WorldWideScience

Sample records for business aviation pilots

  1. Job Satisfaction among Turkish Business Aviation Technicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Uyar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most applicable models in safety management put the human factors, employers’ attitudes and behaviors at the center. This study reports an investigation of job satisfaction among business aviation technicians. A demographic information form and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS were used to collect data from 44 individuals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Our results show that there is significant difference in total job satisfaction levels with regard to marital status while other personal factors are not related to the total job satisfaction levels. However several sub dimensions of job satisfaction are affected by the workers’ military or civilian origin, their training background, types of companies they work in or their license category. No difference is found in age and position groups. Secondly, study shows that technicians are the most satisfied from the nature of their work, while they are the least satisfied by operational procedures.

  2. Portable Weather Applications for General Aviation Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Ulf; Ohneiser, Oliver; Caddigan, Eamon

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits and impact on pilot behavior from the use of portable weather applications. Seventy general aviation (GA) pilots participated in the study. Each pilot was randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group and flew a simulated single-engine GA aircraft, initially under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The experimental group was equipped with a portable weather application during flight. We recorded measures for weather situation awareness (WSA), decision making, cognitive engagement, and distance from the aircraft to hazardous weather. We found positive effects from the use of the portable weather application, with an increased WSA for the experimental group, which resulted in credibly larger route deviations and credibly greater distances to hazardous weather (≥30 dBZ cells) compared with the control group. Nevertheless, both groups flew less than 20 statute miles from hazardous weather cells, thus failing to follow current weather-avoidance guidelines. We also found a credibly higher cognitive engagement (prefrontal oxygenation levels) for the experimental group, possibly reflecting increased flight planning and decision making on the part of the pilots. Overall, the study outcome supports our hypothesis that portable weather displays can be used without degrading pilot performance on safety-related flight tasks, actions, and decisions as measured within the constraints of the present study. However, it also shows that an increased WSA does not automatically translate to enhanced flight behavior. The study outcome contributes to our knowledge of the effect of portable weather applications on pilot behavior and decision making. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Air transport pilot involvement in general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    General aviation (GA) fatal accident records of airport transport pilots (ATPs) : were : compared to those of private pilots (PVTs). : ATPs are safer GA pilots than the PVTs. : They have comparable exposure in GA airplanes and account for 7.5% of all...

  4. Supply and Demand for Business Education in Naval Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Obra L

    2005-01-01

    ... modernization with current readiness. This project analyzes the supply and demand for postgraduate business education to determine how prepared Naval Aviation is to achieve long-term transformation objectives...

  5. Improving Pilot/ATC Voice Communication in General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    ...) Basic General Aviation Research Simulator (BGARS). Prior to flying the simulator each pilot was provided with familiarization training, listened to and read back ATC messages spoken in either grouped or sequential format...

  6. Developing a fatigue questionnaire for Chinese civil aviation pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Luo, Min; Hu, Wendong; Ma, Jin; Wen, Zhihong

    2018-03-23

    To assess the fatigue risk is an important challenge in improving flight safety in aviation industry. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive fatigue risk management indicators system and a fatigue questionnaire for Chinese civil aviation pilots. Participants included 74 (all males) civil aviation pilots. They finished the questionnaire in 20 minutes before a flight mission. The estimation of internal consistency with Cronbach's α and Student's t test as well as Pearson's correlation analysis were the main statistical methods. The results revealed that the fatigue questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency reliability and construct validity; there were significant differences on fatigue scores between international and domestic flight pilots. And some international flight pilots, who had taken medications as a sleep aid, had worse sleep quality than those had not. The long-endurance flight across time zones caused significant differences in circadian rhythm. The fatigue questionnaire can be used to measure Chinese civil aviation pilots' fatigue, which provided a reference for fatigue risk management system to civil aviation pilots.

  7. Optical Illusions and Spatial Disorientation in Aviation Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tena, Miguel Ángel; Alvarez-Peregrina, Cristina; Valbuena-Iglesias, Mª Carolina; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2018-03-19

    Optical illusions are involved in the perception of false or erroneous images which might involve disorientation. They occur by a discordance by the peripheral systems about the information captured and generally, resulting in pilots failure to recognize key signals. The aim of this study is to review the state of the art of spatial disorientation and optical illusions in aviation pilots. This kind of disorientation has important practical consequences, because a remarkable percentage of plane accidents are related to pilot's optical illusions. An exhaustive review using pubmed and semantic scholar databases was conducted to find out the most frequent optical illusions in aviation pilots. A total of 45 full text articles published English or Spanish were reviewed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to review exhaustively and describe the main factors involved in spatial disorientation and optical illusions affecting aviation pilots. Mainly, contextual factors: width of landing track lights, nocturnal operations or low visibility, inclination of the landing track, decline of the ground, size of habitual references, low level approach on the water, black hole, sky/terrain confusion, distortion by climatic factors, autokinesis or autocinetics, optional investment illusion, illusions by vection, false horizon, rain on the windshield, misalignment in the approach, vibrations, somatogravic illusion, coriolis illusion and "G" forces. In a lesser extent, human factors and pathologies of the visual systems involved in spatial disorientation and associated optical illusions affecting aviation pilots are also described. Practical implications are further discussed.

  8. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Cruz C, D.; Rivera M, T.

    2004-01-01

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  9. NBAA business aviation fact book, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Business aircraft are utilized by all types of people : and companies, from individuals who often fly rented, : single-engine, piston-powered airplanes, to sales : or management teams from the largest multinational : corporations, many of which own f...

  10. Supply and Demand for Business Education in Naval Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, Obra L

    2005-01-01

    .... As pilots and Naval Flight Officers evolve from Mission Commander to Commanding Officer, they must be equipped with the requisite business skill sets to engage the challenge of balancing aircraft...

  11. 14 CFR 121.548 - Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector's credentials... Operations § 121.548 Aviation safety inspector's credentials: Admission to pilot's compartment. Whenever, in... presents form FAA 110A, “Aviation Safety Inspector's Credential,” to the pilot in command of an aircraft...

  12. Pilot Certification, Age of Pilot, and Drug Use in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akparibo, Issaka Y; Stolfi, Adrienne

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the association between mean age of pilot, pilot license, pilot medical certificate and drug use trends in pilots fatally injured in aircraft accidents. The prevalence of prescription drugs, OTC drugs, controlled drugs and drugs that may be potentially impairing was also examined. This study was a descriptive observational study in which the NTSB Aviation Accident Database was searched from the period beginning January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. During the study period a total of 706 accidents involving 711 fatalities were investigated by the NTSB. This study included 633 of these accidents, involving 646 fatalities. Of these pilots, 42.1% had drugs in their biological samples. The prevalence of prescription drugs, controlled drugs, OTC drugs, opioids, and potentially impairing drugs in the fatally injured pilot population over the study period was 28.9%, 15.0%, 20.1%, 5.1%, and 25.5%, respectively. Pilots with any drugs in their samples were significantly older than those without drugs. Medical certificate held was associated with drug use; pilots who held third class certificates had the highest prevalence at 54.1%. Pilot license was not associated with drug use. In 3.8% of the accidents, drugs were a contributing factor in the cause. Despite current FAA medical regulations, potentially impairing drugs are frequently found in biological samples of fatally injured pilots in the U.S. More education of airmen by aviation medical examiners is needed on the safety of drug use.Akparibo IY, Stolfi A. Pilot certification, age of pilot, and drug use in fatal civil aviation accidents. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):931-936.

  13. Laser exposure incidents: pilot ocular health and aviation safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W

    2008-09-01

    A database of aviation reports involving laser illumination of flight crewmembers has been established and maintained at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. A review of recent laser illumination reports was initiated to investigate the significance of these events. Reports that involved laser exposures of civilian aircraft in the United States were analyzed for the 13-month period (January 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005). There were 90 reported instances of laser illumination during the study period. A total of 53 reports involved laser exposure of commercial aircraft. Lasers illuminated the cockpit in 41 (46%) of the incidents. Of those, 13 (32%) incidents resulted in a visual impairment or distraction to a pilot, including 1 incident that reportedly resulted in an ocular injury. Nearly 96% of these reports occurred in the last 3 months of the study period. There were no aviation accidents in which laser light illumination was found to be a contributing factor. Operational problems have resulted from laser illumination incidents in the national airspace system. Eye care practitioners, to provide effective consultations to their pilot patients, should be familiar with the problems that can occur with laser exposure.

  14. Attention in aviation. [to aircraft design and pilot performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    The relevance of four principles or mechanisms of human attention to the design of aviation systems and the performance of pilots in multitask environments, including workload prediction and measurement, control-display integration, and the use of voice and head-up displays is discussed. The principles are: the mental energy that supplies task performance (resources), the resulting cross-talk between tasks as they are made more similar (confusion), the combination of different task elements (integration), and the way in which one task is processed and another is ignored (selection or tunneling). The introduction of greater levels of complexity into the validation of attentional theories in order to approach the demands of the cockpit or ATC console is proposed.

  15. Cognitive Task Analysis of Business Jet Pilots' Weather Flying Behaviors: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Pliske, Rebecca; Hutton, Robert; Chrenka, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This report presents preliminary findings from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of business aviation piloting. Results describe challenging weather-related aviation decisions and the information and cues used to support these decisions. Further, these results demonstrate the role of expertise in business aviation decision-making in weather flying, and how weather information is acquired and assessed for reliability. The challenging weather scenarios and novice errors identified in the results provide the basis for experimental scenarios and dependent measures to be used in future flight simulation evaluations of candidate aviation weather information systems. Finally, we analyzed these preliminary results to recommend design and training interventions to improve business aviation decision-making with weather information. The primary objective of this report is to present these preliminary findings and to document the extended CTA methodology used to elicit and represent expert business aviator decision-making with weather information. These preliminary findings will be augmented with results from additional subjects using this methodology. A summary of the complete results, absent the detailed treatment of methodology provided in this report, will be documented in a separate publication.

  16. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

  17. Aeronautical Information Service–General Aviation Pilots interface in digital era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Matyáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies and portable devices are part of our everyday lives almost two decades. This article describes how Aeronautical Information Service providers in Central Europe utilize modern technologies in the communication interface with general aviation pilots.

  18. Computer-aided assessment of aviation pilots attention: Design of an integrated test and its empirical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Cannavò

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a battery of seven computerized tests, encompassing classical and innovative solutions inspired by the literature in the field, for the integrated measurement of the attention factors of aviation pilots. The computer software is validated by means of an experimental trial with 50 experienced aviation pilots and 50 untrained people as controls. Statistical analyzes confirm that the instrument can effectively classify aviation pilots, and identify a subset of distinctive attention factors that could be used for monitoring their duty.

  19. Keratoconus in Civil Aviation Pilots in a Report of Six Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Albert; Rodrigues, Bênesson; Pereira, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a progressive noninflammatory ectatic corneal dystrophy, characterized by corneal thinning and increased curvature with central or paracentral tapered protrusion. Such changes in corneal morphology induce irregular astigmatism and myopia, resulting in visual acuity impairment. This report assesses cases in which keratoconus is not an absolute disabling condition for civil aviation pilots. Six cases of keratoconus in active pilots are presented. This report includes cases which were treated with crosslinking therapy and even corneal transplantation. In such cases, the civil aviation medical authority considered four aspects in the medical assessment: best corrected visual acuity, condition stability, risk of sudden incapacitation, and pilot category. Six civil pilots with ages between 19 and 45 yr of age presented with keratoconus in different stages. Using the Snellen scale, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured in 12 eyes, all of them having equal or better than 20/30 (20/20, N = 9; 20/25, N = 2; 20/30, N = 1). All of them are currently fit for aviation activity and have been given an aviation medical certificate with limitation of use of corrective lenses by the Brazilian Civil Aviation Authority (ANAC in Portuguese). Among these cases, there is a pilot who had undergone treatment with crosslinking therapy and another that had undergone corneal transplantation. These cases demonstrate that keratoconus is not always a disabling condition for civil aviation pilots. Nevertheless, it has to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis.Rebello A, Rodrigues B, Pereira M. Keratoconus in civil aviation pilots in a report of six cases. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):574-578.

  20. Relationship between Recent Flight Experience and Pilot Error General Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Sarah J.

    Aviation insurance agents and fixed-base operation (FBO) owners use recent flight experience, as implied by the 90-day rule, to measure pilot proficiency in physical airplane skills, and to assess the likelihood of a pilot error accident. The generally accepted premise is that more experience in a recent timeframe predicts less of a propensity for an accident, all other factors excluded. Some of these aviation industry stakeholders measure pilot proficiency solely by using time flown within the past 90, 60, or even 30 days, not accounting for extensive research showing aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness training decrease the likelihood of a pilot error accident. In an effort to reduce the pilot error accident rate, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has seen the need to shift pilot training emphasis from proficiency in physical airplane skills to aeronautical decision-making and situational awareness skills. However, current pilot training standards still focus more on the former than on the latter. The relationship between pilot error accidents and recent flight experience implied by the FAA's 90-day rule has not been rigorously assessed using empirical data. The intent of this research was to relate recent flight experience, in terms of time flown in the past 90 days, to pilot error accidents. A quantitative ex post facto approach, focusing on private pilots of single-engine general aviation (GA) fixed-wing aircraft, was used to analyze National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation archival data. The data were analyzed using t-tests and binary logistic regression. T-tests between the mean number of hours of recent flight experience of tricycle gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (TPE) and non-pilot error accidents (TNPE), t(202) = -.200, p = .842, and conventional gear pilots involved in pilot error accidents (CPE) and non-pilot error accidents (CNPE), t(111) = -.271, p = .787, indicate there is no

  1. Piloted simulation study of an ILS approach of a twin-pusher business/commuter turboprop aircraft configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation of a twin-pusher, turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration representative of the Cessna ATPTB (Advanced turboprop test bed) was developed for use in piloted studies with the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The math models developed are provided, simulation predictions are compared with with Cessna flight-test data for validation purposes, and results of a handling quality study during simulated ILS (instrument landing system) approaches and missed approaches are presented. Simulated flight trajectories, task performance measures, and pilot evaluations are presented for the ILS approach and missed-approach tasks conducted with the vehicle in the presence of moderate turbulence, varying horizontal winds and engine-out conditions. Six test subjects consisting of two research pilots, a Cessna test pilot, and three general aviation pilots participated in the study. This effort was undertaken in cooperation with the Cessna Aircraft Company.

  2. Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    An increased awareness of the need for safety in medicine in general and in surgery in particular has prompted comparisons between the cockpit and the operating room. These comparisons seem to make sense but tend to be oversimplified. Attempts in healthcare to mimic programs that have been credited for the safety of commercial aviation have met with varying results. The risk here is that oversimplified application of an aviation model may result in the abandonment of good ideas in medicine. This paper describes in more depth the differences between medicine and commercial aviation: from the hiring process, through initial operating experience, recurrent training, and the management of emergencies. These programs add up to a cultural difference. Aviation assumes that personnel are subject to mistake making and that systems and culture need to be constructed to catch and mitigate error; medicine is still focused on the perfection of each individual's performance. The implications of these differences are explored.

  3. General Aviation Citizen Science Pilot Study to Help Tackle Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerial remote sensing conducted by volunteer pilots acting as citizen scientists is providing high-quality data to help understand reasons behind outbreaks of toxic algal blooms in nation's waterways and coastlines. The toxic water can be detrimental to national economy, human health, clean drinking water, fishing industry, and water sports. We will show how general aviation pilots around the country are contributing to this NASA citizen science initiative.

  4. Professional pilots' views of alcohol use in aviation and the effectiveness of employee-assistance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S M; Ross, L E

    1995-01-01

    Pilots holding the Airline Transport Pilot certificate were surveyed about the seriousness of the alcohol problem in various areas of aviation and about the importance of a number of possible reasons why a pilot might drink and fly. They also rated a number of actions in terms of their potential effectiveness for reducing inappropriate alcohol use, and they evaluated a number of characteristics of employee-assistance programs. Respondents judged employee-assistance programs to be the best way to reduce problem drinking. They also identified areas in which currently available employee-assistance programs could be improved.

  5. Aviation Neuropsychiatry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A few of the specific objectives include: Elucidating the use of the Adaptability Rating for Military Aviation, providing a general understanding of human factors in aviation, examining concepts regarding pilot personality, covering...

  6. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  7. Flying personal planes: modeling the airport choices of general aviation pilots using stated preference methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camasso, M J; Jagannathan, R

    2001-01-01

    This study employed stated preference (SP) models to determine why general aviation pilots choose to base and operate their aircraft at some airports and not others. Thirteen decision variables identified in pilot focus groups and in the general aviation literature were incorporated into a series of hypothetical choice tasks or scenarios. The scenarios were offered within a fractional factorial design to establish orthogonality and to preclude dominance in any combination of variables. Data from 113 pilots were analyzed for individual differences across pilots using conditional logit regression with and without controls. The results demonstrate that some airport attributes (e.g., full-range hospitality services, paved parallel taxiway, and specific types of runway lighting and landing aids) increase pilot utility. Heavy airport congestion and airport landing fees, on the other hand, decrease pilot utility. The importance of SP methodology as a vehicle for modeling choice behavior and as an input into the planning and prioritization process is discussed. Actual or potential applications include the development of structured decision-making instruments in the behavioral sciences and in human service programs.

  8. Integrating Safety in the Aviation System: Interdepartmental Training for Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Marifran; Petrin, Donald A.; Young, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The study of human factors has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, the entire aviation system often is not considered in researching, training, and evaluating human factors issues especially with regard to safety. In both conceptual and practical terms, we argue for the proactive management of human error from both an individual and organizational systems perspective. The results of a multidisciplinary research project incorporating survey data from professional pilots and maintenance technicians and an exploratory study integrating students from relevant disciplines are reported. Survey findings suggest that latent safety errors may occur during the maintenance discrepancy reporting process because pilots and maintenance technicians do not effectively interact with one another. The importance of interdepartmental or cross-disciplinary training for decreasing these errors and increasing safety is discussed as a primary implication.

  9. Emergence of green business models: The case of algae biofuel for aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Sujith; Paulose, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Emergent business models seek to take advantage of new market mechanisms driven by technological changes, particularly those related to the production and delivery of clean or sustainable energy. Such business models often function at the intersection of various industries, with global views, and the resulting systems have distinct social, political, environmental, economic, technological, and business dimensions. Such holistic systems are not only difficult to develop but also require support from a broad range of actors with effective regulations and policies in place, such that the firm functions within a framework that integrates various factors. This study substantiates such a framework by detailing the nascent algae-based bio-fuel industry that caters to the aviation sector while arguing that businesses in the energy industry can emerge as a next-practice platform that drive a sixth wave of innovation. The framework begins with three basic enablers, innovation, flexibility, and sustainability, and explains how value from renewable energy technologies can be created and captured sustainably and innovatively with new market mechanisms implemented by firms with green business models. - Highlights: • We develop a framework that enables the emergence of green energy business models. • We present a case study on the algae based biofuel system for airline industry. • The green business models in energy are global in nature and are next practice platforms. • New market mechanisms and policy measures lead to sustainable energy business models. • Innovation, flexibility and sustainability are the basic enablers of the framework

  10. Periodontal diseases in military aviation crew: A pilot study in armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Thankappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent literature suggests psychosomatic and occupational stresses have a bearing on the etiology of periodontitis. The aviation field is a high-risk environment and rich in potential stresses which can be potent environmental factors. The purpose of this pilot study was to clinically evaluate the incidence of periodontitis amongst military aviators and its management on the health-related quality of life recovery. Materials and Methods : A total of 252 individuals were examined, equally divided into ground duty and flying groups. In addition to standard parameters, the clinical attachment loss (CAL was estimated according to a three-point scale. Stress factor was evaluated as per short form of Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ. Numbers of visits after diagnosis, limitation from flying tasks due to the acute phase of disease and during treatment were recorded. The subjects who presented with active phases of disease were taken up for surgical mode of treatment. Results: Out of 252 individuals examined in this study, active periodontitis was found in 7.9% of the total population. Group 1 and 2 subjects presented an incidence rate of 5.6 and 10.3%, respectively. Among the aviators, 12.2% of the helicopter crews, 10.3% of fighter pilots, and 8.9% of the transport crews showed active form of periodontal diseases during routine annual medical examination. Ten cases presented limitation from flying due to acute phase of disease. Conclusions : Periodontitis causes early teeth loss and compromises the quality of life. It is mandatory for quick recovery and return to professional activities in the aviators. The annual medical checkup must include a thorough check up by a dental officer/periodontist and assessment with an appropriate radiograph once in every 3years advised. The screening examination used is suggested for use as part of each aviator′s annual dental examination.

  11. Aviation System Safety and Pilot Risk Perception: Implications for Enhancing Decision-Making Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mavis F.

    2001-01-01

    This research explores risk perception in a defined population of flight instructors and the implications of these views for flight training. Flight instructors and students engaged in collegiate aviation flight training were interviewed for this qualitative study. Thirty-three percent of the instructors interviewed reported that flying is not a risky activity. This is important because research identifies risk perception as one factor influencing instructional choices. These choices can then impact the subsequent decision-making processes of flight students. Facilitating pilot decision-making through the use of an appropriate type of learning that incorporates the modeling of consensually validated cognitive procedures and risk management processes is discussed.

  12. Howard Hughes and the Cold War Aviation Film Jet Pilot (1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andrew Voeltz

    2016-10-01

    War.  But sexual intimacy, conspicuous consumption, and aviation technology also inserted themselves into the perfect safetly of American domestic bliss. This paper will analyze how the eccentric Cold War romantic comedy Jet Pilot (1957 so associated with the compulsiveness of Howard Hughes, produced and written by Jules Furthman, directed ( partially by Josef von Sternburg and starring John Wayne and Janet Leigh, reflects all these themes making it the paradigmatic Cold Film that remains a camp classic from the American popular cultyre of the 1950s.

  13. Aviation medicine, FAA-1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-12-01

    The health and safety of more than 80,000,000 aircraft passengers, approximately 500,000 active civilian pilots and other civilian aviation personnel is the concern of the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine.

  14. Evaluating non-technical skills and mission essential competencies of pilots in military aviation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsifetakis, Emmanuel; Kontogiannis, Tom

    2017-05-25

    To develop and validate a classification of non-technical skills (NTS) in military aviation, a study was conducted, using data from real operations of F16 aircraft formations. Phase 1 developed a NTS classification based on the literature review (e.g. NOTECHS) and a workshop with pilots. The Non-TEChnical-MILitary-Skills (NOTEMILS) scheme was tested in Phase 2 in a series of Principal Component Analysis with data from After-Action-Review sessions (i.e. 900 records from a wide range of operations). The NTS were found to make a good prediction of Mission Essential Components (R 2  > 0.80) above the effect of experience. Phase 3 undertook a reliability analysis where three raters assessed the NOTEMILS scheme with good results (i.e. all r wg  > 0.80). To look into the consistency of classifications, another test indicated that, at least, two out of three raters were in agreement in over 70% of the assessed flight segments. Practitioner Summary: A classification scheme of Non-Technical Skills (NTS) was developed and tested for reliability in military aviation operations. The NTS scheme is a valuable tool for assessing individual and team skills of F-16 pilots in combat. It is noteworthy that the tool had a good capability of predicting Mission Essential Competencies.

  15. Oregon department of transportation small business group twice-monthly payments pilot project : summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) recently completed a pilot study on small business payment practices. In the study, three pilot projects were tested where payments to small business contractors were changed from a monthly payment to twice-...

  16. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Medicion de la dosis a pilotos aviadores usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J.; Cruz C, D. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, ESIME Culhuacan (Mexico)]. e-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.mx

    2004-07-01

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  17. Tactical Versus Strategic Behavior: General Aviation Piloting in Convective Weather Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara A.; Chamberlain, James P.

    2002-01-01

    We commonly describe environments and behavioral responses to environmental conditions as 'tactical' and 'strategic.' However theoretical research defining relevant environmental characteristics is rare, as are empirical investigations that would inform such theory. This paper discusses General Aviation (GA) pilots' descriptions of tactical/strategic conditions with respect to weather flying, and evaluates their ratings along a tactical/strategic scale in response to real convective weather scenarios experienced during a flight experiment with different weather information cues. Perceived risk was significantly associated with ratings for all experimental conditions. In addition, environmental characteristics were found to be predictive of ratings for Traditional IMC (instrument meteorological conditions), i.e., aural weather information only, and Traditional VMC (visual meteorological conditions), i.e., aural information and an external view. The paper also presents subjects' comments regarding use of Graphical Weather Information Systems (GWISs) to support tactical and strategic weather flying decisions and concludes with implications for the design and use of GWISs.

  18. Well clear: General aviation and commercial pilots' perception of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Joseph T.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how different pilot types perceived the subjective concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and to observe if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as the effects of other variables. Pilots' perceptions of the WCB were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Together, these metrics provided quantitative and qualitative data about pilot WCB perception. The objective results of this study showed significant differences in WCB perception between two different pilot types, as well as WCB significant differences when comparing two different intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). These differences were dependent on other manipulated variables, including intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels. Subjectively, there were evident differences in WCB perception across pilot types; general aviation (GA) pilots appeared to trust UAS aircraft slightly more than did the more experienced Airline Transport Pilots (ATPs). Overall, it is concluded that pilots' mental models of the WCB are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, while being more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  19. Making an impact: The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO 2 reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. - Research highlights: →Ticket price rises can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights. → Corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to policy options. → Many companies measure emissions but few will apply in-house reduction policies before regulation.

