the business environment and current competition through these methods: Porter Five Force Model, SWOT -- and PEST analyses. Further, ...

  12. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised). (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  13. Global Simulation of Aviation Operations (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok Kwan; Li, Jinhua; Sheth, Kapil; Morando, Alex


    The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.

  14. Controller-Pilot Data Link Communication – (TAXI-CPDLC)


    Jakobi, Jörn


    Increasing traffic rates in aviation cause bottlenecks in safety and efficiency, particularly on the ground at major airports. Voice communication radio channels are often overloaded and pilots are less supported to find their way and to avoid other traffic. Controller-Pilot Data Link Communication during taxi (TAXI-CPDLC) is one promising service to bring benefits in terms of unload the radio channel by taking over ‘routine communication’ and to enable the transfer and representation of the ...

  15. The spousal factor in pilot stress. (United States)

    Karlins, M; Koh, F; McCully, L


    This paper discusses the various occupational and non-occupational stresses faced by commercial aviators, with particular emphasis on the role of the pilot's spouse in the stress management equation. Using findings from scientific studies, we suggest that the spouse can be a major social support system for the aviator and a significant factor in the pilot's ability to deal effectively with psychosocial stress. We recommend that airlines develop programs that: a) honor (recognize) the spouses for their contribution to safe aircraft operation (by helping the aviator cope with stress more effectively); and b) make both husband and wife more aware of the special needs, concerns, and challenges that each partner faces in an "airline marriage." These programs are not intended to be counseling sessions or intrusions into the personal lives of the participants, but rather, opportunities for aviators and their spouses to become more aware of their dual role and contributions to effective stress management which, in turn, can enhance flight deck performance. One such program, already in use by an international airline, is described and discussed. PMID:2684130

  16. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  17. Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SBIR Phase I Project proposes a new passive microwave airborne sensor for in flight icing hazard detection, Microwave Radiometer for Aviation Safety. A feasibility...

  18. Career Education: Educating Future Aviation Executives. (United States)

    Carkeet, John


    Provides a broad view of college preparation necessary for students entering an aviation executive education program. Also lists important qualifications to be noted when interviewing prospective faculty members for teaching positions in this area of college education. (CS)

  19. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there...

  20. Piezoelectric gravimeter of gravity aviation systems


    Ткачук, Андрій Геннадійович


    The article describes the aviation gravity system for measuring the gravity anomalies, sensing element which is piezoelectric gravimeter. Special attention is paid to the design and principle of the gravimeter

  1. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation


    Lee, D. S.; G. Pitari; V. Grewe; Gierens, K.; Penner, J. E.; A. Petzold; Prather, M. J.; Schumann, U.; Bais, A.; T. Berntsen; Iachetti, D; Lim, L. L.; Sausen, R.


    Aviation alters the composition of the atmosphere globally and can thus drive climate change and ozone depletion. The last major international assessment of these impacts was made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1999. Here, a comprehensive updated assessment of aviation is provided. Scientific advances since the 1999 assessment have reduced key uncertainties, sharpening the quantitative evaluation, yet the basic conclusions remain the same. The climate impact of avi...

  2. Aviation, Carbon, and the Clean Air Act


    Richardson, Nathan


    This paper explores the policy options available to the United States for regulating greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft under existing law: the Clean Air Act (CAA). Europe has unilaterally and controversially moved to include aviation emissions in its Emissions Trading System. The United States can, however, allow its airlines to escape this requirement by imposing “equivalent” regulation. U.S. aviation emissions rules could also have significant environmental benefits and would limit dom...

  3. Deregulation of Domestic Aviation - the First Year


    Lawrence, Craig; Grimm, Curt; Jennings, Brad; Wuest, Norm; Street, John


    The Commonwealth's regulation of interstate aviation, in place for over thirty years, came to an end at midnight on 30 October 1990. This study reviews the developments in the last few months of regulation and in the first year of deregulation. Based on the first year's evidence, deregulation of domestic aviation in Australia has, from the consumer's perspective, been very successful. Reliance on market forces and competition, as opposed to regulation, has so far provided clear benefits...

  4. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report. (United States)

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  5. World experience in aviation companies staffing executive and administrative personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Shkoda


    Full Text Available Leading international aviation companies experience in staffing executive and administrative personnel is considered in the article. The author analyzes staffing specifics of such aviation companies as Southwest Airlines, Lufthansa AG, and work of such staffing agencies as Aeropeople Aerotek in this direction. It is defined that Ukrainian aviation companies should use world leading aviation companies experience.

  6. A case for biofuels in aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  7. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.


    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  8. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004 (United States)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.


    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  9. Psychophysiological Assessment of Fatigue in Commercial Aviation Operations (United States)

    Hernandez, Norma; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William


    The overall goal of this study is to improve our understanding of crew work hours, workload, sleep, fatigue, and performance, and the relationships between these variables on actual flight deck performance. Specifically, this study will provide objective measures of physiology and performance, which may benefit investigators in identifying fatigue levels of operators in commercial aviation and provide a way to better design strategies to limit crew fatigue. This research was supported by an agreement between NASA Ames Research Center and easyJet Airline Company, Ltd., Luton, UK. Twenty commercial pilots volunteered to participant in the study that included 15 flight duty days. Participants wore a Zephyr Bioharness ambulatory physiological monitor each flight day, which measured their heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, activity and posture. In addition, pilots completed sleep log diaries, self-report scales of mood, sleepiness and workload, and a Performance Vigilance Task (PVT). All data were sent to NASA researchers for processing and analyses. Heart rate variability data of several subjects were subjected to a spectral analysis to examine power in specific frequency bands. Increased power in low frequency band was associated with reports of higher subjective sleepinesss in some subjects. Analyses of other participants data are currently underway.

  10. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.


    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  11. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.;


    difficult to plan and conduct. It is sometimes assumed that pilot implementations are less complicated and risky than ordinary implementations. Pilot implementations are, however, neither prototyping nor small-scale versions of full-scale implementations; they are fundamentally different and have their own...

  12. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.;


    to plan and conduct. It is sometimes assumed that pilot implementations are less complicated and risky than ordinary implementations. Pilot implementations are, however, neither prototyping nor small-scale versions of full-scale implementations; they are fundamentally different and have their own...

  13. Business plan


    Monakov, Victor


    The aim of this bachelor's thesis is to prepare a business plan for web design courses in Prague and feasibility & efficiency evaluation of this type of business. In the theoretical part of my bachelor's thesis, I focus on important terms, structure and aspects of a business plan. In the practical part, I apply theoretical knowledge and create a real business plan.

  14. 14 CFR 61.101 - Recreational pilot privileges and limitations. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recreational pilot privileges and limitations. 61.101 Section 61.101 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... demonstrate that aircraft in flight as an aircraft salesperson to a prospective buyer; (13) That is used in...

  15. Business intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebotarean Elena


    Full Text Available Business intelligence (BI refers to computer-based techniques used in spotting, digging-out, and analyzing business data, such as sales revenue by products and/or departments, or by associated costs and incomes. BI technologies provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of business intelligence technologies are reporting, online analytical processing, analytics, data mining, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, and predictive analytics. Business intelligence aims to support better business decision-making. Thus a BI system can be called a decision support system (DSS. Though the term business intelligence is sometimes used as a synonym for competitive intelligence, because they both support decision making, BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. Business intelligence understood broadly can include the subset of competitive intelligence.

  16. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XV: Alertness Management in General Aviation Education Module (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Cannon, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)


    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  17. Playful Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Nielsen, Louise Møller


    ” The term business model can be defined as a business concept that has been put into practice. The increase in dynamics in markets, technology, economies etc. challenge the requirements to make consistent and synchronized decisions on which business models to develop and implement. Complexity...... efficiently. This paper describes initial experiences of facilitating business model mapping or business model innovation by game-like setups.”...

  18. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels (United States)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  19. JISCARD GUI, a graphical interface application for simple and quick calculation of aviation route doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilots, flight attendants, and passengers aboard jet aircrafts are subjected to higher cosmic radiation levels at high altitude than on the ground. Additional dose, received during flight is called 'aviation route dose'. Addressing the needs for precise and easy determination of aviation route doses (Sv), the authors have developed a new application 'JISCARD GUI' with a graphical user interface which provides dose rate (Sv/h) distribution along a flight route and aviation route dose. The graphical interface made with Adobe Flash provide functions to select airports on dynamic map or to search by airport/city names, and to report resulting aviation route doses and graphs of dose rate change through a flight. Dose rate data at several cut off rigidity, Rc and force field potential, FFP were calculated in advance using a PHITS-based analytical model and stored in the server as matrix data. Upon user's request of departure/arrival airports and flight date, interpolation using matrix data substantiates derivation of dose rate distribution in a simple and quick manner with sufficient accuracy. Precision of the dose calculation was verified by comparison with JISCARD EX (MS-Excel version) released in September 2008. This advanced application will be open to public through the website of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the near future. (author)

  20. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.


    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  1. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine


    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  2. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation (United States)

    Lee, D. S.; Pitari, G.; Grewe, V.; Gierens, K.; Penner, J. E.; Petzold, A.; Prather, M. J.; Schumann, U.; Bais, A.; Berntsen, T.; Iachetti, D.; Lim, L. L.; Sausen, R.


    Aviation alters the composition of the atmosphere globally and can thus drive climate change and ozone depletion. The last major international assessment of these impacts was made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1999. Here, a comprehensive updated assessment of aviation is provided. Scientific advances since the 1999 assessment have reduced key uncertainties, sharpening the quantitative evaluation, yet the basic conclusions remain the same. The climate impact of aviation is driven by long-term impacts from CO 2 emissions and shorter-term impacts from non-CO 2 emissions and effects, which include the emissions of water vapour, particles and nitrogen oxides (NO x). The present-day radiative forcing from aviation (2005) is estimated to be 55 mW m -2 (excluding cirrus cloud enhancement), which represents some 3.5% (range 1.3-10%, 90% likelihood range) of current anthropogenic forcing, or 78 mW m -2 including cirrus cloud enhancement, representing 4.9% of current forcing (range 2-14%, 90% likelihood range). According to two SRES-compatible scenarios, future forcings may increase by factors of 3-4 over 2000 levels, in 2050. The effects of aviation emissions of CO 2 on global mean surface temperature last for many hundreds of years (in common with other sources), whilst its non-CO 2 effects on temperature last for decades. Much progress has been made in the last ten years on characterizing emissions, although major uncertainties remain over the nature of particles. Emissions of NO x result in production of ozone, a climate warming gas, and the reduction of ambient methane (a cooling effect) although the overall balance is warming, based upon current understanding. These NO x emissions from current subsonic aviation do not appear to deplete stratospheric ozone. Despite the progress made on modelling aviation's impacts on tropospheric chemistry, there remains a significant spread in model results. The knowledge of aviation's impacts on cloudiness

  3. Hypertension in Indonesian air force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian


    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the association between aircraft noise and blood pressure.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Aviation and Aerospace Health (LAKESPRA from 2003 – 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, total flight hours, type of aircraft, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels, waist circumference, height and weight (Body Mass Index, and blood pressure.Results: There were 549 pilots, 49 were found to be hypertensive, with SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Helicopters pilots were at an almost 2 fold risk of hypertension compared to pilots of the fixed wing aircrafts. Pilots with more than 1400 hours of flight had more than 2 fold risk of being hypertensive compared to those with 1400 flight hours or less.Conclusion: The type of aircraft, which is related to the noise generated, may be a risk factor for developing hypertension in pilots. Increased total flight hours also increased the risk of hypertension. (Med J Indones 2012;21:38-43Keywords: Aircraft noise, hypertension, pilots

  4. Flight instructors’ perceptions of pilot behaviour related to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold P. Vermeulen


    Full Text Available This study investigated flight instructors’ perceptions with regard to gender-related pilot behaviour. The subjects fell into two sample groups. The first sample consisted of 93 flight instructors and the second sample was a control group of 93 commercial pilots. The Aviation Gender Attitude Questionnaire (AGAQ was administered to measure the perceptions that both groups held about female pilots’ flying proficiency and safety orientation. Statistical analysis revealed that flight instructors and commercial pilots differed significantly in their perceptions of female pilots’ flying proficiency but that the two groups did not differ in their perceptions of female pilots’ safety orientation.

  5. Human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions. (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yang, Hui-Hua; Hsiao, Yu-Jung


    A breakdown analysis of civil aviation accidents worldwide indicates that the occurrence of runway excursions represents the largest portion among all aviation occurrence categories. This study examines the human risk factors associated with pilots in runway excursions, by applying a SHELLO model to categorize the human risk factors and to evaluate the importance based on the opinions of 145 airline pilots. This study integrates aviation management level expert opinions on relative weighting and improvement-achievability in order to develop four kinds of priority risk management strategies for airline pilots to reduce runway excursions. The empirical study based on experts' evaluation suggests that the most important dimension is the liveware/pilot's core ability. From the perspective of front-line pilots, the most important risk factors are the environment, wet/containment runways, and weather issues like rain/thunderstorms. Finally, this study develops practical strategies for helping management authorities to improve major operational and managerial weaknesses so as to reduce the human risks related to runway excursions. PMID:27344128

  6. Analysis of trends in aviation maintenance risk: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety is paramount in the airline industry. A significant amount of effort has been devoted to reducing mechanical failures and pilot errors. Recently, more attention has been devoted to the contribution of maintenance to accidents and incidents. This study investigates and quantifies the contribution of maintenance, both in terms of frequency and severity, to passenger airline risk by analyzing three different sources of data from 1999 to 2008: 769 NTSB accident reports, 3242 FAA incident reports, and 7478 FAA records of fines and other legal actions taken against airlines and associated organizations. We analyze several safety related metrics and develop an aviation maintenance risk scorecard that collects these metrics to synthesize a comprehensive track record of maintenance contribution to airline accidents and incidents. We found for example that maintenance-related accidents are approximately 6.5 times more likely to be fatal than accidents in general, and that when fatalities do occur, maintenance accidents result in approximately 3.6 times more fatalities on average. Our analysis of accident trends indicates that this contribution to accident risk has remained fairly constant over the past decade. Our analysis of incidents and FAA fines and legal actions also revealed similar trends. We found that at least 10% of incidents involving mechanical failures such as ruptured hydraulic lines can be attributed to maintenance, suggesting that there may be issues surrounding both the design of and compliance with maintenance plans. Similarly 36% of FAA fines and legal actions involve inadequate maintenance, with recent years showing a decline to about 20%, which may be a reflection of improved maintenance practices. Our results can aid industry and government in focusing resources to continue improving aviation safety.

  7. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.


    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  8. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques (United States)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.


    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  9. Computer technology forecast study for general aviation (United States)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D.


    A multi-year, multi-faceted program is underway to investigate and develop potential improvements in airframes, engines, and avionics for general aviation aircraft. The objective of this study was to assemble information that will allow the government to assess the trends in computer and computer/operator interface technology that may have application to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. The current state of the art of computer hardware is assessed, technical developments in computer hardware are predicted, and nonaviation large volume users of computer hardware are identified.

  10. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  11. Business analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Debra; Cadle, James


    Throughout the business world, public, private and not-for-profit organisations face huge challenges. Business analysts must respond by developing practical, creative and financially sound solutions. This excellent guide gives them the necessary tools. It supports everyone wanting to achieve university and industry qualifications in business analysis and information systems. It is particularly beneficial for those studying for ISEB qualifications in Business Analysis. Some important additions since the first edition (2006): the inclusion of new techniques such as Ishikawa diagrams and spaghe

  12. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business. (United States)

    Olson, Mark A.


    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  13. Le patriotisme des pilotes grecs pendant la Première et la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale : idéal suprême, sources des hautes qualités et valeurs morales nécessaires pour défendre leur pays : à travers des sources d'archives de l'aviation de guerre grecque


    Coroli, Maria


    Enseigner l'histoire militaire à l'école de l'air d'Athènes nous a donné la possibilité d'avoir accès aux archives de l'aviation, dans lesquelles nous avons souvent puisé afin d'en extraire des données historiques. Les documents primaires, donc authentiques, ont à la fois donné une image assez complète et plutôt captivante de l'action héroïque des aviateurs pendant les deux Guerres Mondiales. Des valeurs nationales, sources d’inspiration patriotique telles que l’héroïsme, le courage, le sacri...



