... Deductions for Entertainment Use of Business Aircraft AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury... business aircraft for entertainment. These final regulations affect taxpayers that deduct expenses for... section 274 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) of deductions for the use of business aircraft for...
This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.
... structure of the global industry, including supply chain relationships and foreign direct investment; 2. An... competitiveness of the business jet aircraft industry in the United States, Brazil, Canada, Europe, and China. To...
Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf
The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.
New methodologies have been developed to optimize the integration, testing and certification of flight control systems, an expensive process in the aerospace industry. This thesis investigates the stability of the Cessna Citation X aircraft without control, and then optimizes two different flight controllers from design to validation. The aircraft's model was obtained from the data provided by the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator (RAFS) of the Cessna Citation business aircraft. To increase the stability and control of aircraft systems, optimizations of two different flight control designs were performed: 1) the Linear Quadratic Regulation and the Proportional Integral controllers were optimized using the Differential Evolution algorithm and the level 1 handling qualities as the objective function. The results were validated for the linear and nonlinear aircraft models, and some of the clearance criteria were investigated; and 2) the Hinfinity control method was applied on the stability and control augmentation systems. To minimize the time required for flight control design and its validation, an optimization of the controllers design was performed using the Differential Evolution (DE), and the Genetic algorithms (GA). The DE algorithm proved to be more efficient than the GA. New tools for visualization of the linear validation process were also developed to reduce the time required for the flight controller assessment. Matlab software was used to validate the different optimization algorithms' results. Research platforms of the aircraft's linear and nonlinear models were developed, and compared with the results of flight tests performed on the Research Aircraft Flight Simulator. Some of the clearance criteria of the optimized H-infinity flight controller were evaluated, including its linear stability, eigenvalues, and handling qualities criteria. Nonlinear simulations of the maneuvers criteria were also investigated during this research to assess the Cessna
New Methodology for Optimal Flight Control using Differential Evolution Algorithms applied on the Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft – Part 2. Validation on Aircraft Research Flight Level D Simulator
Full Text Available In this paper the Cessna Citation X clearance criteria were evaluated for a new Flight Controller. The Flight Control Law were optimized and designed for the Cessna Citation X flight envelope by combining the Deferential Evolution algorithm, the Linear Quadratic Regulator method, and the Proportional Integral controller during a previous research presented in part 1. The optimal controllers were used to reach satisfactory aircraft’s dynamic and safe flight operations with respect to the augmentation systems’ handling qualities, and design requirements. Furthermore the number of controllers used to control the aircraft in its flight envelope was optimized using the Linear Fractional Representations features. To validate the controller over the whole aircraft flight envelope, the linear stability, eigenvalue, and handling qualities criteria in addition of the nonlinear analysis criteria were investigated during this research to assess the business aircraft for flight control clearance and certification. The optimized gains provide a very good stability margins as the eigenvalue analysis shows that the aircraft has a high stability, and a very good flying qualities of the linear aircraft models are ensured in its entire flight envelope, its robustness is demonstrated with respect to uncertainties due to its mass and center of gravity variations.
Riley, Donald R.; Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.
A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear simulation of a twin-pusher, turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration representative of the Cessna ATPTB (Advanced turboprop test bed) was developed for use in piloted studies with the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The math models developed are provided, simulation predictions are compared with with Cessna flight-test data for validation purposes, and results of a handling quality study during simulated ILS (instrument landing system) approaches and missed approaches are presented. Simulated flight trajectories, task performance measures, and pilot evaluations are presented for the ILS approach and missed-approach tasks conducted with the vehicle in the presence of moderate turbulence, varying horizontal winds and engine-out conditions. Six test subjects consisting of two research pilots, a Cessna test pilot, and three general aviation pilots participated in the study. This effort was undertaken in cooperation with the Cessna Aircraft Company.
... GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AREA, KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... business of the Federal Government or used in emergency rescue in accordance with the directions of the...
Bos, Marcel J. [Dept. of Gas Turbines and Structural Integrity, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks.
Bos, Marcel J.
An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks
The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.
Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.
This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory
Given this, and the 45 Sean Broderick , “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business...web.stanford.edu/~lanierb/research/Dynamic_Aircraft_RES.pdf. Broderick , Sean. “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business.” Inside MRO, MRO
aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national
The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a business...
NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs, as well as a number of Agency innovations, have helped Duluth, Minnesota-based Cirrus Design Corporation become one of the world's leading manufacturers of general aviation aircraft. SBIRs with Langley Research Center provided the company with cost-effective composite airframe manufacturing methods, while crashworthiness testing at the Center increased the safety of its airplanes. Other NASA-derived technologies on Cirrus SR20 and SR22 aircraft include synthetic vision systems that help pilots navigate and full-plane parachutes that have saved the lives of more than 30 Cirrus pilots and passengers to date. Today, the SR22 is the world's top-selling Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-certified single-engine airplane.
Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)
An analysis was conducted to examine the market viability of small aircraft as a transportation mode in competition with automobile and scheduled commercial air travel by estimating the pool of users that would potentially switch to on-demand air travel due to cost/time savings. The basis for the analysis model was the Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool (IATSET) which was developed under contract to NASA by the Logistics Management Institute. IATSET is a macroeconomic model that predicts at a National level the mode choice between automobile, scheduled air, and on-demand air travel based on the value of a travelers time and monetary cost of the trip. A number of modifications are detailed to the original IATSET to better model the changing small aircraft environment. The potential trip market was modeled for the Eclipse 500 operated as a corporate jet and as an air taxi for the business travel market. The Cirrus 20R and a $80K single engine piston aircraft (based on automobile manufacturing technology) are evaluated in the pleasure and personal business travel market.
... Washington, DC, on March 28, 2013. Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group... Introductions Review Meeting Agenda Review/Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update... for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards Other Business Adjourn...
Business aircraft are utilized by all types of people : and companies, from individuals who often fly rented, : single-engine, piston-powered airplanes, to sales : or management teams from the largest multinational : corporations, many of which own f...
Claire Starry; Gerald W Bernstein
The use of private air travel for business trips has expanded rapidly over the past few decades. We estimate that the number of U.S. domestic passenger trips per year on business aircraft exceeded 17 million in 2007, or a number equal to about 40 percent of combined domestic first-class, business-class, and full-fare coach airline trips—travel options for which passengers also pay a premium for timeliness, comfort, or privacy. Once a company determines that it can benefit from private busines...
Gray, Obra L
.... As pilots and Naval Flight Officers evolve from Mission Commander to Commanding Officer, they must be equipped with the requisite business skill sets to engage the challenge of balancing aircraft...
Full Text Available Civil aircraft flight control clearance is a time consuming, thus an expensive process in the aerospace industry. This process has to be investigated and proved to be safe for thousands of combinations in terms of speeds, altitudes, gross weights, Xcg / weight configurations and angles of attack. Even in this case, a worst-case condition that could lead to a critical situation might be missed. To address this problem, models that are able to describe an aircraft’s dynamics by taking into account all uncertainties over a region within a flight envelope have been developed using Linear Fractional Representation. In order to investigate the Cessna Citation X aircraft Eigenvalue Stability envelope, the Linear Fractional Representation models are implemented using the speeds and the altitudes as varying parameters. In this paper Part 2, the aircraft longitudinal eigenvalue stability is analyzed in a continuous range of flight envelope with varying parameter of True airspeed and altitude, instead of a single point, like classical methods. This is known as the aeroelastic stability envelope, required for civil aircraft certification as given by the Circular Advisory “Aeroelastic Stability Substantiation of Transport Category Airplanes AC No: 25.629-18”. In this new methodology the analysis is performed in time domain based on Lyapunov stability and solved by convex optimization algorithms by using the linear matrix inequalities to evaluate the eigenvalue stability, which is reduced to search for the negative eigenvalues in a region of flight envelope. It can also be used to study the stability of a system during an arbitrary motion from one point to another in the flight envelope. A whole aircraft analysis results’ for its entire envelope are presented in the form of graphs, thus offering good readability, and making them easily exploitable.
Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.
Full Text Available Aviation authorities are seeking optimization methods to better use the available infrastructure and better manage aircraft movements. This paper deals with the realtime scheduling of take-off and landing aircraft at a busy terminal control area and with the optimization of aircraft trajectories during the landing procedures. The first problem aims to reduce the propagation of delays, while the second problem aims to either minimize the travel time or reduce the fuel consumption. Both problems are particularly complex, since the first one is NP-hard while the second one is nonlinear and a combined solution needs to be computed in a short-time during operations. This paper proposes a framework for the lexicographic optimization of the two problems. Computational experiments are performed for the Milano Malpensa airport and show the existing gaps between the performance indicators of the two problems when different lexicographic optimization approaches are considered.