  20. Making an impact: The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Zoe G., E-mail: z.g.davies@kent.ac.uk; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2010-12-15

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO{sub 2} reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. - Research highlights: {yields}Ticket price rises can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights. {yields} Corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to policy options. {yields} Many companies measure emissions but few will apply in-house reduction policies before regulation.

  1. Pilot Project Technology Business Case: Mobile Work Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lawrie, Sean [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States); Niedermuller, Josef [ScottMadden, Inc., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Performance advantages of the new pilot project technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on demonstrating actual cost reductions that can be credited to budgets and thereby truly reduce O&M or capital costs. Technology enhancements, while enhancing work methods and making work more efficient, often fail to eliminate workload such that it changes overall staffing and material cost requirements. It is critical to demonstrate cost reductions or impacts on non-cost performance objectives in order for the business case to justify investment by nuclear operators. The Business Case Methodology (BCM) was developed in September of 2015 to frame the benefit side of II&C technologies to address the “benefit” side of the analysis—as opposed to the cost side—and how the organization evaluates discretionary projects (net present value (NPV), accounting effects of taxes, discount rates, etc.). The cost and analysis side is not particularly difficult for the organization and can usually be determined with a fair amount of precision (not withstanding implementation project cost overruns). It is in determining the “benefits” side of the analysis that utilities have more difficulty in technology projects and that is the focus of this methodology. The methodology is presented in the context of the entire process, but the tool provided is limited to determining the organizational benefits only. This report describes a the use of the BCM in building a business case for mobile work packages, which includes computer-based procedures and other automated elements of a work package. Key to those impacts will be identifying where the savings are

  2. Making an impact. The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Armsworth, Paul R. [Biodiversity and Macroecology Group, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO{sub 2} reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. (author)

  3. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  4. Prevalence of Chlorpheniramine in Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1991-1996

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soper, John

    1999-01-01

    .... During fatal aircraft accident investigations, postmortem samples collected from the pilots at autopsy are submitted to the Civil Aeromedical Institute for toxicological evaluation, and the findings...

  5. The challenge of regional accents for aviation English language proficiency standards: a study of difficulties in understanding in air traffic control-pilot communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R

    2010-02-01

    Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.

  6. Drugs and alcohol in civil aviation accident pilot fatalities from 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine sets medical standards needed to protect the public and pilots from death : or injury due to incapacitation of the pilot. As a part of this process, toxicology testing is performed by the FAA : on almost every pil...

  7. Epidemiology of Toxicological Factors in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1999-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    This analytical process includes identifi cation of controlled substances of Schedules I and II, such as amphetamines, cocaine, and marihuana ...holding pilots. Marihuana (tetrahy- drocannabinol and/or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid) was detected in the highest number of 21 pilots with...the numbers were 9 and 8 in the Second-Class and Third- Class medical certifi cate categories, respectively. Including marihuana and benzodiazepines

  8. Convection Weather Detection by General Aviation Pilots with Convectional and Data-Linked Graphical Weather Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, James P.; Latorella, Kara A.

    2001-01-01

    This study compares how well general aviation (GA) pilots detect convective weather in flight with different weather information sources. A flight test was conducted in which GA pilot test subjects were given different in-flight weather information cues and flown toward convective weather of moderate or greater intensity. The test subjects were not actually flying the aircraft, but were given pilot tasks representative of the workload and position awareness requirements of the en route portion of a cross country GA flight. On each flight, one test subject received weather cues typical of a flight in visual meteorological conditions (VMC), another received cues typical of flight in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), and a third received cues typical of flight in IMC but augmented with a graphical weather information system (GWIS). The GWIS provided the subject with near real time data-linked weather products, including a weather radar mosaic superimposed on a moving map with a symbol depicting the aircraft's present position and direction of track. At several points during each flight, the test subjects completed short questionnaires which included items addressing their weather situation awareness and flight decisions. In particular, test subjects were asked to identify the location of the nearest convective cells. After the point of nearest approach to convective weather, the test subjects were asked to draw the location of convective weather on an aeronautical chart, along with the aircraft's present position. This paper reports preliminary results on how accurately test subjects provided with these different weather sources could identify the nearest cell of moderate or greater intensity along their route of flight. Additional flight tests are currently being conducted to complete the data set.

  9. Aviation Safety Hotline Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aviation Safety Hotline Information System (ASHIS) collects, stores, and retrieves reports submitted by pilots, mechanics, cabin crew, passengers, or the public...

  10. A European Seal of Approval for 'gay' businesses: findings from an HIV-prevention pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Gugglberger, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    'Gay' businesses can be important settings through which to deliver health promotion interventions to vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) regarding HIV prevention. This article draws on data from the European Everywhere project, which represents the first scheme to develop and pre-test a common framework for HIV/STI prevention in 'gay' businesses across eight European countries. The scientific basis of the Everywhere framework was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process over 30 months. This process included: formative scoping research; interviews with 54 'gay' businesses; meetings/workshops with representatives from project partners, 'gay' businesses, public health administrations and external experts; 15 interviews and three focus groups with project partners; a five-month pilot action phase in eight countries, together with support from the project's Advisory Group; and all Everywhere project partners including the Scientific Steering Committee. A voluntary European code setting out differentiated HIV/STI-prevention standards for 'gay' businesses (including sex venues, 'gay' and 'gay' friendly social spaces, travel agencies, hotels, dating websites) was developed and piloted in eight European cities. During a five-month pilot action, 83 'gay' businesses were certified with the Everywhere Seal of Approval representing a considerable increase on the expected pilot target of 30. Everywhere offers a major contribution to the public health and/or health promotion field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV-prevention framework for 'gay' businesses that is common across eight European countries. Findings suggest that a European-wide model of prevention is acceptable and feasible to businesses.

  11. Feasibility of a responsive business scorecard - a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woerd, K.F.; van den Brink, T.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several authors have pointed at opportunities to develop the well-established Business Balanced Scorecard into a Scorecard that enables companies to integrate sustainability into their strategy. Recent case studies and research experiences show that social and environmental targets are more widely

  12. Pilot study comparing market orientation culture of businesses and schools of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Harry A; Webster, Robert L; Hammond, Kevin L

    2003-08-01

    A market orientation culture has been described as one that blends an organization's commitment to customer value with a process of continuously creating superior value for customers. Developing such a culture is further described as (1) obtaining information about customers, competitors, and markets, (2) examining the gathered information from a total organizational perspective, (3) deciding how to deliver superior customer value, and (4) implementing actions to provide value to customers. A market orientation culture focuses on the customer, identifies issues in the competitive environment, and coordinates all functional areas to achieve organizational objectives. Research has found businesses with higher market orientation are more successful in achieving organizational objectives. The measurement of market orientation within businesses has been empirically tested and validated. However, empirical research on market orientation in nonprofit organizations such as universities has not been examined. This study investigated market orientation within the university setting, specifically Schools of Business Administration, and compared these data with previously published data within the business sector. Data for comparative purposes were collected via a national survey. Hypothesis testing was conducted. Results indicated significantly lower market orientation culture within the schools of business as reported by AACSB Business School Deans vis-à-vis managers of business enterprises.

  13. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  14. Incorporating Data Link Features into a Multi-Function Display to Support Self-Separation and Spacing Tasks for General Aviation Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Consiglio, Maria C.; WIlliams, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated Airport Management Module (AMM) and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. Implementation of this concept required the development of a research Multi-Function Display (MFD) to support the interactive communications between pilots and the AMM. The interface also had to accommodate traffic awareness, self-separation, and spacing tasks through dynamic messaging and symbology for flight path conformance and conflict detection and alerting (CDA). The display served as the mechanism to support the examination of the viability of executing instrument operations designed for SATS designated airports. Results of simulation and flight experiments conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center indicate that the concept, as facilitated by the research MFD, did not increase pilots subjective workload levels or reduce their situation awareness (SA). Post-test usability assessments revealed that pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved SA over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  15. The Impact of Commercial Aviation on Naval Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    incentive for officers to serve as aviators throughout a military career . Payments start once aviators actually begin to fly and log flight hours which...actual number of hours they work but the number of hours they fly. An airline pilot is not actually compensated for the hours they spend on the ground...boarding gate. This type of system can result in two pilots both spending the same number of hours at work but each being paid for a different number

  16. Aviation safety courses available through the FAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-02

    The FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) offers a 1-day training course to familiarize U.S. civil aviation pilots and flight crews with the physiological and psychological stresses of flight. Pilots who are knowledgeable about physiological p...

  17. Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

    2009-09-25

    This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. An analysis of hourly load data indicates that the offices and retail stores in our sample provided significant demand response, while the restaurants did not. Thermostat data provides further evidence that restaurants attempted to precool and reduce AC service during event hours, but were unable to because their air-conditioning units were undersized. On a 100 F reference day, load impacts of all participants during events averaged 14%, while load impacts of office and retail buildings (excluding restaurants) reached 20%. Overall, pilot participants including restaurants had 2007-2008 summer energy savings of 20% and bill savings of 30%. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability

  18. The development of eye tracking in aviation (ETA) technique to investigate pilot's cognitive processes of attention and decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Chin; Lin, John J. H.; Braithwaite, Graham; Greaves, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Eye tracking device had provided researchers a promising way to investigate what pilot‘s cognitive processes when they see information present on the flight deck. There are 35 participants consisted by pilots and avionics engineers participated in current research. The research apparatus include an eye tracker and a flight simulator divided by five AOIs for data collection. The research aims are to develop cost-efficiency of eye tracking technique in order to facilitate scientific research of...

  19. Participant Assessments of Aviation Safety Inspector Training for Technically Advanced Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chidester, Thomas; Hackworth, Carla; Knecht, William

    2007-01-01

    .... Currently, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation safety inspectors are required to inspect technically advanced aircraft, check certified flight instructors, and conduct surveillance of designated pilot examiners who are certifying pilots...

  20. Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Search Site submit About Mission Business Newsroom Publications Los : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Business LANL 75th logo Business Los Alamos is a premier R&D laboratory seeking to do business with qualified companies offering value and

  1. Distribution and optical purity of methamphetamine found in toxic concentration in a civil aviation accident pilot fatality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Cardona, Patrick S; Soper, John W; Canfield, Dennis V

    2004-07-01

    Toxicological evaluation of postmortem samples collected from a pilot involved in a unique fatal civil aircraft accident is described in this paper. A one-occupant airplane was substantially damaged upon colliding with terrain in poor visibility. Remains of the pilot were found outside the aircraft. Pathological examination revealed multiple blunt force injuries and vascular congestion. The fluorescence polarization immunoassay disclosed 8.0 microg/mL amphetamines in urine. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses determined the presence of methamphetamine (1.13 microg/mL in blood and 59.2 microg/mL in urine) and amphetamine (0.022 microg/mL in blood and 1.50 microg/mL in urine). Methamphetamine was distributed throughout the body, including the brain. The amount of methamphetamine in gastric contents was 575-fold higher than that of amphetamine. The (+)- and (-)-forms of methamphetamine were present in equal proportions in gastric contents. The methamphetamine concentration found in blood was in the range sufficient to produce toxic effects, causing performance impairment.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Allegra R.; Kennedy, Grace A.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Blossom, Jeffrey; Blood, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA) and Seattle (WA), USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry. PMID:24322394

  3. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bryn Austin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA and Seattle (WA, USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

  4. Drugs of abuse in aviation fatalities : 1. Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Isopropyl alcohol swabs taken from the oral cavities of pilots killed in general aviation accidents were analyzed for marijuana by the modified Duquenois-Levine test. During the 2-year period from October 1982 through September 1984, 289 pilot fatali...

  5. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  6. Demonstration of Sensor Data Integration Across Naval Aviation Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Concepts, Programs and Processes; Maintenance Unit Department, Division Organization; Manpower Management ; and Aviation Officers.” http...Naval Aviation Maintenance Alejandra Jolodosky and Adi Zolotov February 2018 This work was performed under Federal Government Contract...underutilized sensor data. CNA proposed a pilot program that integrated sensor data across maintenance levels to expedite repairs of aviation parts

  7. The aviation safety reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The aviation safety reporting system, an accident reporting system, is presented. The system identifies deficiencies and discrepancies and the data it provides are used for long term identification of problems. Data for planning and policy making are provided. The system offers training in safety education to pilots. Data and information are drawn from the available data bases.

  8. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  9. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  10. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  11. The E-Business Research Network: summary of the results of the Dutch pilot survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); A.R.T. Williams (Roger); J.D. van Iwaarden (Jos); M. Wilson (Melanie); B.G. Dale (Barry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA project has been started with the intention to develop an E-Business Research Network on E-business related research in business and management. The initiative has been taken in co-operation between Erasmus University and UMIST to develop a project in which the first stage concerns the

  12. Safety lessons from aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Phil

    2005-07-01

    Thirty years ago the world of Commercial Aviation provided a challenging environment. In my early flying days, aircraft accidents were not unusual, flying was seen as a risky business and those who took part, either as a provider or passenger, appeared grudgingly willing to accept the hazards involved. A reduction in the level of risk was sought in technological advances, greater knowledge of physics and science, and access to higher levels of skill through simulation, practice and experience. While these measures did have an impact, the expected safety dividend was not realized. The most experienced, technically competent individuals with the best equipment featured far too regularly in the accident statistics. We had to look at the human element, the impact of flaws or characteristics of the human condition. We call this area Human Factors. My paper describes the concept of Human Factors, its establishment as a key safety tool in aviation and the impact of this on my working life.

  13. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  14. The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.

  15. Evaluation of transversal competencies: pilot project in a maths course for first-year business

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Príncep, Manuela; Morillo, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to describe the results of a pilot project for the assessment of the transversal competency "the capacity for learning and responsibility". This competency is centred on the capacity for the analysis, synthesis, overview, and practical application of newly acquired knowledge. It is proposed by the University of Barcelona in its undergraduate degree courses, through multidisciplinary teaching teams. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate this competenc...

  16. Distribution of Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Acid in Postmortem Biological Fluids and Tissues From Pilots Fatally Injured in Aviation Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Schoor M. Letter: effects of marihuana on flying ability. JAMA 230(9):1258 (1974). 8. Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M, Bozzetti LP...Simulated flying performance after marihuana intoxication. Aviat Space Environ Med 47(2):124-128 (1976a). 9. Janowsky DS, Meacham MP, Blaine JD, Schoor M

  17. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  18. AN IMPECUNIOUS PILOT: BRITISH BUSINESS CULTURE AND THE CASE OF LOWELL YEREX, 1933-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between a New Zealand-born entrepreneur, Lowell Yerex, and the British government. It will give particular attention to the role of British business culture in shaping the government’s response to Yerex. During the 1930s and l940s, Yerex built an important airline network in the Caribbean Basin. A British subject, he had an affinity for the empire. However, the British rebuffed his repeated efforts to form an alliance. While they had political, economic and strategic reasons for doing so, the British also manifested a disdain for Yerex because he did not measure up to their business ideals.

  19. Louis H. Bauer and the origins of civil aviation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Theresa L

    2012-12-01

    With the passage of the Air Commerce Act in May 1926, civil aviation safety became a federal responsibility under the Department of Commerce (DoC). In November of that year, Louis Hopewell Bauer (1888-1964) became the DoC's first Aviation Medical Director. After earning his medical degree at the Harvard School of Medicine in 1912, Bauer joined the U.S. Army Medical Corps, where he helped develop the role of the military flight surgeon and then served as director of the Army's School of Aviation Medicine. Upon taking the federal position, he undertook to define medical standards and examination frequencies for civilian pilots and identifiy disqualifying conditions that could compromise a pilot's ability to operate an aircraft safely. Bauer also personally selected 57 private physicians (soon to be known as Aviation Medical Examiners) distributed across the country to give medical examinations for pilot licenses. Bauer subsequently played a leading role in organizing the Aviation Medical Association in 1929.

  20. Aviation and externalities : the accomplishments and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Janić, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Civil aviation has become a major industry and in one of the fastest growing sectors of the world economy. The growth of civil aviation has advantages and disadvantages for the society. The advantages include the direct and indirect generation of new jobs within and around the sector as well as providing a strong stimulus to the globalisation of the industry, business and long distance tourism. Disadvantages include its negative impacts on the environment. This paper presents an overview of t...

  1. INTEGRATED BUSINESS STRATEGY AND ITS CONSTRUCTS: PILOT STUDY AT HOTELS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrin Saad; Khulida Kirana Yahya; Faizuniah Pangil

    2012-01-01

    Since hotel industry is major contributor to the growth of Tourism Industry in Malaysia, it is vital to take into consideration of issues that are being carried by the industry. For example the high turnover of employee in hotel due to poor strategy conducted by hotels’ management. This paper explores the new strategy measurement which is the integrated business strategy dimensions in fitting the hotel industry due to the scarce of hospitality strategy at present. The new strategy is develope...

  2. Media business transformation based on information technology : A pilot study of three Swedish newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat Alavioon, Samin

    2017-01-01

    The newspaper industry has been transformed after the emergence of information technology. According to the transformation of media businesses by technology advancement this study realizes the importance of opportunities and threats brought by new information technology in the newspaper industry. Therefore, to develop an understanding of how the newspaper industry can transform due to technology advancement three research questions were answered; RQ 1. How can information technologies transfo...

  3. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  4. An analysis of aviation test scores to characterize Student Naval Aviator disqualification

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Erich J.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Navy uses the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTh) to identify those Student Naval Aviator (SNA) applicants most likely to succeed in flight training. Using classification and regression trees, this thesis concludes that individual answers to an ASTh subtest, the Biographical Inventory, are not good predictors of SNA primary flight grades. It also concludes that those SNA who score less than a 6 on the Pilot Biographical Inv...

  5. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

  6. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  7. THE MODEL OF DISTINCTION OF ACCESS RIGHTS TO INFORMATION OBJECTS OF THE SYSTEM OF CONTROLLING OF BUSINESS PROCESSES OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Degtyarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analysis of controlling system of business processes ofaviation enterprise was formulated the approach for set up an hierarchicalmodel of personal permissions to information resources of an automatic of thesystem of controlling of projects and contracts (ASCPC on the instrumentaland procedure levels. On the model base structure of personalized key wasdeveloped. This model reflective of possibilities of the every category of userswhen working with ASCPC.

  8. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  9. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  10. Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, David; Morrison, William

    2003-01-01

    Our focus is the evolution of business strategies and network structure decisions in the commercial passenger aviation industry. The paper reviews the growth of hub-and-spoke networks as the dominant business model following deregulation in the latter part of the 20 century, followed by the emergence of value-based airlines as a global phenomenon at the end of the century. The paper highlights the link between airline business strategies and network structures, and examines the resulting competition between divergent network structure business models. In this context we discuss issues of market structure stability and the role played by competition policy.

  11. Effects of Video Weather Training Products, Web-Based Preflight Weather Briefing, and Local Versus Non-Local Pilots on General Aviation Pilot Weather Knowledge and Flight Behavior. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    homa pilots are representative of u.S. pilots in general. Presumably, they are similar but, so far, this has not been directly investigated. Since...1 Training Product 2 Control Combined group n Age FH % IR n Age FH % IR n Age FH % IR N Age FH % IR Phase 1 16 39 280 53 16 38 235.5 47 18 42 262.5 50 50

  12. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart

    2005-01-01

    General aviation (GA) -- a catch-all category that includes about 57% of all civilian aviation activity within the United States -- encompasses a wide range of airports, aircraft, and flight operations...

  13. The role of female entrepreneurial networks and small business development: a pilot study based on Sri Lankan migrant entrepreneurs of tourism industry in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.K.N.S.Surangi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years much has been written about the rapid spread of various types of firm networking, the area of female entrepreneurs’ networks and small business entrepreneurship is still a challenging research field. This study aims to explore the role of female entrepreneurs’ networks and examine the importance influences for female entrepreneurs’ networking behaviour. Pilot studies are mostly under-reported in the qualitative research literature and this article specifically focuses on the pilot study findings.Having established that a qualitative methodology is most suitable for this study, the in-depth narrative interviews and observation are deemed a particularly suitable research tools. For this study, the pilot work was conducted in London prior to the main stage of data gathering in Sri Lanka. Five Sri Lankan migrant women entrepreneurs in London were purposively approached and interviewed.Findings show that the female entrepreneurs’ networking experience provides a valuable insight for developing their own small businesses. More specifically, majority of the female entrepreneurs emphasized the purpose- driven nature of their contacts and they organized their networks around the family and social domains rather than professional ties. Further, influences: competing family responsibilities and business matters (being a good mum, gender, trust and running home based business, are important and they affect networking behaviour of female entrepreneurs. This study adds to the extant literature through its two-dimensional focus on entrepreneurial networking .The structural dimension which investigates who are parts of the entrepreneurial networks; the relational side which explores the contributions each tie brings to the entrepreneurial venture. Further, it brings new evidence to bear by examine the importance influences for women networking behaviour by showing how the phenomenon of entrepreneurship is context specific and the

  14. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  15. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  16. Measuring weather for aviation safety in the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for an improved aviation weather system are defined and specifically include the need for (1) weather observations at all airports with instrument approaches, (2) more accurate and timely radar detection of weather elements hazardous to aviation, and (3) better methods of timely distribution of both pilot reports and ground weather data. The development of the discrete address beacon system data link, Doppler weather radar network, and various information processing techniques are described.

  17. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  18. Aviation safety and ICAO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jiefang

    2009-01-01

    The thesis addresses the issue of aviation safety under the rule of law. Aviation safety is a global concern. While air transport is considered a safe mode of travel, it is susceptible to inherent risks of flight, the use of force, and terrorist acts. Consequently, within the framework of the

  19. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  1. Aspects of the business success important to female entrepreneurs in urban areas of the Republic of Serbia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of an empirical study of the importance of qualitative and quantitative dimensions of business success for female entrepreneurs in the Republic of Serbia. There is empirical evidence that qualitative components, such as customer and employee satisfaction, relations with stakeholders, and family-work balance are more important to Serbian female entrepreneurs. Quantitative components (profit and employment growth, personal wealth, and other personal goals, although lower ranked, are also an important aspect of business success. These results also confirm that female entrepreneurs in Serbia have a diverse perception of business success.

  2. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  3. Industrial neuroscience in aviation evaluation of mental states in aviation personnel

    CERN Document Server

    Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the emerging field of industrial neuroscience, and reports on the authors’ cutting-edge findings in the evaluation of mental states, including mental workload, cognitive control and training of personnel involved either in the piloting of aircraft and helicopters, or in managing air traffic. It encompasses neuroimaging and cognitive psychology techniques and shows how they have been successfully applied in the evaluation of human performance and human-machine interactions, and to guarantee a proper level of safety in such operational contexts. With an introduction to the most relevant concepts of neuroscience, neurophysiological techniques, simulators and case studies in aviation environments, it is a must-have for both students and scientists in the field of aeronautic and biomedical engineering, as well as for various professionals in the aviation world. This is the first book to intensively apply neurosciences to the evaluation of human factors and mental states in aviation.

  4. Aviation and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    This report provides background on aviation emissions and the factors affecting them; it discusses the tools available to control emissions, including existing authority under the Clean Air Act and proposed economy-wide cap-and-trade legislation; and...

  5. Using the Balanced Scorecard to Enhance Undergraduate Education in a First Year Business Course: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Irma; Taylor, Ronald K.; Winter, Anthony; Mackie, J. Jay; Fisher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Several research studies found that managers lacked a basic understanding of a balanced scorecard (BSC) approach to evaluate an organization. Because of this, the authors saw an opportunity to reorganize a course in order to provide students with an opportunity to address this issue. Therefore, a recent pilot study was conducted to ascertain…

  6. Radiation safety in aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The guide presents the requirements governing radiation safety of aircrews exposed to cosmic radiation and monitoring of such exposure. It applies to enterprises engaged in aviation under a Finnish operating licence and to Finnish military aviation at altitudes exceeding 8,000 metres. The radiation exposure of aircrews at altitudes of less than 8,000 metres is so minimal that no special measures are generally required to investigate or limit exposure to radiation

  7. The Effects of Age and Practice on Aviation-Relevant Concurrent Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milke, Ramon

    1999-01-01

    Recent reviews of the relationship between aging, cognition, and performance in pilots have emphasized the importance of considering age effects in aviator skills, particularly perceptual-motor, and memory...

  8. TEST OF ENGLISH FOR AVIATION PERSONNEL TO MEET ICAO LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Petrashchuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the actual problem of the assessment of English language proficiency of aviation personnel. The paper presents an English language test, which is used for professional pilots and air traffic controllers.

  9. Aviation Careers Series: Pilots and Flight Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-31

    Increasing travel in the United States is threatening the mobility the nations surface transportation system provides. Congestion, particularly in urbanized areas and along heavily traveled intercity corridors, is increasing dramatically. The cost...

  10. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...

  11. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico (SJU) in the Airport Privatization Pilot Program and has determined....S.C. Section 47134 establishes an airport privatization pilot program and authorizes the Department...

  12. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C... final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. Section 47134 establishes...

  13. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. 47134. The... application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot program. 49 U.S.C. 47134 establishes an airport...