    Nelu BURCEA; Croitoru, Ion


    Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...

  15. Aviation Structural Mechanic E 1 & C. (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual is one of a series of training handbooks prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve who are studying for advancement in the Aviation Structural Mechanic E (AME) rating. The manual is based on the professional qualifications for the rates AME1 and AMEC. Chapters are organized according to specific job…

  16. NASA and General Aviation. NASA SP-485. (United States)

    Ethell, Jeffrey L.

    A detailed examination of the nature and function of general aviation and a discussion of how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology are offered in this publication. The intricacies of aerodynamics, energy, and safety as well as the achievements in aeronautical experimentation are…

  17. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.


    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  18. Aviation Structural Mechanic H1 & C. (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual and nonresident career course presents materials for individualized study that will assist Aviation Structural Mechanics in Hydraulics (AMH) in meeting the occupational requirements of their rating. The study materials seek to improve job skills among Navy petty officers in conjunction with their on-the-job training as…

  19. Formation of communication skills of aviation specialists


    Коваленко, Ольга Олександрівна


    Culture of the professional communication is the basis of the professional activity. It is spoken about the process of formation of the professional communication culture, where communication, professionalism of the communication are foundation of it in personal oriented studying by means of creative technologies; examined about peculiarities, and defined conditions of formation of professional oral skills culture of future aviation specialists.

  20. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised. (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…


    Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, KS.


  2. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education. [Volume II]. (United States)

    Williams, Debbie; Hickson, Carol

    This series consists of four packets containing simple, concrete activities for students in the upper elementary grades. The purpose of the series is to illustrate certain principles related to various concepts of aviation and space. Each packet forms a coherent program of instruction on a single topic: (1) non-powered flight; (2) aerospace and…

  3. Demand Estimation for Collegiate Aviation Academic Programs. (United States)

    Goodell, Phillips W.

    This paper addresses the issue of how one might go about providing a reasonable answer to the question of how many students will enroll in a new academic program at a university and applies the principles to the process of estimating demand for a new collegiate aviation program. A combination of approaches is suggested, including the following:…

  4. Miramar College Program Evaluation: Aviation Maintenance. (United States)

    Moriyama, Bruce; Brumley, Leslie

    Qualitative and quantitative data are presented in this evaluation of the curricular, personnel, and financial status of Miramar College's program in aviation maintenance. The report first provides the results of an interview with the program chairperson, which sought information on program objectives and goals and their determination, the extent…

  5. 76 FR 17613 - Aviation Service Regulations (United States)


    ... FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the Internet by... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Service Regulations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... on or before the dates indicated on the first page of this document. Comments may be filed using:...

  6. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised. (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  7. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series. (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  8. Nobody seems to speak English here today: Enhancing assessment and training in aviation English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Douglas


    Full Text Available In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and in no country are native speakers of English tested for their ability to employ what has been termed "interactional competence" when using English for intercultural communication. Problems with this situation are reviewed and suggestions made for improving English assessment and training.

  9. Business support within business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Aard


    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a cruci

  10. NASA's Single-Pilot Operations Technical Interchange Meeting: Proceedings and Findings (United States)

    Comerford, Doreen; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel B.; Wu, Shu-Chieh; Mogford, Richard H.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.


    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and Langley Research Center are jointly investigating issues associated with potential concepts, or configurations, in which a single pilot might operate under conditions that are currently reserved for a minimum of two pilots. As part of early efforts, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a technical interchange meeting in order to gain insight from members of the aviation community regarding single-pilot operations (SPO). The meeting was held on April 10-12, 2012 at NASA Ames Research Center. Professionals in the aviation domain were invited because their areas of expertise were deemed to be directly related to an exploration of SPO. NASA, in selecting prospective participants, attempted to represent various relevant sectors within the aviation domain. Approximately 70 people representing government, academia, and industry attended. A primary focus of this gathering was to consider how tasks and responsibilities might be re-allocated to allow for SPO.

  11. 78 FR 49595 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task (United States)


    ..., advice, and recommendations related to aviation issues. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB... final guidance on appointment of lobbyists to federal boards and commissions (76 FR 61756, October 5... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal...

  12. Absolute cross-section of turbojet aviation engine calculation


    Ryabokon, Evgen


    The calculation method of three-dimensional model of turbojet aviation engine is offered, thus the form of turbine vanes with spiralling is described like parametric surface. The method allows make the calculation of absolute cross-section (ACS) of turbojet aviation engines with different geometrical parameters. The calculation results of ACS of aviation engine are presented.

  13. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting (United States)


    ... interested persons that the First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on April... solutions. DATES: The First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on April 19-20... aviation noise impacts research. The first annual meeting will focus on the following topics: noise...

  14. Stress and Job Satisfaction among Air Force Military Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Stress induces impairment of performance is a relatively common issue in pilots of military aviation. The present study aimed at gathering preliminary data on the relationship between stress and job satisfaction among military pilots, so determine to what extent military pilots suffering from job satisfaction. This study was cross- sectional in design and used survey methodology. The survey was offered to 89 military pilots. Subjects completed a Questionnaire with 32-item on Aviation Stress and short form of Minnesota job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ. Results indicated that %33.7 pilots who had mild stress, %48.3 pilots who exhibited moderate stress and only, %13.5 pilots who indicated high stress. The stresses in pilots rating so: life stress, organizational stress, flight environmental stress and task-based stress. The correlation between job satisfactions and life stress was (-0/53, with organizational stress (-0/38, with flight environmental stress (-0/25, with task-based stressors (-0/23 and finally correlation between job satisfaction with flying hours was (-0/22. At this time when our military pilots have the least flights and spend most of their time idly, having no schedule can increase their stress, as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide them with some training, informing, evaluating and other psychological services, especially life skills and organizational skills. Furthermore, attending to military pilots and filling their schedule with useful programs such as flight with civilian airplanes, educational and research activities, favorite executive activities, sports and entertainment can decrease their stress, increase their job satisfaction and decrease their occupational weariness.

  15. 78 FR 21700 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  16. 77 FR 59243 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  17. 76 FR 14115 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  18. 78 FR 57672 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  19. 77 FR 24759 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  20. 75 FR 10551 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  1. 77 FR 40699 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Teleconference on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Teleconference on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public teleconference. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public teleconference of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking...

  2. 75 FR 55393 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  3. 76 FR 60115 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the FAA's Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  4. 75 FR 52807 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issues-New Task (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issues--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the...

  5. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Nebraska Aviation Education Association Conference (1st, Omaha, Nebraska, January 1994). The UNO Aviation Monograph Series. (United States)

    Crehan, James E., Ed.

    This collection of six papers constitutes the proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Nebraska Aviation Education Association. These papers present many issues that the discipline of aviation is confronting, including those related to the aviation industry. The papers included are as follows: (1) "Using the DAT for Selection of Pilot…

  7. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia


    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  8. Business plan


    Bekesheva, Karina


    This Bachelor`s thesis is a business plan of the event agency. It consists of two parts: theoretical and practical. Theoretical part is based on theory from books and other re-sources. In theoretical part there are some definitions about entrepreneurship, business plan and some strategic analyses tools. In addition, it includes the history of entrepre-neurship in Kazakhstan. Practical part is focused on creation the business plan. It in-volves some external and internal analyses, marketing st...

  9. Business plan


    Poulová, Markéta


    The subject of this thesis is to handle the business of the project for the already existing Goat farm High – for Cross breeding goats, engaged in the production of goat's milk and its subsequent processing into dairy products. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of the work defines the theoretical definition of business project and its individual parts. There are defined the basic features of the business project, characterized by the concept of r...

  10. Keselamatan Penerbangan: Teori dan Problematika (Aviation Safety: Theory and Problematic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhy Riadhy


    Full Text Available “Keselamatan Penerbangan: Teori dan Problematika (Aviation Safety: Theory and Problematic” is written by aviation practioner in Indonesia. The writer explores the aviation problematic based on his experience in more than three decades. Many issues out of box in aviation arise in this book, such as “Kebenaran Dalam Penerbangan (The Truth in Aviation” which is focus on international aviation policy and regulations made by ICAO through research and development (scientific truth and written on 18 Annexes and relevant documents, as living guidances of standards and recommended practices that must be implemented by states.

  11. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  12. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  13. Cosmic rays and dosimetry at aviation altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent concerns regarding the effects of the cosmic radiation field at aircraft altitudes on aircrew have resulted in a renewed interest in detailed measurements of the neutral and charged particle components in the atmosphere. CR-39 nuclear track detectors have been employed on a number of subsonic and supersonic aircraft to measure charge spectra and LET spectra at aircraft altitudes. These detectors are ideal for long term exposures required for these studies and their passive nature makes them suitable for an environment where interference with flight instrumentation could be a problem. We report here on measurements and analysis of short range tracks which were produced by high LET particles generated mainly by neutron interactions at aviation altitudes. In order to test the overall validity of the technique measurements were also carried out at the CERN-CEC field which simulates the radiation field at aviation altitudes and good agreement was found with dose values obtained using mainly heavy ion calibration

  14. Aviation spectral camera infinity target simulation system (United States)

    Liu, Xinyue; Ming, Xing; Liu, Jiu; Guo, Wenji; Lv, Gunbo


    With the development of science and technology, the applications of aviation spectral camera becoming more widely. Developing a test system of dynamic target is more important. Aviation spectral camera infinity target simulation system can be used to test the resolution and the modulation transfer function of camera. The construction and work principle of infinity target simulation system were introduced in detail. Dynamic target generator based digital micromirror device (DMD) and required performance of collimation System were analyzed and reported. The dynamic target generator based on DMD had the advantages of replacing image convenient, size small and flexible. According to the requirement of tested camera, by rotating and moving mirror, has completed a full field infinity dynamic target test plan.

  15. Demonstration and implementation of ethanol as an aviation fuel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the viability of ethanol as an aviation fuel at appropriate locations and audiences in the participating Biomass Energy Program Regions, and to promote implementation projects in the area. Seven demonstrations were to be performed during the Summer 1995 through December 1996 period. To maximize the cost effectiveness of the program, additional corporate co-sponsorships were sought at each demonstration site and the travel schedule was arranged to take advantage of appropriate events taking place in the vicinity of the schedule events or enroute. This way, the original funded amount was stretched to cover another year of activities increasing the number of demonstrations from seven to thirty-nine. While the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) contract focused on ethanol as an aviation fuel, RAFDC also promoted the broader use of ethanol as a transportation fuel. The paper summarizes locations and occasions, and gives a brief description of each demonstration/exhibit/presentation held during the term of the project. Most of the demonstrations took place at regularly scheduled air shows, such as the Oshkosh, Wisconsin Air Show. The paper also reviews current and future activities in the areas of certification, emission testing, the international Clean Airports Program, air pollution monitoring with instrumented aircraft powered by renewable fuels, training operation and pilot project on ethanol, turbine fuel research, and educational programs.

  16. Improving Fuel Statistics for Danish Aviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    This report contains fuel use figures for Danish civil aviation broken down into domestic and international numbers from 1985 to 2000, using a refined fuel split procedure and official fuel sale totals. The results from two different models are used. The NERI (National Environmental Research......, which facilitates the further summing of fuel according to different requirements. Methods on how to allocate the fuel use for passenger and cargo transportation are also discussed...

  17. Risk Assessment Techniques for Civil Aviation Security


    Demichela, Micaela


    Following the 9/11 terrorists attacks a strong economical effort was made to improve and adapt aviation security, both in infrastructures as in airplanes. National and international guidelines were promptly developed with the objective of creating a security management system able to supervise the identification of risks and the definition and optimisation of control measures. Risk assessment techniques are thus crucial in the above process, since an incorrect risk identification and quantifi...

  18. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil


    Luís A. B Cortez; Francisco E. B. Nigro; Nogueira, Luiz A. H.; André M. Nassar; Heitor Cantarella; Márcia A. F. D. Moraes; Leal, Rodrigo L. V.; Franco, Telma T.; Schuchardt, Ulf F.; Ricardo Baldassin Junior


    The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is i...

  19. Monitoring Aviation Data: The Monitor System


    Wittmer, Andreas


    The main intention in connection with the Monitor project was to design, plan and realise a monitoring system that is capable of continuously describing and evaluating long-term trends and challenges within the air transport sector. The following objectives were addressed by the project: - Gaining a better understanding of the dynamic nature of developments in air transport and the behaviour of the different actors within the aviation system - Balancing economic interests, ecological co...

  20. Full Throttle: Reforming Canada's Aviation Policy


    Benjamin Dachis


    Federal government policies are a major cause of high costs throughout the aviation supply chain, often leading Canadians to waste time and money by seeking lower fares at nearby US airports, or not travel at all. High fuel taxes and onerous foreign ownership and airline-specific policies are harming the competitiveness of airlines. Meanwhile, airports have been transformed from the rundown state they were in when operated by the federal government to become world leaders in customer service ...

  1. Aeronautical Ad Hoc Network for Civil Aviation


    Vey, Quentin; Pirovano, Alain; Radzik, José; Garcia, Fabien


    Aeronautical communication systems are constantly evolving in order to handle the always increasing flow of data generated by civil aviation. In this article we first present communication systems currently used for en-route aircraft. We then propose Aeronautical Ad hoc NETwork (AANET) as a complementary communication system and demonstrate its connectivity and assess the throughput by simulations based on real aircraft trajectories over the French sky and over the Atlantic ocean.

  2. Econometric Analysis of Selected Aviation Market


    Razim, Lukáš


    This thesis focuses on econometric analysis in an airline company and its application possibilities for efficient running of such organization. First theoretical part describes the current situation on the aviation market, characteristics of an airline provider, particularly revenue-cost structure and performance indexes used in the airline industry. Then it describes theoretical assumptions and methods for satisfactory application of econometric model. The second part of the thesis is the ca...

  3. USGS Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONA) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides succinct, plain-English messages aimed at dispatchers, pilots, and air traffic controllers to inform them of volcanic unrest and eruptive activity...

  4. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez


    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  5. Psychophysiological Sensing and State Classification for Attention Management in Commercial Aviation (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Liles, Charles; Stephens, Chad L.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.


    Attention-related human performance limiting states (AHPLS) can cause pilots to lose airplane state awareness (ASA), and their detection is important to improving commercial aviation safety. The Commercial Aviation Safety Team found that the majority of recent international commercial aviation accidents attributable to loss of control inflight involved flight crew loss of airplane state awareness, and that distraction of various forms was involved in all of them. Research on AHPLS, including channelized attention, diverted attention, startle / surprise, and confirmation bias, has been recommended in a Safety Enhancement (SE) entitled "Training for Attention Management." To accomplish the detection of such cognitive and psychophysiological states, a broad suite of sensors has been implemented to simultaneously measure their physiological markers during high fidelity flight simulation human subject studies. Pilot participants were asked to perform benchmark tasks and experimental flight scenarios designed to induce AHPLS. Pattern classification was employed to distinguish the AHPLS induced by the benchmark tasks. Unimodal classification using pre-processed electroencephalography (EEG) signals as input features to extreme gradient boosting, random forest and deep neural network multiclass classifiers was implemented. Multi-modal classification using galvanic skin response (GSR) in addition to the same EEG signals and using the same types of classifiers produced increased accuracy with respect to the unimodal case (90 percent vs. 86 percent), although only via the deep neural network classifier. These initial results are a first step toward the goal of demonstrating simultaneous real time classification of multiple states using multiple sensing modalities in high-fidelity flight simulators. This detection is intended to support and inform training methods under development to mitigate the loss of ASA and thus reduce accidents and incidents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prokhorova


    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  7. System for Secure Integration of Aviation Data (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Keller, Rich; Chidester, Tom; Statler, Irving; Lynch, Bob; Patel, Hemil; Windrem, May; Lawrence, Bob


    The Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) of Ames Research Center has been established to promote analysis of aviation data by airlines and other interested users for purposes of enhancing the quality (especially safety) of flight operations. The ADIS is a system of computer hardware and software for collecting, integrating, and disseminating aviation data pertaining to flights and specified flight events that involve one or more airline(s). The ADIS is secure in the sense that care is taken to ensure the integrity of sources of collected data and to verify the authorizations of requesters to receive data. Most importantly, the ADIS removes a disincentive to collection and exchange of useful data by providing for automatic removal of information that could be used to identify specific flights and crewmembers. Such information, denoted sensitive information, includes flight data (here signifying data collected by sensors aboard an aircraft during flight), weather data for a specified route on a specified date, date and time, and any other information traceable to a specific flight. The removal of information that could be used to perform such tracing is called "deidentification." Airlines are often reluctant to keep flight data in identifiable form because of concerns about loss of anonymity. Hence, one of the things needed to promote retention and analysis of aviation data is an automated means of de-identification of archived flight data to enable integration of flight data with non-flight aviation data while preserving anonymity. Preferably, such an automated means would enable end users of the data to continue to use pre-existing data-analysis software to identify anomalies in flight data without identifying a specific anomalous flight. It would then also be possible to perform statistical analyses of integrated data. These needs are satisfied by the ADIS, which enables an end user to request aviation data associated with de-identified flight data. The ADIS

  8. Safety for non-microlight pilots


    Gratton, GB


    Microlight aircraft are some of the safest, cheapest and most fun aircraft flying in the UK. The fatal accident rate, at around 1 per 30,000 flying hours is similar to that of General Aviation overall, and rather better than some parts of it in recent years. However, at the BMAA we see several perfectly serviceable aircraft per year written off by very experienced GA pilots, typically with several thousand hours. Why? - well because they are different, not more difficult or more dangerous,...