Full Text Available The aim of “Robustness Analysis” is to assess aircraft stability in the presence of all admissible uncertainties. Models that are able to describe the aircraft dynamics by taking into account all uncertainties over a region inside the flight envelope have therefore been developed, using Linear Fractional Representation (LFR. In this paper Part 1 a friendly Graphical User Interface is developed to facilitate the generation of Linear Fractional Representation uncertainty models for the Cessna Citation X aircraft using 12 weight and Xcg configurations; thus, 26 regions of the flight envelope are developed for different Weight/ Xcg configurations to study the aircraft’s longitudinal motion. In the aim to analyzed the robustness stability of Cessna Citation X in Part 2 using the Graphical User Interface developed in the Clearance Of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization (COFCLUO project. This project aimed to boost the aircraft safety using computer computation.
Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents
D, Rhea P. Liem Ph.
Apart from the commercial and military aviation sectors, the general aviation (GA) sector is expected to experience a rapid growth, especially in Asia. The increasing economic activities in the region would demand for more efficient and convenient transportation, which would open door to more GA services. This development would require sufficient infrastructure supports, including airports. However, insufficient land area has often imposed limitations in airport development. As such, some areas (e.g., remote islands) are not easily accessible by air. One implication is that travels can only be done via land or water, which might prolong the travel time. This applies to business travels, with the significant increase in business and economic activities, which in turns demands for more efficient and faster mobility. In other cases, this involves some rural areas where the infrastructures are not very well-developed, and where the geographical terrains are too challenging to build a pad for vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) air vehicles. Under such circumstances, it would be imperative to enable air travels to carry critical logistics such as medical supplies, food, and even sick patients. In this regard, we propose to develop a low-payload, low-altitude amphibious aircraft, which can takeoff and land on both water and land. Aircraft design process is a complex procedure and multidisciplinary in nature, and for amphibious aircraft design we need to consider the two takeoff and landing modes, which imposes further challenges to the design. In this paper we present two preliminary design projects, for two-seater and ten-seater aircraft. To design an efficient and quiet amphibious aircraft, we conduct some experiments on noise shielding mechanisms to reduce the propeller noise. The challenges and resulting designs are briefly discussed in this paper. Amphibious aircraft development will be very relevant to Indonesia, which is the world’s largest archipelago with
Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe [National Environmental Research Institute, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Oxboel, Arne [FORCE Technology, Park Alle 345, 2605 Broendby (Denmark)
In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. (author)
Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne
In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.
Non-proprietary proposal abstracts of Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects supported by NASA are presented. Projects in the fields of aeronautical propulsion, aerodynamics, acoustics, aircraft systems, materials and structures, teleoperators and robots, computer sciences, information systems, data processing, spacecraft propulsion, bioastronautics, satellite communication, and space processing are covered.
Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts
Beyer, T. B.; Powell, C. A.; Daniels, E. F.; Pope, L. D.
In-flight noise level measurements were made within two cabin configurations of a general aviation business aircraft. The Fairchild Merlin IVC twin-engine aircraft was tested with bare walls and fiberglass insulation and in an executive trim configuration. Narrow-band and octave format data were subjected to analyses which permitted identification of the blade passage harmonics (BPH). Cabin noise level reductions (insertion losses) due to added insulation varied with position in the cabin, the BPH number, cabin pressure, and engine torque. The measurements were closely predicted using the propeller aircraft interior noise (PAIN) mode.
Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S
Bagshaw (2004) notes "the modern commercial aircraft cabin is maintained with adequate environmental control for the comfort of most healthy individuals" (p. 417). Occupational health nurses frequently deal with a population that may include unhealthy individuals or those with pre-existing conditions. It is critical for occupational health nurses to stay current with major hazards faced by frequent flyer business travelers to assist in identifying and preventing adverse health effects associated with these exposures.
Revell, J. D.; Balena, F. J.; Koval, L. R.