  14. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Receipt and... pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. Section 47134. The preliminary application is accepted for review... operator, negotiate an agreement and submit a final application to the FAA for exemption under the pilot...

  15. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  16. Impact of aviation upon the atmosphere. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J. [Comite Avion-Ozone, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The commercial air traffic, either for business or for tourism will induce a special increase of long haul flights, with cruising altitudes of about 10 to 12 km. These altitudes correspond to the upper troposphere for the low latitudes (tropical zones) and to the lower stratosphere for middle and high latitudes. The prospect of a world air traffic multiplied by a factor 2 within the next fifteen years, with an increasing part of the long-haul flights, raises the problem of the impact of aircraft emissions on the upper troposphere and on the lower stratosphere. The air traffic growth which is forecast for the next two decades as well as for long term will be larger than the GDP growth. But technical progress concerning airframes, engines, navigation systems and improvements of air traffic control and airports will keep the aircraft emissions growth at a rate which will not exceed the GDP growth rate. The aviation`s share of global anthropogenic emissions will remain lower than 3 percent. The regulations related to NO{sub x} emissions from aircraft will reduce the aviation`s share of nitrogen oxides from human sources at a level of 1 percent. (R.P.)

  17. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1994. This publication is designed to provide: : - a brief history of the role of aviation in motivating young : people to learn. : - examples of aviation magnet activities, programs, projects and : school curriculums. : - documentation ...

  18. Implementation of the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research Commercialization Pilot Program: Recent Experience and International Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    disadvantaged persons in technological innovation, and 4. increase private-sector commercialization derived from federal R&D. (p. 1) The forth...transition from Phase II through Phase III; third, an incentive that SBIR firms help meet the requirement to work with small, disadvantaged businesses...needed to ensure the UK retains its ranking as the world’s second largest aerospace economy in an increasingly globalised and competitive market

  19. Aplikasi Air (Aviation Information Rule) Berebasis Android Se-bagai Media Pembelajaran Praktis Dunia Penerbangan Studi Kasus: Komunitas Ilmu Terbanga

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Bayu Dwi; Luthfi, Emha Taufiq

    2015-01-01

    Currently aviation is a job that is quite popular in Indonesia, the need for pilots and experts in the field of aviation continues to increase. And this makes the public interest and growing aviation world, but to support the development of the aviation world is very little information available and quite difficult to be able to. Most of the information was derived from the book are difficult to understand for people who are new to the world of aviation and information available on the intern...

  20. The Epoch Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenberg, Donald M.; Molenaar, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a program for high school students who are between their junior and senior years which provides an opportunity to take part in aviation courses at the University of North Dakota. Students take courses leading to a private pilot license, and earn college credit for their efforts. (JN)

  1. FAA statistical handbook of aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents statistical information pertaining to the Federal Aviation Administration, the National Airspace System, Airports, Airport Activity, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Fleet, U.S. Civil Air Carrier Operating Data, Airmen, General Aviation Ai...

  2. A psychologist's view of validating aviation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Earl S.; Wagner, Dan

    1994-01-01

    All systems, no matter what they are designed to do, have shortcomings that may make them less productive than was hoped during the initial development. Such shortcomings can arise at any stage of development: from conception to the end of the implementation life cycle. While systems failure and errors of a lesser magnitude can occur as a function of mechanical or software breakdown, the majority of such problems, in aviation are usually laid on the shoulders of the human operator and, to a lesser extent, on human factors. The operator bears the responsibility and blame even though, from a human factors perspective, error may have been designed into the system. Human factors is not a new concept in aviation. The name may be new, but the issues related to operators in the loop date back to the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century and certainly to the aviation build-up for World War I. During this first global confrontation, military services from all sides discovered rather quickly that poor selection and training led to drastically increased personnel losses. While hardware design became an issue later, the early efforts were primarily focused on increased care in pilot selection and on their training. This actually involved early labor-intensive simulation, using such devices as sticks and chairs mounted on rope networks which could be manually moved in response to control input. The use of selection criteria and improved training led to more viable person-machine systems. More pilots survived training and their first ten missions in the air, a rule of thumb arrived at by experience which predicted ultimate survival better than any other. This rule was to hold through World War II. At that time, personnel selection and training became very sophisticated based on previous standards. Also, many psychologists were drafted into Army Air Corps programs which were geared towards refining the human factor. However, despite the talent involved in these programs

  3. An understanding of how aviation is handled in Helsinki and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Jens Hundevad; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    framework is based on the relatively new aeromobility paradigm that embraces a holistic societal perspective on aviation. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, such as representatives from airport, airline, government, unions including business and tourism organizations, the article produce...

  4. 75 FR 29567 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... business card that directs customers to an online portal. All responses are voluntary and there is no... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance...

  5. 78 FR 46594 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... business card that directs customers to an online portal, a customer satisfaction card with survey... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Aviation Security Customer Satisfaction Performance...

  6. Buyer-seller negotiations: a comparison of domestic and international conditions in a pilot study with international business students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Gülçimen; Kurt, Gizem; Hacioglu, Gungor

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the differences and similarities between domestic and international negotiations, using Kelley's Negotiation Game to measure the profit achieved. There were 58 participants in the international negotiation sample, 29 Turkish and 29 European students. There were 62 Turkish students in the domestic negotiations. All participants studied business or related topics at a university in Izmir. Student t tests indicated statistically significant differences in scores on misrepresentation of information, interpersonal attraction, peer evaluation of misrepresentation information, and satisfaction between domestic and international negotiations.

  7. Aviation environmental technology and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanzhong

    2008-01-01

    Expatiating on the impact of aviation on the environment and aviation environmental protection projects are ex- pounded, and analyzing on the atmosphere pollution and effects on the aviation noise of aircraft discharge. Researching the approach to control aircraft exhaust pollution and noise pollution, and proposing the technology and management measures to reduce air pollution.

  8. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  9. National Survey Results: Retention of Women in Collegiate Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Mary Ann; Bishop, James C.; Karp, Merrill R.; Niemczyk, Mary; Sitler, Ruth L.; Green, Mavis F.

    2002-01-01

    Since the numbers of women pursuing technical careers in aviation continues to remain very low, a study on retention of women was undertaken by a team of university faculty from Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Arizona State University, and Kent State University. The study was initiated to discover the factors that influence women once they have already selected an aviation career and to ascertain what could be done to support those women who have demonstrated a serious interest in an aviation career by enrolling in a collegiate aviation program. This paper reports preliminary results of data collected in the first and second years of the study. The data was collected from surveys of 390 college students (195 women and 195 men) majoring in aviation programs in nine colleges and universities, representing widely varied geographic areas and including both two- and four-year institutions. Results revealed significant areas of concern among women in pilot training. When queried about these concerns, differences were evident in the responses of the male and female groups. These differences were expected. However, a surprising finding was that women in early stages of pilot training responded differently from women in more experienced stages, These response differences did not occur among the men surveyed. The results, therefore, suggest that women in experienced stages of training may have gone through an adaptation process and reflect more male-like attitudes about a number of objects, including social issues, confidence, family, and career.

  10. 14 CFR 61.113 - Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private pilot privileges and limitations: Pilot in command. 61.113 Section 61.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND...

  11. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator). 91.1089 Section 91.1089 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1089 Qualifications: Check pilots...

  12. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... knowledge gaps and future research activities. The intent of the Roadmap is to define systematic, focused... research activities and findings among stakeholders and other parties with an interest in aviation noise... register, please provide your name, business affiliation, a contact email and phone number. Background...

  13. Locomotor problems of supersonic aviation and astronautics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, P

    1989-04-01

    Modern high-speed aviation and space flight are fraught with many problems and require a high standard of health and fitness. Those responsible for the health of pilots must appreciate the importance of early diagnosis even before symptoms appear. This is particularly true in terms of preventing spinal injuries where even a single Schmorl's node may make a pilot unfit for high-speed flying. Spinal fractures are frequent during emergency ejection and landing. Helicopter crews are particularly prone to spinal disc degeneration due to vibration. By effective lowering of vibration by changes in the seats, a reduction in such lesions is possible. The osteoporosis and muscle atrophy occurring among astronauts subjected to prolonged weightlessness can be prevented by regular physical exercises.

  14. 75 FR 53007 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S...'s GO Loan Pilot until September 30, 2011. Due to the scope and magnitude of the devastation to... streamlined and centralized loan processing available through the GO Loan Pilot to small businesses in the...

  15. 76 FR 60960 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S.... SUMMARY: This notice announces the extension of SBA's GO Loan Pilot, with modifications, until December 31... processing available through the GO Loan Pilot to small businesses in the eligible parishes/counties through...

  16. Parallels in safety between aviation and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Claudia R

    2018-05-01

    Aviation and healthcare are complex industries and share many similarities: the cockpit and the operating theater, the captain and the surgeon. While North American commercial aviation currently enjoys a tremendous safety record, it was not always this way. A spike of accidents in 1973 caused 3214 aviation-related fatalities. Over the past 20years, the rate of fatal accidents per million flights fell by a factor of five, while air traffic increased by more than 86%. There have been no fatalities on a U.S. carrier for over 12years. Last year, there were 251,454 deaths in the United States owing to medical error. Pilots pioneered ways to address risks through crew resource management (CRM), and threat and error management (TEM). Both strategies, which are aimed at minimizing risk and optimizing safety, are applicable to surgery and the healthcare industry. These strategies as well as the Swiss Cheese Model, Checklists and the Normalization of Deviance will be reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aviator's Fluid Balance During Military Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovsky, Anna; Abot-Barkan, Sivan; Chapnik, Leah; Doron, Omer; Levy, Yuval; Heled, Yuval; Gordon, Barak

    2018-02-01

    A loss of 1% or more of bodyweight due to dehydration has a negative effect on cognitive performance, which could critically affect flight safety. There is no mention in the literature concerning the amounts of military pilots' fluid loss during flight. The aim of this study was to quantify fluid loss of pilots during military flight. There were 48 aviators (mean age 23.9) from the Israeli Air Force who participated in the study, which included 104 training flights in various flight platforms. Bodyweight, urine specific gravity, and environmental heat strain were measured before and after each flight. Fluid loss was calculated as the weight differences before and after the flight. We used a univariate and one-way ANOVA to analyze the effect of different variables on the fluid loss. The mean fluid loss rate was 462 ml · h-1. The results varied among different aircraft platforms and depended on flight duration. Blackhawk pilots lost the highest amount of fluids per flight, albeit had longer flights (mean 108 min compared to 35.5 in fighter jets). Jet fighter pilots had the highest rate of fluid loss per hour of flight (up to 692 ml, extrapolated). Overall, at 11 flights (11%) aircrew completed their flight with a meaningful fluid loss. We conclude that military flights may be associated with significant amount of fluid loss among aircrew.Levkovsky A, Abot-Barkan S, Chapnik L, Doron O, Levy Y, Heled Y, Gordon B. Aviator's fluid balance during military flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):9498.

  18. 14 CFR 61.315 - What are the privileges and limits of my sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.315 Section 61.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.315 What are the privileges and limits of my sport pilot certificate? (a) If you hold a sport pilot certificate you may act as pilot in command of a light-sport aircraft, except as...

  19. Secure ADS-B: Towards Airborne Communications Security in the Federal Aviation Administration’s Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    76 5.2 Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.3 Recommendations for Future Work...Global Positioning System ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization IFF Identification Friend or Foe IFR Instrument Flight Rules IMO...Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ). Under VFR, typically used by General Aviation (GA) aircraft operating under 18,000 feet, the pilot is primarily responsible

  20. Aviation Management Perception of Biofuel as an Alternative Fuel Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marticek, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore lived experiences and perceptions from a population of 75 aviation managers in various locations in Pennsylvania about the use of aviation biofuel and how it will impact the aviation industry. The primary research question for this study focused on the impact of biofuel on the airline industry and how management believes biofuel can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel. Grounded in the conceptual framework of sustainability, interview data collected from 27 airline and fueling leaders were analyzed for like terms, coded, and reduced to 3 themes. Data were organized and prioritized based on frequency of mention. The findings represented themes of (a) flight planning tools, (b) production, and (c) costs that are associated with aviation fuel. The results confirmed findings addressed in the literature review, specifically that aviation biofuel will transform the airline industry through lower cost and production. These findings have broad applicability for all management personnel in the aviation industry. Implications for social change and improved business environments could be realized with a cleaner environment, reduced fuel emissions, and improved air quality.

  1. Federal Aviation Regulations - National Aviation Regulations of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, O.; Bakiiev, M.

    2018-03-01

    Chinese Aerospace Engineering is currently developing cooperation with Russia on a wide-body airplane project that has directed the work towards better understanding of Russian airworthiness management system. The paper introduces national Aviation regulations of Russia, presents a comparison of them with worldwide recognized regulations, and highlights typical differences. They have been found to be: two general types of regulations used in Russia (Aviation Regulations and Federal Aviation Regulations), non-unified structure of regulations on Aircraft Operation management, various separate agencies responsible for regulation issuance instead of one national aviation authority, typical confusions in references. The paper also gives a list of effective Russian Regulations of both types.

  2. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  3. Agile Web Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Mark

    1997-01-01

    ... in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The pilot program allowed 18 small and medium sized enterprises to experiment with new agile business practices in competitive manufacturing environments by forming virtual organizations within...

  4. [Learning from aviation - how to increase patient safety in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, B; Angele, M K; Jauch, K-W; Kasparek, M S; Kreis, M; Müller, M H

    2012-04-01

    During the last years attempts have been made to draw lessons from aviation to increase patient safety in medicine. In particular similar conditions are present in surgery as pilots and surgeons may have to support high physical and mental pressure. The use of a few safety instruments from aviation is feasible in an attempt to increase safety in surgery. First a "root caused" accident research may be established. This is achievable by morbidity and mortality conferences and critical incident reporting systems (CIRS). Second, standard operating procedures may assure a uniform mental model of team members. Furthermore, crew resource management illustrates a strategy and attitude concept, which is applicable in all situations. Safety instruments from aviation, therefore, seem to have a high potential to increase safety in surgery when properly employed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  5. Private Pilot Practical Test Standards for Airplane (SEL, MEL, SES, MES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Private Pilot - Airplane Practical Test Standards book has been : published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to establish the : standards for the private pilot certification practical tests for the airplane : category and the single-e...

  6. Real Language Meets Real Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  7. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  8. Production of aviation gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-05-25

    A process is described for preparing gasoline possessing properties for use as a fuel, particularly for aviation motors, beginning with gasolines composed among others of cyclic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, consisting in treating the gasoline by means of selective solvents of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, and preferably at the same time employing liquid hydrocarbons which are gaseous under normal conditions and adding to the refined product nonaromatics which boil in the range of the gasoline and have an actane number above 95 or which give the mixture an octane number of 82.5.

  9. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  10. Improving Aviation Safety with information Visualization: A Flight Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Hearst, Marti

    2005-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents each year are caused by encounters with invisible airflow hazards. Recent advances in aviation sensor technology offer the potential for aircraft-based sensors that can gather large amounts of airflow velocity data in real-time. With this influx of data comes the need to study how best to present it to the pilot - a cognitively overloaded user focused on a primary task other than that of information visualization. In this paper, we present the results of a usability study of an airflow hazard visualization system that significantly reduced the crash rate among experienced helicopter pilots flying a high fidelity, aerodynamically realistic fixed-base rotorcraft flight simulator into hazardous conditions. We focus on one particular aviation application, but the results may be relevant to user interfaces in other operationally stressful environments.

  11. Development and initial validation of an Aviation Safety Climate Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwyn; Glendon, A Ian; Creed, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    A need was identified for a consistent set of safety climate factors to provide a basis for aviation industry benchmarking. Six broad safety climate themes were identified from the literature and consultations with industry safety experts. Items representing each of the themes were prepared and administered to 940 Australian commercial pilots. Data from half of the sample (N=468) were used in an exploratory factor analysis that produced a 3-factor model of Management commitment and communication, Safety training and equipment, and Maintenance. A confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample showed the 3-factor model to be an adequate fit to the data. The results of this study have produced a scale of safety climate for aviation that is both reliable and valid. This study developed a tool to assess the level of perceived safety climate, specifically of pilots, but may also, with minor modifications, be used to assess other groups' perceptions of safety climate.

  12. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SBA 2011-0003] Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot... Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice, SBA modified or waived as appropriate certain regulations...

  13. 75 FR 473 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Community Express Pilot Program in its current form through December 31, 2010. Based upon the...

  14. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of short-term extension and termination of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice announces the termination of the Community Express Pilot Program following a...

  15. 77 FR 67433 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... comments. SUMMARY: The Community Advantage (``CA'') Pilot Program is a pilot program to increase SBA... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this Notice to extend the term... Pilot Program was introduced to increase the number of SBA-guaranteed loans made to small businesses in...

  16. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  17. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education [National Aviation Education Workshop].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to aviation, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in aviation. (CP)

  18. An Overview of Human Figure Modeling for Army Aviation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    space reach and vision analyses, while others are used to examine biomechanics or strength issues, for example. Still other human figure modeling...identified that the crewstation design did not allow small pilots to reach the pedals and instrument panels. Small females were unable to view the...the ECLs; improved seat adjustment to allow access to the pedals and front instrument panels for small female aviators; and increased volume of space

  19. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Pinter, I.; Liskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  20. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on...

  1. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft... 9, West Chicago, IL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Surveillance Radar, Model 9, West Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  2. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to... address: Lynn D. Martin, Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports...

  3. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY... Nicely, Manager, Federal Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports...

  4. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  5. Chinese Investment in U.S. Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    of the $468 billion of U.S. imports from China. For clothing, footwear, furniture, linens and textiles, and sporting goods and toys, each category...takes many forms, such as pri- vate pilots, executive business jets, air ambulances, forest firefighting, crop dusting, sky cranes, and tourism . In...the Cessna 162 Skycatcher light sport aircraft in China by Shenyang Aircraft Company, a subsidiary of AVIC, presumably to reduce cost, but that plan

  6. Cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia: implications for aviation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhaus C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Neuhaus,1,2 Jochen Hinkelbein2,31Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 2Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue Working Group, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyAbstract: The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview on cognitive responses to hypobaric hypoxia and to show relevant implications for aviation training. A principal element of hypoxia-awareness training is the intentional evocation of hypoxia symptoms during specific training sessions within a safe and controlled environment. Repetitive training should enable pilots to learn and recognize their personal hypoxia symptoms. A time span of 3–6 years is generally considered suitable to refresh knowledge of the more subtle and early symptoms especially. Currently, there are two different technical approaches available to induce hypoxia during training: hypobaric chamber training and reduced-oxygen breathing devices. Hypoxia training for aircrew is extremely important and effective, and the hypoxia symptoms should be emphasized clearly to aircrews. The use of tight-fitting masks, leak checks, and equipment checks should be taught to all aircrew and reinforced regularly. It is noteworthy that there are major differences in the required quality and quantity of hypoxia training for both military and civilian pilots.Keywords: cognitive response, aviation training, pilot, hypoxia, oxygen, loss of consciousness

  7. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  8. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  9. MODELS AND METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF THE PROTECTION OF THE AVIATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Bachkalo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the security assessment of the primary aviation system from the effects of hazards reduces only the assessment of legality of flight. Such an approach to the assessment of flight safety is not aimed at systemic accounting of the moral and psychological aspects associated with human participation in the aviation system’s management. At the same time, the official statistics showed that the absolute majority of aviation accidents occurred due to the influence of the human factor, most often it was the personal factor of the flight crew. All of the above mentioned determines the necessity of the systemic accounting of the negative manifestations of the aviation specialists’ personal factor, who are involved in the aviation system, primarily they are members of a flight crew. The article substantiates the application of the personal methodological approach to the assessment of the aviation system’s security from the effects of hazardous factors. The features of the application of such an approach are shown in the flight safety assessment model. This model allowed us to develop a methodological apparatus for assessment of the aviation system state. The methodological apparatus is a complex of techniques allowing us to assess the security of a particular flight, taking into consideration the impact of the moral and psychological aspects, which are associated with the personality of a particular pilot, and the state flight safety in aviation formation with the impact of flight crew factor. On the basis of the derived integral indicator, which determines the total amount of threats to the state of the aviation system from the pilot’s personal factor, the methodology for as­sessment of the flight safety level assurance with the influence of the pilot's personal factor and the methodology for assessment of the flight safety state in aviation formation with the influence of the human factor of the flight crew were developed.

  10. Representational Momentum in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattler, Colin; Ferrari, Vincent; Didierjean, Andre; Marmeche, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of expertise on motion anticipation. We conducted 2 experiments in which novices and expert pilots viewed simulated aircraft landing scenes. The scenes were interrupted by the display of a black screen and then started again after a forward or backward shift. The participant's task was to…

  11. Business ethics across the curriculum?

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Johannes; Sims, Ronald R.; Nelson, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. This article describes and discusses team teaching and particularly guest lectures as a way of integrating ethics into the business curriculum. After a brief discussion of business school responsibilities and the teaching of ethics, the article looks at efforts to integrate the teaching of ethics across the curriculum. Then, findings from a small pilot study among business ethics and business school co...

  12. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  13. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  14. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  15. The Use of the Internet to Support General Aviation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, James H.

    1995-01-01

    For the past few years, innovation in the field of General Aviation (GA) has declined. The reason for this decline has not been because of a lack of ideas, but rather a lack of funds necessary to convert these ideas into reality. NASA implemented the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program in an effort to promote new technology in General Aviation. Under this program, small business with good ideas present them to NASA who reviews them and determines their value potential in the GA market. If the company's idea proves worthy, NASA subsidizes their research in three phases that include the research, testing, development, and production of their product. The purpose of my internship this summer was to use the Internet to promote the work of SBIR companies globally to prospective investors.

  16. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-07

    Testimony of Gerald L. Dillingham, Associate Director, Transportation Issues, : Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division before the Subcommittee : on Aviation, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate on : the Fe...

  17. Damage Adaptive Guidance for Piloted Upset Recovery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft Loss-Of-Control (LOC) has been a longstanding contributor to fatal aviation accidents. Inappropriate pilot action for healthy aircraft, control failures,...

  18. 75 FR 57103 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of... Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September 28, 2010, via teleconference...

  19. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of... Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19, 2010, in Everett, Washington...

  20. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  1. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  2. Transferring Aviation Practices into Clinical Medicine for the Promotion of High Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; McPherson, Mark K; Pina, Joseph S; Gaydos, Steven J

    2017-05-01

    Aviation is a classic example of a high reliability organization (HRO)-an organization in which catastrophic events are expected to occur without control measures. As health care systems transition toward high reliability, aviation practices are increasingly transferred for clinical implementation. A PubMed search using the terms aviation, crew resource management, and patient safety was undertaken. Manuscripts authored by physician pilots and accident investigation regulations were analyzed. Subject matter experts involved in adoption of aviation practices into the medical field were interviewed. A PubMed search yielded 621 results with 22 relevant for inclusion. Improved clinical outcomes were noted in five research trials in which aviation practices were adopted, particularly with regard to checklist usage and crew resource-management training. Effectiveness of interventions was influenced by intensity of application, leadership involvement, and provision of staff training. The usefulness of incorporating mishap investigation techniques has not been established. Whereas aviation accident investigation is highly standardized, the investigation of medical error is characterized by variation. The adoption of aviation practices into clinical medicine facilitates an evolution toward high reliability. Evidence for the efficacy of the checklist and crew resource-management training is robust. Transference of aviation accident investigation practices is preliminary. A standardized, independent investigation process could facilitate the development of a safety culture commensurate with that achieved in the aviation industry.Powell-Dunford N, McPherson MK, Pina JS, Gaydos SJ. Transferring aviation practices into clinical medicine for the promotion of high reliability. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):487-491.

  3. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  4. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...

  5. Building a New Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Monarch High School in Boulder, Colorado, is one of 25 schools piloting the High School of Business program, an accelerated business administration program developed by Columbus, Ohio-based MBA"Research" and Curriculum Center. This article describes the program which uses a heavily project-based pedagogy to teach a curriculum modeled…

  6. A Human Systems Integration Perspective to Evaluating Naval Aviation Mishaps and Developing Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    death of 31 people (Fennell, 1988). A buildup of grease and refuse in the tracks of the escalator provided the tinder that fed flames that quickly...Li, W. C., & Harris, D. (2006). Pilot error and its relationship with higher organizational levels: HFACS analysis of 523 accidents. Aviation, Space

  7. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation : pilots have expressed a concern about the turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a : wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect t...

  8. General Aviation in Nebraska: Nebraska SATS Project Background Paper No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell; Wachal, Jocelyn

    2000-01-01

    The Nebraska SATS project is a state-level component of NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). During the next several years the project will examine several different factors affecting SATS implementation in Nebraska. These include economic and taxation issues, public policy issues, airport planning processes, information dissemination strategies, and systemic change factors. This background paper profiles the general aviation system in Nebraska. It is written to provide information about the "context" within which SATS will be pursued. The primary focus is thus on describing and providing background information about the current situation. A secondary focus is on drawing general conclusions about the ability of the current system to incorporate the types of changes implied by SATS. First, some brief information on the U.S. aviation system is provided. The next two sections profile the current general aviation aircraft and pilot base. Nebraska's system of general aviation airports is then described. Within this section of the paper, information is provided on the different types of general aviation airports in Nebraska, airport activity levels and current infrastructure. The fourth major section of the background paper looks at Nebraska's local airport authorities. These special purpose local governments oversee the majority of the general aviation airports in the state. Among the items examined are total expenditures, capital expenditures and planning activities. Next, the paper provides background information on the Nebraska Department of Aeronautics (NDA) and recent Federal funding for general aviation in Nebraska. The final section presents summary conclusions.