  9. Civilian Pilot Training Skills, Curricula, and Costs; Defense and Commercial Pilot Procurement, Training and Career Systems. Interim Report. Volume I and Volume II, March 1968. (United States)

    Logistics Management Inst., Washington, DC.

    The Federal Aviation Administration of the Department of Transportation controls civilian pilot training. Through its regulations and testing and licensing procedures, the FAA sets minimum criteria for course content and knowledge and skill acquisition. Since few training organizations have the economic resources required to do original research…

  10. Business valuation


    Kropáček, Matěj


    The diploma thesis is concerning the problematic of business valuation of Nestlé Česko. The estimated value of the company refers to 31. 12. 2012. Within business valuation, diploma thesis comprises several analyses such as SWOT analysis, PEST analysis, Porter five forces analysis and financial analysis. The yield method of discounted free cash flow to the firm (FCFF) was applied to the business valuation. The comparison of company Nestlé Česko with its closest competitor in terms of basic fi...

  11. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract l......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  12. Using Artificial Intelligence to Inform Pilots of Weather (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.


    An automated system to assist a General Aviation (GA) pilot in improving situational awareness of weather in flight is now undergoing development. This development is prompted by the observation that most fatal GA accidents are attributable to loss of weather awareness. Loss of weather awareness, in turn, has been attributed to the difficulty of interpreting traditional preflight weather briefings and the difficulty of both obtaining and interpreting traditional in-flight weather briefings. The developmental automated system not only improves weather awareness but also substantially reduces the time a pilot must spend in acquiring and maintaining weather awareness.

  13. Human factors in safety and business management. (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan


    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  14. Aviation graduates' competencies, 2000--2007: Perceptions of aviation educators and industry representatives in the United States (United States)

    Bridewell, John B.

    This study surveyed the perceptions of collegiate aviation educators, collegiate aviation institution representatives, and aviation industry stakeholders who were members of the University Aviation Association as of February 5, 2007. Survey forms were sent to 353 prospective participants and there was an overall response rate of 47.6%. The survey consisted of a list of 16 knowledge and skill competencies with Likert-type responses for each participant to indicate the level of importance each placed upon those competencies for collegiate aviation graduates and of the level of satisfaction each had that collegiate aviation graduates actually possessed those competencies upon graduation. Two open-ended questions pertained to the strengths and weaknesses of collegiate aviation programs or their graduates. Another allowed for general comments. The statistical analyses indicated that all three groups were most satisfied with graduates' technical skills and least satisfied with communications skills. Analyses indicated that a balance of technical skills and a liberal education was essential for program success. All knowledge and skill competencies were shown to have high to very high importance levels, but only medium to high satisfaction levels. Results indicated that graduates were perceived to possess all stated competencies, but to a lesser degree than desired. Successful collegiate aviation programs existed, but there was room for improvement. Success was program or graduate speck, with no ubiquitous definition of what constituted a successful collegiate aviation program. Aviation industry needs must be addressed by academia for any collegiate aviation program to be successful, but results indicated that the aviation industry needs to take a larger role in the development and refinement of collegiate aviation programs. Finances for institutions, programs, and students were a major concern for the foreseeable future. Administrators should consider how their actions

  15. Investigating Pilot Performance Using Mixed-Modality Simulated Data Link


    Lancaster, Jeff A


    Empirical studies of general aviation (GA) pilot performance are lacking, especially with respect to envisioned future requirements. Two research studies were conducted to evaluate human performance using new technologies. In the first study, ten participants completed the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) in an effort to compare the intelligibility of two text-to-speech (TTS) engines (DECtalk and AT&Tâ s Natural Voices) as presented in 85 dB(A) aircraft cockpit engine noise. Results indicated si...

  16. Aviation security x-ray detection challenges (United States)

    Harvey, T.


    In this paper, a review of the background and some drivers are provided for X-ray screening for aviation security. Some of the key considerations are highlighted along with impacts of the image-based approaches and signature approaches. The role of information theory is discussed along with some recent work that may influence the technical direction by posing the question: "what measurements, parameters and metrics should be considered in future system design?" A path forward should be based on information theory, however electronic machines will likely interface with humans and be dollar-cost driven, so ultimately solutions must consider additional parameters other than only technical performance factors.

  17. Recent trends in aviation turbine fuel properties (United States)

    Friedman, R.


    Plots and tables, compiled from Department of Energy (and predecessor agency) inspection reports from 1969 to 1980, present ranges, averages, extremes, and trends for most of the 22 properties of Jet A aviation turbine fuel. In recent years, average values of aromatics content, mercaptan sulfur content, distillation temperature of 10 percent recovered, smoke point, and freezing point show small but recognizable trends toward their specification limits. About 80 percent of the fuel samples had at least one property near specification, defined as within a standard band about the specification limit. By far the most common near-specification properties were aromatics content, smoke point, and freezing point.

  18. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Design (United States)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Osman, Mohammed; Godso, David; King, Brent; Ricciardi, Michael


    In this technical document, we describe the design developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC system design. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has six chapters, a bibliography, three appendices and one attachment.

  19. Civil Aviation GALILEO E5 receivers architecture


    Bastide, Frédéric; Roturier, Benoit; Julien, Olivier; Macabiau, Christophe; Rebeyrol, Emilie; Raimondi, Mathieu; Ouzeau, Christophe; Kubrak, Damien


    The Galileo E5 signal is of particular interest to the civil aviation community. Indeed, it will be broadcast in an Aeronautical Radio Navigation Services (ARNS). Moreover, combined with the Galileo E1 signal, Galileo E5 will allow dual-frequency ionosheric-free pseudoranges combinations supporting a dramatic increase of accuracy. In addition, one of its components, E5b, will carry the Galileo integrity message needed by the user to benefit from the Safety-of-Life service (SoL). Civil aviatio...

  20. Environmental Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces business strategy to save the earth, which are foundation of system in the company, collection of disposable camera, resort which don't destroy environment, core strategy of item project, cutback of Freon gas, production of plastic which is degraded, export of pollution prevention technology, increasing waste and changing waste, rule on construction waste, responsibility of business and waste problems, recycling of aluminum can and responsibility on environmental problems.

  1. Business activities


    Vosátková, Jitka


    This thesis deals with current issues in Small Businesses individuals in the City of Prague. The theoretical part of the thesis is in outline current legislation and legal literature on the conditions for carrying on a trade, rights and obligations of entrepreneurs of and procedure for obtaining a trade license, during the trade, trade controls, administrative offenses, termination and cancellation of trade license . The practical part is characterized by a small business environment an...

  2. Business plan


    Triandafilu, Aneta


    The goal of the bachelor thesis is to create a business plan for an emerging company - HEALTHY GARDEN, s.r.o, which is a restaurant with main focus on providing healthy food and gluten free food. The purpose of the plan is verification of the project's feasibility and its competitiveness on the current market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretic and practical. The first part explains theoretical background of business plan creation, its implication, purpose and structure. It also...

  3. Sensors and Systems to Enhance Aviation Safety Against Weather Hazards


    Mahapatra, Pravas R; Zrnic, Dusan S


    Weather-related factors are among major causes of aviation hazards, passenger discomfort, poor airline schedule-keeping, and poor operating economy. A variety of new high-technology electronic sensors and systems for aviation weather are being developed and installed across the US. The aviation weather monitoring system of the future will be centered around Doppler weather radars which offer the best combination of coverage, resolution, and agility for this purpose, and are able to detect and...

  4. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)


    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  5. Aviation security and terrorism: a review of the economic issues


    Cletus C. Coughlin; Jeffrey P. Cohen; Sarosh R. Khan


    Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the passage of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act mandated a substantial increase in resources devoted to aviation security. This paper summarizes the specific changes stemming from this legislation. In addition, the paper examines the economic issues underlying the regulation and provision of aviation security. The fact that security at one airport can affect the well being of those at other airports and elsewhere, an example o...

  6. Naval aviation aging wiring: prognostic and diagnostic solutions


    Nieto, Mark E.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy and Marine Corps provide key forward-presence, crisis response and war-fighting capabilities to our nation's leaders and joint commanders. Naval Aviation plays a central role in every naval mission. Unfortunately, the tools of naval aviation's power, its aircraft, are becoming alarmingly old. The average age of the naval aviation inventory is in excess of eighteen years old. The nerve center of today's sophisticated aircraft, ...

  7. Lead Memory in General Aviation Aircraft Engine Emissions


    DeMik, Randal; Keleher, Jason; Kasak, Natalie; Keller, Julius; Mazza, Alessandro; Raess, Jordan


    There is interest from environmental organizations and regulating agencies to eliminate lead and reduce pollutants emitted into the atmosphere from general aviation aircraft using 100LL aviation gasoline (Avgas). 100SF (Swift Fuel) is under development by Swift Enterprises as a lead free general aviation alternative fuel product. The purpose of this study is to determine the amount of time required for engines to be free of lead emissions when first introduced to operation using 100SF. This s...

  8. Aviation and Climate Change: II - Air Traffic Management and Aviation Non-CO2 Issues.



    Action on climate change is now the subject of worldwide and European legislation. The following explores some of the issues raised for air traffic management (ATM) and aviation ‘Non-CO2’ Issues. A key aim is to examine some widely quoted figures about the size of aviation’s emission effects.

  9. Promoting Creativity in Local Tourist Businesses (United States)

    Perivoliotis-Chryssovergis, Margaret-Catherine


    This paper discusses an e-learning pilot study focusing on local tourist producers and businesses involved in the production of artefacts, mainly textiles. The project included research into the possibilities of incorporating the strengths of local cultural heritage as a vital starting point for design creativity, innovation, production and…

  10. Risk assessment techniques for civil aviation security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the 9/11 terrorists attacks in New York a strong economical effort was made to improve and adapt aviation security, both in infrastructures as in airplanes. National and international guidelines were promptly developed with the objective of creating a security management system able to supervise the identification of risks and the definition and optimization of control measures. Risk assessment techniques are thus crucial in the above process, since an incorrect risk identification and quantification can strongly affect both the security level as the investments needed to reach it. The paper proposes a set of methodologies to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the risk in the security of civil aviation and the risk assessment process based on the threats, criticality and vulnerabilities concepts, highlighting their correlation in determining the level of risk. RAMS techniques are applied to the airport security system in order to analyze the protection equipment for critical facilities located in air-side, allowing also the estimation of the importance of the security improving measures vs. their effectiveness.

  11. 14 CFR 121.601 - Aircraft dispatcher information to pilot in command: Domestic and flag operations. (United States)


    ... command: Domestic and flag operations. 121.601 Section 121.601 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.601 Aircraft dispatcher information to pilot in command: Domestic and...

  12. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (United States)


    ...: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.509 Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  13. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (United States)


    ...: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.507 Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  14. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. 121.483 Section 121.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  15. Discussion on “Replacing Business Tax with Value-added Tax to Make Some Pilot Enterprises Increase Their Tax Burden”%浅谈“营改增”试点企业税负增加的原因及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    2011年,国家下发营业税改征增值税试点方案,开展营业税改征增值税试点。用增值税代替营业税,既符合我国的国情,促进市场经济的发展,又能降低企业税负。但是有些企业税负不仅没有减少,反而增加。对其原因应认真探讨分析。%In 2011 , the government issued the program of replacing business tax with value-added tax to perform as pilot sectors . To replace business tax with value-added tax conforms to Chinese national conditions , so it will not only promote the development of market economy , but also reduce enterprises ’ tax burden . But the question is , in some enterprises , the tax burden increases instead of reducing . The causes should be earnestly explored and analysed .

  16. A business case method for business models


    Meertens, L.O.; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, M.E.; Nieuwenhuis, L.J.M.; Shishkov, Boris


    Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model alternatives and choose the best one. In this article, we develop a business case method to objectively compare business models. It is an eight-step method, starting with business drivers and ending wit...

  17. ATD Occupant Responses from Three Full-Scale General Aviation Crash Tests (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Annett, Martin S.


    During the summer of 2015, three Cessna 172 General Aviation (GA) aircraft were crash tested at the Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Three different crash scenarios were represented. The first test simulated a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface such as a road or runway. The second test simulated a controlled flight into terrain with a nose down pitch of the aircraft, and the third test simulated a controlled flight into terrain with an attempt to unsuccessfully recover the aircraft immediately prior to impact, resulting in a tail strike condition. An on-board data acquisition system (DAS) captured 64 channels of airframe acceleration, along with accelerations and loads in two onboard Hybrid II 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) representing the pilot and copilot. Each of the three tests contained different airframe loading conditions and different types of restraints for both the pilot and co-pilot ATDs. The results show large differences in occupant response and restraint performance with varying likelihoods of occupant injury.

  18. An airfoil for general aviation applications (United States)

    Selig, Michael S.; Maughmer, Mark D.; Somers, Dan M.


    A new airfoil, the NLF(1)-0115, has been recently designed at the NASA Langley Research Center for use in general-aviation applications. During the development of this airfoil, special emphasis was placed on experiences and observations gleaned from other successful general-aviation airfoils. For example, the flight lift-coefficient range is the same as that of the turbulent-flow NACA 23015 airfoil. Also, although beneficial for reducing drag and having large amounts of lift, the NLF(1)-0115 avoids the use of aft loading which can lead to large stick forces if utilized on portions of the wing having ailerons. Furthermore, not using aft loading eliminates the concern that the high pitching-moment coefficient generated by such airfoils can result in large trim drags if cruise flaps are not employed. The NASA NLF(1)-0115 has a thickness of 15 percent. It is designed primarily for general-aviation aircraft with wing loadings of 718 to 958 N/sq m (15 to 20 lb/sq ft). Low profile drag as a result of laminar flow is obtained over the range from c sub l = 0.1 and R = 9x10(exp 6) (the cruise condition) to c sub l = 0.6 and R = 4 x 10(exp 6) (the climb condition). While this airfoil can be used with flaps, it is designed to achieve c(sub l, max) = 1.5 at R = 2.6 x 10(exp 6) without flaps. The zero-lift pitching moment is held at c sub m sub o = 0.055. The hinge moment for a .20c aileron is fixed at a value equal to that of the NACA 63 sub 2-215 airfoil, c sub h = 0.00216. The loss in c (sub l, max) due to leading edge roughness, rain, or insects at R = 2.6 x 10 (exp 6) is 11 percent as compared with 14 percent for the NACA 23015.

  19. Business valuation


    Jinoch, Pavel


    The subject of this thesis is based on the selected method of determining the value of the company Bohemia lázně a.s. The theoretical part of this work defines the value of the company, the reasons for the valuation and the procedures used in business valuation. Moreover this work provides an overview of the different methods. Most attention is aimed at earning methods that are currently being used the most. The experimental part contains the characteristics of the object of business, organiz...