The acoustical treatment mass penalties required to achieve an interior noise level of 80 dBA for high speed, fuel efficient propfan-powered aircraft are determined. The prediction method used is based on theory developed for the outer shell dynamics, and a modified approach for add-on noise control element performance. The present synthesis of these methods is supported by experimental data. Three different sized aircraft are studied, including a widebody, a narrowbody and a business sized aircraft. Noise control penalties are calculated for each aircraft for two kinds of noise control designs: add-on designs, where the outer wall structure cannot be changed, and advanced designs where the outer wall stiffness level and the materials usage can be altered. For the add-on designs, the mass penalties range from 1.7 to 2.4 percent of the takeoff gross weight (TOGW) of the various aircraft, similar to preliminary estimates. Results for advanced designs show significant reductions of the mass penalties. For the advanced aluminum designs the penalties are 1.5% of TOGW, and for an all composite aircraft the penalties range from 0.74 to 1.4% of TOGW.
G. Y. Richardson
Full Text Available High-velocity (183 m/sec sand erosion tests in a wind tunnel were conducted to evaluate developmental coatings from three separate companies under funding by the Navy's phase I small business innovative research program. The purpose of the coatings was to address a particular problem the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft (Osprey was having with regard to ingestion of sand particles by a titanium impeller that was associated with the aircraft's environmental control system. The three coatings that were deposited on titanium substrates and erosion-tested included (1 SixCy/DLC multilayers deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD; (2 WC/TaC/TiC processed by electrospark deposition; and (3 polymer ceramic mixtures applied by means of an aqueous synthesis. The erosion test results are presented; they provided the basis for assessing the suitability of some of these coatings for the intended application.
Liu, Yang; Hu, Hui [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, 2271 Howe Hall, Room 1200, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, Wen-Li [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, 2271 Howe Hall, Room 1200, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Bond, Leonard J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, 2271 Howe Hall, Room 1200, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, 1915 Scholl Road, 151 ASC II, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)
Aircraft operating in some cold weather conditions face the risk of icing. Icing poses a threat to flight safety and its management is expensive. Removing light frost on a clear day from a medium-size business jet can cost $300, heavy wet snow removal can cost $3,000 and removal of accumulated frozen/freezing rain can cost close to $10,000. Understanding conditions that lead to severe icing events is important and challenging. When an aircraft or rotorcraft flies in a cold climate, some of the super cooled droplets impinging on exposed aircraft surfaces may flow along the surface prior to freezing and give various forms and shapes of ice. The runback behavior of a water film on an aircraft affects the morphology of ice accretion and the rate of formation. In this study, we report the recent progress to develop an Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo (UPE) technique to provide real-time thickness distribution measurements of surface water flows driven by boundary layer airflows for aircraft icing studies. A series of initial experimental investigations are conducted in an ice wind tunnel employing an array of ultrasonic transducers placed underneath the surface of a flat plate. The water runback behavior on the plate is evaluated by measuring the thickness profile variation of the water film along the surface by using the UPE technique under various wind speed and flow rate conditions.
Non-proprietary summaries of Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects supported by NASA in the 1987 program year are given. Work in the areas of aeronautical propulsion, aerodynamics, acoustics, aircraft systems, materials and structures, teleoperators and robotics, computer sciences, information systems, spacecraft systems, spacecraft power supplies, spacecraft propulsion, bioastronautics, satellite communication, and space processing are covered.
Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio
The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...
Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio
The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents
Igor B. Ivenin
Full Text Available The research proposes a mathematical optimization approach of arriving aircraft traffic at the aerodrome zone. The airfield having two parallel runways, capable of operating independently of each other, is modeled. The incoming traffic of aircraft is described by a Poisson flow of random events. The arriving aircraft are distributed by the air traffic controller between two runways. There is one approach flight path for each runway. Both approach paths have a common starting point. Each approach path has a different length. The approach trajectories do not overlap. For each of the two approach procedures, the air traffic controller sets the average speed of the aircraft. The given model of airfield and airfield zone is considered as the two-channel system of mass service with refusals in service. Each of the two servicing units includes an approach trajectory, a glide path and a runway. The servicing unit can be in one of two states – free and busy. The probabilities of the states of the servicing units are described by the Kolmogorov system of differential equations. The number of refusals in service on the simulated time interval is used as criterion for assessment of mass service system quality of functioning. This quality of functioning criterion is described by an integral functional. The functions describing the distribution of aircraft flows between the runways, as well as the functions describing the average speed of the aircraft, are control parameters. The optimization problem consists in finding such values of the control parameters for which the value of the criterion functional is minimal. To solve the formulated optimization problem, the L.S. Pontryagin maximum principle is applied. The form of the Hamiltonian function and the conjugate system of differential equations is given. The structure of optimal control has been studied for two different cases of restrictions on the control of the distribution of incoming aircraft
Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.
Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)
Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.
Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.
Zehner, G.F.; Hudson, J.A.; Oudenhuijzen, A.
From 1997 through 2002, the Air Force Research Lab and TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Business Unit Human Factors) were involved in a series of tests to quantify the accuracy of five Human Modeling Systems (HMSs) in determining accommodation limits of ejection seat aircraft. The results of these
Simpson, Robert W.
This presentation outlines a concept for an adaptive, interactive decision support system to assist controllers at a busy airport in achieving efficient use of multiple runways. The concept is being implemented as a computer code called FASA (Final Approach Spacing for Aircraft), and will be tested and demonstrated in ATCSIM, a high fidelity simulation of terminal area airspace and airport surface operations. Objectives are: (1) to provide automated cues to assist controllers in the sequencing and spacing of landing and takeoff aircraft; (2) to provide the controller with a limited ability to modify the sequence and spacings between aircraft, and to insert takeoffs and missed approach aircraft in the landing flows; (3) to increase spacing accuracy using more complex and precise separation criteria while reducing controller workload; and (4) achieve higher operational takeoff and landing rates on multiple runways in poor visibility.
Kohlman, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.
The prospects for significantly increasing the fuel efficiency and mission capability of single engine business aircraft through the incorporation of advanced propulsion, aerodynamics and materials technologies are explored. It is found that turbine engines cannot match the fuel economy of the heavier rotary, diesel and advanced spark reciprocating engines. The rotary engine yields the lightest and smallest aircraft for a given mission requirement, and also offers greater simplicity and a multifuel capability. Great promise is also seen in the use of composite material primary structures in conjunction with laminar flow wing surfaces, a pusher propeller and conventional wing-tail configuration. This study was conducted with the General Aviation Synthesis Program, which can furnish the most accurate mission performance calculations yet obtained.
Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)
A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.
Vlachos, I.; Lin, Z.
This paper examines the key factors that determine business traveler loyalty toward full-service airlines in China. Based on literature review and panel interview, ten airline attributes under three categories were derived: (a) operational factors: safety, punctuality, and aircraft; (b) competitive factors: frequency of flights, schedule, frequent flyer program, ticket price, and reputation; and (c) attractive factors: in flight food & drinks and in flight staff service. We surveyed 2000 Chin...
Williams, L. J.
Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.
Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.
An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.
-, č. 39 ( 2017 ), s. 9-15 ISSN 2208-4541 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : business trips * Czechoslovakia * oral history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)
-, č. 39 (2017), s. 9-15 ISSN 2208-4541 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : business trips * Czechoslovakia * oral history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)
Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.
Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...
Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre
During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.
HASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62. The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom
...) of large commercial aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies...
Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek
A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.
Domack, C. S.; Martin, G. L.
Improvements in performance and fuel efficiency are evaluated for five new configurations of a six place, single turboprop, business airplane derived from a conventional, aluminum construction baseline aircraft. Results show the greatest performance gains for enhancements in natural laminar flow. A conceptual diesel engine provides greater fuel efficiency but reduced performance. Less significant effects are produced by the utilization of composite materials construction or by reconfiguration from tractor to pusher propeller installation.
Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.