  9. [Safety in intensive care medicine. Can we learn from aviation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, J; Pump, S; Maas, W; Stüben, U

    2012-05-01

    Safety is of extraordinary value in commercial aviation. Therefore, sophisticated and complex systems have been developed to ensure safe operation. Within this system, the pilots are of specific concern: they form the human-machine interface and have a special responsibility in controlling and monitoring all aircraft systems. In order to prepare pilots for their challenging task, specific selection of suitable candidates is crucial. In addition, for every commercial pilot regulatory requirements demand a certain number of simulator training sessions and check flights to be completed at prespecified intervals. In contrast, career choice for intensive care medicine most likely depends on personal reasons rather than eligibility or aptitude. In intensive care medicine, auditing, licensing, or mandatory training are largely nonexistent. Although knowledge of risk management and safety culture in aviation can be transferred to the intensive care unit, the diversity of corporate culture and tradition of leadership and training will represent a barrier for the direct transfer of standards or procedures. To accomplish this challenging task, the analysis of appropriate fields of action with regard to structural requirements and the process of change are essential.

  10. 14 CFR 61.305 - What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for a sport pilot certificate? 61.305 Section 61.305 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.305 What are the age and language requirements for a sport pilot certificate? (a) To be eligible for a sport pilot certificate you must: (1) Be at least 17 years old (or 16...

  11. 14 CFR 61.309 - What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... apply for a sport pilot certificate? 61.309 Section 61.309 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.309 What aeronautical knowledge must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate? Except as specified in § 61.329, to apply for a sport pilot certificate you must...

  12. 14 CFR 61.307 - What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sport pilot certificate? 61.307 Section 61.307 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.307 What tests do I have to take to obtain a sport pilot certificate? To obtain a sport pilot certificate, you must pass the following tests: (a) Knowledge test. You must pass a...

  13. Safety Climate of Ab-Initio Flying Training Organizations: The Case of an Australian Tertiary (Collegiate) Aviation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yi; Rajendran, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    A healthy safety culture is essential to the safe operation of any aviation organization, including flight schools. This study aimed to assess the safety climate of an Australian tertiary (collegiate) aviation program using a self-constructed instrument. Factor analysis of the instrument identified four safety themes, which are Safety Reporting Culture, Safety Reporting Procedure, Organizational Culture and Practice, and General Safety Knowledge. The responses of student pilots suggested that...

  14. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  15. 77 FR 6619 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... access to capital for small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this... (``CA Pilot Program'') (76 FR 9626). The CA Pilot Program was introduced to increase SBA-guaranteed... small businesses and entrepreneurs in underserved markets, SBA is issuing this Notice to revise several...

  16. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  17. Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-29

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Environment and Energy (FAA-AEE) is : developing a comprehensive suite of software tools that will allow for thorough assessment of the environmental effects of aviation. The main goal of the effort is ...

  18. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance of Renewed Approval of Information Collection: Operations Specifications AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments...

  19. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159 meeting: Global Positioning System (GPS). SUMMARY: The FAA is...

  20. Duty of Notification and Aviation Safety—A Study of Fatal Aviation Accidents in the United States in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpo Vuorio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available After the Germanwings accident, the French Safety Investigation Authority (BEA recommended that the World Health Organization (WHO and European Community (EC develop clear rules for the duty of notification process. Aeromedical practitioners (AMEs face a dilemma when considering the duty of notification and conflicts between pilot privacy and public and third-party safety. When balancing accountability, knowledge of the duty of notification process, legislation and the clarification of a doctor’s own set of values should be assessed a priori. Relatively little is known of the magnitude of this problem in aviation safety. To address this, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB database was searched to identify fatal accidents during 2015 in the United States in which a deceased pilot used a prescribed medication or had a disease that potentially reduced pilot performance and was not reported to the AME. Altogether, 202 finalized accident reports with toxicology were available from (the year 2015. In 5% (10/202 of these reports, the pilot had either a medication or a disease not reported to an AME which according to the accident investigation was causal to the fatal accident. In addition, the various approaches to duty of notification in aviation in New Zealand, Finland and Norway are discussed. The process of notification of authorities without a pilot’s express permission needs to be carried out by using a guidance protocol that works within legislation and professional responsibilities to address the pilot and the public, as well as the healthcare provider. Professional guidance defining this duty of notification is urgently needed.

  1. Duty of Notification and Aviation Safety-A Study of Fatal Aviation Accidents in the United States in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorio, Alpo; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti; Laukkala, Tanja; Junttila, Ilkka; Kravik, Stein E; Griffiths, Robin

    2018-06-13

    After the Germanwings accident, the French Safety Investigation Authority (BEA) recommended that the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Community (EC) develop clear rules for the duty of notification process. Aeromedical practitioners (AMEs) face a dilemma when considering the duty of notification and conflicts between pilot privacy and public and third-party safety. When balancing accountability, knowledge of the duty of notification process, legislation and the clarification of a doctor’s own set of values should be assessed a priori. Relatively little is known of the magnitude of this problem in aviation safety. To address this, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was searched to identify fatal accidents during 2015 in the United States in which a deceased pilot used a prescribed medication or had a disease that potentially reduced pilot performance and was not reported to the AME. Altogether, 202 finalized accident reports with toxicology were available from (the year) 2015. In 5% (10/202) of these reports, the pilot had either a medication or a disease not reported to an AME which according to the accident investigation was causal to the fatal accident. In addition, the various approaches to duty of notification in aviation in New Zealand, Finland and Norway are discussed. The process of notification of authorities without a pilot’s express permission needs to be carried out by using a guidance protocol that works within legislation and professional responsibilities to address the pilot and the public, as well as the healthcare provider. Professional guidance defining this duty of notification is urgently needed.

  2. JOHN WESTON, THE "GRANDFATHER OF AVIATION IN SOUTH AFRICA"

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. Oberholzer

    2012-01-01

    In "Militaria" 2/1 (1970) mention was made of M. J. L. Weston, D.Sc., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.A., A.I.E.E. in relation to the training of our first military aircraft pilots and the proposed establishment of a South African Air Force as well as a South African Flying School (p. 14 et seq). He was a consulting engineer and one of the foremost stalwarts in the field of civil and military aviation and the manufacture of aircraft in our country. Dr. Weston directed a request at the beginning of 1913, as m...

  3. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Program implementation with request for comments. SUMMARY: SBA is introducing a new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make... Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. Under the new Dealer Floor Plan...

  4. 75 FR 77935 - Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Patriot Express Pilot Loan Initiative in its current form through December 31, 2013...

  5. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodology to address key challenges for aviation (current and future) including a performance based approach for safety and fatigue management in the aviation sector, mainly inflight operations and maint...

  6. Characterization of Low Back Pain in Pilots and Maintenance Technicians on a Commercial Airline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Rodriguez, Hugo A; Ortiz Mayorga, Viviana A

    2016-09-01

    Lower back pain (LBP) is the most common complaint worldwide and the leading cause of disability in the workplace. In Colombia there are no epidemiological data on low back pain in aviation. This study aimed to characterize lower back pain in pilots and maintenance technicians in a Colombian commercial airline. Information was collected from the total population in a Colombian commercial airline in Bogota during the period from 2011 to 2013 using a voluntary survey which requested demographics, occupational (LEST survey) factors, back pain, and chronic pain (chronic pain grade scale). The prevalence rate of LBP in pilot respondents was 71% and the factors associated previously have belonged to the military forces: occupational exposure to physical load and work time. Chronic low back pain was at a prevalence of 49%. The prevalence of LBP in maintenance technicians was 65%. Associated factors were again similar to military forces and included mental workload. Chronic pain had a prevalence of 65%. Factors associated with chronic low back pain were the technicians' time in office and physical load. The prevalence of lower back pain in pilots is similar to that presented in the airline world population. In the case of maintenance technicians, the prevalence was higher than those found in other similar groups, but very similar to prevalences presented in different business industries, including the transport sector. Fajardo Rodriguez HA, Ortiz Mayorga VA. Characterization of low back pain in pilots and maintenance technicians on a commercial airline. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(9):795-799.

  7. 77 FR 76588 - Request for Proposal Platform Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... businesses, including start-up small businesses considering the federal marketplace (new entrants), and those... easier for small businesses, including ``new entrant'' small businesses that have historically not done... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number SBA 2012-0019] Request for Proposal Platform Pilot...

  8. ASPECTS REGARDING THE EFICIENCY OF INTERACTION EXTERNAL ENVIRONEMENT OF BUSINESS - COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    DANA-CODRUŢA DUDĂ-DĂIANU; DANIELA HARANGUŞ

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to highlight and analysis of opportunities for implementing interaction management "business external environment - the company". In accordance with the order named, it outlines the following objectives: to identify opportunities and threats to the aviation sector level and application of interaction management "business external environment - the company", the study of factors influencing the external environment of business aviation company, determining interdepen...

  9. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-26034 Filed 10-22-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  10. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-16464 Filed 7-8-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

  11. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... 4. U.S. Mail: Leslie Grey--AAL-614, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, 222 West 7th...

  12. Eco-efficiency in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grewe, V.; Linke, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Air traffic guarantees mobility and serves the needs of society to travel over long distances in a decent time. But aviation also contributes to climate change. Here, we present various mitigation options, based on technological and operational measures and present a framework to compare the

  13. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    World Airport NSAS National Strategy for Aviation Security OIS Office of Intelligence SIDA Security Identification Display Area STA Security...Security of the secured area”, 1542.205, “Security of the security identification display area ( SIDA )”, and 1542.209, “Fingerprint-based criminal

  14. Measuring competition in civil aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Markets in civil aviation are characterized by large differences in the level of competition, both between time periods as between regions. To measure competition, several indicators are available, such as the number of competitors, the C4-index and the Herfindahl index. We use these measures in

  15. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  16. 14 CFR 141.11 - Pilot school ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot school ratings. 141.11 Section 141.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND... rating course. (x) Aircraft type rating course. (2) Special preparation courses. (Appendix K). (i) Pilot...

  17. An Examination of Safety Management Systems and Aviation Technologies in the Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Steven A.

    The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) industry has a significant role in the transportation of injured patients, but has experienced more accidents than all other segments of the aviation industry combined. With the objective of addressing this discrepancy, this study assesses the effect of safety management systems implementation and aviation technologies utilization on the reduction of HEMS accident rates. Participating were 147 pilots from Federal Aviation Regulations Part 135 HEMS operators, who completed a survey questionnaire based on the Safety Culture and Safety Management System Survey (SCSMSS). The study assessed the predictor value of SMS implementation and aviation technologies to the frequency of HEMS accident rates with correlation and multiple linear regression. The correlation analysis identified three significant positive relationships. HEMS years of experience had a high significant positive relationship with accident rate (r=.90; paviation technologies from a systems engineering application. Recommendations for practice included the adoption of existing regulatory guidance for a SMS program. A qualitative analysis was also recommended for future study SMS implementation and HEMS accident rate from the pilot's perspective. A quantitative longitudinal study would further explore inferential relationships between the study variables. Current strategies should include the increased utilization of available aviation technology resources as this proactive stance may be beneficial for the establishment of an effective safety culture within the HEMS industry.

  18. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  19. 75 FR 70061 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... location, date, time, and agenda for a meeting regarding the Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program established in the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The Dealer Floor...

  20. Personality Test Scores that Distinguish U.S. Air Force Remotely Piloted Aircraft Drone Pilot Training Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    advancement of aviation drone technology has led to significant developments and improvements in the capabilities of military remotely piloted aircraft...stress; less excitement seeking and action oriented; less assertive; more socially introverted and withdrawn; more socially compliant and...to age and educational differences. Fifth, evaluations that involve selection and assessment of pilot applicants should include collateral sources of

  1. Psychophysiological monitoring of operator's emotional stress in aviation and astronautics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P V; Frolov, M V; Ivanov, E A

    1980-01-01

    The level of emotional stress depending on the power of motivation and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of goal achievement, largely influences the operator's skill performance (that of a pilot, controller, astronaut). A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals, and to slower reactions. The extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward untimely acts and reactions to the insignificant signals (false alarms). The best methods to monitor the degree of the operator's emotional state during his skill performance are the integral estimation of the changes in heart-rate and T-peak amplitude, as well as the analysis of spectral and intonational characteristics of the human voice during radio conversation. These methods were tested on paratroopers, pilots in civil aviation, and airport controllers.

  2. The use of screening tests in aviation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruge, A.

    2000-01-01

    Pilots have to submit themselves in regular intervals to medical examinations in order to avoid a sudden incapacitation that could endanger flight safety. In Germany these examinations include screening tests to detect an illness in an early phase and to guide the pilot to keep up his/her health. European Joint Aviation Requirements have no provisions for screening tests. Under Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM flight crews in Germany will have to undergo special medical radiation protection examinations. The introduction of any screening tests that give information about individual reactions to cosmic radiation exposure are very unlikely if results are not kept confidential, as this would limit the choice of profession. Flight crews should be made aware of these tests. (orig.) [de

  3. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  4. Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  5. A Formal Messaging Notation for Alaskan Aviation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    Data exchange is an increasingly important aspect of the National Airspace System. While many data communication channels have become more capable of sending and receiving data at higher throughput rates, there is still a need to use communication channels efficiently with limited throughput. The limitation can be based on technological issues, financial considerations, or both. This paper provides a complete description of several important aviation weather data in Abstract Syntax Notation format. By doing so, data providers can take advantage of Abstract Syntax Notation's ability to encode data in a highly compressed format. When data such as pilot weather reports, surface weather observations, and various weather predictions are compressed in such a manner, it allows for the efficient use of throughput-limited communication channels. This paper provides details on the Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) implementation for Alaskan aviation data, and demonstrates its use on real-world aviation weather data samples as Alaska has sparse terrestrial data infrastructure and data are often sent via relatively costly satellite channels.

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Fatal Accidents in Aviation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkala, Tanja; Bor, Robert; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti; Navathe, Pooshan; Sainio, Markku; Vuorio, Alpo

    2017-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interfere with functioning and/or development. ADHD occurs in about 2.5% of adults. ADHD can be an excluding medical condition among pilots due to the risk of attentional degradation and therefore impact on flight safety. Diagnosis of ADHD is complex, which complicates aeromedical assessment. This study highlights fatal accident cases among pilots with ADHD and discusses protocols to detect its presence to help to assess its importance to flight safety. To identify fatal accidents in aviation (including airplanes, helicopters, balloons, and gliders) in the United States between the years 2000 to 2015, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was searched with the terms ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and attention deficit disorder (ADD). The NTSB database search for fatal aviation accidents possibly associated with ADHD yielded four accident cases of interest in the United States [4/4894 (0.08%)]. Two of the pilots had ADHD diagnosed by a doctor, one was reported by a family member, and one by a flight instructor. An additional five cases were identified searching for ADD [5/4894 (0.1%)]. Altogether, combined ADHD and ADD cases yielded nine accident cases of interest (0.18%). It is generally accepted by aviation regulatory authorities that ADHD is a disqualifying neurological condition. Yet FAA and CASA provide specific protocols for tailor-made pilot assessment. Accurate evaluation of ADHD is essential because of its potential negative impact on aviation safety.Laukkala T, Bor R, Budowle B, Sajantila A, Navathe P, Sainio M, Vuorio A. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and fatal accidents in aviation medicine. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):871-875.

  7. Mediating Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally...... and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines...... the organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....

  8. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business name. 294.31 Section 294.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name...

  9. MARSOC Aviation: An Incremental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-24

    MARSOC. Through a series of near, mid, and long term investments in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of aMarine Corps...investments in building and training a cadre of experienced aircrew, the creation of a Marine Corps special operations aviation element can be...from the current AH-1W attack helicopter. The Zulu has increased speed, range, payload, endurance, standoff ability, and situational awareness

  10. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  11. World tendences of civil aviation development and the enlargement of the Lithuanian civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Butkevičius

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with global trends in civil aviation, such as: liberalisation of aviation market, globalisation of airlines, privatisation of airlines and invasion of low cost airlines into the market. Also the influence of these trends on the Lithuanian civil aviation activities has been defined. The Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been analysed: activities of international airports, passenger and cargo carriers, passenger routes and passenger flows, transportation market and airplane fleet. The problems of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been identified and suggestions for the development of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been proposed.

  12. Understanding Human Error in Naval Aviation Mishaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andrew T

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the external factors that influence the performance and decisions of aviators involved in Naval aviation mishaps. Mishaps in complex activities, ranging from aviation to nuclear power operations, are often the result of interactions between multiple components within an organization. The Naval aviation mishap database contains relevant information, both in quantitative statistics and qualitative reports, that permits analysis of such interactions to identify how the working atmosphere influences aviator performance and judgment. Results from 95 severe Naval aviation mishaps that occurred from 2011 through 2016 were analyzed using Bayes' theorem probability formula. Then a content analysis was performed on a subset of relevant mishap reports. Out of the 14 latent factors analyzed, the Bayes' application identified 6 that impacted specific aspects of aviator behavior during mishaps. Technological environment, misperceptions, and mental awareness impacted basic aviation skills. The remaining 3 factors were used to inform a content analysis of the contextual information within mishap reports. Teamwork failures were the result of plan continuation aggravated by diffused responsibility. Resource limitations and risk management deficiencies impacted judgments made by squadron commanders. The application of Bayes' theorem to historical mishap data revealed the role of latent factors within Naval aviation mishaps. Teamwork failures were seen to be considerably damaging to both aviator skill and judgment. Both the methods and findings have direct application for organizations interested in understanding the relationships between external factors and human error. It presents real-world evidence to promote effective safety decisions.

  13. Pilot-Reported Beta-Blockers Identified by Forensic Toxicology Analysis of Postmortem Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study compared beta-blockers reported by pilots with the medications found by postmortem toxicology analysis of specimens received from fatal aviation accidents between 1999 and 2015. Several studies have compared drugs using the standard approa...

  14. The role of knowledge management in raising the efficiency of pilots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of knowledge management in raising the efficiency of pilots' performance in the ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... the actual knowledge management implementation in the aviation industry as well as determining the ...

  15. Toxicological findings in fatally injured pilots of 979 amateur-built aircraft accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "Biological samples collected from fatally injured pilots in aviation accidents involving all types of aircraft, including : amateur-built aircraft, are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for accident investigation. : These sam...

  16. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  17. Problems pilots face involving wind shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Educating pilots and the aviation industry about wind shears presents a major problem associated with this meteorological phenomenon. The pilot's second most pressing problem is the need for a language to discuss wind shear encounters with other pilots so that the reaction of the aircraft to the wind shear encounter can be accurately described. Another problem is the flight director which gives a centered pitch command for a given angular displacement from the glide slope. It was suggested that they should instead be called flight path command and should not center unless the aircraft is actually correcting to the flight path.

  18. Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in jobrelated stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. Methods. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. Results. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94 and role in organisation (AS = 39.92, while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98. The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Conclusion. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the devalopment of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  19. [Personal traits and a sense of job-related stress in a military aviation crew].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Milanko; Korica, Vesna; Rodjenkov, Sanja

    2011-02-01

    Accelerated technological and organizational changes in numerous professions lead to increase in job-related stress. Since these changes are particularly common in military aviation, this study examined the way military aviation crew experiences job-related stress during a regular aviation drill, depending on particular social-demographic factors and personal traits. The modified Cooper questionnaire was used to examine the stress related factors at work. The questionnaire was adapted for the aviation crew in the army environment. Personal characteristics were examined using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory. The study included 50 examinees (37 pilots and 13 other crew members) employed in the Serbian Army. The studies were performed during routine physical examinations at the Institute for Aviation Medicine during the year 2007. Statistical analysis of the study results contained descriptive analysis, one-way analysis of variance and correlation analysis. It was shown that army aviation crew works under high stress. The highest stress value had the intrinsic factor (AS = 40.94) and role in organisation (AS = 39.92), while the lowest one had the interpersonal relationship factor (AS = 29.98). The results also showed that some social-demographic variables (such as younger examinees, shorter working experience) and neuroticism as a personality trait, were in correlation with job-related stress. Stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the development of the basic anti-stress programs and measures in order to achieve better psychological selection, adaptation career leadership and organization of military pilots and other crew members.

  20. Health physics concerns in commercial aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Airline pilots and flight attendants are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation. There has been uncertainty about how to handle the radiation protection requirements of their unique situation. Calculated dose equivalents associated with typical flight routes and crewmember work patterns have recently been published. The results show that flight attendants and pilots on ordinary subsonic aircraft can receive annual doses approaching 10 mSv y-1. I argue that flight crewmembers should receive specific education regarding the risks to their health from radiation exposure. I also argue that a suitable dosimeter system should be employed to provide crewmembers with information on their total doses. This is of particular importance for pregnant crewmembers who risk exceeding recommended fetal dose limits by working some routes during their pregnancy. In addition to airline crewmembers, business frequent flyers may receive significant occupational exposures while traveling. They too need appropriate education in order to assist them in assessing their risks from such exposures. Finally, flying during a large solar proton event would significantly increase the dose that would be received. During such an event, the total dose to the fetus of a pregnant crewmember or passenger might exceed the 0.5 mSv recommended monthly maximum. Warnings and action plans for these special circumstances should be improved

  1. Aviation Risk and Safety Management : Methods and Applications in Aviation Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) decision to require aviation organizations to adopt Safety Management Systems poses a major problem especially for small and medium sized aviation companies. The complexity of regulations overstrains the aviation stakeholders who seek to fully advantage from them but have no clear guidance. The aim of the book is to show the implementation of such a new system with pragmatic effort in order to gain a gradation for smaller operators. This ...

  2. Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) provides the tools, reconfigurability and support to ensure the quality and integrity of new...

  3. Contracting, An Alarming Trend in Aviation Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooke, J

    1998-01-01

    .... Aviation operational and maintenance units struggle to balance peacetime requirements for general military and technical training, organization and installation support, training and operational...

  4. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...

  5. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.

  6. History of Turkish Air Force Aviation School and the Process of Transition to Air Force Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman YALÇIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish aviation has started as a military entity. The foundation of ‘’Tayyare Komisyonu’’ (Airplane Comission in June 1, 1911 has been accepted as the official starting point. The organization of aviation includes pilot training, airplane supply, fondation of aviation school, establishment of combatant units, and building the air vehicles with local and national endeavour. Later, air defense systems, meteorology, training observers, machine specialist and technicians has gained importance as well. Turkish aviation has been built upon the ruins of the last wars of Ottoman Empire. After the invasion of the British and the French, Ottoman aviators moved to Maltepe and then to various parts of Anatolia eventually. During the Independence War, aviation school was founded in Eskişehir, moved to Adana, Konya, and came back to Adana again. After the Greek forces were expelled from Anatolia via İzmir, aviation school was moved to İzmir. In 1925, it was brought back to Eskişehir on October 1, 1951. After WWII, the duration of training in order to be a pilot was six years. In 1929, aviation school turned out to be an academic institution as well. On October 1, 1951, Air Force Academy was established in Eskişehir. Due to high sound of jet air planes, the academy was moved to İzmir in 1954. Education and training were restructured there and the quality was raised. In 1967, Air Force Academy was moved back to Yeşilköy where Turkish aviation was born some 47 years ago. Due to academic diversity and rich culture heritage, a productive period has started in Istanbul. Air Force Academy has been an institution offering BA level education since 2001 whose process goes back to 1990s. Around 90 civilian and 50 military academicians conduct education and research per year. Military training including Yalova encampment site, affective domain training, and sports activities are also conducted as well. With a 103 years history and around 16.000 graduates

  7. Gaining Through Training: Pilot Proficiency in Modern Combat Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    training philosophy in their initial qualification unit. Later, when they implemented the same training philosophy at the operational combat units, crew...flying “the matrix,” referencing the Hollywood film portraying an extremely complex reality.6 The MQ-9’s cockpit design does not contribute to...training philosophy at the initial qualification course and operational squadrons in an attempt to improve situational awareness and decision- making

  8. Business opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Search Site submit About Mission Business Newsroom Publications Los : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Business » Short- and long-term opportunities Business opportunities Setting new standards and developing small business initiatives within NNSA

  9. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  10. 75 FR 34520 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of... Secretary of Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be... of the global economy. The Aviation Safety Subcommittee will develop a list of priority safety issues...