  20. Family business


    KLUZÁKOVÁ, Lucie


    This thesis focuses on family business companies and above all on their problem of succession planning. For the purposes of this work, I have chosen a family business company that is owned by two shareholders. Both shareholders are going to leave the company within next 5 to 10 years. The thesis deals with the succession plan of both shareholders and this concerning the rate of preparedness as well as the rate of coordination of both plans. Prior to the research, two hypotheses were fixed. Th...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4091-3 - Aviation fuel; conditions to allowance of refunds of aviation fuel tax under section 4091(d). (United States)


    ..., multiple copies of the first producer's report should be made at the stage that the aviation fuel is... with respect to taxed aviation fuel that is held by a registered aviation fuel producer. No credit... the aviation fuel was paid to the government by an importer or producer (the first producer) and...

  2. Aviation Maintenance Technology. Course Content Guides. FAA Approved Curriculum. (United States)

    Shrawder, Jack; And Others

    Course content guides are provided for the 30 courses in this aviation maintenance technology curriculum approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Course titles are physics for technicians; aircraft information, regulations, and procedures; aircraft assembly; fundamentals of aircraft electronics; aircraft electrical components; aircraft…

  3. 75 FR 61812 - Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) AGENCY: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory...

  4. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer.... Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590; 202-366-9342 (phone),...

  5. Taking Flight: Education and Training for Aviation Careers. (United States)

    Hansen, Janet S., Ed.; Oster, Clinton V., Jr., Ed.

    This book reports on a study of education and training for civilian aviation careers. Following an overview of the study in chapter 1, chapter 2 provides the context for the analysis by first sketching the evolution of the aviation industry, then describing the key characteristics of the current industry and its workforce. Among the issues…

  6. 77 FR 35465 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of first meeting of advisory committee. SUMMARY: This notice announces the first meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation...

  7. Synthetic Vision Systems in GA Cockpit-Evaluation of Basic Maneuvers Performed by Low Time GA Pilots During Transition from VMC to IMC (United States)

    Takallu, M. A.; Wong, D. T.; Uenking, M. D.


    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of modern flight displays in general aviation cockpits for mitigating Low Visibility Loss of Control and the Controlled Flight Into Terrain accidents. A total of 18 General Aviation (GA) pilots with private pilot, single engine land rating, with no additional instrument training beyond private pilot license requirements, were recruited to evaluate three different display concepts in a fixed-based flight simulator at the NASA Langley Research Center's General Aviation Work Station. Evaluation pilots were asked to continue flight from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while performing a series of 4 basic precision maneuvers. During the experiment, relevant pilot/vehicle performance variables, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded. Human factors questionnaires and interviews were administered after each scenario. Qualitative and quantitative data have been analyzed and the results are presented here. Pilot performance deviations from the established target values (errors) were computed and compared with the FAA Practical Test Standards. Results of the quantitative data indicate that evaluation pilots committed substantially fewer errors when using the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays than when they were using conventional instruments. Results of the qualitative data indicate that evaluation pilots perceived themselves to have a much higher level of situation awareness while using the SVS display concept.

  8. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels (United States)

    Card, M. E.


    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  9. Urgent epidemic control mechanism for aviation networks

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin


    In the current century, the highly developed transportation system can not only boost the economy, but also greatly accelerate the spreading of epidemics. While some epidemic diseases may infect quite a number of people ahead of our awareness, the health care resources such as vaccines and the medical staff are usually locally or even globally insufficient. In this research, with the network of major aviation routes as an example, we present a method to determine the optimal locations to allocate the medical service in order to minimize the impact of the infectious disease with limited resources. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the medical resources are insufficient, we should concentrate our efforts on the travelers with the objective of effectively controlling the spreading rate of the epidemic diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  10. Skin in aviation and space environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Grover


    Full Text Available The aerospace environment is a dynamic interaction between man, machine and the environment. Skin diseases are not particularly significant aeromedically, yet they could permanently affect an aviator′s status for continued flying duty. A number of dermatological conditions lend themselves to flying restrictions for the aviator. Aircrew and ground crew are exposed to a myriad of elements that could also adversely impact their flying status. Inflight stresses during flights as well as space travel could impact certain behaviors from a dermatological standpoint. With the advent of space tourism, dermatological issues would form an integral part of medical clearances. With limited literature available on this subject, the review article aims to sensitize the readers to the diverse interactions of dermatology with the aerospace environment.

  11. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  12. 78 FR 60995 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of rescheduled public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the rescheduling of a public meeting of the FAA's...

  13. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) . Please include your name, organization, email address, and indicate whether you...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred H. Miller


    Full Text Available For programmatic accreditation by the Accreditation Council of Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP, business programs are required to meet STANDARD #4, Measurement and Analysis of Student Learning and Performance. Business units must demonstrate that outcome assessment systems are in place using documented evidence that shows how the results are being used to further develop or improve the academic business program. The Higher Colleges of Technology, a 17 campus federal university in the United Arab Emirates, differentiates its applied degree programs through a ‘learning by doing ethos,’ which permeates the entire curricula. This paper documents benchmarking of education for managing innovation. Using business simulation for Bachelors of Business, Year 3 learners, in a business strategy class; learners explored through a simulated environment the following functional areas; research and development, production, and marketing of a technology product. Student teams were required to use finite resources and compete against other student teams in the same universe. The study employed an instrument developed in a 60-sample pilot study of business simulation learners against which subsequent learners participating in online business simulation could be benchmarked. The results showed incremental improvement in the program due to changes made in assessment strategies, including the oral defense.

  15. Small Business Development Center (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  16. Small Business Size Standards (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  17. The Federal Aviation Administration/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (FAA/MIT) Lincoln Laboratory Doppler weather radar program (United States)

    Evans, James E.


    The program focuses on providing real-time information on hazardous aviation weather to end users such as air traffic control and pilots. Existing systems will soon be replaced by a Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), which will be concerned with detecting such hazards as heavy rain and hail, turbulence, low-altitude wind shear, and mesocyclones and tornadoes. Other systems in process are the Central Weather Processor (CWP), and the terminal Doppler weather radar (TDWR). Weather measurements near Memphis are central to ongoing work, especially in the area of microbursts and wind shear.

  18. Combination of PNN network and DTW method for identification of reserved words, used in aviation during radio negotiation


    Larin, Vitaliy J.; Fedorov, Evgenii E.


    It is proposed a method of Bayes estimation of the results of cross-segmentation of observed and reference vectorial sequences in different spaces of signs, which are applied for speech encoding in a systems of key words recognition. It is considered a case of identification of reserved words used in aviation during radio negotiations of an air traffic controller with a pilot or an operator with control system of pilotless vehicle on a basis of combination of PNN with DWT method. Carried out ...

  19. NASA TLA workload analysis support. Volume 1: Detailed task scenarios for general aviation and metering and spacing studies (United States)

    Sundstrom, J. L.


    The techniques required to produce and validate six detailed task timeline scenarios for crew workload studies are described. Specific emphasis is given to: general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules operations in a high density traffic area; fixed path metering and spacing operations; and comparative workload operation between the forward and aft-flight decks of the NASA terminal control vehicle. The validation efforts also provide a cursory examination of the resultant demand workload based on the operating procedures depicted in the detailed task scenarios.

  20. Business Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian


    This essay outlines the overall scope and location of business anthropology within the overall field of the discipline. It outlines its foundations as an applied form of anthropology in early developments in the United States (in particular, in Western Electric's Hawthorne Project and the Human...

  1. Unfinished Business (United States)

    Tuckett, Alan


    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  2. Business link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Baotou Hongbo technology Co.,Ltd was registered in Baotou Rare Earth High-Tech Development Zone in 2008.The company is integrated with scientific research and development,production and trade business.Main products include individual and mixed light rare earth salts,oxides and metals,phosphors and so on.

  3. Business Leksikon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro


    This review article deals with a specialised dictionary recently introduced to the Danish market. It covers traditional business subjects and is designed for semi-experts and laypeople. Through Danish definitions and English, French and German equivalents, it aims at fulfilling the functions text...

  4. Business Blooming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Florist Sebastien Lathuile was in no doubt of the business potential in Shanghai from the moment he arrived on a personal visit, some five years ago. The Frenchman returned immediately home to London,where he had been working,put his flat on the market, and began making plans to set up in the east-coast city.

  5. Business environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Fungáčová, Zuzana; Hakobyan, Anush; Hanousek, Jan; Ortmann, Andreas; Semerák, V.; Sklenář, P.; Svítková, Katarína; Vychodil, Ondřej; Wertlen, B.; Zemčík, Petr

    Prague : Charles University in Prague, 2005, s. 33-45. ISBN 80-7343-058-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Czech Republic * business environment Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  6. Business Intelligence


    Strejčková, Lucie


    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  7. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.


    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  8. From aviation to medicine: applying concepts of aviation safety to risk management in ambulatory care


    Wilf-Miron, R; Lewenhoff, I; Benyamini, Z; Aviram, A



 The development of a medical risk management programme based on the aviation safety approach and its implementation in a large ambulatory healthcare organisation is described. The following key safety principles were applied: (1) errors inevitably occur and usually derive from faulty system design, not from negligence; (2) accident prevention should be an ongoing process based on open and full reporting; (3) major accidents are only the "tip of the iceberg" of processes that indicate possi...

  9. 75 FR 32508 - Harris Stratex Networks Corporation, Currently Known As Aviat U.S., Inc., dba Aviat Networks, Inc... (United States)


    .... The notice was published in the Federal Register on December 30, 2008 (73 FR 79914). At the request of... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Aviat U.S., Inc., dba Aviat Networks, Inc. Accordingly... increased imports following a shift in production to Malaysia and Taiwan. The amended notice applicable...

  10. The Efficient Process of Acquiring a Pilot Customer - An Insight Into the Pilot Customer Acquisition Process for Nascent Entrepreneurs, Located at Schools of Entrepreneurship


    Sørensen, Charlotte Irene; Neergård, Gunn-Berit; Hetzel, Frøya


    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how nascent entrepreneurs, located in Schools of Entrepreneurship, pursue the process of initiating Business-to-Business relationships with pilot customers and how this process can be conducted efficiently. Acquiring a paying customer is the goal of many startups, and involving a pilot customer may be the first step in this process. This step is therefore of crucial importance for the startups (Jack, 2005), and is one of the greatest challenges (Aaboen...

  11. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft. (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan


    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (pturbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold increased representation of single engine airplanes. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify novel precursive factors for accidents involving turbine aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. This research highlights areas that should receive further emphasis in training/recurrency in a pre-emptive attempt to nullify candidate accident-precipitating factor(s). PMID:26590507

  12. Synchronizing Business & Systems with Business Objects


    Saha, Pallab; Srinivasan, R.


    More and more businesses are becoming highly dependent on their information systems (IS) to operate and manage themselves. This necessitates a formal methodology to express business concepts, business processes and events that both business managers and IS professionals can understand and communicate with. The result of this understanding can be quick correction of business systems and operations that are more efficient. This paper introduces the concepts and uses of business objects and outl...



    Marinela Lazarica


    E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosyste...

  14. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew. (United States)

    Desmaris, G


    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders. PMID:27044363


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica


    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  16. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires (United States)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  17. The U.S. Commercial Air Tour Industry: A Review of Aviation Safety Concerns (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe


    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as “flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing.” The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  18. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen


    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution

  19. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen


    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly lower in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx while for CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.

  20. Photovoltaic business


    Štefan, Petr


    The work is focused on business photovoltaic performance as one of the alternative sources of electrical power. Theoretical part was created by quoting work up documents. Literature search was divided into several parts. The first part revolves around the solar radiation and its advantages and disadvantages. In the second part is speaking about the variations of using solar energy from heating the water to generate electric energy. It also deals with photovoltaic power plants in the world and...

  1. Social Business


    Maria Cristina ENACHE


    The field of social business is growing rapidly and attracting increased attention from many sectors. The term itself shows up frequently in the media, is referenced by public officials, have become common on universities. The reasons behind the popularity of social entrepreneurship are many. On the most basic level, there’s something inherently interesting and appealing about entrepreneurs and the stories of why and how they do what they do. The interest in social entrepreneurship transcends...

  2. Business Leksikon


    Nielsen, Sandro


    This review article deals with a specialised dictionary recently introduced to the Danish market. It covers traditional business subjects and is designed for semi-experts and laypeople. Through Danish definitions and English, French and German equivalents, it aims at fulfilling the functions text reception, text production, translation and knowledge acquisition. The main aspects addressed are presentation of lemmata, structure and presentation of definitions, grammatical information and diasy...

  3. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO2) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Legislative Developments in the Aviation Sector in 2011


    Czernicki, Filip


    The Polish Aviation Law Act of 3 July 2002 was amended six times in 2011. The only major change introduced in this period resulted from the Amendment Act to the Aviation Law Act of 30 June 2011, most of which entered into force 30 days after its publication1. In fact, changes introduced thereby were so widespread and crucial to the entire aviation sector that it can easily be referred to as a completely new law. Considerable effort went into the preparation of this Act – its...

  5. Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. A first step towards reducing the impact of aviation on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission's proposal of September 2005 to include the aviation sector in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme can be seen as a step forward in taking up the aviation sector in climate policy. The environmental impacts of including aviation in the EU-ETS will depend fully on the design of the trading system, with particular emphasis on the total CO2 emission allowances to be determined. In September 2005 the European Commission published its proposal in a Communication on policy instruments to reduce the climate change impacts of aviation. In this MNP report we are addressing Dutch negotiators and members of the Dutch and European parliaments who are not familiar with the details of the policy field with an overview of the main aspects of the policy issue. So far, aviation has not been included in European or international climate policies. However, as the overall climate impact of aviation is estimated at a factor of 2 to 4 higher than the impact of CO2 emissions alone, it is significant enough to be brought forward. If the aviation sector is included in the EU emissions trading system, in the short term the sector is expected to account for carbon emission reductions by purchasing CO2 allowances from other sectors. Impacts on the economy and the environment in the Netherlands are not expected to differ fundamentally from other countries. Kerosene tax and emissions charges may be worthwhile considering, although politically sensitive at international level

  6. P06.01. Survey of Business and Care Models of Integrative Medicine


    MacElhern, Lauray; Carter, Susan


    Focus Areas: Sustainable Business Models In 2012, the business sub-committee of the clinical working group for the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine (CAHCIM) launched a pilot survey to collect information about the structure and business models of the member integrative centers. Although the survey provided useful insight into the business operations and financial resources needed to start up a center, the survey needed a better design and response rate. The 2013 ...

  7. The rebound effect in the aviation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rebound effect, i.e., the (partial) offset of the energy efficiency improvement potential due to a reduction in marginal usage costs and the associated increase in consumer demand, has been extensively studied for residential energy demand and automobile travel. This study presents a quantitative estimate of the rebound effect for an air traffic network including the 22 busiest airports, which serve 14 of the highest O–D cities within the domestic U.S. aviation sector. To satisfy this objective, passenger flows, aircraft operations, flight delays and the resulting energy use are simulated. Our model results indicate that the average rebound effect in this network is about 19%, for the range of aircraft fuel burn reductions considered. This is the net impact of an increase in air transportation supply to satisfy the rising passenger demand, airline operational effects that further increase supply, and the mitigating effects of an increase in flight delays. Although the magnitude of the rebound effect is small, it can be significant for a sector that has comparatively few options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: ► We estimate the rebound effect for an air traffic network of 22 airports in the US. ► Passenger flows, aircraft operations, flight delays and energy use are simulated. ► Our model results indicate that the rebound effect in this network is about 19%. ► This is primarily due to an increase in flights to satisfy rising passenger demand

  8. Fast Multivariate Search on Large Aviation Datasets (United States)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Zhu, Qiang; Oza, Nikunj C.; Srivastava, Ashok N.


    Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical monitoring, and financial systems. Domain experts are often interested in searching for interesting multivariate patterns from these MTS databases which can contain up to several gigabytes of data. Surprisingly, research on MTS search is very limited. Most existing work only supports queries with the same length of data, or queries on a fixed set of variables. In this paper, we propose an efficient and flexible subsequence search framework for massive MTS databases, that, for the first time, enables querying on any subset of variables with arbitrary time delays between them. We propose two provably correct algorithms to solve this problem (1) an R-tree Based Search (RBS) which uses Minimum Bounding Rectangles (MBR) to organize the subsequences, and (2) a List Based Search (LBS) algorithm which uses sorted lists for indexing. We demonstrate the performance of these algorithms using two large MTS databases from the aviation domain, each containing several millions of observations Both these tests show that our algorithms have very high prune rates (>95%) thus needing actual

  9. Dosimetry at aviation altitudes (2006-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the European Union (EU)-Directive 96/29/EURATOM, legal regulations on the radiation protection of aircrew had to be implemented into the corresponding national law within the member states of the EU by 13 May 2000. In Article 42 the directive stipulates, among other things, that the exposure of the crew concerned shall be assessed. This requirement has been implemented by dose calculations for most aircrew members in the EU. Some airlines and research institutes regularly spot check the calculated doses by measuring flights. The solar minimum is a time period of particular interest since the dose rates at aviation altitudes reach their maximum within the 11-year solar cycle. For this reason, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) performed repeated measuring flights in cooperation with several German airlines during the past solar minimum from March 2006 to August 2008. The measuring devices used consisted of a tissue equivalent proportional counter, various types of Liulin semiconductor detectors and several bubble detectors. (authors)

  10. Sustainability Reporting in the Aviation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Miles Hill [Global Reporting Initiative (Netherlands)


    The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3 Guidelines are the de-facto standard for sustainability reporting. Thousands of organizations around the world base their annual sustainability report on the GRI G3 Guidelines, including many within the aviation sector, including leading airports, aerospace manufacturers and airlines. The Guidelines are principles based and contain Disclosures on Management Approach and Performance Indicators. To report on the performance indicators a company needs to measure and manage its entities. By doing so targets can be set to improve performance over the years, on sustainability topics ranging from community investment to CO{sub 2} emissions. Each company is different and therefore each company needs to conduct a materiality test to assess which indicators to use, based on Stakeholder Assessments and Decisions and Significance of Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts. Using the Guidelines means that you have a tool for clear and comparable communication with your stakeholders and measuring your performance on sustainability topics like CO{sub 2} emissions. By measuring CO{sub 2} emissions overtime in a uniform way and publishing the emissions in your sustainability report, your stakeholders will appreciate your honesty and better understand when you experience difficulties in meeting your targets to limit the emissions. Additionally it will allow you to be able to benchmark your company against other companies in your sector.

  11. Asymptotic procedures for aviation constructions calcul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory of elasticity equations for statics, dynamics, stability of aviation constructions are very complex and very difficult to decide. To get the solution engineers pass on to the applied theories -- ones of bars, plates, shells. In this case some hypothesises are input. A quantity of the ones in vague, and its might be excessive and even contradicting. In this work some procedures permitting to establish the necessary and sufficient quantity of hypothesises, estimating each member contribution into equation, throwing off secondary members and keeping of principals. For example, in such a manner all without exception applied theories of bar, plates and shells are obtained from three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The fact is interesting that all the theories are obtained on a basis of the mapping contracting principle. The proposed approach essence is contained in that some small parametres are singled out of the input equations and the ones are rewritten in the suitable aspect small parametre to the some power value is attached to the symbols of differentiation. This unknown power is determined from the condition of coincidence of the starting approximation, power with the one of the first approximation. As the first example the problem for the unit width long rectangular strip with the fixed short edges (x=1,1) and the free longitudinal edges (y=+1, -1) is considered. The longitudinal edges are loaded with some distributed charge

  12. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels. (United States)

    White, R D


    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements. PMID:10189575

  13. Financial feasibility analysis of the Reuse of Human Waste Business Model in the Cape Coast metropolis in Ghana.


    Aboah, J.; Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.


    The financial viability of waste management schemes in Ghana have been reported to be rare. Hence prior to upscaling the pilot reuse of human waste business model to a commercial phase, analysis of the viability of the up scaled business model is essential. Thus this study seeks to analyse the financial feasibility of upscaling the reuse of human waste business model in Ghana. Data originate from the pilot project in Accra, extended with expert elicitation. The NPV and IRR were used as decisi...

  14. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  15. Business modelling agility: Turning ideas into business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, J.; Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.


    Business Model Innovation is attracting more and more attention from business as well as from academics. Business Model Innovation deals with both technological and knowledge related changes that either may disrupt or sustain existing product/market strategies. Timing of Business Model Innovation bo

  16. A business case method for business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, L.O.; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, M.E.; Nieuwenhuis, L.J.M.; Shishkov, Boris


    Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model alter

  17. Business-to-business electronic commerce


    John Wenninger


    To improve efficiency, some large retailers, suppliers, and distributors have begun to conduct business-to-business commerce electronically. This practice could grow rapidly if the Internet becomes the primary low-cost network for such transactions. Before the Internet can fully support business-to-business commerce, however, companies must overcome several technological and security obstacles.

  18. Pilot Boarding Areas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage...

  19. Investment Strategy Based on Aviation Accidents: Are there abnormal returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Costa


    Full Text Available This article investigates whether an investment strategy based on aviation accidents can generate abnormal returns. We performed an event study considering all the aviation accidents with more than 10 fatalities in the period from 1998 to 2009 and the stock market performance of the respective airlines and aircraft manufacturers in the days after the event. The tests performed were based on the model of Campbell, Lo & MacKinlay (1997 for definition of abnormal returns, by means of linear regression between the firms’ stock returns and the return of a market portfolio used as a benchmark. This enabled projecting the expected future returns of the airlines and aircraft makers, for comparison with the observed returns after each event. The result obtained suggests that an investment strategy based on aviation accidents is feasible because abnormal returns can be obtained in the period immediately following an aviation disaster.

  20. Greener Aviation with Virtual Sensors: A Case Study (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environmental impact of aviation is enormous given the fact that in the US alone there are nearly 6 million flights per year of commercial aircraft. This...

  1. Discovering Anomalous Aviation Safety Events Using Scalable Data Mining Algorithms (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The worldwide civilian aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems created. Most modern commercial aircraft have onboard flight data recorders that...

  2. Estimated revenues of VAT and fuel tax on aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteland, M.; Faber, J.


    International aviation is exempt from VAT, both on their inputs (e.g. on fuel or aircraft) and on their revenues (e.g. on tickets). In the EU, aviation fuel is also exempt from the minimum fuel excise tariffs. This report calculates the potential revenues of VAT on tickets and fuel tax on jet fuel. If VAT were to be levied on tickets while other aviation taxes were simultaneously abolished, this would yield revenues in the order of EUR 7 billion. Excise duty on jet fuel would raise revenues in the order of EUR 20 billion. These figures do not take into account the impact of the cost increases on demand for aviation into account. Since higher costs will reduce demand, the estimates can be considered an upper bound.



    Золотар, О.О.


    In the article problems concerning understanding of the main point of information security of civil aviation field are investigated, and also suggestions for the field's law improvement are worked out.

  4. Multi-function Fiber Laser Kinetic Aviation Hazard Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes a multi-function, high energy, eye-safe 1550 nm band pulsed fiber-laser lidar system for airborne sensing of various kinetic aviation hazards. The...

  5. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology (United States)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.


    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  6. Software in military aviation and drone mishaps: Analysis and recommendations for the investigation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software plays a central role in military systems. It is also an important factor in many recent incidents and accidents. A safety gap is growing between our software-intensive technological capabilities and our understanding of the ways they can fail or lead to accidents. Traditional forms of accident investigation are poorly equipped to trace the sources of software failure, for instance software does not age in the same way that hardware components fail over time. As such, it can be hard to trace the causes of software failure or mechanisms by which it contributed to accidents back into the development and procurement chain to address the deeper, systemic causes of potential accidents. To identify some of these failure mechanisms, we examined the database of the Air Force Accident Investigation Board (AIB) and analyzed mishaps in which software was involved. Although we have chosen to focus on military aviation, many of the insights also apply to civil aviation. Our analysis led to several results and recommendations. Some were specific and related for example to specific shortcomings in the testing and validation of particular avionic subsystems. Others were broader in scope: for instance, we challenged both the investigation process (aspects of) and the findings in several cases, and we provided recommendations, technical and organizational, for improvements. We also identified important safety blind spots in the investigations with respect to software, whose contribution to the escalation of the adverse events was often neglected in the accident reports. These blind spots, we argued, constitute an important missed learning opportunity for improving accident prevention, and it is especially unfortunate at a time when Remotely Piloted Air Systems (RPAS) are being integrated into the National Airspace. Our findings support the growing recognition that the traditional notion of software failure as non-compliance with requirements is too limited to capture the

  7. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.


    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  8. Cross-Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication in Aviation (United States)

    Fischer, U.; Orasanu, J.; Davison, J.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)


    Communication is essential to safe flight, as evidenced by several accidents in which crew communicates was found to have contributed to the accidents. This chapter documents the essential role of explicit efficient communication to flight safety with a global context. It addresses communication between flight crews and air traffic controllers in regions a the world where pilots and controllers speak different native languages, as well as cases in which crew members within the flight deck represent different native languages and cultures. It also addresses problems associated with "exporting" crew resource management training programs to parts of the world which values and norms differ from those of the United States, where these programs were initially developed. This chapter is organized around several central questions: (1) What are various kinds of communication failures and what are their consequences; (2) What are the causes of communication failure; (3) What are features of effective crew communication; (4) What can be done to enhance communication success? To explore a wider range of communication failures than available from accident reports, we examined a set of incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These could be classified into three major categories: those in which language actually interfered with transmission of a message; those in which transmission was adequate but the context was not expressed unambiguously and thus the message received was not the same as the message intended; and those in which the message was received as intended, but was not adequately understood or acted upon, mainly because of cultural factors. The consequences of failed communication can be flight errors (such as when a clearance is not received correctly), loss of situation awareness, or failure of crew members (or ATC and pilots) to build a shared understanding of a situation. Causes of misunderstanding can be traced to a number of sources, often

  9. The effects of energy beverages in counteracting the symptoms of mild hypoxia at legal general aviation altitudes (United States)

    Bull, Daniel Mark

    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct preliminary research, in the form of a pilot study, concerning the natural effects of hypoxia compared to the effects of hypoxia experienced after the consumption of an energy beverage. The study evaluated the effects of hypoxia on FAA certificated pilots at a simulated legal general aviation altitude, utilizing the normobaric High Altitude Lab (HAL) located at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida. The researcher tested 11 subjects, who completed three simulated flight tasks within the HAL using the Frasca International Mentor Advanced Aviation Training Device (AATD). The flight tasks were completed after consuming Red BullRTM, MonsterRTM , or a placebo beverage. The researcher derived three test variables from core outputs of the AATD: lateral deviations from the glide slope, vertical deviations from the localizer, and airspeed deviations from the target speed of 100 knots. A repeated-measures ANOVA was carried out to determine effects of the beverages on the test variables. While results were non-significant, the researcher concluded that further research should be conducted with a larger sample.

  10. International civil aviation - all together or all against all?


    Grancay, Martin


    International civil aviation has without doubts worked as one of the strongest drivers of globalization for the past 30 years. It is paradoxical that although it helped liberalize multiple industries, the aviation sector itself remains highly protectionist, governed by 60-year-old framework of the Chicago conference. In 1980s a slow shift towards liberalization began in Western countries. However, this hasn´t penetrated into other parts of the world so far and even in the West it remains cons...

  11. Perception of ethics in the Icelandic Aviation Sector


    Nicolas Jeanne


    This Master’s thesis deals with perception of ethics in the Icelandic aviation sector. It offers a qualitative study to answer the following central research questions: what is the perception of the ethical environment in the aviation sector of Iceland by its top-managers? To introduce the study, a literature review presents an overview of the concepts of ethics, corruption and bribery as well as culture and corporate social responsibility. A special focus is proposed on the different school ...

  12. Risk-based Aviation Security Diffusion and Acceptance


    Beech, George M.


    The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is continually under public pressure to improve aviation security screening for air passengers while simultaneously protecting the public from all perceived threats to commercial aviation. Applying acceptance models to predict passengers intentions to use voluntary security programs could lead to more efficient deployment of technology and procedures or the termination of a security program before significant government resources are dedicated ...

  13. Environmental impact assessment and optimisation of commercial aviation


    Howe, Stuart


    The aviation industry represents approximately 3% of global greenhouse gas emissions, however with significant growth expected over the coming decades this proportion is expected to increase. Continued governmental and social pressure to reduce global emissions is posing a challenging question to the industry; how to improve environmental efficiency and reduce emissions with increasing industry growth. The environmental impact of aviation globally is discussed, examining the...

  14. Environmental charges for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from civil aviation


    Barrett, M.


    This discussion paper reports research into the possibility of using environmental charges or taxes as a policy measure for controlling the environmental impacts of aviation. The aim of the research is to develop ideas and promote discussion of this topic. The complexity of the aviation system and the uncertainties involved are such that it will require much more work before definitive results, and recommendations following from those results, can be produced: this at least is the opinion of ...

  15. Sustainable development – the key for green aviation


    Maria MRAZOVA


    The aviation industry has always been seeking the technological progress that will optimise the economic, operational and environmental way of flying. In the first part of this study the author describes the impact of the CO2 emissions on the climate change. Also, the author emphasises the fact that once again the aviation environment is asking for new breakthroughs to face the challenge of the aviation’s sustainable growth. Airbus and its approach with the least possible impact on environmen...

  16. Particle Emissions from Aviation: Microphysics, Chemistry, and Climate Impact


    Petzold, Andreas


    The physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from aviation were identified under cruise altitude conditions and with more detailed methods during ground-test studies. The quantification of emissions for various aircraft resulted in a validated average emission index for particulate black carbon which is today widely used for the calculation of the aviation-related particle emissions in climate models and impact studies. The connection of particle chemical and physical properties ...

  17. Business ethics


    Petráková, Helena


    This bachelor's thesis deals with the topic - business ethics. Concretely, it gives the example of ethics in the sphere of undertaker's. There are stated all of the needed terms and definitions. There is also said how ethics influenced people throw the history. Furthermore, you can find the difference between ethics and etiquette. These two terms are often misunderstood but they cohere. To make firms work well, you need to give them some rules. Code of ethics may be part of the solution.That ...

  18. Business development


    Sousa, Alexandre Daniel Brito de


    Num mundo empresarial em constante mudança e cada vez mais competitivo e exigente, as empresas necessitam de profissionais que saibam não só adaptar-se a essa mudança, mas também identificar e aproveitar uma oportunidade de negócio quando ela surge. Um Business Developer faz isso mesmo – explora oportunidades de negócio. Idealmente numa empresa, um profissional de “BizDev” deve juntar competências nas áreas de Vendas, Marketing e Parcerias, acompanhando o desenvolvimento do produto que dev...

  19. Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian


    Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA from 2003 to 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, rank, total flight hours, average yearly flight hours, and type of aircraft. Results: Out of 539 pilots, there were 155 with high resting pulse rate. Compared to pilots aged 23-29 years, pilots aged 30-39 years had 66% more risk for high resting pulse rate [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.17-2.35, P = 0.004], and those aged 40-49 years had a 2.4 risk (ORa = 2.40; P = 0.000]. Compared to pilots of transport planes, jet fighter pilots had a 59% more risk for high resting pulse rate (ORa = 1.59; P = 0.002. Conclusion: Older  age  and  fighter  jets  increased  the  risk  of  high  resting  pulse  rate  in  pilots. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4Key words: age, type of aircraft, resting pulse rate, pilots

  20. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance (United States)

    Cushing, Thomas S.


    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  1. The Participation of Ukrainian Companies in Building the Mechanisms for Naval Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey I. Kharuk


    Full Text Available The main program for the development and production of equipment for naval aviation, carried out in Ukraine in 1910 - 1980. The author comes to the conclusion that naval aviation has never been a priority area for the Ukrainian aviation industry. However, throughout its history, the aircrafts intended for naval aviation, developed and in some cases introduced into serial production.

  2. 49 CFR 1511.5 - Imposition of Aviation Security Infrastructure Fees. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imposition of Aviation Security Infrastructure... AVIATION SECURITY INFRASTRUCTURE FEE § 1511.5 Imposition of Aviation Security Infrastructure Fees. (a) Effective February 18, 2002, an Aviation Security Infrastructure Fee will be imposed on air carriers...