This document describes the development of an improved predictive model for coannular jet noise, including noise suppression modifications applicable to small supersonic-cruise aircraft such as the Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ), for NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). For such aircraft a wide range of propulsion and integration options are under consideration. Thus there is a need for very versatile design tools, including a noise prediction model. The approach used is similar to that used with great success by the Modern Technologies Corporation (MTC) in developing a noise prediction model for two-dimensional mixer ejector (2DME) nozzles under the High Speed Research Program and in developing a more recent model for coannular nozzles over a wide range of conditions. If highly suppressed configurations are ultimately required, the 2DME model is expected to provide reasonable prediction for these smaller scales, although this has not been demonstrated. It is considered likely that more modest suppression approaches, such as dual stream nozzles featuring chevron or chute suppressors, perhaps in conjunction with inverted velocity profiles (IVP), will be sufficient for the SBJ.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate factors influencing acceptance and use of technologies in the field of aircraft maintenance authoring, graphics, and documentation. Maintenance engineering authors convert complex engineering used in aircraft production and transform that data using technology (tools) into usable technical publications data. While the current literature includes a large volume of research in technology acceptance in various domains of industry and business, the problem is that no such studies exist with respect to the aircraft maintenance engineering authoring, allowing any number of tools to be used and acceptance to be unsure. The study was based on theoretical approaches of the Technology Acceptance Model and the associated hypothesis related to eight research questions. A survey questionnaire was developed for data collection from a selected population of aircraft maintenance engineering authors. Data collected from 148 responses were exposed to a range of statistical methods and analyses. Analysis of data were performed within the structural equation model using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and a range of regression methods. The analyses generally provided results consistent with prior literature. Two survey questions yielded unexpected results contrary to similar studies. The relationship between prior experience and job level did not show a significant relationship with perceived usefulness or perceived ease of use. Other results included the significant relationship between Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use with Technology acceptance. Recommendations include understanding how Technology Acceptance can be improved for the industry and the need for further research not covered to refine recommendations for technology acceptance related to the aviation industry.
Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam; Cooper, Jon
A flight test of a business jet aircraft with various ice accretions was performed to obtain data to validate flight simulation models developed through wind tunnel tests. Three types of ice accretions were tested: pre-activation roughness, runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal wing ice protection system, and a wing ice protection system failure shape. The high fidelity flight simulation models of this business jet aircraft were validated using a software tool called "Overdrive." Through comparisons of flight-extracted aerodynamic forces and moments to simulation-predicted forces and moments, the simulation models were successfully validated. Only minor adjustments in the simulation database were required to obtain adequate match, signifying the process used to develop the simulation models was successful. The simulation models were implemented in the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) to enable company pilots to evaluate flight characteristics of the simulation models. By and large, the pilots confirmed good similarities in the flight characteristics when compared to the real airplane. However, pilots noted pitch up tendencies at stall with the flaps extended that were not representative of the airplane and identified some differences in pilot forces. The elevator hinge moment model and implementation of the control forces on the ICEFTD were identified as a driver in the pitch ups and control force issues, and will be an area for future work.
Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.
RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir
Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...
Xue, Hui; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M.
The paper presents the conceptual design of high-speed supersonic aircraft. The study focuses on SR-71 (Blackbird) aircraft. The input to the conceptual design is a mission profile. Mission profile is a flight profile of the aircraft defined by the customer. This paper gives the SR-71 aircraft mission profile specified by US air force. Mission profile helps in defining the attributes the aircraft such as wing profile, vertical tail configuration, propulsion system, etc. Wing profile and vertical tail configurations have direct impact on lift, drag, stability, performance and maneuverability of the aircraft. A propulsion system directly influences the performance of the aircraft. By combining the wing profile and the propulsion system, two important parameters, known as wing loading and thrust to weight ratio can be calculated. In this work, conceptual design procedure given by D. P. Raymer (AIAA Educational Series) is applied to calculate wing loading and thrust to weight ratio. The calculated values are compared against the actual values of the SR-71 aircraft. Results indicates that the values are in agreement with the trend of developments in aviation.
In the competitive global market place, aerospace companies are forced to deliver the right products to the right market, with the right cost, and at the right time. However, the rapid development of technologies and new business opportunities, such as mergers, acquisitions, supply chain management, etc., have dramatically increased the complexity of designing an aircraft. Therefore, the pressure to reduce design cycle time and cost is enormous. One way to solve such a dilemma is to develop and apply advanced engineering environments (AEEs), which are distributed collaborative virtual design environments linking researchers, technologists, designers, etc., together by incorporating application tools and advanced computational, communications, and networking facilities. Aircraft conceptual design, as the first design stage, provides major opportunity to compress design cycle time and is the cheapest place for making design changes. However, traditional aircraft conceptual design programs, which are monolithic programs, cannot provide satisfactory functionality to meet new design requirements due to the lack of domain flexibility and analysis scalability. Therefore, we are in need of the next generation aircraft conceptual design environment (NextADE). To build the NextADE, the framework and the data management problem are two major problems that need to be addressed at the forefront. Solving these two problems, particularly the data management problem, is the focus of this research. In this dissertation, in light of AEEs, a distributed object-oriented framework is firstly formulated and tested for the NextADE. In order to improve interoperability and simplify the integration of heterogeneous application tools, data management is one of the major problems that need to be tackled. To solve this problem, taking into account the characteristics of aircraft conceptual design data, a robust, extensible object-oriented data model is then proposed according to the
Bennett, Charles L.