  11. History of aviation safety; the satisfying sighs of relief due to developments in Aviation safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety is an Integral part of my career. Being part of TU Delft’s impressive record of research on Aviation safety, my career has been with a sense of purpose and a responsibility to equip students to deal with the status quo challenges on Aviation safety, developments, Investigations and

  12. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  13. Aviation-Related Wildland Firefighter Fatalities--United States, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corey R; O'Connor, Mary B; Lincoln, Jennifer M

    2015-07-31

    Airplanes and helicopters are integral to the management and suppression of wildfires, often operating in high-risk, low-altitude environments. To update data on aviation-related wildland firefighting fatalities, identify risk factors, and make recommendations for improved safety, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed reports from multiple data sources for the period 2000-2013. Among 298 wildland firefighter fatalities identified during 2000-2013, 78 (26.2%) were aviation-related occupational fatalities that occurred during 41 separate events involving 42 aircraft. Aircraft crashes accounted for 38 events. Pilots, copilots, and flight engineers represented 53 (68%) of the aviation-related fatalities. The leading causes of fatal aircraft crashes were engine, structure, or component failure (24%); pilot loss of control (24%); failure to maintain clearance from terrain, water, or objects (20%); and hazardous weather (15%). To reduce fatalities from aviation-related wildland firefighting activities, stringent safety guidelines need to be followed during all phases of firefighting, including training exercises. Crew resource management techniques, which use all available resources, information, equipment, and personnel to achieve safe and efficient flight operations, can be applied to firefighting operations.

  14. Workload management and geographic disorientation in aviation incidents: A review of the ASRS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Henry P.; Tham, Mingpo; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident reports are reviewed in two related areas: pilots' failures to appropriately manage tasks, and breakdowns in geographic orientation. Examination of 51 relevant reports on task management breakdowns revealed that altitude busts and inappropriate runway usee were the most frequently reported consequences. Task management breakdowns appeared to occur at all levels of expertise, and prominent causal factors were related to breakdowns in crew communications, over-involvement with the flight management system and, for small (general aviation) aircraft, preoccupation with weather. Analysis of the 83 cases of geographic disorientation suggested that these too occurred at all levels of pilot experience. With regard to causal factors, a majority was related to poor cockpit resource management, in which inattention led to a loss of geographic awareness. Other leading causes were related to poor weather and poor decision making. The potential of the ASRS database for contributing to research and design issues is addressed.

  15. 14 CFR 61.313 - What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a sport pilot certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... apply for a sport pilot certificate? 61.313 Section 61.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.313 What aeronautical experience must I have to apply for a sport... aeronautical experience you must have to apply for a sport pilot certificate: If you are applying for a sport...

  16. 14 CFR 61.427 - What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? 61.427 Section 61.427 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.427 What must I do if my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating expires? You may exchange your expired flight instructor...

  17. 14 CFR 61.415 - What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate with a sport pilot rating? 61.415 Section 61.415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.415 What are the limits of a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating? If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a sport...

  18. E Business

    OpenAIRE

    Temjanovski, Riste

    2012-01-01

    In contemporary economic science study of е-business becomes necessary and imperative in contemporary work. The purpose of the program is available in a clear and acceptable way to meet the needs, models, application and protection of electronic business. Here are the basic models of electronic commerce, electronic banking, e-business infrastructure and so on. Electronic business or short e-business aims to expand the powers of an organizational unit in the development of innovative inform...

  19. Playful Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2011-01-01

    ” The term business model can be defined as a business concept that has been put into practice. The increase in dynamics in markets, technology, economies etc. challenge the requirements to make consistent and synchronized decisions on which business models to develop and implement. Complexity...... efficiently. This paper describes initial experiences of facilitating business model mapping or business model innovation by game-like setups.”...

  20. BUSINESS ETHICS ON BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Çetin Bektaş

    2016-01-01

    Certain rules are established in order to temper the behaviours, rights and responsibilities of individuals who constitute the society and every individual has to respect those rules. The right of every individual to live makes it necessary to limit their behaviour. Activities in business life has become complicated with the industrialisation and violation of rights appear occasionally. Alongside the law, it is possible to prevent these violations by addressing the conscience and morality ...

  1. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  2. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Civilian Aviation Alternative Support Study: Report of Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Disclosure Agreement (NDA) was established, and the meeting was approved by both MSC and NPS. GSH was provided advanced copies of both the November 2003 and...s^i=mlpqdo^ar^qb=p`elli= o IFR o Passengers and mail Not contracted: o Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) o Mine Warfare (MIW) o Surface...Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) 135 for passenger operations and 133 for cargo operations Annual pilot FAR 135 IFR flight and ground

  3. Expert Performance and Time Pressure: Implications for Automation Failures in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    settled by these two studies. To help resolve the disagreement between the previous research findings, the present work used a computerized chess...communication between the automation and the pilots should also be helpful , but it is doubtful that the system designer or the real-time automation can...Performance and Time Pressure: Implications for Automation Failures in Aviation 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  4. Narcissistic personality and risk perception among Chinese aviators: The mediating role of promotion focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Ji, Ming; Lan, Jijun; You, Xuqun

    2017-12-01

    Optimism bias is a crucial feature of risk perception that leads to increased risk-taking behaviour, which is a particularly salient issue among pilots in aviation settings due to the high-stakes nature of flight. The current study sought to address the roles of narcissism and promotion focus on optimism bias in risk perception in aviation context. Participants were 239 male flight cadets from the Civil Aviation Flight University of China who completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-13, the Work Regulatory Focus Scale, and an indirect measure of unrealistic optimism in risk perception, which measured risk perception for the individual and the risk assumed by other individuals performing the same task. Higher narcissism increased the likelihood of underestimating personal risks, an effect that was mediated by high promotion focus motivation, such that high narcissism led to high promotion focus motivation. The findings have important implications for improving the accuracy of risk perception in aviation risks among aviators. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. An Overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program Propulsion Health Monitoring Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has been initiated with aggressive goals to reduce the civil aviation accident rate, To meet these goals, several technology investment areas have been identified including a sub-element in propulsion health monitoring (PHM). Specific AvSP PHM objectives are to develop and validate propulsion system health monitoring technologies designed to prevent engine malfunctions from occurring in flight, and to mitigate detrimental effects in the event an in-flight malfunction does occur. A review of available propulsion system safety information was conducted to help prioritize PHM areas to focus on under the AvSP. It is noted that when a propulsion malfunction is involved in an aviation accident or incident, it is often a contributing factor rather than the sole cause for the event. Challenging aspects of the development and implementation of PHM technology such as cost, weight, robustness, and reliability are discussed. Specific technology plans are overviewed including vibration diagnostics, model-based controls and diagnostics, advanced instrumentation, and general aviation propulsion system health monitoring technology. Propulsion system health monitoring, in addition to engine design, inspection, maintenance, and pilot training and awareness, is intrinsic to enhancing aviation propulsion system safety.

  6. Industry assessment of human factors in aviation maintenance and inspection research program : an assessment of industry awareness and use of the Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance and Inspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Ten years ago the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine embarked on a research and development program dedicated to human factors in aviation maintenance and inspection. Since 1989 FAA has invested over $12M in maintenance...

  7. Incorporating Data Link Messaging into a Multi-function Display for General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    One objective of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project is to increase the capacity and utilization of small non-towered, non-radar equipped airports by transferring traffic management activities to an automated system and separation responsibilities to general aviation (GA) pilots. This paper describes the development of a research multi-function display (MFD) to support the interaction between pilots and an automated Airport Management Module (AMM). Preliminary results of simulation and flight tests indicate that adding the responsibility of monitoring other traffic for self-separation does not increase pilots subjective workload levels. Pilots preferred using the enhanced MFD to execute flight procedures, reporting improved situation awareness over conventional instrument flight rules (IFR) procedures.

  8. Utility of an airframe referenced spatial auditory display for general aviation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M. Hassan; Wigdahl, Alan J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    2009-05-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) completed flight testing with an airframe-referenced localized audio cueing display. The purpose was to assess its affect on pilot performance, workload, and situational awareness in two scenarios simulating single-pilot general aviation operations under instrument meteorological conditions. Each scenario consisted of 12 test procedures conducted under simulated instrument meteorological conditions, half with the cue off, and half with the cue on. Simulated aircraft malfunctions were strategically inserted at critical times during each test procedure. Ten pilots participated in the study; half flew a moderate workload scenario consisting of point to point navigation and holding pattern operations and half flew a high workload scenario consisting of non precision approaches and missed approach procedures. Flight data consisted of aircraft and navigation state parameters, NASA Task Load Index (TLX) assessments, and post-flight questionnaires. With localized cues there was slightly better pilot technical performance, a reduction in workload, and a perceived improvement in situational awareness. Results indicate that an airframe-referenced auditory display has utility and pilot acceptance in general aviation operations.

  9. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  10. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any aircraft.... More severe penalties are provided in 19 U.S.C. 1590 if the smuggled merchandise is a controlled...

  11. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  12. Aviation Career Awareness Program [and Related Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    The learning packet focuses on general aviation and is to be used in career awareness programs at the elementary level. It includes a document which presents a group of units on general aviation and its related careers. The units include the following: (1) aircraft manufacturing, (2) instruments and controls, (3) how airplanes fly, (4) flight…

  13. Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges in Modernizing the Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    FAA's efforts to implement initiatives in five key areas-air traffic control modernization, procurement and personnel reform, aviation safety, aviation and computer security, and financial management...

  14. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  15. Mindful Application of Aviation Practices in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Brennan, Peter A; Peerally, Mohammad Farhad; Kapur, Narinder; Hynes, Jonny M; Hodkinson, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment. In order to establish British healthcare applications of aviation practices, a PubMed search of UK authored manuscripts published between 2005-2016 was undertaken using search terms 'aviation,' 'healthcare,' 'checklist,' and 'CRM.' A convenience sample of UK-authored aviation medical conference presentations and UK-authored patient safety manuscripts were also reviewed. A total of 11 of 94 papers with UK academic affiliations published between 2005-2016 and relevant to aviation modeled healthcare delivery were found. The debrief process, incident analysis, and CRM are the primary practices incorporated into UK healthcare, with success dependent on cultural acceptance and mindful application. CRM training has gained significant acceptance in UK healthcare environments. Aviation modeled incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and CRM training are increasingly undertaken within the UK healthcare system. Nuanced application, in which the unique aspects of the healthcare setting are addressed as part of a comprehensive safety approach, shows promise for long-term success. The patient safety brief and aviation modeled incident analysis are in earlier phases of implementation, and warrant further analysis.Powell-Dunford N, Brennan PA, Peerally MF, Kapur N, Hynes JM, Hodkinson PD. Mindful application of aviation practices in healthcare. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1107-1116.

  16. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  17. Business Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how to do business with EPA's Clean Air Markets, including registering to use the Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS), the CAMD Business System (CBS), and learn how to submit monitored emissions data.

  18. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Progressive Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....

  20. Business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Dorożyński, Tomasz; Urbaniak, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...

  1. Aviation Research and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Antoinette M.

    1995-01-01

    The Internet is a network of networks. It was originally funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DOD/DARPA and evolved in part from the connection of supercomputer sites across the United States. The National Science Foundation (NSF) made the most of their supercomputers by connecting the sites to each other. This made the supercomputers more efficient and now allows scientists, engineers and researchers to access the supercomputers from their own labs and offices. The high speed networks that connect the NSF supercomputers form the backbone of the Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a menu system. It gathers Internet resources from all over the world into a series of screens that appear on your computer. The WWW is also a distributed. The distributed system stores data information on many computers (servers). These servers can go out and get data when you ask for it. Hypermedia is the base of the WWW. One can 'click' on a section and visit other hypermedia (pages). Our approach to demonstrating the importance of aviation research through the Internet began with learning how to put pages on the Internet (on-line) ourselves. We were assigned two aviation companies; Vision Micro Systems Inc. and Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT). We developed home pages for these SBIR companies. The equipment used to create the pages were the UNIX and Macintosh machines. HTML Supertext software was used to write the pages and the Sharp JX600S scanner to scan the images. As a result, with the use of the UNIX, Macintosh, Sun, PC, and AXIL machines, we were able to present our home pages to over 800,000 visitors.

  2. Simulation and augmented reality in endovascular neurosurgery: lessons from aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitha, Alim P; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Janjua, Major Jameel J; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular neurosurgery is a discipline strongly dependent on imaging. Therefore, technology that improves how much useful information we can garner from a single image has the potential to dramatically assist decision making during endovascular procedures. Furthermore, education in an image-enhanced environment, especially with the incorporation of simulation, can improve the safety of the procedures and give interventionalists and trainees the opportunity to study or perform simulated procedures before the intervention, much like what is practiced in the field of aviation. Here, we examine the use of simulators in the training of fighter pilots and discuss how similar benefits can compensate for current deficiencies in endovascular training. We describe the types of simulation used for endovascular procedures, including virtual reality, and discuss the relevant data on its utility in training. Finally, the benefit of augmented reality during endovascular procedures is discussed, along with future computerized image enhancement techniques.

  3. Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texter, P. Cardie

    1998-01-01

    standards for quality of teaching, and an educational agenda that promotes high standards for all students, Aeronautics and Aviation Science: Careers and Opportunities had as its aim to deliver products to schools, both in and outside the project sites, which attempt to incorporate multi-disciplined approaches in the presentation of a curriculum which would be appropriate in any classroom, while also aiming to appeal to young women and minorities. The curriculum was developed to provide students with fundamentals of aeronautics and aviation science. The curriculum also encouraged involving students and teachers in research projects, and further information gathering via electronic bulletin boards and internet capabilities. Though not entirely prescriptive, the curriculum was designed to guide teachers through recommended activities to supplement MCET's live telecast video presentations. Classroom teachers were encouraged to invite local pilots, meteorologists, and others from the field of aviation and aeronautics, particularly women and minorities to visit schools and to field questions from the students.

  4. The social context of the aeronautical education experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Taurean Mashawn

    The purpose of this research is to explore the social context (the nature and cultural environment) of the aeronautical training experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots. This research highlights the challenges African-American pilots are exposed to in addition to drawing parallels between the social context and the obstacles they are subjected to along the way. This study is valuable for stakeholders, African-American pilot aspirants, aviation corporations, Federal Aviation Administration, flight schools - in the aviation industry in understanding ways to initiate a paradigm shift and increase awareness about representation and participation of African-American aviation professionals. The qualitative approach was selected to gather a better understanding of the sociological hurdles black aviators face while going through the journey of becoming a pilot. Hardiman (2010) states, "While quantitative research is valuable, qualitative research provides the researcher the ability to view real world situations as they naturally unfold" ( p. 25). According to OBAP (2014), less than 2% of pilots in the United States are African-American. The experiences shared by the participants can provide helpful insight of possible policy implications for the aeronautical industry. There were three research questions in the study: 1) What factors hindered pilot training? 2) What were the resilience factors experienced during pilot training? 3) What were the defining features of the social context surrounding pilot training? Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted of six professional pilots. A qualitative data analysis was conducted to illustrate the context of the social challenges during the course of pilot training. Three themes were revealed: 1) access, 2) perception of inferiority, and 3) support. Implications of the significance of providing social networks to expose African-Americans to aviation were discussed. Additional means of

  5. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  6. Assessing the impact of aviation on climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Marais

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an assessment of the marginal climate impacts of new aviation activities. We use impulse response functions derived from carbon-cycle and atmospheric models to estimate changes in surface temperature for various aviation impacts (CO2, NOx on methane, NOx on ozone, sulfates, soot, and contrails/induced cirrus. We use different damage functions and discount rates to explore health, welfare and ecological costs for a range of assumptions and scenarios. Since uncertainty is high regarding many aviation effects, we explicitly capture some uncertainty by representing several model parameters as probabilistic distributions. The uncertainties are then propagated using Monte Carlo analysis to derive estimates for the impact of these uncertainties on the marginal future climate impacts. Our goal is to provide a framework that will communicate the potential impacts of aviation on climate change under different scenarios and assumptions, and that will allow decision-makers to compare these potential impacts to other aviation environmental impacts. We present results to describe the influence of parametric uncertainties, scenarios, and assumptions for valuation on the expected marginal future costs of aviation impacts. Estimates of the change in global average surface temperature due to aviation are most sensitive to changes in climate sensitivity, the radiative forcing attributed to short-lived effects (in particular those related to contrails and aviation-induced cirrus, and the choice of emissions scenario. Estimates of marginal future costs of aviation are most sensitive to assumptions regarding the discount rate, followed by assumptions regarding climate sensitivity, and the choice of emissions scenario.

  7. A review of telemedicine business models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengnan; Cheng, Alice; Mehta, Khanjan

    2013-04-01

    Telemedicine has become an increasingly popular option for long-distance/virtual medical care and education, but many telemedicine ventures fail to grow beyond the initial pilot stage. Studying the business models of successful telemedicine ventures can help develop business strategies for upcoming ventures. This article describes business models of eight telemedicine ventures from different regions of the world using Osterwalder's "Business Model Canvas." The ventures are chosen on the basis of their apparent success and their diverse value chains. The business models are compared to draw inferences and lessons regarding their business strategy and contextual factors that influenced it. Key differences between telemedicine business practices in developing and developed countries are also discussed. The purpose of this article is to inform and inspire the business strategy of the next generation of telemedicine ventures to be economically sustainable and to successfully address local healthcare challenges.

  8. [Psychopharmacology in aviation and astronautics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, P V; Glod, G D

    1977-01-01

    Flights aboard modern vehicles are associated with high nervous-emotional and physical stresses. This may induce depletion of reserve capabilities, development of fatigue and, consequently, reduction of work capacity of crewmembers. The paper discusses approaches and results of the use of drugs by pilots and cosmonauts in order to alleviate their fatigue and emotional stress. It gives indications and contraindications for the adminstration of stimulants and tranquilizers. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the literature data and their own findings, the authors draw the conclusion that the use of stimulants and anxiolytics may increase the level of reliability and performance of air- and spacecraft pilots during programmed and, particularly, contigent situations of the flight.

  9. BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Nelu BURCEA; Ion CROITORU

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...

  10. Researcher Role in Aviation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    voluminous textbooks and busy scientists wearing white lab coats while talking among themselves. While such impressions may be based on individual...efforts. In the long run, science is driven by societal and market needs that have been identified and prioritized by policymakers, industries, and...national, or international research agendas. Since societal, market , and environmental conditions are DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for

  11. Compilation of Cognitive and Personality Norms for Military Aviators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Thomas R; King, Raymond E; Ree, Malcolm James; Teachout, Mark S; Barto, Erica

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of individuals on abilities or other characteristics is based on comparison to a representative sample. General population norms provide an appropriate reference group when the distribution of scores in the sample can be expected to be similar to those for the general population (e.g., comparing high school students at a particular school to national high school norms on a college entrance test). Specialized norms are needed, however, when subsets of the population differ from the population at large. Military pilot trainees represent a special population; they are highly screened on cognitive ability and other characteristics thought to be related to job performance. Other characteristics (e.g., personality) are thought to be "self-selected," resulting in distinctive profiles. Normative tables were developed for U.S. Air Force pilot trainees for two widely used tests, the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-II (MAB-II) and NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO PI-R). The MAB-II and NEO PI-R were administered to large samples of USAF cadets, ROTC students, and officers selected for pilot training. The mean MAB-II full-scale IQ was about 1.5 SD above the adult population norm and was much less variable, supporting the need for specialized norms. Tables showing the percentile equivalents are provided for use by clinicians. Use of these tables, in addition to, or in lieu of, commercially published norms, will prove helpful when clinical psychologists perform assessments on pilots; in particular when evaluating them for return-to-duty status following a disqualifying condition that may have affected cognitive functioning or emotional stability. Carretta TR, King RE, Ree MJ, Teachout MS, Barto E. Compilation of cognitive and personality norms for military aviators. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(9):764-771.

  12. Resolution of aviation forensic toxicology findings with the aid of DNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Kupfer, Doris M; Burian, Dennis; Canfield, Dennis V

    2011-03-20

    Body components of aviation accident fatalities are often scattered, disintegrated, commingled, contaminated, and/or putrefied at accident scenes. These situations may impose difficulties in victim identification/tissue matching. The prevalence of misidentification in relation to aviation accident forensic toxicology has not been well established. Therefore, the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology database was searched for the 1998-2008 period for those cases wherein DNA profiling was performed to resolve identity issue of the samples submitted to CAMI for toxicological evaluation. During this period, biological samples from the casualties of a total of 3523 accidents were submitted to CAMI. The submitted samples were primarily from pilots. Out of the 3523 accidents, at least, one fatality had occurred in 3366 (≈ 96%) accidents; thus, these accidents were considered fatal accidents. Accordingly, biological samples from 3319 pilots (3319 of the 3366 accidents) were received at CAMI for toxicological testing. Of these 3319 pilots, 3275 (≈ 99%) were fatally injured. DNA profiling was performed in 15 (≈ 0.5%) of the 3319 accidents. The profiling was conducted upon the requests of families in two accidents, accident investigators in three, and pathologists in four. In six accidents, contradictory toxicological findings led CAMI to initiate DNA profiling. The requests made by families and investigators were primarily triggered by inconsistency between the toxicological results and the history of drug use of the victims, while by pathologists because of commingling of samples. In three (20%) of the 15 accidents, at least one submitted sample was misidentified or mislabeled. The present study demonstrated that the number of aviation accident cases requiring DNA profiling was small and this DNA approach was effectively applied in resolving aviation toxicology findings associated with those accidents. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Business model for business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eline Haan; Martin Zoet; Koen Smit

    2014-01-01

    Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.

  14. Business support within business incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  15. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraśnicka Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  16. 77 FR 60887 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  17. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety... must grant Aviation Safety Inspectors bearing FAA Form 110A free and uninterrupted access to public-use...

  18. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION..., into the U.S., or codeshare with a U.S. air carrier, complies with international aviation safety... subject to that country's aviation safety oversight can serve the United States using its own aircraft or...

  19. 78 FR 45055 - Pilot Certification and Qualification Requirements for Air Carrier Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 61, 121, 135, 141, and 142 [Docket No.: FAA-2010-0100; Amdt. Nos. 61-130; 121-365; 135-127; 141-1; 142-9] RIN 2120-AJ67 Pilot... a commercial pilot (1) An ATP certificate with certificate with an appropriate appropriate aircraft...

  20. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate holder conducting supplemental operations schedules a pilot to fly more than eight hours during any 24 consecutive...

  1. Can Competency-Based Training Fly?: An Overview of Key Issues for "Ab Initio" Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Peter; Hay, Stephen; Mavin, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Competency-based training (CBT) for pilots was formally introduced in 1999 by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) for training leading to the issue of aeroplane private and commercial pilot licences. This initiative followed the Australian government's introduction of CBT policy for vocational and workplace training in the late 1980's.…

  2. Multi-Dimensional Assessment of Professional Competence during Initial Pilot Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Douglas Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A twenty-year forecast predicting significant increases in global air transportation portends a need to increase the capacity and effectiveness of initial pilot training. In addition to quantitative concerns related to the supply of new pilots, industry leaders have expressed dissatisfaction with the qualitative output of current aviation training…

  3. Lightning protection technology for small general aviation composite material aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.

    1993-01-01

    An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.

  4. Pilot's Automated Weather Support System (PAWSS) concepts demonstration project. Phase 1: Pilot's weather information requirements and implications for weather data systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabill, Norman L.; Dash, Ernie R.

    1991-01-01

    The weather information requirements for pilots and the deficiencies of the current aviation weather support system in meeting these requirements are defined. As the amount of data available to pilots increases significantly in the near future, expert system technology will be needed to assist pilots in assimilating that information. Some other desirable characteristics of an automation-assisted system for weather data acquisition, dissemination, and assimilation are also described.

  5. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there was...

  6. Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Office of the Secretary of Defense Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation outlines the key issues that must be addressed to achieve the goal of safe, routine use of the National Airspace System (NAS...

  7. Operational Risk Management and Military Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Park

    1999-01-01

    .... The Army's Class A aviation mishap rate declined after it implemented risk management (RM) principles in 1987. This reduction caught the attention of Air Force leadership who have since stated that the application of operational risk management...

  8. Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is defined as “unwanted sound.” Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in the vicinity of airports. In some airports, noise constrains air traffic growth. This consensus paper was prepared by the Impacts of Science Group of the Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization and summarizes the state of the science of noise effects research in the areas of noise measurement and prediction, community annoyance, children’s learning, sleep disturbance, and health. It also briefly discusses civilian supersonic aircraft as a future source of aviation noise.

  9. BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu BURCEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.

  10. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2011-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the avi...

  11. Aviation Safety Concerns for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.; Roelen, Alfred L. C.; den Hertog, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) is a multidisciplinary international group of aviation professionals that was established to identify possible future aviation safety hazards. The principle was adopted that future hazards are undesirable consequences of changes, and a primary activity of FAST became identification and prioritization of possible future changes affecting aviation. Since 2004, FAST has been maintaining a catalogue of "Areas of Change" (AoC) that could potentially influence aviation safety. The horizon for such changes is between 5 to 20 years. In this context, changes must be understood as broadly as possible. An AoC is a description of the change, not an identification of the hazards that result from the change. An ex-post analysis of the AoCs identified in 2004 demonstrates that changes catalogued many years previous were directly implicated in the majority of fatal aviation accidents over the past ten years. This paper presents an overview of the current content of the AoC catalogue and a subsequent discussion of aviation safety concerns related to these possible changes. Interactions among these future changes may weaken critical functions that must be maintained to ensure safe operations. Safety assessments that do not appreciate or reflect the consequences of significant interaction complexity will not be fully informative and can lead to inappropriate trade-offs and increases in other risks. The FAST strongly encourages a system-wide approach to safety risk assessment across the global aviation system, not just within the domain for which future technologies or operational concepts are being considered. The FAST advocates the use of the "Areas of Change" concept, considering that several possible future phenomena may interact with a technology or operational concept under study producing unanticipated hazards.