  3. Research on pilot reform of value-added tax replacing business tax based on reform effect analysis of port and shipping enterprises%“营改增”试点方案探讨——基于港航企业试点改革效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To analyze the reasonability of the pilot reform of value-added tax replacing business tax implemented in 2012,investigations into general taxpayers of port and shipping enterprises are carried out.Tax burden is calculated and the reform effect on tax burden is analyzed.Issues involved such as tax rate,taxation method and deductible cost are analyzed according to tax theory.It is recommended to expand the scope of the reform,adjust tax rate when the reform involves all service sectors,and give the enterprises appropriate subsidy during the transition period.%为分析2012年营业税改征增值税试点方案的合理性,通过对试点港航企业一般纳税人进行重点调查,测算分析改革给税负带来的影响.结合税收理论,分析改革所涉及的税率、计税方法、可抵扣成本等问题.建议继续扩大改革范围、择机统一调整税率、给予困难企业补贴扶持等.

  4. Business Model Innovation


    Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David; Phillips, Nelson; Massa, Lorenzo; Tucci, Christopher


    The chapter offers a broad review of the literature at the nexus between Business Models and innovation studies, and examines the notion of Business Model Innovation in three different situations: Business Model Design in newly formed organizations, Business Model Reconfiguration in incumbent firms, and Business Model Innovation in the broad context of sustainability. Tools and perspectives to make sense of Business Models and support managers and entrepreneurs in dealing with Business Model ...

  5. Effect of cognitive load on speech prosody in aviation: Evidence from military simulator flights. (United States)

    Huttunen, Kerttu; Keränen, Heikki; Väyrynen, Eero; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Leino, Tuomo


    Mental overload directly affects safety in aviation and needs to be alleviated. Speech recordings are obtained non-invasively and as such are feasible for monitoring cognitive load. We recorded speech of 13 military pilots while they were performing a simulator task. Three types of cognitive load (load on situation awareness, information processing and decision making) were rated by a flight instructor separately for each flight phase and participant. As a function of increased cognitive load, the mean utterance-level fundamental frequency (F0) increased, on average, by 7 Hz and the mean vocal intensity increased by 1 dB. In the most intensive simulator flight phases, mean F0 increased by 12 Hz and mean intensity, by 1.5 dB. At the same time, the mean F0 range decreased by 5 Hz, on average. Our results showed that prosodic features of speech can be used to monitor speaker state and support pilot training in a simulator environment. PMID:20832770

  6. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 1: Main program. Part 1: Theoretical development (United States)

    Hague, D.


    The General Aviation synthesis program performs tasks generally associated with aircraft preliminary design and allows an analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner. GASP emphasizes small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying froma single piston engine with fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/ turbofan powered business or transport type aircraft. The program, which may be operated from a computer terminal in either the batch or interactive graphic mode, is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedure. The model is a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies, and assessing the impact of advanced technologies on aircraft performance and economics.

  7. Determination of service life of aviation lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V.G.; Novosartov, G.T.; Echin, A.I.; Bakunin, V.N.


    A method of evaluating the quality of expensive lubricants was developed based on determination of thermo-oxidative stability on a TSM-1 apparatus. This allowed measurement of the content of additives and qualitative properties associated with them during oxidation under laboratory conditions. By developing graphs showing dependence of operating properties sharply degrade was determined. This minimum additive content became the criterion for assessing the working capability of the lubricant and determining the limiting length of its service. Thus, for lubricant B-3V, the most important operating characteristics are thermooxidative stability and critical loading. Samples were tested for the additives PODFA and kaptaks and for indicators of antioxidative and antiseizing properties. Experiments showed little change in characteristics during 10 h of oxidation. Laboratory tests showed that the critical loading began to drop when the kaptaks level fell below 0.2%, so this was taken as the minimal acceptable level. Similarly, for lubricant IPM-10, the most important operating property is its thermo-oxidative stability. Tests showed that indicators of thermo-oxidative stability all began to fall when the antioxidative additive fell below 0.1%. This approach allows rapid determination of service criteria for any aviation lubricant with critical additives. In a practical test, B-3V lubricant had been changed in the MI-8 helicopter every 200-300 h, although its kaptaks level was still 0.65%; even at 900 hours it had fallen to only 0.36%. This would allow the service life to be tripled, a conclusion verified by determination of physicochemical and operating properties of the lubricant at that point. 4 references, 2 figures.

  8. Perception of stress among aviation flight students (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amrita

    There have been many studies related to stress among college students and the purpose of this research was to determine what causes stress among the student pilots enrolled in the Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) flight program, also to find out what students think could be some possible ways to reduce their stress, and to compare the results with a previous study conducted by South Illinois University. The survey designed by Robertson and Ruiz (2010) was administered to MTSU students so that a comparison could be done between MTSU and SIU, as SIU used the same survey form. Results of the study showed that flight students are exposed to similar stress at both universities, but some of the factors that cause stress are different between MTSU and SIU students.

  9. Aviation and programmatic analyses; Volume 1, Task 1: Aviation data base development and application. [for NASA OAST programs (United States)


    A method was developed for using the NASA aviation data base and computer programs in conjunction with the GE management analysis and projection service to perform simple and complex economic analysis for planning, forecasting, and evaluating OAST programs. Capabilities of the system are discussed along with procedures for making basic data tabulations, updates and entries. The system is applied in an agricultural aviation study in order to assess its value for actual utility in the OAST working environment.

  10. State of the Art on Alternative Fuels in Aviation. SWAFEA. Sustainable Way for Alternative Fuels and Energy in Aviation.


    Blakey, S.; Novelli, P.; Costes, P.; Bringtown, S.; Christensen, D.; Sakintuna, B.; Peineke, C.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.; Conijn, J.G.; Rutgers, B.; Valot, L.; E Joubert; Perelgritz, J.F.; Filogonio, A.; Roetger, T.


    Currently, the aviation sector uses petroleum derived liquid fuels as the energy carrier of choice for flight. In light the present environmental, economical and political concerns as to the sustainability of this energy source, the question of which alternatives the aviation sector should pursue in the future has emerged. Among these concerns, the environmental impact of fossil fuel use on global warming and air quality is of major importance, while the impact of volatile oil prices and the ...

  11. On Developing Business Chinese. (United States)

    Hong, Wei


    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  12. 通用航空的飞行安全与人的因素%General aviation flight safety and human factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 郑晓惠; 吴铨; 周晴霖; 吴飞飞; 黄亚萍; 马月欣; 王志翔


    Objective To retrospectively analyze the general aviation flight accidents,and the related role of human factors such as pilot's gender,age,flight experience,etc.that played in flight accident as well as to provide constructive advices to China general aviation flight safety.Literature resource and selection Relevant literatures on flight safety of general aviation and human factors published at home and abroad.Literature quotation Thirty-eight published literatures were cited.Literature synthesis U.S.general aviation accident and prevention researches in this area were reviewed,and the roles of pilot's gender,age,flight experience and combination of factors in the general aviation accidents were analyzed,and the advices for China general aviation flight safety were put forward.Human factors were accounted as the first factor in U.S.general aviation accidents.More male pilots were involved in fatal accidents than female pilots because of the nature adventure reason; older pilots' flight experiences might partially compensate their work ability reduction due to physiological and psychological shortages,but with the increased risk potential in flying mission,flight management should be further perfected.In addition,weather and environment conditions,pilot's alcohol taking,drug abuse and other factors could contribute to general aviation accidents.Conclusions General aviation of China is about to usher in a stage of rapid development.Learning from domestic and international existing research results and experiences in aviation medicine,specifying medical examination standards and mechanism for general aviation pilots,strengthening the education and training of pilots and establishing a sound system of accident investigation would be fully helpful to reduce China general aviation flying accidents that caused by human factors in future and to improve flight safety level.%目的 回顾分析国外通用航空飞行事故的概况,及其与飞行员性别、年龄、飞

  13. Sosiaalinen media business to business -markkinoinnissa


    Eskelinen, Mervi


    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee sosiaalisen median käyttöä business to business -markkinoinnissa. Sosiaalista mediaa tarkastellaan kirjallisuuden, verkkolähteiden ja kirjoittajan omien kokemuksien ja näkemyksien pohjalta. Sosiaalisen median soveltuvuutta business to business -markkinointiin käsitellään edellä mainittujen lähteiden lisäksi yrityshaastattelujen pohjalta. Tavoitteena on pohtia sosiaalinen median soveltuvuutta business to business -markkinointiin. Lisäksi tavoitteena on perustella sosiaa...

  14. Deliverable 1.2.1 Market Analysis and Business Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth


    Deliverable 1.2.1 - Market Analysis and Business Plan The main objective of this deliverable is to provide a short overview of 4 communities involved in the pilots, envisaged type of solutions and architectures to be deployed (chapter 2) and market analysis at regional level (chapter 3) with...... related business cases. The Market analysis will provide an overview of market requirements, current status and opportunities for the pilot service that will be provided in the context of ISISEMD. This will be realised by performing detailed studies on various sources. Proposals for business modelling and...... business cases (chapter 4) will rely on the concept of value chains. Value chains typically consist of several providers, which together produce a complex product or service....

  15. Busy Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In America,people are always in a hurry.You can see the people who are walking fast everywhere.They are so busy that they have no time to stay with their families.They work late and don’t get home until 7 or 8 at night.More than 50% of women work at full-time jobs.They do less childcare and don’t have enough time to prepare the food.That’s why"fast food"is so popular in America.People spend nearly half of their dollars on fast food.Fast food saves much time,but it is not good for health.

  16. Beware of agents when flying aircraft: Basic principles behind a generic methodology for the evaluation and certification of advanced aviation systems (United States)

    Javaux, Denis; Masson, Michel; Dekeyser, Veronique


    There is currently a growing interest in the aeronautical community to assess the effects of the increasing levels of automation on pilots' performance and overall safety. The first effect of automation is the change in the nature of the pilot's role on the flight deck. Pilots have become supervisors who monitor aircraft systems in usual situations and intervene only when unanticipated events occur. Instead of 'hand flying' the airplane, pilots contribute to the control of aircraft by acting as mediators, instructions given to the automation. By eliminating the need for manually controlling normal situations, such a role division has reduced the opportunities for the pilot to acquire experience and skills necessary to safely cope with abnormal events. Difficulties in assessing the state and behavior of automation arise mainly from four factors: (1) the complexity of current systems and consequence mode-related problems; (2) the intrinsic autonomy of automation which is able to fire mode transitions without explicit commands from the pilots; (3) the bad quality of feed-back from the control systems displays and interfaces to the pilots; and (4) the fact that the automation currently has no explicit representation of the current pilots' intentions and strategy. Assuming certification has among its major goals to guarantee the passengers' and pilots' safety and the airplane integrity under normal and abnormal operational conditions, the authors suggest it would be particularly fruitful to come up with a conceptual reference system providing the certification authorities both with a theoretical framework and a list of principles usable for assessing the quality of the equipment and designs under examination. This is precisely the scope of this paper. However, the authors recognize that the conceptual presented is still under development and would thus be best considered as a source of reflection for the design, evaluation and certification processes of advanced

  17. The Effects of Advanced 'Glass Cockpit' Displayed Flight Instrumentation on In-flight Pilot Decision Making (United States)

    Steigerwald, John

    The Cognitive Continuum Theory (CCT) was first proposed 25 years ago to explain the relationship between intuition and analytical decision making processes. In order for aircraft pilots to make these analytical and intuitive decisions, they obtain information from various instruments within the cockpit of the aircraft. Advanced instrumentation is used to provide a broad array of information about the aircraft condition and flight situation to aid the flight crew in making effective decisions. The problem addressed is that advanced instrumentation has not improved the pilot decision making in modern aircraft. Because making a decision is dependent upon the information available, this experimental quantitative study sought to determine how well pilots organize and interpret information obtained from various cockpit instrumentation displays when under time pressure. The population for this study was the students, flight instructors, and aviation faculty at the Middle Georgia State College School of Aviation campus in Eastman, Georgia. The sample was comprised of two groups of 90 individuals (45 in each group) in various stages of pilot licensure from student pilot to airline transport pilot (ATP). The ages ranged from 18 to 55 years old. There was a statistically significant relationship at the p < .05 level in the ability of the participants to organize and interpret information between the advanced glass cockpit instrumentation and the traditional cockpit instrumentation. It is recommended that the industry explore technological solutions toward creating cockpit instrumentation that could match the type of information display to the type of decision making scenario in order to aid pilots in making decisions that will result in better organization of information. Understanding the relationship between the intuitive and analytical decisions that pilots make and the information source they use to make those decisions will aid engineers in the design of instrumentation

  18. Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doon, Ben; Quintana, Dan


    The Costilla County Biodiesel Pilot Project has demonstrated the compatibility of biodiesel technology and economics on a local scale. The project has been committed to making homegrown biodiesel a viable form of community economic development. The project has benefited by reducing risks by building the facility gradually and avoiding large initial outlays of money for facilities and technologies. A primary advantage of this type of community-scale biodiesel production is that it allows for a relatively independent, local solution to fuel production. Successfully using locally sourced feedstocks and putting the fuel into local use emphasizes the feasibility of different business models under the biodiesel tent and that there is more than just a one size fits all template for successful biodiesel production.



    Taylyakova, Feruzahon


    This article analyzes the basic psychological characteristics of family businesses. The author describes the psychological properties that contribute to improve individual and family businesses. The article also discusses mental properties adversely affect the development of a family business.

  20. Global Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    insight from the literature about business models, international product policy, international entry modes and globalization into a conceptual model of relevant design elements of global business models, enabling global business model innovation to deal with differences in a downstream perspective...

  1. Analysis of Business Models


    Slavik Stefan; Bednar Richard


    The term business model has been used in practice for few years, but companies create, define and innovate their models subconsciously from the start of business. Our paper is aimed to clear the theory about business model, hence definition and all the components that form each business. In the second part, we create an analytical tool and analyze the real business models in Slovakia and define the characteristics of each part of business model, i.e., customers, distribution, value, resour...



    Mihai Răzvan Constantin BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCĂ; Cătălin Mihail BARBU


    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  3. Pilot Biofeedback Training in the Cognitive Awareness Training Study (CATS) (United States)

    Uenking, M.


    One of the ongoing problems that pilots face today is a diminished state of awareness such as boredom, sleepiness, or fatigue during cruise conditions that could result in various pilot errors. This study utilized a cognitive training exercise to sharpen the pilot's awareness during simulated flight thereby providing them with a means to overcome these diminished states of awareness. This study utilizes psychophysiological methods in an attempt to assess a pilot's state of awareness more directly. In turn, the pilots will be able to train themselves to recognize these states of awareness and be more mentally sharp during mundane tasks such as those experienced in cruise conditions. The use of these measurement tools may be beneficial for researchers working within the NASA Aviation Safety Program. This paper will provide the reader with some background information concerning the motivation for the study, a brief description of the experimental setup and design matrix, the dependent and independent variables that were employed, and some preliminary findings based on some of the subjective and objective data that was collected. These preliminary findings are of part of an ongoing study being conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  4. Business-to-Business -markkinointistrategia sosiaalisessa mediassa


    Kähärä, Karri


    Tämä opinnäytetyö keskittyy markkinointistrategian kehittämiseen business-to-business -yritykselle sosiaalisissa medioissa tapahtuvaa markkinointia varten. Opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan sosiaalisia medioita ja markkinointistrategian luomista eri kirjallisuus- ja verkkolähteiden avulla. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää sosiaalisten medioiden mahdollisuuksia business-to-business -markkinointia harjoittavalle yritykselle ja kehittää konkreettinen markkinointi-suunnitelma sosiaalisissa medi...

  5. Transforming Software Business Models into Business Processes


    Schief, Markus; Bonakdar, Amir; Weiblen, Tobias


    Changed business models, such as induced by Software-as-a-Service, require an effective implementation in a firm's organization. This study clarifies the relation between business models as an implementation of a company's strategy, and business processes, as an abstraction of a company's operations. The presented transformation framework provides specific meaning to the industrial setting of a software vendor morphing to a SaaS model. Both underlying concepts, the business model and the valu...

  6. Achieving Business Process Flexibility with Business Rules


    Eijndhoven, van, SJL Stef; Iacob, M.E.; Ponisio, M.L.


    Business processes used in networked business are often large and complex, which makes them difficult to manage and change. In this paper we address this lack of flexibility by proposing a solution that uses business rules and workflow patterns to model the variable parts of process flow, thus facilitating dynamic pattern composition in these areas. We argue that the increase in flexibility is justified by the fact that changes in a business process can be confined to the variable isolated pa...