A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.
Alexander A. Itskovich
Full Text Available The concept of the aviation enterprise as a unified system of processes and projects of the aircraft airworthiness maintenance (AAM is presented. The relevance of project management tools usage, including the transport branch, is noted; the examples of successful implementation of the development projects at domestic enterprises manufacturing aircraft engines are given. A scheme for the classification of the AAM projects and processes, reflecting their interrelationship, is proposed. The operational activity of the enterprise is a combination of its business processes. The company selects plans and implements the relevant projects for the business processes optimization. At the same time, the projects themselves are the objects of management based on standardized processes. The processes of project management and the main processes of the enterprise are also interrelated and can be objects included in the unified regulations of its units. Increasing the efficiency of operational processes and processes of the aviation enterprise management is the goal of development projects, which are divided into investment projects and organizational changes projects.Limitation of organizational and financial resources of the company requires the identification and systematization of all projects and processes, while the application of project management standards allows to analyze the opportunities and to determine the sequence of their implementation. The importance of accumulating experience of completed projects is shown; the results can become typical methods for planning, organizing the implementation and monitoring of AAM projects. Specific forms of the project management standards implementation for AN-124-100 constructive modification project in LLC Volga-Dnepr Airlines are demonstrated: the control events plan and the project team formation.
The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...
Full Text Available - unmanned aircraft; pilot training. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft offer flexibility not found in manned aircraft. They can be made smaller and cheaper to operate. They offer payload advantages relative to small manned aircraft. They can also perform... certificate to non-state users. To facilitate useful operations by UAs, future operations must be subject to no more than routine notification (e.g. an ATC flight plan), just like manned aircraft already are. Before such operations can be established, some...
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...
Monaghan, Kari L.
The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include
Gary, B. L. (Inventor)
A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude at which an aircraft should fly so the W/d ratio (weight of the aircraft divided by the density of air) more closely approaches the optimum W/d for the aircraft. A passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft is directed at different angles with respect to the horizon to determine the air temperature, and therefore the density of the air, at different altitudes. The weight of the aircraft is known. The altitude of the aircraft is changed to fly the aircraft at an altitude at which is W/d ratio more closely approaches the optimum W/d ratio for that aircraft.
Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica
It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated
Hoeppner, H.; Horvath, E.; Ulrich, S.
The invention concerns an aircraft tethered by cables, whose balloon-shaped central body produces static and aerodynamic upthrust and which carries turbines, which are used to convert wind energy and to drive the aircraft. The purpose of the invention is to provide an aircraft, which will keep wind energy plant at the optimum height. A new type of aircraft is used to solve the problem, which, according to the invention, combines static upthrust, the production of aerodynamic upthrust, wind energy conversion, energy transport and forward drive in a technically integrated aircraft. If the use of windpower is interrupted, then if necessary the drive together with a remote control system provides controlled free flight of the aircraft. One variant of the object of the invention consists of a central, balloon-shaped body for upthrust, in which there are wind turbines driving electrical generators. According to the invention the motors required to start the wind turbines are of such dimensions that they will drive the turbines in free flight of the aircraft and thus provide forward drive of the aircraft. A power generating unit, consisting of an internal combustion engine and the starter motors switched over to generator operation is used to provide house service supplies for control and regulation of the aircraft.
Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike
This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.
Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.
Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.
Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.
This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .
By implementing certain standards in business, especially the standards of business ethics, each entity in the hotel industry emphasize its specificity and recognition, while giving a guestconsumer security and a guarantee that they will get desired quality. In today's global world, business ethics has become an indispensable part of the hotel business practices and prerequisite for achieving business success. Business ethics receives strategic significance because ...