  12. 75 FR 67805 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Subcommittee on Aviation Safety; Notice of..., announces a meeting of the FAAC Subcommittee on Aviation Safety, which will be held at the offices [[Page... needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Subcommittee on Aviation Safety will...

  13. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    by conducting a literature review. The concept of pilot implementation, although commonly used in practice, is rather disregarded in research. In the literature, pilot implementations are mainly treated as secondary to the learning outcomes and are presented as merely a means to acquire knowledge about a given...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective......This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...

  14. Global Simulation of Aviation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Sheth, Kapil; Ng, Hok Kwan; Morando, Alex; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.

  15. A case for biofuels in aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  16. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  17. An Evaluation of Automatic Control System Concepts for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1990-01-01

    A piloted simulation study of automatic longitudinal control systems for general aviation airplanes has been conducted. These automatic control systems were designed to make the simulated airplane easy to fly for a beginning or infrequent pilot. Different control systems are presented and their characteristics are documented. In a conventional airplane control system each cockpit controller commands combinations of both the airspeed and the vertical speed. The best system in the present study decoupled the airspeed and vertical speed responses to cockpit controller inputs. An important feature of the automatic system was that neither changing flap position nor maneuvering in steeply banked turns affected either the airspeed or the vertical speed. All the pilots who flew the control system simulation were favorably impressed with the very low workload and the excellent handling qualities of the simulated airplane.

  18. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XV: Alertness Management in General Aviation Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Cannon, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Regional operations encompass a broad range of pilots and equipment. This module is intended to help all those involved in regional aviation, including pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, maintenance technicians, policy makers, and others, to understand the physiological factors underlying fatigue, how flight operations affect fatigue, and what can be done to counteract fatigue and maximize alertness and performance in their operations. The overall purpose of this module is to promote aviation safety, performance, and productivity. It is intended to meet three specific objectives: (1) to explain the current state of knowledge about the physiological mechanisms underlying fatigue; (2) to demonstrate how this knowledge can be applied to improving flight crew sleep, performance, and alertness; and (3) to offer strategies for alertness management. Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) and National Transportation Safety Board (NISH) reports are used throughout this module to demonstrate that fatigue is a safety issue in the regional operations community. The appendices at the end of this module include the ASRS reports used for the examples contained in this publication, brief introductions to sleep disorders and relaxation techniques, summaries of relevant NASA publications, and a list of general readings on sleep, sleep disorders, and circadian rhythms.

  19. Analysis of Loss of Control Parameters for Aircraft Maneuvering in General Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Ud-Din

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid increase in the occurrence of loss of control in general aviation has raised concern in recent years. Loss of control (LOC pertains to unique characteristics in which external and internal events act in conjunction. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA has approved an Integrated Safety Assessment Model (ISAM for evaluating safety in the National Airspace System (NAS. ISAM consists of an event sequence diagram (ESD with fault trees containing numerous parameters, which is recognized as casual risk model. In this paper, we outline an integrated risk assessment framework to model maneuvering through cross-examining external and internal events. The maneuvering is in the critical flight phase with a high number of LOC occurrences in general aviation, where highly trained and qualified pilots failed to maintain aircraft control irrespective of the preventive nature of the events. Various metrics have been presented for evaluating the significance of these parameters to identify the most important ones. The proposed sensitivity analysis considers the accident, fatality, and risk reduction frequencies that assist in the decision-making process and foresees future risks from a general aviation perspective.

  20. JISCARD GUI, a graphical interface application for simple and quick calculation of aviation route doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Ryufuku, Susumu; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Pilots, flight attendants, and passengers aboard jet aircrafts are subjected to higher cosmic radiation levels at high altitude than on the ground. Additional dose, received during flight is called 'aviation route dose'. Addressing the needs for precise and easy determination of aviation route doses (Sv), the authors have developed a new application 'JISCARD GUI' with a graphical user interface which provides dose rate (Sv/h) distribution along a flight route and aviation route dose. The graphical interface made with Adobe Flash provide functions to select airports on dynamic map or to search by airport/city names, and to report resulting aviation route doses and graphs of dose rate change through a flight. Dose rate data at several cut off rigidity, Rc and force field potential, FFP were calculated in advance using a PHITS-based analytical model and stored in the server as matrix data. Upon user's request of departure/arrival airports and flight date, interpolation using matrix data substantiates derivation of dose rate distribution in a simple and quick manner with sufficient accuracy. Precision of the dose calculation was verified by comparison with JISCARD EX (MS-Excel version) released in September 2008. This advanced application will be open to public through the website of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the near future. (author)

  1. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  2. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  3. Selecting pilots with crew resource management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, J W; Bruskiewicz, K T; Borman, W C; Hanson, M A; Logan, K K; Siem, F M

    2000-10-01

    For years, pilot selection has focused primarily on the identification of individuals with superior flying skills and abilities. More recently, the aviation community has become increasingly aware that successful completion of a flight or mission requires not only flying skills but the ability to work well in a crew situation. This project involved development and validation of a crew resource management (CRM) skills test for Air Force transport pilots. A significant relation was found between the CRM skills test and behavior-based ratings of aircraft commander CRM performance, and the implications of these findings for CRM-based selection and training are discussed.

  4. Automation surprise : results of a field survey of Dutch pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.J.; Hurts, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprise (AS) has often been associated with aviation safety incidents. Although numerous laboratory studies have been conducted, few data are available from routine flight operations. A survey among a representative sample of 200 Dutch airline pilots was used to determine the prevalence

  5. Business Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  6. Business Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  7. Business aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Fessl, K.; Bittner, W.; Ristol, S.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses the business requirements of technology to be developed in support of VEs. It first describes new business directions that have come into existence in the manufacturing industry like the automotive domain. Next, it treats new criteria that have to be met by industries to

  8. Prevalence of fatigue in a group of airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cátia; Mestre, Catarina; Canhão, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is a common phenomenon in airline pilots that can impair alertness and ability of crewmembers to safely operate an aircraft and perform safety related tasks. Fatigue can increase the risk of an incident or even an accident. This study provides the first prevalence values for clinically significant fatigue in Portuguese airline pilots. The hypothesis that medium/short-haul pilots may currently present different levels of fatigue than long-haul pilots was also tested. A survey was conducted by requesting Portuguese airline pilots to complete questionnaires placed in the pilots' personal lockers from 1 April until 15 May 2012. The questionnaire included the self-response Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) to measure subjective fatigue and some additional questions concerning perception of fatigue by pilots. The prevalence values for total and mental fatigue achieved in the Portuguese airline pilots were: 89.3% (FSS > or = 4) and 94.1% (FSS > or = 4) when splitting the sample in two subsamples, long- and medium/short-haul pilots. Levels of total and mental fatigue were higher for medium/short-haul pilots. The analysis of fatigue levels in each type of aviator showed that medium/short-haul pilots presented the highest levels of total and mental fatigue. This study produced the first prevalence values of total and mental fatigue among Portuguese airline pilots, which represents a great step to understanding and addressing this critical phenomenon.

  9. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 1.4 million reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 6,000 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides selected de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http:asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation will discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  10. BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadzi Krsteski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The business corruption is established and active in the circle of the businesses partners that express a gratitude, return a service or bribes (apart from ordinary price for a business transfer to be provided. Those prohibited transfers differs from the usual business transfers, such as activities related to marketing and public relations where they have a specific goal to use illegal means in order to infringe the recipients` identity of prohibited value in an interchange for a inducement. That is a procedure of enticement, which prevents the useful instruments in the permitted bazaar and not solitary that it is harmful for the businesses whose representatives accept bribe, however it is also harmful for the civilisation as an entire. The occurrence of business corruption is intended as a amount of companies that presented cash, a gratitude or a service in return, in adding to every usual deal of any person who is working for a business entity from the private sector in any capacity, including the one through a mediator, happening to at minimum single juncture in the past 12 months previous to this research. The usual commonness of the business-to-corruption in the Republic of Macedonia is 3% compared to 4% at a regional level. While it is fewer than the regular pervasiveness of salaried briberies by enterprises to civic bureaucrats, this discovery designates that bribery in the secluded segment is a difficult in the Republic of Macedonia.

  11. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  12. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  13. Analysis of trends in aviation maintenance risk: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.; Robichaud, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Safety is paramount in the airline industry. A significant amount of effort has been devoted to reducing mechanical failures and pilot errors. Recently, more attention has been devoted to the contribution of maintenance to accidents and incidents. This study investigates and quantifies the contribution of maintenance, both in terms of frequency and severity, to passenger airline risk by analyzing three different sources of data from 1999 to 2008: 769 NTSB accident reports, 3242 FAA incident reports, and 7478 FAA records of fines and other legal actions taken against airlines and associated organizations. We analyze several safety related metrics and develop an aviation maintenance risk scorecard that collects these metrics to synthesize a comprehensive track record of maintenance contribution to airline accidents and incidents. We found for example that maintenance-related accidents are approximately 6.5 times more likely to be fatal than accidents in general, and that when fatalities do occur, maintenance accidents result in approximately 3.6 times more fatalities on average. Our analysis of accident trends indicates that this contribution to accident risk has remained fairly constant over the past decade. Our analysis of incidents and FAA fines and legal actions also revealed similar trends. We found that at least 10% of incidents involving mechanical failures such as ruptured hydraulic lines can be attributed to maintenance, suggesting that there may be issues surrounding both the design of and compliance with maintenance plans. Similarly 36% of FAA fines and legal actions involve inadequate maintenance, with recent years showing a decline to about 20%, which may be a reflection of improved maintenance practices. Our results can aid industry and government in focusing resources to continue improving aviation safety.

  14. Applications of Geostationary Satellite Data to Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellrod, Gary P.; Pryor, Kenneth

    2018-03-01

    Weather is by far the most important factor in air traffic delays in the United States' National Airspace System (NAS) according to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Geostationary satellites have been an effective tool for the monitoring of meteorological conditions that affect aviation operations since the launch of the first Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) in the United States in 1974. This paper will review the global use of geostationary satellites in support of aviation weather since their inception, with an emphasis on the latest generation of satellites, such as Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R (16) with its Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Specific applications discussed in this paper include monitoring of convective storms and their associated hazards, fog and low stratus, turbulence, volcanic hazards, and aircraft icing.

  15. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  16. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  17. Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    solution is war- more effe-ctive use of human resoUrecs , the neat step Ls to ane- uassol o efogte.S a hr sn tes te de. Af piot progfctram can...and Subtitle 5. Report Date November 1991 Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance - Phase One Progress Report 6. Perfarng Oon z’on Code i8. Perfo-rrng...Independence Avenue, SW 14. Sponsor,mg Agency Code Washington, DC 20591 15. Supplementary Notes 16. Abstract "• This human factors research in aviation

  18. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  19. Aviation safety and pilot control: understanding and preventing unfavorable pilot-vehicle interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Effects of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety, National Research Council

    .... In addition, APC has been implicated in some civilian incidents. This book evaluates the current state of knowledge about adverse APC and processes that may be used to eliminate it from military and commercial aircraft...

  20. Human factors in safety and business management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  1. Environmental Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This book introduces business strategy to save the earth, which are foundation of system in the company, collection of disposable camera, resort which don't destroy environment, core strategy of item project, cutback of Freon gas, production of plastic which is degraded, export of pollution prevention technology, increasing waste and changing waste, rule on construction waste, responsibility of business and waste problems, recycling of aluminum can and responsibility on environmental problems.

  2. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Mohor Dumitrita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present business intelligence systems. These systems can be extremely complex and important in modern market competition. Its effectiveness also reflects in price, so we have to exlore their financial potential before investment. The systems have 20 years long history and during that time many of such tools have been developed, but they are rarely still in use. Business intelligence system consists of three main areas: Data Warehouse, ETL tools and tools f...

  3. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTOR...

  4. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    An index to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1995) and Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aviation med...

  5. 76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... ``Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231... of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct responsibility to inspect...

  6. FAA aviation forecasts : fiscal years 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report contains the Fiscal Years 1997-2008 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) forecasts of aviation activity at FAA facilities. These include airports with both FAA and contract control towers, air route traffic control centers, and flight se...

  7. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Repair Stations Needs Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-24

    This report by the General Accounting Office examines the Federal Aviation : Administration's (FAA) oversight of the aviation repair station industry. : Specifically, this report addresses the following questions: (1) What is the : nature and scope o...

  8. Aviation safety : FAA and DOD response to similar safety concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Report to the Honorable Norman Y. Mineta, Secretary of Transportation, and the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense. : Safety of aircraft is a paramount concern in both civilian and military aviation. The Federal Aviation Administration...

  9. Aviation medical examiner 2012 feedback survey : content analysis of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI), as a component of the Office of Aerospace Medicine (OAM), surveyed the population of aviation medical examiners (AMEs), as federal designees, in 2012 to assess their satisfaction with Federal Aviation Adm...

  10. Nobody seems to speak English here today: Enhancing assessment and training in aviation English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Douglas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and in no country are native speakers of English tested for their ability to employ what has been termed "interactional competence" when using English for intercultural communication. Problems with this situation are reviewed and suggestions made for improving English assessment and training.

  11. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  12. Virginia Space Grant Consortium Management of National General Aviation Design Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the management of the National General Aviation Design Competition on behalf of NASA, the FAA and the Air Force by the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) for the time period October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001. This was the VSGC's seventh and final year of managing the Competition, which the Consortium originally designed, developed and implemented for NASA and the FAA. The competition is now being managed in-house by NASA. Awards to winning university teams were presented at a ceremony held at AirVenture 2001, the Experimental Aircraft Association's Annual Convention and Fly-In at Oshkosh, Wis. by NASA and FAA officials. The competition called for individuals or teams of undergraduate and graduate students from U.S. engineering schools to participate in a major national effort to rebuild the U.S. general aviation sector. Participants were challenged to meet the engineering goals of the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE) project. For the purpose of the contest, general aviation aircraft are typically defined as single or twin engine (turbine or piston), single-pilot, fixed-wing aircraft for 2 - 6 passengers. The competition seeks to raise student awareness of the importance of general aviation by having students address design challenges for a small aircraft transportation system. NASA, AFRL and the FAA hope to stimulate breakthroughs in technology and their application in the general aviation marketplace. National goals for revitalizing the industry offer excellent, open-ended design challenges with real world applications for the Innovative Design Category. Both individual and team submissions were encouraged. University faculty advisors and students consistently cite the value of this kind of educational experience for their engineering students. Eight proposals were submitted for the 2001 Competition for the Innovative Design Category. Eleven faculty members and 124 students participated. Since inception

  13. Future Retention of the Marine Corps Top Performing Aviators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    balance, and Aviator Continuation Pay. 15. SUBJECT TERMS USMC Aviator Retention, USMC Aviation Manpower, Marine Corps Talent Management , Marine Corps...Wing Aircraft: Includes AH-1, UH-1, and CH-53 platforms. Talent Management : The process through which employers anticipate and meet their needs for...a bias due to his experience as an executive officer responsible for the talent management of company grade WTI aviators. All attempts have been

  14. 77 FR 44511 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  15. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  16. 77 FR 43135 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... second meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The second meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. By notice dated June 13...

  17. 78 FR 71706 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection (ACACP) and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's...

  18. 77 FR 53961 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... third meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The third meeting of...)), established the Advisory Committee on Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as...

  19. 77 FR 35465 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... first meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The first meeting of... recommendations to the Secretary for improving existing aviation consumer protection programs and for establishing...

  20. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., energy security and economic stability for aviation. The aviation industry has made a commitment to... developing aviation in a manner that enhances and promotes the Nation's economic, environmental, and social... effectiveness of various policies, including economic incentives to limit and reduce CO 2 emissions. The U.S. is...

  1. Design study of general aviation collision avoidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M. R.; Moore, L. D.; Scott, W. V.

    1972-01-01

    The selection and design of a time/frequency collision avoidance system for use in general aviation aircraft is discussed. The modifications to airline transport collision avoidance equipment which were made to produce the simpler general aviation system are described. The threat determination capabilities and operating principles of the general aviation system are illustrated.

  2. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  3. Is Fatigue a Problem in Army Aviation: The Results of a Survey of Aviators and Aircrews

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John

    2000-01-01

    .... The current study, in which the responses from 241 Army aviators and 120 Army enlisted crew members were analyzed, indicates that inadequate sleep and/or insufficient sleep quality is adversely...

  4. Solar powered aviation beacon/landing light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the work was to design, develop and test Solar Powered Aviation Landing Lights/Obstruction Beacons. The entire lighting units were to be stand alone devices capable of producing their own individual power supply. The whole process was to be documented to provide insight into the processes and decisions involved. (author)

  5. Aviation Medicine Research: A Historical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-18

    School of Aviation Medicina , with an Officer in Charge and research as a department. In July 1951, the Schoo! became a separate command under a...the South China Sea. Let’s see, we had three WestPac I went to the CO of the ship, and made a recommendation that we cruises out there. Each one was

  6. The Air Force Aviation Investment Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    7 Procurement percentage excludes modification funding. 8 IOC from Department of Defense, Annual Aviation Inventory and Funding Plan, Fiscal Years...Through a Non-Air Force Budget As part of its markup of the Navy’s proposed FY2015 budget, Congress created the National Sea- Based Deterrence Fund

  7. Artifical Microorganism Infection in Aviation Kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vallo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fuel used in the aviation engineering has to be clean and dry, it may not contain mechanical impurities and water. Water inaviation kerosene may occur in soluble and insoluble form. The danger inheres in the insoluble form, which may drop out in the crystallineform and cause various failures, such as those caused by mechanical impurities. The water assists in the biological matter formation createdby various species of microorganisms (bacteria, mould fungi and yeast. The microorganisms, present in water phase occurring on thebottom of tanks or on the interface water phase – kerosene, grow and reproduce and subsequently may pollute (impair the fuel by thebiomass or by the products of their metabolism. There is a possibility to infect the fuel artificially by a selected reference microorganismstrain, which usually occur in contaminated fuel, or by microorganisms which cause a biological contamination of aviation kerosene.Out of the selected reference strains used in the experiments, the reference strains of Proteus vulgaris, Sacharamyces cerevisiae andClostridium perfringens were not cultivated in the sterile aviation kerosene and the propagating nutrient medium. The aviation kerosene actsas a biocide medium for the presented reference microorganism strains.

  8. Extended Producer Responsibility in the Aviation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Laan, Erwin; Irion, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate recent initiatives with respect to extended producer responsibility in the aviation sector. We compare those with the existing practices in the automobile sector and the emerging regulations in the shipping sector. We describe the challenges and the lessons to be learned from the evolution and state of extended producer responsibility in these two industries.

  9. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  10. Proposed English Standards Promote Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…

  11. Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Clark, C.; Hansell, A.; Hileman, J.; Janssen, S.; Shepherd, K.; Sparrow, V.

    2017-01-01

    Noise is defined as 'unwanted sound.' Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in

  12. Technologies to counter aviation security threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Steve

    2017-11-01

    The Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA) makes TSA responsible for security in all modes of transportation, and requires that TSA assess threats to transportation, enforce security-related regulations and requirements, and ensure the adequacy of security measures at airports and other transportation facilities. Today, TSA faces a significant challenge and must address a wide range of commercial, military grade, and homemade explosives and these can be presented in an infinite number of configurations and from multiple vectors. TSA screens 2 million passengers and crew, and screens almost 5 million carry-on items and 1.2 million checked bags daily. As TSA explores new technologies for improving efficiency and security, those on the forefront of research and development can help identify unique and advanced methods to combat terrorism. Research and Development (R&D) drives the development of future technology investments that can address an evolving adversary and aviation threat. The goal is to rethink the aviation security regime in its entirety, and rather than focusing security at particular points in the enterprise, distribute security from the time a reservation is made to the time a passenger boards the aircraft. The ultimate objective is to reengineer aviation security from top to bottom with a continued focus on increasing security throughout the system.

  13. 14 CFR 141.25 - Business office and operations base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business office and operations base. 141.25... operations base. (a) Each holder of a pilot school or a provisional pilot school certificate must maintain a... or the operations base, each certificate holder must notify the FAA Flight Standards District Office...

  14. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  15. Energy Beverage Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Delorey, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    Since the debut of energy beverages, the consumption of energy beverages has been immensely popular with young adults. Research regarding energy beverage consumption has included college students, European Union residents, and U.S. Army military personnel. However, energy beverage consumption among naval aviation candidates in the United States has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to assess energy beverage consumption patterns (frequency and volume) among naval aviation candidates, including attitudes and perceptions regarding the benefits and safety of energy beverage consumption. A 44-item survey was used to assess energy beverage consumption patterns of 302 students enrolled in the Aviation Preflight Indoctrination Course at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated that 79% of participants (N = 239) reported consuming energy beverages within the last year. However, of those who reported consuming energy beverages within the last year, only 36% (N = 85) reported consuming energy beverages within the last 30 d. Additionally, 51% (N = 153) of participants reported no regular energy beverages consumption. The majority of participants consumed energy beverages for mental alertness (67%), mental endurance (37%), and physical endurance (12%). The most reported side effects among participants included increased mental alertness (67%), increased heart rate (53%), and restlessness (41%). Naval aviation candidates appear to use energy drinks as frequently as a college student population, but less frequently than expected for an active duty military population. The findings of this study indicate that naval aviation candidates rarely use energy beverages (less than once per month), but when consumed, they use it for fatigue management.

  16. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Nebraska Aviation Education Association Conference (1st, Omaha, Nebraska, January 1994). The UNO Aviation Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crehan, James E., Ed.

    This collection of six papers constitutes the proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Nebraska Aviation Education Association. These papers present many issues that the discipline of aviation is confronting, including those related to the aviation industry. The papers included are as follows: (1) "Using the DAT for Selection of…

  18. Business Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Relations School at Harvard University), as well as in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, before turning to five areas of research and practice: academic ethnographies of business practices, regional studies, case studies developed by practitioners, theoretical applications, and methods. The essay then asks......; cross-cultural comparison of work cultures; attention to the materials, technologies, and goods with which business people engage and which afford their organizational forms; and explicit attention to cutting-edge fieldwork methods.......This essay outlines the overall scope and location of business anthropology within the overall field of the discipline. It outlines its foundations as an applied form of anthropology in early developments in the United States (in particular, in Western Electric’s Hawthorne Project and the Human...

  19. A business case method for business models

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model alternatives and choose the best one. In this article, we develop a business case method to objectively compare business models. It is an eight-step method, starting with business drivers and ending wit...

  20. Throw Away that Telework Manual!' - the Limitations of Existing Telework Literature in the B2C e-Business Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gani, Zoohan

    2004-01-01

    ... failing to consider the different circumstances of the individual teleworkers. This paper reports on the pilot study that examined telework in the business-to-consumer e-business application as part of a Ph.D. study...

  1. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  2. Aviation English in South African airspace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATCs does not involve visual contact. Consequently, pilots rely on their .... communication are memory, expectations, speech rate, personal limitations and fatigue. During the study reported here, ..... probably an indication that the ATC had the aircraft in sight and could visually observe that the pilots were in compliance with ...

  3. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  4. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  5. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  6. Business Leksikon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2002-01-01

    This review article deals with a specialised dictionary recently introduced to the Danish market. It covers traditional business subjects and is designed for semi-experts and laypeople. Through Danish definitions and English, French and German equivalents, it aims at fulfilling the functions text...

  7. Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je seznámení s Business Intelligence a zpracování vývojového trendu, který ovlivňuje podobu řešení Business Intelligence v podniku ? Business Activity Monitoring. Pro zpracování tohoto tématu byla použita metoda studia odborných pramenů, a to jak v českém, tak v anglickém jazyce. Hlavním přínosem práce je ucelený, v českém jazyce zpracovaný materiál pojednávající o Business Activity Monitoring. Práce je rozdělena do šesti hlavních kapitol. Prvních pět je věnováno p...

  8. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  9. Small Business Size Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Certain government programs, such as SBA loan programs and contracting opportunities, are reserved for small business concerns. In order to qualify, businesses must...

  10. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Improving Fuel Statistics for Danish Aviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    This report contains fuel use figures for Danish civil aviation broken down into domestic and international numbers from 1985 to 2000, using a refined fuel split procedure and official fuel sale totals. The results from two different models are used. The NERI (National Environmental Research...... Institute) model estimates the fuel use per flight for all flights leaving Danish airports in 1998, while the annual Danish CORINAIR inventories are based on improved LTO/aircraft type statistics. A time series of fuel use from 1985 to 2000 is also shown for flights between Denmark and Greenland/the Faroe...... Islands, obtained with the NERI model. In addition a complete overview of the aviation fuel use from the two latter areas is given, based on fuel sale information from Statistics Greenland and Statistics Faroe Islands, and fuel use data from airline companies. The fuel use figures are presented on a level...