  7. Business modelling agility: Turning ideas into business


    Heikkila, J.; Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.


    Business Model Innovation is attracting more and more attention from business as well as from academics. Business Model Innovation deals with both technological and knowledge related changes that either may disrupt or sustain existing product/market strategies. Timing of Business Model Innovation both with regard to the right moment as well as speed of implementing competitive concepts becomes crucial. In this conceptual paper we discuss and evaluate possibilities for shortening the lead-time...

  8. Involving business users in business rules lifecycle


    Thorževskij, Sašo


    Organizations operate in dynamic environments, which require continuous modifications of business policies. The latter also implies changes in business informatics, the basis for effective and prosperous operation. To answer to the constant need for modifications and adaptations, a new approach to information systems design and implementation has been developed, based on separating business rules from the rest of the information system. In such solutions, business rule execution is entrusted ...



    Adriana Teodorescu


    In the past few decades, Business English has become a true lingua franca in all global business communication contexts. The development and use of Business English went hand in hand with globalisation, the growth of multinational and transnational corporations, the fast development in communications technology, the emergence of new markets in developing countries, etc. The use of English at a global level in different business communication circumstances has led to the necessity of developin...

  10. Risky Business (United States)

    Yarbrough, Katherine


    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  11. Interactive Pinball Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune


    Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...... to offer. This paper compares ‘tangible business models’ in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play with...... hypotheses and experiment with scenarios as a way of innovating their business models, and why this is so....

  12. Interactive pinball business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune Klok


    Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...... to offer. This paper compares 'tangible business models' in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play with...... hypotheses and experiment with scenarios as a way of innovating their business models, and why this is so...

  13. Womens Business Center (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  14. Medical certification for pilots of commercial suborbital spaceflights. (United States)


    The Aerospace Medical Association convened a Working Group on October 31, 2008, with the objective of preparing a position statement on medical certification for pilots of commercial suborbital flights. The discussion concerned two areas: medical standards and the content of the medical examination. The Working Group found that the current medical standards for the Federal Aviation Administration Class I certificate were reasonable for crews flying suborbital profiles. It further recommended that the medical examination include a history and physical examination as well as urinalysis, hemoglobin/hematocrit, hemoglobin A1c, and ECG. PMID:19750882

  15. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery? (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul


    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  16. Business Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gilkey


    Full Text Available The newspaper industry has absorbed a tremendous financial impact during the last three years in revenues and bottom lines. As a whole, industry players were slow to react to ever-changing marketplace dynamics. Newspapers report on other companies and industries in their business pages every day. However, they failed to listen to and heed some of the advice and counsel they offered on those some pages. As they have to come to acknowledge the trend, it has triggered a re-evaluation of the company’s organizational structure on the revenue and expense sides of the equation. The change in revenue streams had become so extreme that many large newspaper groups have opted to file bankruptcy in order to continue operations while relieving themselves of crushing loan payments and obsolete labor agreements. The newspaper industry, as a whole, is a capital-intensive one, with heavy investment required for printing and equipment for compiling and collating revenue-rich inserts, along with fleets of delivery trucks and vans

  17. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.


    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration`s computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs.

  18. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration's computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs

  19. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.


    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  20. Human-Centered Aviation Automation: Principles and Guidelines (United States)

    Billings, Charles E.


    This document presents principles and guidelines for human-centered automation in aircraft and in the aviation system. Drawing upon operational experience with highly automated aircraft, it describes classes of problems that have occurred in these vehicles, the effects of advanced automation on the human operators of the aviation system, and ways in which these problems may be avoided in the design of future aircraft and air traffic management automation. Many incidents and a few serious accidents suggest that these problems are related to automation complexity, autonomy, coupling, and opacity, or inadequate feedback to operators. An automation philosophy that emphasizes improved communication, coordination and cooperation between the human and machine elements of this complex, distributed system is required to improve the safety and efficiency of aviation operations in the future.

  1. Sustainable development – the key for green aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MRAZOVA


    Full Text Available The aviation industry has always been seeking the technological progress that will optimise the economic, operational and environmental way of flying. In the first part of this study the author describes the impact of the CO2 emissions on the climate change. Also, the author emphasises the fact that once again the aviation environment is asking for new breakthroughs to face the challenge of the aviation’s sustainable growth. Airbus and its approach with the least possible impact on environment are introduced in the last part of this paper. Additionally, the environmental way of greener aviation is illustrated by examples of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions measurements made for several selected airlines.

  2. Use of conventional and alternative treatment strategies for a case of low back pain in a F/A-18 aviator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain can diminish jet pilot concentration and function during flight and be severe enough to ground pilots or cause decreased flying time. The objective of this case report is to present an example of the integration of chiropractic care with conventional treatments for the management of low back pain in a F/A-18 aviator. Case presentation The patient had insidious severe low back pain without radiation or neurological deficit, resulting in 24 hours of hospitalization. Spinal degeneration was discovered upon imaging. Four months later, it still took up to 10 minutes for him to get out of bed and several minutes to exit the jet due to stiffness and pain. He had discontinued his regular Marine Corps fitness training due to pain avoidance. Pain severity ranged from 1.5–7.1 cm on a visual analog scale. His Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire score was 5 out of 24. The pilot's pain was managed with the coordinated efforts of the flight surgeon, physiatrist, physical therapist, and doctor of chiropractic. Following this regimen he had no pain and no functional disability; he was able to fly multiple training missions per week and exercise to Marine Corps standards. Conclusion A course of care integrating flight medicine, chiropractic, physical therapy, and physiatry appeared to alleviate pain and restore function to this F/A-18 aviator with low back pain.

  3. Wastewater treatment pilot


    Paraskevopoulos, Christos Alkiviadis


    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the functionality of the wastewater treatment pilot and produce a learning manual-handout, as well as to define the parameters of wastewater clarification by studying the nutrient removal and the effluent clarification level of the processed wastewater. As part of the Environmental Engineering studies, Tampere University of Applied Sciences has invested on a Wastewater Treatment Pilot. The pilot simulates the basic wastewater treatment practices u...

  4. The Council on Aviation Accreditation. Part 2; Contemporary Issues (United States)

    Prather, C. Daniel


    The Council on Aviation Accreditation (CAA) was established in 1988 in response to the need for formal, specialized accreditation of aviation academic programs, as expressed by institutional members of the University Aviation Association (UAA). The first aviation programs were accredited by the CAA in 1992, and today, the CAA lists 60 accredited programs at 21 institutions nationwide. Although the number of accredited programs has steadily grown, there are currently only 20 percent of UAA member institutions with CAA accredited programs. In an effort to further understand this issue, a case study of the CAA was performed, which resulted in a two-part case study report. Part one addressed the historical foundation of the organization and the current environment in which the CAA functions. Part two focuses on the following questions: (a) what are some of the costs to a program seeking CAA accreditation (b) what are some fo the benefits of being CAA accredited; (c) why do programs seek CAA accreditation; (d) why do programs choose no to seek CAA accreditation; (e) what role is the CAA playing in the international aviation academic community; and (f) what are some possible strategies the CAA may adopt to enhance the benefits of CAA accreditation and increase the number of CAA accredited programs. This second part allows for a more thorough understanding of the contemporary issued faced by the organization, as well as alternative strategies for the CAA to consider in an effort to increase the number of CAA accredited programs and more fully fulfill the role of the CAA in the collegiate aviation community.

  5. SHM reliability and implementation - A personal military aviation perspective (United States)

    Lindgren, Eric A.


    Structural Health Monitoring has been proposed as a solution to address the needs of military aviation to reduce the time and cost to perform nondestructive inspections. While the potential to realize significant benefits exist, there are considerations that have to be addressed before such systems can be integrated into military platforms. Some considerations are pervasive to all aviation, such as how to assess the reliability and reproducible capability of these systems. However, there are other challenges unique to military aviation that must be overcome before these types of systems can be used. This presentation and paper are intended as a complement to the review of the outcome of the SAE G-11 SHM committee special workshop on SHM reliability in April of 2015. It will address challenges unique to military aviation that stem from different approaches to managing structural integrity (i.e. safety), frequency of use, design differences, various maintenance practices, and additional descriptions addressing differences in the execution of inspections. The objective of this presentation is to improve the awareness of the research and development community to the different and unique requirements found in military aviation, including the differences between countries, services, and aircraft type. This information should assist the research and development community in identifying and attacking key challenges. It is not intended to be comprehensive overview of all stakeholders' perspectives, but to serve as a launch point for additional discussion and exploration of opportunities to realize the potential of Structural Health Monitoring to assist in the management of military aviation assets. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government.

  6. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics (United States)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.


    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  7. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO


    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  8. Examination of commercial aviation operational energy conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Forty-seven fuel conservation strategies are identified for commercial aviation and the fuel saving potential, costs, constraints, and current implementation levels of these options are examined. This assessment is based on a comprehensive review of published data and discussions with representatives from industry and government. Analyses were performed to quantify the fuel saving potential of each option, and to assess the fuel savings achieved to date by the airline industry. Those options requiring further government support for option implementation were identified, rated, and ranked in accordance with a rating methodology developed in the study. Finally, recommendations are made for future government efforts in the area of fuel conservation in commercial aviation.

  9. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels (United States)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping


    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  10. Sustainable bio kerosene: Process routes and industrial demonstration activities in aviation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Routes to aviation biofuels are examined, focusing on drop-in biofuels, capable of high blend levels with fossil kerosene. • Industrial demonstration activities are reported. • Used cooking oil is considered as alternative sustainable biomass feedstock for paraffinic fuel production. - Abstract: Alternative fuels are expected to play a major role in EU in the coming years due European Directives on the promotion of renewable energies and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in transports. However, while in road transports a variety of possible renewable fuels (mainly biofuels, but also electricity) can be considered, in aviation only high quality paraffinic biofuels can be adopted. This means that biomass must be converted through advanced processes into pure hydrocarbon fuels, fully compatible with the existing systems. The aviation sector is responsible for the 2% of the world anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the 10% of the fuel consumption: airlines’ costs for fuel reach 30% of operating costs. In addition, the aviation traffic is expected to double within 15 years from 2012, while fuel consumption and CO2 emissions should double in 25 years. Thus, more than 2 billion people and 40 Mt of good/cargo will have to be moved every year. In this context, the EU Flightpath set a target of 2 Mt per year for aviation alternative fuel by 2020 (i.e. 4% of annual fuel consumption). New processes towards bio-hydrocarbons are being developed, demonstrated and soon industrialized. The present work explores the possible routes from biomass feedstock to sustainable paraffinic fuels, either through bio or thermo-chemical processes, as well as discusses those more mature, focusing on industrial demonstration initiatives. In fact, while the number of possible options towards paraffinic biofuel production is very large, and covers both thermochemical and biochemical routes, as well as hybrid one, only two pathways are today ready for testing a significant large

  11. 78 FR 52208 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection Section 3 Business Registry Surveys (United States)


    ... Section 3 Business Registry. The first survey measures the outcomes of the pilot program for Section 3 Businesses that have registered with HUD. The second survey, evaluates feedback from recipients of HUD... will be issued via web-based survey sites such as and will produce...

  12. Social Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE


    Full Text Available The field of social business is growing rapidly and attracting increased attention from many sectors. The term itself shows up frequently in the media, is referenced by public officials, have become common on universities. The reasons behind the popularity of social entrepreneurship are many. On the most basic level, there’s something inherently interesting and appealing about entrepreneurs and the stories of why and how they do what they do. The interest in social entrepreneurship transcends the phenomenon of popularity and fascination with people. Social entrepreneurship signals the imperative to drive social change, and it is that potential payoff, with its lasting, transformational benefit to society, that sets the field and its practitioners apart. Although the potential benefits offered by social entrepreneurship are clear to many of those promoting and funding these activities, the actual definition of what social entrepreneurs do to produce this order of magnitude return is less clear. In fact, we would argue that the definition of social entrepreneurship today is anything but clear. As a result, social entrepreneurship has become so inclusive that it now has an immense tent into which all manner of socially beneficial activities fit. In some respects this inclusiveness could be a good thing. If we can achieve a rigorous definition, then those who support social entrepreneurship can focus their resources on building and strengthening a concrete and identifiable field. Absent that discipline, proponents of social entrepreneurship run the risk of giving the skeptics an ever-expanding target to shoot at, and the cynics even more reason to discount social innovation and those who drive it.

  13. A system-of-systems modeling methodology for strategic general aviation design decision-making (United States)

    Won, Henry Thome

    General aviation has long been studied as a means of providing an on-demand "personal air vehicle" that bypasses the traffic at major commercial hubs. This thesis continues this research through development of a system of systems modeling methodology applicable to the selection of synergistic product concepts, market segments, and business models. From the perspective of the conceptual design engineer, the design and selection of future general aviation aircraft is complicated by the definition of constraints and requirements, and the tradeoffs among performance and cost aspects. Qualitative problem definition methods have been utilized, although their accuracy in determining specific requirement and metric values is uncertain. In industry, customers are surveyed, and business plans are created through a lengthy, iterative process. In recent years, techniques have developed for predicting the characteristics of US travel demand based on travel mode attributes, such as door-to-door time and ticket price. As of yet, these models treat the contributing systems---aircraft manufacturers and service providers---as independently variable assumptions. In this research, a methodology is developed which seeks to build a strategic design decision making environment through the construction of a system of systems model. The demonstrated implementation brings together models of the aircraft and manufacturer, the service provider, and most importantly the travel demand. Thus represented is the behavior of the consumers and the reactive behavior of the suppliers---the manufacturers and transportation service providers---in a common modeling framework. The results indicate an ability to guide the design process---specifically the selection of design requirements---through the optimization of "capability" metrics. Additionally, results indicate the ability to find synergetic solutions, that is solutions in which two systems might collaborate to achieve a better result than acting

  14. Civil Drones in Society: Societal and Ethics Aspects of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems




    Remotely piloted aviation systems (RPAS) or ‘drones’ are well known for their military uses, but they could also be used for a range of civil applications for state, industrial, commercial and recreational purposes. Regulatory changes are underway which will allow their use in domestic airspace, with substantial functional and economic benefits predicted. The potential benefits of the civil drone sector for its military counterpart have also been recognised and nurtured, although concerns hav...

  15. Enhancing Icing Training for Pilots Through Web-Based Multimedia (United States)

    Fletcher, William; Nolan, Gary; Adanich, Emery; Bond, Thomas H.


    The Aircraft Icing Project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of in-flight icing education and training aids designed to increase pilot awareness about the hazards associated with various icing conditions. The challenges and advantages of transitioning these icing training materials to a Web-based delivery are discussed. Innovative Web-based delivery devices increased course availability to pilots and dispatchers while increasing course flexibility and utility. These courses are customizable for both self-directed and instructor-led learning. Part of our goal was to create training materials with enough flexibility to enable Web-based delivery and downloadable portability while maintaining a rich visual multimedia-based learning experience. Studies suggest that using visually based multimedia techniques increases the effectiveness of icing training materials. This paper describes these concepts, gives examples, and discusses the transitional challenges.

  16. Maculopathy associated with Dengue fever in a military pilot. (United States)

    Nah, Gerard; Tan, Marcus; Teoh, Stephen; Chong, Chun Hon


    Dengue fever is the most prevalent vector-borne flavivirus infection in humans. Its ocular manifestations have only recently been reported with increasing frequency. We present a case of an air force rotary wing pilot who presented with dengue-related maculopathy and decrement in visual function. The pilot ultimately recovered full visual function and was returned to full unrestricted flying duties with the proviso of regular ophthalmic monitoring. Dengue-related maculopathy may present with retinal edema, blot hemorrhages, and vasculitis. Less common features include exudative retinal detachment, cotton wool spots, and anterior uveitis. It is generally self-resolving with good prognosis. Treatment is controversial, but a course of corticosteroids has been tried in view of a postulated underlying immune-mediated pathology. It is recommended that aviators who have recovered from dengue fever undergo a clinical ophthalmological examination before return to flying duties. PMID:18018440

  17. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  18. Befuddling Business Casual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ "Business casual"has taken on a negative ring,though the English call it "smart casual"which sounds a little more stylish.Popularized by IT businesses as an alternative to"international standard business attire,"business casual holds Steve Jobs and Bill Gates up as its paragons.