  12. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Jarry, Bruno; Monsan, Pierre; Burzynski, Jean-Pierre; Jeuland, Nicolas; Porot, Pierre; Demoment, Pascale; Gillmann, Marc; Marchand, Philippe; Kuentzmann, Paul; Kurtsoglou, Nicolas; Lombaert-Valot, Isabelle; Pelegrin, Marc; Renvier, Jacques; Rousseau, Julien; Stadler, Thierry; Tremeau, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  13. Ocular Problems of the Aging Military Aviator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    neuropathy 3 these ocular conditions seen in the older aviator and on Ocular trauma/angle recession 3 his flight status? Branch retinal vein occlusion 2...bifocals, Nutritional amblyopia (RPW) 1 trifocals, double segs, newer progressive lenses, contact Fuch’s heterochromic iridocyclitis 1 lenses, and...In the Surveillance Only part of the program no drug therapy is DISCUSSION: Under present FAA regulations, the used but the flight surgeon must

  14. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2017-04-01

    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  15. Psychophysiological Sensing and State Classification for Attention Management in Commercial Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Liles, Charles; Stephens, Chad L.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-related human performance limiting states (AHPLS) can cause pilots to lose airplane state awareness (ASA), and their detection is important to improving commercial aviation safety. The Commercial Aviation Safety Team found that the majority of recent international commercial aviation accidents attributable to loss of control inflight involved flight crew loss of airplane state awareness, and that distraction of various forms was involved in all of them. Research on AHPLS, including channelized attention, diverted attention, startle / surprise, and confirmation bias, has been recommended in a Safety Enhancement (SE) entitled "Training for Attention Management." To accomplish the detection of such cognitive and psychophysiological states, a broad suite of sensors has been implemented to simultaneously measure their physiological markers during high fidelity flight simulation human subject studies. Pilot participants were asked to perform benchmark tasks and experimental flight scenarios designed to induce AHPLS. Pattern classification was employed to distinguish the AHPLS induced by the benchmark tasks. Unimodal classification using pre-processed electroencephalography (EEG) signals as input features to extreme gradient boosting, random forest and deep neural network multiclass classifiers was implemented. Multi-modal classification using galvanic skin response (GSR) in addition to the same EEG signals and using the same types of classifiers produced increased accuracy with respect to the unimodal case (90 percent vs. 86 percent), although only via the deep neural network classifier. These initial results are a first step toward the goal of demonstrating simultaneous real time classification of multiple states using multiple sensing modalities in high-fidelity flight simulators. This detection is intended to support and inform training methods under development to mitigate the loss of ASA and thus reduce accidents and incidents.

  16. Equivalence Testing as a Tool for Fatigue Risk Management in Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lora J; Gander, Philippa H; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, T Leigh

    2018-04-01

    Many civilian aviation regulators favor evidence-based strategies that go beyond hours-of-service approaches for managing fatigue risk. Several countries now allow operations to be flown outside of flight and duty hour limitations, provided airlines demonstrate an alternative method of compliance that yields safety levels "at least equivalent to" the prescriptive regulations. Here we discuss equivalence testing in occupational fatigue risk management. We present suggested ratios/margins of practical equivalence when comparing operations inside and outside of prescriptive regulations for two common aviation safety performance indicators: total in-flight sleep duration and psychomotor vigilance task reaction speed. Suggested levels of practical equivalence, based on expertise coupled with evidence from field and laboratory studies, are ≤ 30 min in-flight sleep and ± 15% of reference response speed. Equivalence testing is illustrated in analyses of a within-subjects field study during an out-and-back long-range trip. During both sectors of their trip, 41 pilots were monitored via actigraphy, sleep diary, and top of descent psychomotor vigilance task. Pilots were assigned to take rest breaks in a standard lie-flat bunk on one sector and in a bunk tapered 9 from hip to foot on the other sector. Total in-flight sleep duration (134 ± 53 vs. 135 ± 55 min) and mean reaction speed at top of descent (3.94 ± 0.58 vs. 3.77 ± 0.58) were equivalent after rest in the full vs. tapered bunk. Equivalence testing is a complimentary statistical approach to difference testing when comparing levels of fatigue and performance in occupational settings and can be applied in transportation policy decision making.Wu LJ, Gander PH, van den Berg M, Signal TL. Equivalence testing as a tool for fatigue risk management in aviation. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):383-388.

  17. Volcanic Ash and Aviation - the 2014 Eruptions of Kelut and Sangeang Api, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, A. C.; Jansons, E.

    2014-12-01

    Two significant eruptions in Indonesia during the first part of 2014 have highlighted the continuing challenges of safe air traffic management around volcanic ash clouds. The stratospheric eruption of Kelut (also known as Kelud) in Java late on 13 February 2014 resulted in widespread aviation disruption over Indonesia and at least one serious volcanic ash encounter from an international airline. An upper-tropospheric eruption of Sangeang Api in the Lesser Sunda Islands on 30 May 2014 did not result in any known aircraft encounters, but did result in many delays and flight cancellations between Indonesia and Australia. In both cases, the eruption and resultant ash clouds were relatively well observed, if subject to the usual issues in characterising such clouds. For example, as tropical eruptions frequently reach 15 km amsl and above due to the height of the tropical tropopause, it is frequently very difficult to provide an accurate estimation of conditions at the cruising levels of aircraft, at 10-11 km (or lower for shorter domestic routes). More critically, the challenge of linking operational results from two scientific professions (volcanology and meteorology) with real-time aviation users remains strongly evident. Situational awareness of domestic and international airlines, ground-based monitoring and communications prior to and during the eruption, receiving and sharing pilot reports of volcanic ash, and appropriate flight responses all remain inadequate even in relatively fine conditions, with an unacceptable ongoing risk of serious aviation encounters should improvements not be made. Despite the extensive efforts of the International Civil Aviation Organization, World Meteorological Organization, and all partners in the International Airways Volcano Watch, and despite the acceleration of work on the issue since 2010, volcanic ash management remains sub-optimal.

  18. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Shouse, Dale T.

    2010-01-01

    Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and weeds using wastelands, waste water, and seawater have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remains the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do at least the ones we are studying massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  19. Perspectives for Sustainable Aviation Biofuels in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. B. Cortez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry has set ambitious goals to reduce carbon emissions in coming decades. The strategy involves the use of sustainable biofuels, aiming to achieve benefits from environmental, social, and economic perspectives. In this context, Brazilian conditions are favorable, with a mature agroindustry that regularly produces automotive biofuel largely adopted by Brazilian road vehicles, while air transportation has been growing at an accelerating pace and a modern aircraft industry is in place. This paper presents the main conclusions and recommendations from a broad assessment of the technological, economic, and sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with the development of drop-in aviation biofuels in Brazil. It was written by a research team that prepared the initial reports and conducted eight workshops with the active participation of more than 30 stakeholders encompassing the private sector, government institutions, NGOs, and academia. The main outcome was a set of guidelines for establishing a new biofuels industry, including recommendations for (a filling the identified research and development knowledge gaps in the production of sustainable feedstock; (b overcoming the barriers in conversion technology, including scaling-up issues; (c promoting greater involvement and interaction between private and government stakeholders; and (d creating a national strategy to promote the development of aviation biofuels.

  20. Aviation Fueling: A Cleaner, Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Hendricks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Projected growth of aviation depends on fueling where specific needs must be met. Safety is paramount, and along with political, social, environmental, and legacy transport systems requirements, alternate aviation fueling becomes an opportunity of enormous proportions. Biofuels—sourced from halophytes, algae, cyanobacteria, and “weeds” using wastelands, waste water, and seawater—have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. Biojet fuels from such sources solve the aviation CO2 emissions issue and do not compete with food or freshwater needs. They are not detrimental to the social or environmental fabric and use the existing fuels infrastructure. Cost and sustainable supply remain the major impediments to alternate fuels. Halophytes are the near-term solution to biomass/biofuels capacity at reasonable costs; they simply involve more farming, at usual farming costs. Biofuels represent a win-win approach, proffering as they do—at least the ones we are studying—massive capacity, climate neutral-to-some sequestration, and ultimately, reasonable costs.

  1. BUSINESS ETHICS STANDARDS AND HOTEL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-01-01

    By implementing certain standards in business, especially the standards of business ethics, each entity in the hotel industry emphasize its specificity and recognition, while giving a guestconsumer security and a guarantee that they will get desired quality. In today's global world, business ethics has become an indispensable part of the hotel business practices and prerequisite for achieving business success. Business ethics receives strategic significance because ...

  2. The impact of transition training on adapting to Technically Advanced Aircraft at regional airlines: Perceptions of pilots and instructor pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Renzo, John Carl, Jr.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis about pilot and instructor pilot perceptions of how effectively pilots learn and use new technology, found in Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA), given initial type of instrumentation training. New aviation technologies such as Glass Cockpits in technically advanced aircraft are complex and can be difficult to learn and use. The research questions focused on the type of initial instrumentation training to determine the differences among pilots trained using various types of instrumentation ranging from aircraft equipped with traditional analog instrumentation to aircraft equipped with glass cockpits. A convenience sample of Pilots in Training (PT) and Instructor Pilots (IP) was selected from a regional airline. The research design used a mixed methodology. Pilots in training completed a thirty-two question quantitative questionnaire and instructor pilots completed a five question qualitative questionnaire. Findings and conclusions. This investigation failed to disprove the null hypothesis. The type of instrumentation training has no significant effect on newly trained regional airline pilot perceived ability to adapt to advanced technology cockpits. Therefore, no evidence exists from this investigation to support the early introduction and training of TAA. While the results of this investigation were surprising, they are nonetheless, instructive. Even though it would seem that there would be a relationship between exposure to and use of technically advanced instrumentation, apparently there was no perceived relationship for this group of airline transport pilots. However, a point of interest is that these pilots were almost evenly divided in their opinion of whether or not their previous training had prepared them for transition to TAA. The majority also believed that the type of initial instrumentation training received does make a difference when transitioning to TAA. Pilots believed

  3. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators.

  4. FORMING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS IN AVIATION COMPANIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prokhorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  5. Business grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve small businesses who are developing equipment and computer programs for geophysics have won Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants from the National Science Foundation for their 1989 proposals. The SBIR program was set up to encourage the private sector to undertake costly, advanced experimental work that has potential for great benefit.The geophysical research projects are a long-path intracavity laser spectrometer for measuring atmospheric trace gases, optimizing a local weather forecast model, a new platform for high-altitude atmospheric science, an advanced density logging tool, a deep-Earth sampling system, superconducting seismometers, a phased-array Doppler current profiler, monitoring mesoscale surface features of the ocean through automated analysis, krypton-81 dating in polar ice samples, discrete stochastic modeling of thunderstorm winds, a layered soil-synthetic liner base system to isolate buildings from earthquakes, and a low-cost continuous on-line organic-content monitor for water-quality determination.

  6. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  7. business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Luzan, Dmitrij

    2009-01-01

    My thesis is dedicated to the business plan of the gastronomic facility. The thesis describes foundation of the company, analyses demand for the gastronomic services. The financial plan is being presented as well. The thesis includes the analysis of the company's environment, suppliers and customers. SWOT analysis, net present value analysis, index of the net present value and other ratio indexes are the parts of this thesis.

  8. BENCHMARKING LEARNER EDUCATION USING ONLINE BUSINESS SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred H. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For programmatic accreditation by the Accreditation Council of Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP, business programs are required to meet STANDARD #4, Measurement and Analysis of Student Learning and Performance. Business units must demonstrate that outcome assessment systems are in place using documented evidence that shows how the results are being used to further develop or improve the academic business program. The Higher Colleges of Technology, a 17 campus federal university in the United Arab Emirates, differentiates its applied degree programs through a ‘learning by doing ethos,’ which permeates the entire curricula. This paper documents benchmarking of education for managing innovation. Using business simulation for Bachelors of Business, Year 3 learners, in a business strategy class; learners explored through a simulated environment the following functional areas; research and development, production, and marketing of a technology product. Student teams were required to use finite resources and compete against other student teams in the same universe. The study employed an instrument developed in a 60-sample pilot study of business simulation learners against which subsequent learners participating in online business simulation could be benchmarked. The results showed incremental improvement in the program due to changes made in assessment strategies, including the oral defense.

  9. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  10. Efficacy of Low-Cost PC-Based Aviation Training Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savern l Reweti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD. Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD was more effective at improving pilot proficiency in the performance of a standard VFR traffic pattern (Overhead Rejoin Procedure than a customised low cost PCATD. Methodology: In this quasi-transfer study, a high fidelity FTD rather than an aircraft was used to test both training and transfer tasks. Ninety-three pilots were recruited to participate in the study. Contribution: The use of PCATDs is now well established for pilot training, especially for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR skills training. However, little substantive research has been undertaken to examine their efficacy for VFR training. Findings: There was no evidence of a pre-test/post-test difference in VFR task perfor-mance between participants trained on the PCATD and the FTD, when post tested on the FTD. The use of both PCATD and FTD demonstrated signifi-cant improvements in VFR task performance compared to a control group that received no PCATD or FTD training. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: We discuss the possibility that low cost PCATDs may be a viable alternative for flight schools wishing to use a flight simulator but not able to afford a FTD. Recommendation for Researchers: We discuss the introduction of improved low cost technologies that allow PCATDs to be used more effectively for training in VFR procedures. The development and testing of new technologies requires more research. Impact on Society: Flight training schools operate in a difficult economic environment with continued increases in the cost of aircraft maintenance, compliance costs, and aviation fuel. The increased utilisation of low cost PCATD’s especially for VFR

  11. System for Secure Integration of Aviation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Keller, Rich; Chidester, Tom; Statler, Irving; Lynch, Bob; Patel, Hemil; Windrem, May; Lawrence, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS) of Ames Research Center has been established to promote analysis of aviation data by airlines and other interested users for purposes of enhancing the quality (especially safety) of flight operations. The ADIS is a system of computer hardware and software for collecting, integrating, and disseminating aviation data pertaining to flights and specified flight events that involve one or more airline(s). The ADIS is secure in the sense that care is taken to ensure the integrity of sources of collected data and to verify the authorizations of requesters to receive data. Most importantly, the ADIS removes a disincentive to collection and exchange of useful data by providing for automatic removal of information that could be used to identify specific flights and crewmembers. Such information, denoted sensitive information, includes flight data (here signifying data collected by sensors aboard an aircraft during flight), weather data for a specified route on a specified date, date and time, and any other information traceable to a specific flight. The removal of information that could be used to perform such tracing is called "deidentification." Airlines are often reluctant to keep flight data in identifiable form because of concerns about loss of anonymity. Hence, one of the things needed to promote retention and analysis of aviation data is an automated means of de-identification of archived flight data to enable integration of flight data with non-flight aviation data while preserving anonymity. Preferably, such an automated means would enable end users of the data to continue to use pre-existing data-analysis software to identify anomalies in flight data without identifying a specific anomalous flight. It would then also be possible to perform statistical analyses of integrated data. These needs are satisfied by the ADIS, which enables an end user to request aviation data associated with de-identified flight data. The ADIS

  12. A Sure Bet: Business & Education Together. A Handbook for Chamber of Commerce Education Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Carol Iddins; Harper, H. James, Ed.

    Project BET (Business and Education Together) was initiated by the California Chamber of Commerce in January 1984 to assist local chambers of commerce in developing long-term school-business partnerships. This handbook, based on work with six pilot chambers of commerce, offers a step-by-step process guide to school-business partnerships, along…

  13. AVIATION SAFETY CULTURE MEASUREMENT MODEL FIT VALIDATION OF A SURVEY FOR THE AVIATION MAINTENANCE REPAIR ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Vahap ÖNEN

    2017-01-01

    It is believed that safety is the major issue for the aviation industry. According to Boeing Study %15 of the fatal accidents are incurred by maintenance sources related. On the other hand, from the last ten years safety management system which firstly introduced by ICAO became popular in the aviation industry. In the beginning, enforcement by ICAO Annex 19 then following it consequtively by EASA’s regulation, at the same time issued many advisory circulars by FAA that SMS entried in force an...

  14. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  15. Higher landing accuracy in expert pilots is associated with lower activity in the caudate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen M Adamson

    Full Text Available The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66 were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land. Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8 or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12. High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62 ± 2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98 ± 1.04; p<.01. Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97 ± 0.80 compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91 ± 1.16 (p<.05. These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions

  16. 76 FR 20799 - Intermediary Lending Pilot Program Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Pilot (ILP) program established by the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. The meetings will be open to the... holding open meetings to discuss the ILP program established in the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Pub... program public meeting, please contact: 1. San Francisco--Steve Bangs, (415) 744-6792, fax (415) 744-6812...

  17. FEATURES OF AN ESTIMATION OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS AT THE ENTERPRISES OF AVIATION INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this study due to the fact that the current situation in Russia is complemented by the negative effects of market reforms in the economy and economic sanctions adopted against our country and in particular the different level companies. In view of this, to effectively manage the activities and the development of aviation instrument companies and enterprises of different ownership forms are highly relevant issues related to the assessment of investment projects. The general crisis that engulfed almost all industry in Russia, demanded the application of a new ideology of the organization and management of investment projects, as well as their assessment at the enterprises of aviation instrument. In Russia, began a new stage in the development of project management establishment of a domestic methodology, complex tools and training for professional project management on the basis of domestic achievements, global experience and creativity of its processing based on the actual conditions of our country. The need for the use of project management methodology in Russia is determined by two factors: the increasing complexity of projects and the organizations that operate them, and the fact that project management is widely used in countries with market economies. Projects at the enterprises of aviation instrument making and evaluation are characterized by complexity and uncertainty, a significant dependence on the dynamic environment, including socio-economic, political, financial, economic, legislative influence of both the state and competing companies. In this paper, a study of modern methods of evaluating investment projects at the enterprises of aviation instrument. Methodology. The methodological basis of this paper appeared comparative and economic-mathematical analysis methods. Results. As part of the presentation of the present article the author, it was found that the activity of modern companies is not linear and is

  18. Motivation and Resolve of U.S. Air Force Pilot Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    demonstrated character and emotional composure (stability), and a consistent desire and proven resolve to become, and remain, a pilot ( motivation ). MFS-N... motivation used at MFS-N. The goals of this research are to better understand what motivates pilot candidates to pursue aviation careers and to establish...baseline motivation and grit scores. These scores can then be utilized, in conjunction with other MFS-N testing information, to understand pre-morbid

  19. Can pilots still fly? Role distribution and hybrid interaction in advanced automated aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Weyer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Recent accidents of commercial airplanes have raised the question once more whether pilots can rely on automation in order to fly advanced aircraft safely. Although the issue of human-machine interaction in aviation has been investigated frequently, profound knowledge about pilots’ perceptions and attitudes is fragmentary and partly out-dated. The paper at hand presents the results of a pilot survey, which has been guided by a collaborative perspective of human-automation decision-making. It ...

  20. General Roy S. Geiger, USMC: Marine Aviator, Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This is a strong assertion, given the significant and better-known contributions of great Marines such as John Lejeune, Smedley Butler, Alexander...While stationed in Panama, Geiger made a favorable impression on Major Smedley Butler, who later earned the Medal of Honor twice and became a...fifth Naval Aviator. 43 Johnson, 5. 44 Robert Sherrod, History of Marine Corps Aviation in World War II (Baltimore, MD: The Nautical and Aviation

  1. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  2. Business-to-business electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    John Wenninger

    1999-01-01

    To improve efficiency, some large retailers, suppliers, and distributors have begun to conduct business-to-business commerce electronically. This practice could grow rapidly if the Internet becomes the primary low-cost network for such transactions. Before the Internet can fully support business-to-business commerce, however, companies must overcome several technological and security obstacles.

  3. A business case method for business models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model

  4. Business modelling agility : Turning ideas into business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, J.; Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Business Model Innovation is attracting more and more attention from business as well as from academics. Business Model Innovation deals with both technological and knowledge related changes that either may disrupt or sustain existing product/market strategies. Timing of Business Model Innovation

  5. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  6. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  7. Selecting Optimal Control Portfolios to Improve Army Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelton, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    .... The Safety Center chartered the Aviation Safety Investment Strategy Team to evaluate accidents to determine their hazards, or contributing conditions, and their controls, or reduction measures...

  8. New Refractive Surgery Procedures and Their Implications for Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W

    2006-01-01

    ...., myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) with corrective surgery. Prior Federal Aviation Administration research studies have shown that the number of civil airmen with refractive surgery continues to increase...

  9. Scary Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platts, Todd; Clasen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Despite horror films representing business ventures intended to turn profit, box office analyses of the genre have remained rare in scholarly literature. Our study fills that gap through an examination of 117 horror films that reached the top 100 in domestic grosses in the North American film...... statistical approach, we identify a strong presence of supernatural horror films in the period under discussion as well as a relatively weak presence of zombie, vampire, and torture porn films. We argue that supernatural horror films have dominated the top-grossing films in the timeframe because such films...

  10. Measuring Pilot Proficiency on an Instrument Training Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Psychological research on pilot training. Was--sngton, D. C.: Army Air Force Aviation Psychology Program, Research Report No. 8, 1947. Ericksen, S. C. A review...10 15 20 su m I S =. 24 S". **muz . Atars &f 300ft. of clim (Mappro&W~may 15300’) a&& at J.5W f t. Soabding P. Mmcav ad nmur4 thwouoww.c tb. &*ou 25 mvi

  11. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Marco Tulio de [UNIFESP; Esteves, Andrea Maculano [UNIFESP; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira [UNIFESP; Santos, Dayane C. [UNIFESP; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo [UNIFESP; Silva, Rogério Santos [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airlin...

  12. Management of Business Transformation to Sustainable Business

    OpenAIRE

    Grunda, Rokas

    2011-01-01

    Having examined the concepts of sustainable business and advantages and disadvantages of business sustainability management models, the objective of the dissertation is to formulate a management model of business transformation to sustainable business and to verify it in present business conditions in Lithuania. In the dissertation, the essence of the concepts of sustainable development and sustainability is characterized, the criteria of sustainable society are distinguished and the concept ...

  13. Using Artificial Intelligence to Inform Pilots of Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2006-01-01

    An automated system to assist a General Aviation (GA) pilot in improving situational awareness of weather in flight is now undergoing development. This development is prompted by the observation that most fatal GA accidents are attributable to loss of weather awareness. Loss of weather awareness, in turn, has been attributed to the difficulty of interpreting traditional preflight weather briefings and the difficulty of both obtaining and interpreting traditional in-flight weather briefings. The developmental automated system not only improves weather awareness but also substantially reduces the time a pilot must spend in acquiring and maintaining weather awareness.

  14. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... evolving transportation needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Aviation Safety... activities associated with the list of priority safety issues developed during the first meeting. The subcommittee will also develop a work plan for future meetings. DATES: The meeting will be held on August 24...

  15. Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management: Importance for Aviation Companies, Aerospace Industry Organizations and Relevant Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Szabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper in the introductory part underlines some aspects concerning the importance of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management and informs on basic international standards for the processes and stages of life cycle. The second part is focused on definition and main objectives of system life cycle management. The authors subsequently inform on system life cycle stages (in general and system life cycle processes according to ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 standard. Following the fact, that life cycle cost (LCC is inseparable part and has direct connection to the life cycle management, the paper contains brief information regarding to LCC (cost categories, cost breakdown structure, cost estimation a.o.. Recently was issued the first part of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management monograph (in Slovak: ”Manažment životného cyklu leteckej techniky I”, written by I.Koblen and S.Szabo. Following this fact and direct relation to the topic of article it is a part of article briefly introduced the content of two parts of this monograph (the 2nd part of monograph it has been prepared for the print. The last part of article is focused on issue concerning main assumptions and conditions for successful application of aviation technology life cycle management in aviation companies, aerospace industry organizations as well as from the relevant stakeholders side.

  16. Panorama 2009 - aviation and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Several key priorities have been targeted for development in the aviation industry: diversifying energy resources, keeping consumption levels under control and reducing polluting emissions to improve air quality. Like the road transport sector, the air transport sector is mounting a determined effort to reduce the level of its greenhouse gas emissions. Among the various solutions under consideration, alternative fuels are attracting particular attention. However, not all alternative solutions can be exploited, because of the constraints specific to the use of aircraft. A precise assessment should be made of all possible solutions to determine which ones should take preference

  17. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-31

    Passenger Screening Results 12. Scope of Civil Aviation Security Program 13. Basic Policies 14. Explosives Detection Dog Teams 15. Explosives Detection... policies guiding the program recognize airline responsibilities for the safety of passengers, baggage and cargo in their care as well as for the...U *i * (U U Los -7 .cn cf) 1-4 ~~LL _m e- Hf LMU 0- u,-C -oL -ccJLL LII -~ LLIOL 0 _ CL. LLJ cr-L LCnIJ C ~ ~ CnCD C. ) &j 2ic- nc r JL AJ -L JC C.- L

  18. Particle Count Limits Recommendation for Aviation Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Particle Counter Methodology • Particle counts are taken utilizing calibration methodologies and standardized cleanliness code ratings – ISO 11171 – ISO...Limits Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18/16/13 14/10/7 Pamas / Parker / Particle Solutions 19/17...12 U.S. DOD 19/17/14/13* Diesel Fuel World Wide Fuel Charter 5th 18/16/13 DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Caterpillar 18/16/13 Detroit Diesel 18/16/13 MTU

  19. Criterion of titanium aviation alloy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasyunas, O.P.

    1976-01-01

    The most significant statistic mechanical characteristics are presented of titanium as compared with those of aluminium and steel. Based on these data one can draw conclusions as to the advantages and disadvantages of titanium. High chemical activity and diffusivity of titanium place limitations on the use of its alloys. Despite the promising features of a needle-like structure, specifications still keep relying on a globular structure, which is explained by the easeiness of the production. Titanium is expensive, sometimes its cost may by a factor of 20 exceed that of other aviation materials

  20. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  1. Business Model Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David; Phillips, Nelson; Massa, Lorenzo; Tucci, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The chapter offers a broad review of the literature at the nexus between Business Models and innovation studies, and examines the notion of Business Model Innovation in three different situations: Business Model Design in newly formed organizations, Business Model Reconfiguration in incumbent firms, and Business Model Innovation in the broad context of sustainability. Tools and perspectives to make sense of Business Models and support managers and entrepreneurs in dealing with Business Model ...

  2. Human Factors Affecting Pilot Performance in Vertical and Translational Instrument Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Creelman , 1955) involving rudimentary visual simulators that provided the student pilot not much more than a crude dynamic perspective view of the runwey he...to find a better terminal procedure. Creelman , J. A. Evaluation of approach training procedures. Pensacola, FL: U.S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine

  3. 78 FR 66261 - Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...-0780; Amdt. No. 61-131] RIN 2120-AK23 Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online Services; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Federal Aviation...-calendar month flight review requirements. This rule also clarifies that the generally applicable recent...

  4. 78 FR 56822 - Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-0780; Amdt. No. 61-131] RIN 2120-AK23 Certified Flight Instructor Flight Reviews; Recent Pilot in Command Experience; Airmen Online Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... review requirements. This rule also clarifies that the generally applicable recent flight experience...

  5. 76 FR 19174 - State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... Grant Program is to increase the number of small businesses that are exporting, and increase the value... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION State Trade and Export Promotion (STEP) Pilot Grant Program AGENCY: Office of International Trade; U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) ACTION: SBA Program Announcement...

  6. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1996) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aviation medicine reports ...

  7. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1993) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports is presented as a reference for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. It lists all FAA aviation medicine reports publish...

  8. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An index to Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-2000), : CARI Reports (1961-1963), and Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports is presented for those : engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index l...

  9. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An index to Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1998) and Civil Aeromedical Research Institute Reports is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine and related activities. The index lists all FAA aviation medicine reports published from ...

  10. Index to FAA Office of Aviation Medicine reports : 1961 through 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An index to Federal Aviation Administration Office of Aviation Medicine Reports (1964-1999) and : Civil Aeromedical Institute Reports (1961-1963) is presented for those engaged in aviation medicine : and related activities. The index lists all FAA av...

  11. 77 FR 14856 - Public Meeting With Interested Persons To Discuss the Proposed Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Public Meeting With Interested...) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (DOT). ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will be holding a public meeting to discuss issuing a new Technical Standard...

  12. Compressing Aviation Data in XML Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemil; Lau, Derek; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    Design, operations and maintenance activities in aviation involve analysis of variety of aviation data. This data is typically in disparate formats making it difficult to use with different software packages. Use of a self-describing and extensible standard called XML provides a solution to this interoperability problem. XML provides a standardized language for describing the contents of an information stream, performing the same kind of definitional role for Web content as a database schema performs for relational databases. XML data can be easily customized for display using Extensible Style Sheets (XSL). While self-describing nature of XML makes it easy to reuse, it also increases the size of data significantly. Therefore, transfemng a dataset in XML form can decrease throughput and increase data transfer time significantly. It also increases storage requirements significantly. A natural solution to the problem is to compress the data using suitable algorithm and transfer it in the compressed form. We found that XML-specific compressors such as Xmill and XMLPPM generally outperform traditional compressors. However, optimal use of Xmill requires of discovery of optimal options to use while running Xmill. This, in turn, depends on the nature of data used. Manual disc0ver.y of optimal setting can require an engineer to experiment for weeks. We have devised an XML compression advisory tool that can analyze sample data files and recommend what compression tool would work the best for this data and what are the optimal settings to be used with a XML compression tool.

  13. Risk assessment techniques for civil aviation security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamasi, Galileo, E-mail: g.tamasi@enac.rupa.i [Ente Nazionale per l' Aviazione Civile-Direzione Progetti, Studi e Ricerche, Via di Villa Ricotti, 42, 00161 Roma (Italy); Demichela, Micaela, E-mail: micaela.demichela@polito.i [SAfeR-Centro Studi su Sicurezza, Affidabilita e Rischi, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Following the 9/11 terrorists attacks in New York a strong economical effort was made to improve and adapt aviation security, both in infrastructures as in airplanes. National and international guidelines were promptly developed with the objective of creating a security management system able to supervise the identification of risks and the definition and optimization of control measures. Risk assessment techniques are thus crucial in the above process, since an incorrect risk identification and quantification can strongly affect both the security level as the investments needed to reach it. The paper proposes a set of methodologies to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the risk in the security of civil aviation and the risk assessment process based on the threats, criticality and vulnerabilities concepts, highlighting their correlation in determining the level of risk. RAMS techniques are applied to the airport security system in order to analyze the protection equipment for critical facilities located in air-side, allowing also the estimation of the importance of the security improving measures vs. their effectiveness.

  14. Risk assessment techniques for civil aviation security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamasi, Galileo; Demichela, Micaela

    2011-01-01

    Following the 9/11 terrorists attacks in New York a strong economical effort was made to improve and adapt aviation security, both in infrastructures as in airplanes. National and international guidelines were promptly developed with the objective of creating a security management system able to supervise the identification of risks and the definition and optimization of control measures. Risk assessment techniques are thus crucial in the above process, since an incorrect risk identification and quantification can strongly affect both the security level as the investments needed to reach it. The paper proposes a set of methodologies to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the risk in the security of civil aviation and the risk assessment process based on the threats, criticality and vulnerabilities concepts, highlighting their correlation in determining the level of risk. RAMS techniques are applied to the airport security system in order to analyze the protection equipment for critical facilities located in air-side, allowing also the estimation of the importance of the security improving measures vs. their effectiveness.

  15. Busy Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫玉完

    2007-01-01

    In America,people are always in a hurry.You can see the people who are walking fast everywhere.They are so busy that they have no time to stay with their families.They work late and don’t get home until 7 or 8 at night.More than 50% of women work at full-time jobs.They do less childcare and don’t have enough time to prepare the food.That’s why"fast food"is so popular in America.People spend nearly half of their dollars on fast food.Fast food saves much time,but it is not good for health.

  16. Aviation Maintenance Technology. Course Content Guides. FAA Approved Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrawder, Jack; And Others

    Course content guides are provided for the 30 courses in this aviation maintenance technology curriculum approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Course titles are physics for technicians; aircraft information, regulations, and procedures; aircraft assembly; fundamentals of aircraft electronics; aircraft electrical components; aircraft…

  17. FAA statistical handbook of aviation, calendar year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-15

    The FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation is published annually by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The handbook is provided here in MS Excel. format as downloadable files and as text tables that can be viewed in PDF format. The prime purpos...

  18. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCS) of the FAA when appropriate authorization has been furnished by the FAA...

  19. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation... the evolving transportation needs, challenges and opportunities of the United States and global... influence the need to consider rulemaking; e.g., safety, capacity, cost, environmental impacts...

  20. 77 FR 69916 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory... take place at the Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591.... Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics 6. Status Report from the FAA a. Process...

  1. How did aviation become so safe, and beyond?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aviation has been recognized as one of the ultimate safe socio-technical systems. This contribution discusses the conditions and context that moulded the system safety to its present level by applying integral safety, a sectoral approach and safety as a strategic value. At present the aviation

  2. 77 FR 10797 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task... is to inform the public of the FAA's decision to withdraw this task. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  3. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's charter, drafted in...

  4. Frequency and Variance of Communication Characteristics in Aviation Safety Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Kaspers, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    In the aviation sector, communication problems have contributed into 70% to 80% of safety occurrences. However, to date we haven’t depicted which communication aspects have affected aviation safety most frequently. Based on literature, we developed a tool which includes communication characteristics

  5. Language and Communication-Related Problems of Aviation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Steven

    A study of the problems posed by the use of natural language in various aspects of aviation is presented. The study, part of a larger investigation of the feasibility of voice input/output interfaces for communication in aviation, looks at representative real examples of accidents and near misses resulting from language confusions and omissions.…

  6. Semantic Business Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Markovic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.

  7. Sosiaalinen media business to business markkinoinnissa

    OpenAIRE

    Tsinovski, Kosti

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö käsittelee sosiaalisen median käyttöä business to business -markkinoinnissa. Sosiaalista mediaa tarkastellaan kirjallisuuden, verkkolähteiden ja kirjoittajan omien kokemuksien ja näkemyksien pohjalta. Sosiaalisen median soveltuvuutta business to business -markkinointiin käsitellään edellä mainittujen lähteiden lisäksi yrityshaastattelujen pohjalta. Tavoitteena on pohtia sosiaalinen median soveltuvuutta business to business -markkinointiin. Lisäksi tavoitteena on perustella sosiaa...

  8. P06.01. Survey of Business and Care Models of Integrative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    MacElhern, Lauray; Carter, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Sustainable Business Models In 2012, the business sub-committee of the clinical working group for the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine (CAHCIM) launched a pilot survey to collect information about the structure and business models of the member integrative centers. Although the survey provided useful insight into the business operations and financial resources needed to start up a center, the survey needed a better design and response rate. The 2013 ...

  9. How To Make the Most of Your Human: Design Considerations for Single Pilot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Reconsidering the function allocation between automation and the pilot in the flight deck is the next step in improving aviation safety. The current allocation, based on who does what best, makes poor use of the pilot's resources and abilities. In some cases it may actually handicap pilots from performing their role. Improving pilot performance first lies in defining the role of the pilot - why a human is needed in the first place. The next step is allocating functions based on the needs of that role (rather than fitness), then using automation to target specific human weaknesses in performing that role. Examples are provided (some of which could be implemented in conventional cockpits now). Along the way, the definition of human error and the idea that eliminating/automating the pilot will reduce instances of human error will be challenged.

  10. Synthetic Vision Systems in GA Cockpit-Evaluation of Basic Maneuvers Performed by Low Time GA Pilots During Transition from VMC to IMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takallu, M. A.; Wong, D. T.; Uenking, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of modern flight displays in general aviation cockpits for mitigating Low Visibility Loss of Control and the Controlled Flight Into Terrain accidents. A total of 18 General Aviation (GA) pilots with private pilot, single engine land rating, with no additional instrument training beyond private pilot license requirements, were recruited to evaluate three different display concepts in a fixed-based flight simulator at the NASA Langley Research Center's General Aviation Work Station. Evaluation pilots were asked to continue flight from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) into Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while performing a series of 4 basic precision maneuvers. During the experiment, relevant pilot/vehicle performance variables, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded. Human factors questionnaires and interviews were administered after each scenario. Qualitative and quantitative data have been analyzed and the results are presented here. Pilot performance deviations from the established target values (errors) were computed and compared with the FAA Practical Test Standards. Results of the quantitative data indicate that evaluation pilots committed substantially fewer errors when using the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays than when they were using conventional instruments. Results of the qualitative data indicate that evaluation pilots perceived themselves to have a much higher level of situation awareness while using the SVS display concept.

  11. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  12. Risky Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  13. Business Continuity Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT PLAN December 2014......maximum 200 words) Navy Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) lacks a business process framework for the development of Business Continuity Management

  14. Correlated Topics in a Scalable Multidimensional Text Cube: Algorithms and Aviation Safety Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Lin, Cindy X.; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Oza, Nikunj C.; Han, Jiawei

    2010-01-01

    As world-wide air traffic continues to grow even at a modest pace, the overall complexity of the system will increase significantly. This increased complexity can lead to a larger number of fatalities per year even if the extremely low fatality rate that we currently enjoy is maintained. One important source of information about the safety of the aviation system is in Aviation Safety Text Reports which are written by members of the flight crew, air traffic controllers, and other parties involved with the aviation system. These anonymized narrative reports contain fixed-field contextual information about the flight but also contain free-form narratives that describe, in the author s own words, the nature of the safety incident and, in many cases, the contributing factors that led to the safety incident. Several thousand such reports are filed each month, each of which is read and analyzed by highly trained experts. However, it is possible that there are emerging safety issues due to the fact that they may be reported very infrequently and in different contexts with different descriptions. The goal of this research paper is to develop correlated topic models which uncover correlations in the subspaces defined by the intersection of numerous fixed fields and discovered correlated topics. This task requires the discovery of latent topics in the text reports and the creation of a topic cube. Furthermore, because the number of potential cells in the topic cube is very large, we discuss novel methods of pruning the search space in the topic cells, thereby making the analysis feasible. We demonstrate the new algorithms on an analysis of pilot fatigue and its contributing factors, as well as the safety incidents that are correlated with this phenomenon.

  15. Leisure pilot license proposed for Europe: do you want such pilots crossing your flight path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ries; Maher, Declan; Stüben, Uwe; Herbert, Kevin C

    2009-07-01

    In a Notice of Proposed Amendment, the European Aviation Safety Agency proposes to introduce a Leisure Pilot License (LPL). Holders of a LPL for airplanes will be allowed to fly single-engine piston airplanes with a maximum takeoff mass of 2000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of three passengers. In this commentary paper, we express significant concern about the flight safety consequences of the proposed aeromedical requirements of the LPL. We argue that the proposed minimum age, validity period of the medical certificate, and issuance of certificates by general practitioners may increase the flight safety risk. Major revision of the proposed LPL regulation is recommended.

  16. Involving business users in business rules lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Thorževskij, Sašo

    2010-01-01

    Organizations operate in dynamic environments, which require continuous modifications of business policies. The latter also implies changes in business informatics, the basis for effective and prosperous operation. To answer to the constant need for modifications and adaptations, a new approach to information systems design and implementation has been developed, based on separating business rules from the rest of the information system. In such solutions, business rule execution is entrusted ...

  17. Business-to-Business -markkinointistrategia sosiaalisessa mediassa

    OpenAIRE

    Kähärä, Karri

    2011-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö keskittyy markkinointistrategian kehittämiseen business-to-business -yritykselle sosiaalisissa medioissa tapahtuvaa markkinointia varten. Opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan sosiaalisia medioita ja markkinointistrategian luomista eri kirjallisuus- ja verkkolähteiden avulla. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää sosiaalisten medioiden mahdollisuuksia business-to-business -markkinointia harjoittavalle yritykselle ja kehittää konkreettinen markkinointi-suunnitelma sosiaalisissa medi...

  18. BRANDING IN SMALL BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.

  19. Secure Network-Centric Aviation Communication (SNAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul H.; Muha, Mark A.; Sheehe, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    The existing National Airspace System (NAS) communications capabilities are largely unsecured, are not designed for efficient use of spectrum and collectively are not capable of servicing the future needs of the NAS with the inclusion of new operators in Unmanned Aviation Systems (UAS) or On Demand Mobility (ODM). SNAC will provide a ubiquitous secure, network-based communications architecture that will provide new service capabilities and allow for the migration of current communications to SNAC over time. The necessary change in communication technologies to digital domains will allow for the adoption of security mechanisms, sharing of link technologies, large increase in spectrum utilization, new forms of resilience and redundancy and the possibly of spectrum reuse. SNAC consists of a long term open architectural approach with increasingly capable designs used to steer research and development and enable operating capabilities that run in parallel with current NAS systems.

  20. Urgent epidemic control mechanism for aviation networks

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin; Wang, Shengbin; Shi, Meixia; Jin, Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    In the current century, the highly developed transportation system can not only boost the economy, but also greatly accelerate the spreading of epidemics. While some epidemic diseases may infect quite a number of people ahead of our awareness, the health care resources such as vaccines and the medical staff are usually locally or even globally insufficient. In this research, with the network of major aviation routes as an example, we present a method to determine the optimal locations to allocate the medical service in order to minimize the impact of the infectious disease with limited resources. Specifically, we demonstrate that when the medical resources are insufficient, we should concentrate our efforts on the travelers with the objective of effectively controlling the spreading rate of the epidemic diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  2. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region

  3. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  4. School-Business Partnerships: Understanding Business Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgett, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    School-business partnerships have been shown to enhance educational experiences for students. There has, however, been limited research demonstrating the priorities and perspectives of for-profit business leaders on those partnerships. In order to address that gap, the researcher interviewed business leaders in two different areas of Texas. After…

  5. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  6. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  7. Interactive pinball business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune Klok

    2012-01-01

    Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...... with hypotheses and experiment with scenarios as a way of innovating their business models, and why this is so...... to offer. This paper compares 'tangible business models' in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play...

  8. Womens Business Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  9. Assessment of a Conceptual Flap System Intended for Enhanced General Aviation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2017-01-01

    A novel multielement trailing-edge flap system for light general aviation airplanes was conceived for enhanced safety during normal and emergency landings. The system is designed to significantly reduce stall speed, and thus approach speed, with the goal of reducing maneuveringflight accidents and enhancing pilot survivability in the event of an accident. The research objectives were to assess the aerodynamic performance characteristics of the system and to evaluate the extent to which it provided both increased lift and increased drag required for the low-speed landing goal. The flap system was applied to a model of a light general aviation, high-wing trainer and tested in the Langley 12- Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were obtained for several device deflection angles, and component combinations at a dynamic pressure of 4 pounds per square foot. The force and moment data supports the achievement of the desired increase in lift with substantially increased drag, all at relatively shallow angles of attack. The levels of lift and drag can be varied through device deflection angles and inboard/outboard differential deflections. As such, it appears that this flap system may provide an enabling technology to allow steep, controllable glide slopes for safe rapid descent to landing with reduced stall speed. However, a simple flat-plate lower surface spoiler (LSS) provided either similar or superior lift with little impact on pitch or drag as compared to the proposed system. Higher-fidelity studies are suggested prior to use of the proposed system.

  10. Cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelium of Brazilian aviators occupationally exposed to agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasi, L B; Costa, E O A; Silva, D M; Melo, C O A; de Almeida, J G; Vieira, T C; Silva Júnior, R L; Ribeiro, C L; da Silva, C C; da Cruz, A D

    2011-12-12

    The frequency of micronuclei in both buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes is extensively used as a biomarker of chromosomal damage and genome stability in human populations. We examined whether prolonged exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides leads to an increase in cytogenetic damage. The exposed group comprised 50 agricultural aviators, mainly from Central and Southeast regions of Brazil, who had inhaled agrochemicals for more than 10 years without personal protection equipment; the control group consisted of 17 men from the same regions, without indication of exposure to pesticides, There were three times higher frequencies of micronuclei (P agrochemicals used to combat pests in agriculture possess genotoxic effects in the oral mucosa of the agricultural pilots, as showed in this study.

  11. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  12. USDOT guidance for connected vehicle deployments : institutional and business models and financial sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This document provides guidance material in regards to Institutional and Business issues as well as Financial Sustainability for the CV Pilots Deployment Concept Development Phase. This material also provides part of the foundation for the Performanc...

  13. Improving Aviation Safety in Indonesia: How Many More Accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Aditya Nugraha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous and consecutive aircraft accidents combined with a consistent failure to meet international safety standards in Indonesia, namely from the International Civil Aviation Organization and the European Aviation Safety Agency have proven a nightmare for the country’s aviation safety reputation. There is an urgent need for bureaucracy reform, harmonization of legislation, and especially ensuring legal enforcement, to bring Indonesian aviation safety back to world standards. The Indonesian Aviation Law of 2009 was enacted to reform the situation in Indonesia. The law has become the ground for drafting legal framework under decrees of the Minister of Transportation, which have allowed the government to perform follow-up actions such as establishing a single air navigation service provider and guaranteeing the independency of the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee. A comparison with Thailand is made to enrich the perspective. Finally, foreign aviation entities have a role to assist states, in this case Indonesia, in improving its aviation safety, considering the global nature of air travel.

  14. Helicopter pilots' views of air traffic controller responsibilities: a mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; Nixon, Jim

    2018-02-21

    Controllers and pilots must work together to ensure safe and efficient helicopter flight within the London control zone. Subjective ratings of pilot perception of controller responsibility for five key flight tasks were obtained from thirty helicopter pilots. Three types of airspace were investigated. Results indicate that there is variation in pilot understanding of controller responsibility compared to the formal regulations that define controller responsibility. Significant differences in the perception of controller responsibility were found for the task of aircraft separation in class D airspace and along helicopter routes. Analysis of the patterns of response suggests that task type rather than the airspace type may be the key factor. Results are framed using the concept of a shared mental model. This research demonstrates that pilots flying in complex London airspace have an expectation of controller responsibility for certain flight tasks, in certain airspace types that is not supported by aviation regulation. Practitioner Summary: The responsibility for tasks during flight varies according to the flight rules used and airspace type. Helicopter pilots may attribute responsibility to controllers for tasks when controllers have no responsibility as defined by regulation. This variation between pilot perceptions of controller responsibility could affect safety within the London control zone.

  15. Flight physiology training experiences and perspectives: survey of 117 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Luís; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Ribeiro, João

    2013-06-01

    Human factors and awareness of flight physiology play a crucial role in flight safety. Even so, international legislation is vague relative to training requirements in hypoxia and altitude physiology. Based on a previously developed survey, an adapted questionnaire was formulated and released online for Portuguese pilots. Specific questions regarding the need for pilot attention monitoring systems were added to the original survey. There were 117 pilots, 2 of whom were women, who completed the survey. Most of the pilots had a light aviation license and flew in unpressurized cabins at a maximum ceiling of 10,000 ft (3048 m). The majority of the respondents never experienced hypoxic symptoms. In general, most of the individuals agreed with the importance of an introductory hypoxia course without altitude chamber training (ACT) for all pilot populations, and with a pilot monitoring system in order to increase flight safety. Generally, most of the pilots felt that hypoxia education and training for unpressurized aircraft is not extensive enough. However, almost all the respondents were willing to use a flight physiology monitoring system in order to improve flight safety.

  16. Social Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of social business is growing rapidly and attracting increased attention from many sectors. The term itself shows up frequently in the media, is referenced by public officials, have become common on universities. The reasons behind the popularity of social entrepreneurship are many. On the most basic level, there’s something inherently interesting and appealing about entrepreneurs and the stories of why and how they do what they do. The interest in social entrepreneurship transcends the phenomenon of popularity and fascination with people. Social entrepreneurship signals the imperative to drive social change, and it is that potential payoff, with its lasting, transformational benefit to society, that sets the field and its practitioners apart. Although the potential benefits offered by social entrepreneurship are clear to many of those promoting and funding these activities, the actual definition of what social entrepreneurs do to produce this order of magnitude return is less clear. In fact, we would argue that the definition of social entrepreneurship today is anything but clear. As a result, social entrepreneurship has become so inclusive that it now has an immense tent into which all manner of socially beneficial activities fit. In some respects this inclusiveness could be a good thing. If we can achieve a rigorous definition, then those who support social entrepreneurship can focus their resources on building and strengthening a concrete and identifiable field. Absent that discipline, proponents of social entrepreneurship run the risk of giving the skeptics an ever-expanding target to shoot at, and the cynics even more reason to discount social innovation and those who drive it.

  17. Deliverable 1.2.1 Market Analysis and Business Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2009-01-01

    Deliverable 1.2.1 - Market Analysis and Business Plan The main objective of this deliverable is to provide a short overview of 4 communities involved in the pilots, envisaged type of solutions and architectures to be deployed (chapter 2) and market analysis at regional level (chapter 3......) with related business cases. The Market analysis will provide an overview of market requirements, current status and opportunities for the pilot service that will be provided in the context of ISISEMD. This will be realised by performing detailed studies on various sources. Proposals for business modelling...... and business cases (chapter 4) will rely on the concept of value chains. Value chains typically consist of several providers, which together produce a complex product or service....

  18. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Olsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO, and hydrocarbons (HC impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution

  19. Pilot training: What can surgeons learn from it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Kai-Jörg

    2014-03-01

    To provide healthcare professionals with an insight into training in aviation and its possible transfer into surgery. From research online and into company archives, relevant publications and information were identified. Current airline pilot training consists of two categories, basic training and type-rating. Training methods comprise classroom instruction, computer-based training and practical training, in either the aircraft or a flight-training device, which ranges from a fixed-base flight-training device to a full flight simulator. Pilot training not only includes technical and procedural instruction, but also training in non-technical skills like crisis management, decision-making, leadership and communication. Training syllabuses, training devices and instructors are internationally standardized and these standards are legally binding. Re-qualification and recurrent training are mandatory at all stages of a pilot's and instructor's career. Surgeons and pilots have much in common, i.e., they work in a 'real-time' three-dimensional environment under high physiological and psychological stress, operating expensive equipment, and the ultimate cost for error is measured in human lives. However, their training differs considerably. Transferring these well-tried aviation methods into healthcare will make surgical training more efficient, more effective and ultimately safer.

  20. BUSINESS ETHICS STANDARDS AND HOTEL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By implementing certain standards in business, especially the standards of business ethics, each entity in the hotel industry emphasize its specificity and recognition, while giving a guestconsumer security and a guarantee that they will get desired quality. In today's global world, business ethics has become an indispensable part of the hotel business practices and prerequisite for achieving business success. Business ethics receives strategic significance because it creates a system of governance based on ethical principles that enables the hotel to properly respond to the demands of all interest groups. Successful will be precisely those hotels that do not separate ethics from profitability, but those that successfully coordinate them in its business. Business ethics has a strong impact on hotel business, and a major role in its implementation has a hotel management. Every responsible hotel management should, in accordance with the business philosophy of hotel, devise various ethical practices and ethical codes of conduct prescribed by the employees who will be an important standard of a business object.