  19. Business plan competition

    CERN Document Server


    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  20. Pilot Critical Incident Reports as a Means to Identify Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia


    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies. Pilots participated willingly and enthusiastically in the study

  1. Social Business Models


    Maria Cristina Enache; Corina Sbughea


    A Social Business embraces networks of people to create business value. A Social Business connects people to expertise. It enable individuals – whether customers, partners or employees – to form networks to generate new sources of innovation, foster creativity, and establish greater reach and exposure to new business opportunities. It establishes a foundational level of trust across these business networks and, thus, a willingness to openly share information. It empowers these networks with t...

  2. Business Gift Giving Etiquette


    Paris, Dubravka


    Business world today is faced with cultural similarities and cultural gaps. Every business person should be familiar with the business etiquette, in order to avoid a cultural faux pas. The topic of this paper is business gift giving in various parts of the world with the special emphasis on the English speaking countries. It comprises the basic rules of business gift giving etiquette, the types of gifts, especially the difference between the gifts for clients, the gifts for employees and the ...

  3. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin


    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... Principles are unique in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance...

  4. 78 FR 32416 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aviation... (United States)


    ... Collection of Information: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey... travelers to measure customer satisfaction of aviation security in an effort to more efficiently manage... Collection Requirement OMB Control Number 1652-0013; Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction...

  5. 75 FR 11552 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Aviation... (United States)


    ... Collection of Information: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey... surveying travelers to measure customer satisfaction of aviation security in an effort to more efficiently...; Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey. TSA, with OMB's...

  6. 75 FR 36772 - Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary of Transportation Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) AGENCY: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of...

  7. 78 FR 23458 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes (United States)


    ... CONTACT: Tom Rodriguez, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington... Dassault Aviation Model FALCON 7X airplanes. This AD requires revising the aircraft flight manual...

  8. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawron Bartosz


    Full Text Available Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  9. Hydrocarbon Biocomponents use in Aviation Fuels - Preliminary Analysis of Issues


    Gawron Bartosz; Kaźmierczak Urszula


    Article is related to the aspect of the introduction of biofuels to power turbine aircraft engines. The paper presents the current trends in the use of alternative fuels in aviation and the problems connected with the introduction of hydrocarbon biocomponents. It is pointed to the need to take research and implementation works in the field of the subject, also in Poland.

  10. Lessons of History: Organizational Factors in Three Aviation Mishaps (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William


    This presentation examines organizational factors that contributed to three aircraft mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. Three historical aviation mishaps were studied from a human factors perspective, and organizational factors identified and analyzed. These case studies provide valuable lessons for understanding the interaction of people with aircraft systems and with each other during flight operations.

  11. Atmospheric effects of aviation. Bringing together science, technology and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesoky, H.L.; Friedl, R.R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)


    Sustained growth of the aviation industry could be threatened by environmental concerns. But collaboration of scientists, technologists and policy makers is helping to assess potential problems, and to consider appropriate measures for control of aircraft emissions. The structure of that collaboration is discussed along with status of the scientific assessments. (author) 15 refs.

  12. 78 FR 29669 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Airplanes (United States)


    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... fire, either in an engine or the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) or the rear compartment, possibly resulting... manufacturing batch number for the charge indicator installed on each engine and auxiliary power unit (APU)...

  13. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task (United States)


    ... Aviation Safety Team (CAST) methodology. In 1998, the FAA founded the CAST to develop an integrated, data... test it with the subset of issues the FAA provides. 7. Consider ARAC's role after the FAA implements... chair. The Secretary of Transportation determined the formation and use of ARAC is necessary and in...

  14. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  15. Aviation Support Equipment Technician E 3 & 2. Rate Training Manual. (United States)

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is designed as a self study text for use by Navy and Naval Reserve personnel preparing to meet the professional qualifications for advancement to Petty Officer Third Class and Petty Officer Second Class in the rating of Aviation Support Equipment (ASE) Technician E (Electrical). The first chapter provides information on the…


    Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

  17. IT interdependence and the economic fairness of cyber-security regulations for civil aviation.


    De Gramatica, M.; Massacci, F.; Shim, W.; Tedeschi, A.; Williams, J.


    Interviews about emerging cybersecurity threats and a cybersecurity public policy economic model for civil aviation illustrate stakeholders' concerns: interdependency issues can lead to aviation regulations that put smaller airports at a disadvantage.

  18. 78 FR 46594 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer... (United States)


    ... OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey AGENCY... May 30, 2013, 78 FR 32416. The collection involves surveying travelers to measure customer.... Information Collection Requirement Title: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance...

  19. 75 FR 29567 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer... (United States)


    ... OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey AGENCY... March 11, 2010. 75 FR 11552. The collection involves surveying travelers to measure customer...; Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance Measurement Passenger Survey. TSA, with OMB's...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available  This article explores current development trends of aviation industry in the world, international experience in mergers and acquisitions in this industry were analyzed, the priority directions of development of aviation industry of Ukraine were defined.

  1. 75 FR 73158 - Executive Committee of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Executive Committee of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee... (PIWG) c. Charter Renewal d. ``One Stop Shopping'' Web Site e. Committee Manual Revisions 2. Issue...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from international aviation and allocation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is part of the outcome of a project funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA). The project was initiated to update DEPA on ongoing developments in the field of air transport and environment. The background for starting up such a project is that aviation, due to the prospects for future growth in demand for air travel and freight volumes, may become a more significant source of emissions of greenhouse gases in the future. Another reason for DEPA to take up the subject is that DEPA needs an update on why the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have not yet been able to agree upon a methodology to allocate emissions of greenhouse gases from international aviation between countries. Only emissions from domestic air transport are included in the national inventories on annual national greenhouse gas emissions reported by Parties to the UNFCCC while emissions associated with fuel used for international aviation activities are to be reported separately. Consequently, emissions from international aviation are not included under the so-called Kyoto Protocol that sets out targets for reductions of national emissions of greenhouse gases to be fulfilled by the period 2008-2012. Parties to the UNFCCC and the UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) have been discussing different possibilities for allocating emissions from international aviation to Parties, but so far no agreement has been reached on this subject. A main problem seems to be that if emissions are allocated to the country where the fuel is sold some Parties that have large sales of fuel for transit passengers will have to bear a larger burden than countries with no large hub airports. The basic problem seems to be that an airline registered in one country can carry passengers and freight originating from another country to a third country. Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol states that 'the Parties included in

  3. Smart Business Networks Design and Business Genetics


    Pau, Louis-François


    textabstractWith the emergence of smart business networks, agile networks, etc. as important research areas in management, for all the attractiveness of these concepts, a major issue remains around their design and the selection rules. While smart business networks should provide advantages due to the quick connect of business partners for selected functions in a process common to several parties, literature does not provide constructive methods whereby the selection of temporary partners and...

  4. [Development of spatial orientation during pilot training]. (United States)

    Ivanov, V V; Vorob'ev, O A; Snipkov, Iu Iu


    The problem of spatial orientation of pilots flying high-altitude aircraft is in the focus of present-day aviation medicine because of a growing number of accidents in the air. One of the productive lines of research is to study spatial orientation in terms of active formation and maintenance of its imagery in a complex environment. However investigators usually emphasize the role of visual (instrumental) information in the image construction, almost ignoring the sensorimotor component of spatial orientation. The theoretical analysis of the process of spatial orientation has facilitated the development of the concept assuming that the pattern of space perception changes with growing professional experience. The concept is based on an active approach to the essence, emergence, formation and variation in the pattern of sensory perception of space in man's consciousness. This concept asserts that as pilot's professional expertise increases, the pattern of spatial orientation becomes geocentric because a new system of spatial perception evolves which is a result of the development of a new (instrumental) type of motor activity in space. This finds expression in the fact that perception of spatial position inflight occurs when man has to resolve a new motor task--movement along a complex trajectory in the three-dimensional space onboard a flying vehicle. The meaningful structure of this problem which is to be implemented through controlling movements of the pilot acts as a factor that forms this new system of perception. All this underlies the arrangement of meaningful collection of instrumental data and detection of noninstrumental signals in the comprehensive perception of changes in the spatial position of a flying vehicle. PMID:3226091

  5. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson III, George R. (Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States)); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin (United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)); Freerks, Robert L. (Rentech, Incorporated, 1331 17th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (United States))


    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  6. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.


    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  7. Transferring aviation human factors technology to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the availability of aviation safety technology and research on problems which are sufficiently similar to those faced by the nuclear power industry that an agressive effort to adapt and transfer that technology and research is warranted. Because of time and space constraints, the scope of this paper is reduced from a discussion of all of aviation safety technology to the human factors of air carrier safety. This area was selected not only because of similarities in the human factors challenges shared by both industries (e.g. selection, training, evaluation, certification, etc.) but because experience in aviation has clearly demonstrated that human error contributes to a substantially greater proportion of accidents and incidents than does equipment failure. The Congress of the United States has placed a great deal of emphasis on investigating and solving human factors problems in aviation. A number of recent examples of this interest and of the resulting actions are described. The opinions of prominent aviation organizations as to the human factors problems most in need of research are presented, along with indications of where technology transfer to the nuclear power industry may be viable. The areas covered include: fatigue, crew size, information transfer, resource management, safety data-bases, the role of automation, voice and data recording systems, crew distractions, the management of safety regulatory agencies, equipment recertification, team training, crew work-load, behavioural factors, human factors of equipment design, medical problems, toxicological factors, the use of simulators for training and certification, determining the causes of human errors, the politics of systems improvement, and importance of both safety and public perception of safety if the industry is to be viable. (author)

  8. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays


    Huawei Wang; Jun Gao


    Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN) have been used to build ...

  9. Development of an expert system and software agent for aviation safety assessment


    Flowers, Thomas R.; Dowler, David M.


    The primary goal of this thesis is to design, develop and test an internet based prototype model for using expert system and software agent technologies to automate some of the analytical tasks in conducting aviation safety assessments using the data collected by the automated Aviation Command Safety Assessment (ACSA) system. The Aviation Command Safety Assessment is a questionnaire survey methodology developed to evaluate a Naval Aviation Command's safety climate, culture, and safety program...

  10. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.


    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  11. Automatic generation of optimal business processes from business rules


    Steen, Bas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Iacob, Maria-Eugenia


    In recent years, business process models are increasingly being used as a means for business process improvement. Business rules can be seen as requirements for business processes, in that they describe the constraints that must hold for business processes that implement these business rules. Therefore, in principle one could devise (automated) transformations from business rules to business processes. These transformations should improve the quality (correctness) of business processes, by im...

  12. Sosiaalinen media business to business -yritysmaailmassa


    Koskinen, Krista


    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee sosiaalisen median käyttömahdollisuuksia business to business –yritysmaailmassa. Aihetta käsitellään Gycom konsernin näkökannalta ja lähtökohtana on selvittää, kannattaako kyseisen yrityksen lähteä mukaan sosiaaliseen mediaan tavoitteena markkinoida ja luoda asiakassuhteita. Koska business to business -yritysten on kuluttajaa vaikeampaa hyötyä sosiaalisesta mediasta, luo tämä omat hankaluutensa kyseisessä mediassa menestymiseen. Sosiaalista mediaa tarkastellaan kir...

  13. Aviation response to a widely dispersed volcanic ash and gas cloud from the August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi, Alaska, USA (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Schneider, David J.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Hall, Tony; Bensimon, Dov R.; Salinas, Leonard J.


    The extensive volcanic cloud from Kasatochi's 2008 eruption caused widespread disruptions to aviation operations along Pacific oceanic, Canadian, and U.S. air routes. Based on aviation hazard warnings issued by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, the Federal Aviation Administration, and Meteorological Service of Canada, air carriers largely avoided the volcanic cloud over a 5 day period by route modifications and flight cancellations. Comparison of time coincident GOES thermal infrared (TIR) data for ash detection with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ultraviolet data for SO2 detection shows congruent areas of ash and gas in the volcanic cloud in the 2 days following onset of ash production. After about 2.5 days, the area of SO2 detected by OMI was more extensive than the area of ash indicated by TIR data, indicating significant ash depletion by fall out had occurred. Pilot reports of visible haze at cruise altitudes over Canada and the northern United States suggested that SO2 gas had converted to sulfate aerosols. Uncertain about the hazard potential of the aging cloud, airlines coped by flying over, under, or around the observed haze layer. Samples from a nondamaging aircraft encounter with Kasatochi's nearly 3 day old cloud contained volcanic silicate particles, confirming that some fine ash is present in predominantly gas clouds. The aircraft's exposure to ash was insufficient to cause engine damage; however, slightly damaging encounters with volcanic clouds from eruptions of Reventador in 2002 and Hekla in 2000 indicate the possibility of lingering hazards associated with old and/or diffuse volcanic clouds.

  14. The effectiveness of national strategic guidelines at a local level: a case study of the UK general aviation industry (United States)

    Lober, Terence

    The thesis is concerned with the prospects for reducing strategic-local tensions in the British planning process. It examines the conflicts surrounding small general aviation aerodromes as a means of understanding these tensions, why they have evolved, and if they might be reconciled through planning reform. The only prior academic research to have touched upon this issue through general aviation has been an ESRC funded project undertaken by Gallent and colleagues (1999), who found aerodromes provided a microcosm of planning's issues. Building on this work, the thesis develops what is meant by strategic-local tensions, which in broad terms are described as differences between national and regional guidance/plans and what actually takes place locally. Moving from a basic research question it develops a wide planning perspective based on the literature by discussing the meaning of planning, its history and issues for example, how conflicts in planning might be influenced by the broader socio-political environment. The thesis then arrives at three hypotheses which question the effectiveness of the existing strategic guideline implementation process, develops a local planning authority framework and addresses issues of reflectivity and bias. Results from three national surveys of pilots, aerodromes and manufacturers, plus longitudinal analysis of government and other datasets, are then used to detail a comprehensive and unique description of general aviation, which includes a costing based account of the direct expenditure of flying activity. This provides a substantive foundation for a local planning authority survey which both extends previous boundaries and enables the process of implementing strategic objectives to be disaggregated and evaluated. Field visits to twenty six aerodromes and five local authorities are subsequently used to explore gaps within the strategic implementation process and to develop conclusions, within the wider landscape of planning, about

  15. First Symposium on Aviation Psychology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Aviation Psychology (Columbus, Ohio, April 21 and 22, 1981). (United States)

    Jensen, R. S.

    This volume contains five complete manuscripts and two abstracts presented, and three papers submitted but not presented, at this symposium on aviation psychology. The objective of the symposium was to critically examine the impact of high technology on the role, responsibility, authority, and performance of human operators in modern aircraft and…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC),China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec) and China Aviation Oil Holding Company (CAOHC)signed a framework agreement in Beijing on November 8, 2004 to establish a limited aviation oil company on the basis of China Aviation Oil Supply Corporation, one of CAOHC's core companies. The new company is expected to be set up in 2005.

  17. The Status of Women Faculty in Four-Year Aviation Higher Education Programs (United States)

    Ison, David C.


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the status of women's participation in full-time, non-engineering aviation baccalaureate programs in the United States. In addition, the involvement of women in academic aviation leadership positions (such as chair, dean, or director) was evaluated. Of 353 full-time aviation faculty members employed at 60…

  18. Issues Involved in the Development of an Open Standard for Data Link of Aviation Weather Information (United States)

    Grappel, R. D.


    This paper describes how an effective and efficient data link system for the dissemination of aviation weather information could be constructed. The system is built upon existing 'open standard' foundations drawn from current aviation and computer technologies. Issues of communications protocols and application data formats are discussed. The proposed aviation weather data link system is dependent of the actual link mechanism selected.

  19. 75 FR 16894 - Establishment of the Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... issues. The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) will present information, advice, and... recommendations to the Secretary regarding the aviation issues identified in its charter. The advisory committee... Office of the Secretary of Transportation Establishment of the Future of Aviation Advisory...

  20. 77 FR 60005 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues (United States)


    ... Airplane and Engine Issues'' (77 FR 59243), in FR Doc. 2012-23709, that published on September 26, 2012... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee Meeting on Transport Airplane and Engine Issues AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public...