Full Text Available By implementing certain standards in business, especially the standards of business ethics, each entity in the hotel industry emphasize its specificity and recognition, while giving a guestconsumer security and a guarantee that they will get desired quality. In today's global world, business ethics has become an indispensable part of the hotel business practices and prerequisite for achieving business success. Business ethics receives strategic significance because it creates a system of governance based on ethical principles that enables the hotel to properly respond to the demands of all interest groups. Successful will be precisely those hotels that do not separate ethics from profitability, but those that successfully coordinate them in its business. Business ethics has a strong impact on hotel business, and a major role in its implementation has a hotel management. Every responsible hotel management should, in accordance with the business philosophy of hotel, devise various ethical practices and ethical codes of conduct prescribed by the employees who will be an important standard of a business object.
Opinnäytetyö käsittelee sosiaalisen median käyttöä business to business -markkinoinnissa. Sosiaalista mediaa tarkastellaan kirjallisuuden, verkkolähteiden ja kirjoittajan omien kokemuksien ja näkemyksien pohjalta. Sosiaalisen median soveltuvuutta business to business -markkinointiin käsitellään edellä mainittujen lähteiden lisäksi yrityshaastattelujen pohjalta. Tavoitteena on pohtia sosiaalinen median soveltuvuutta business to business -markkinointiin. Lisäksi tavoitteena on perustella sosiaa...
To improve efficiency, some large retailers, suppliers, and distributors have begun to conduct business-to-business commerce electronically. This practice could grow rapidly if the Internet becomes the primary low-cost network for such transactions. Before the Internet can fully support business-to-business commerce, however, companies must overcome several technological and security obstacles.
Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)
Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.
Natasha Georgieva Hadzi Krsteski
Full Text Available The business corruption is established and active in the circle of the businesses partners that express a gratitude, return a service or bribes (apart from ordinary price for a business transfer to be provided. Those prohibited transfers differs from the usual business transfers, such as activities related to marketing and public relations where they have a specific goal to use illegal means in order to infringe the recipients` identity of prohibited value in an interchange for a inducement. That is a procedure of enticement, which prevents the useful instruments in the permitted bazaar and not solitary that it is harmful for the businesses whose representatives accept bribe, however it is also harmful for the civilisation as an entire. The occurrence of business corruption is intended as a amount of companies that presented cash, a gratitude or a service in return, in adding to every usual deal of any person who is working for a business entity from the private sector in any capacity, including the one through a mediator, happening to at minimum single juncture in the past 12 months previous to this research. The usual commonness of the business-to-corruption in the Republic of Macedonia is 3% compared to 4% at a regional level. While it is fewer than the regular pervasiveness of salaried briberies by enterprises to civic bureaucrats, this discovery designates that bribery in the secluded segment is a difficult in the Republic of Macedonia.
.... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...
Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 18.104.22.168), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)
Meertens, Lucas Onno; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, Boris
Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model alternatives and choose the best one. In this article, we develop a business case method to objectively compare business models. It is an eight-step method, starting with business drivers and ending wit...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 49.11 Section 49.11... AIRCRAFT TITLES AND SECURITY DOCUMENTS General § 49.11 FAA Aircraft Registry. To be eligible for recording, a conveyance must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of Transportation, Post Office...
Full Text Available With projections indicating an increase in mobility over the next few decades and annual flight departures expected to rise to over 16 billion by 2050, there is a demand for the aviation industry and associated stakeholders to consider new forms of aircraft and technology. Customer requirements are recognized as a key driver in business. The airline is the principal customer for the aircraft manufacture. The passenger is, in turn, the airline's principal customer but they are just one of several stakeholders that include aviation authorities, airport operators, air-traffic control and security agencies. The passenger experience is a key differentiator used by airlines to attract and retain custom and the fuselage that defines the cabin envelope for the in-flight passenger experience and cabin design therefore receives significant attention for new aircraft, service updates and refurbishments. Decision making in design is crucial to arriving at viable and worthwhile cabin formats. Too little innovation will result in an aircraft manufacturer and airlines using its products falling behind its competitors. Too much may result in an over-extension with, for example, use of immature technologies that do not have the necessary reliability for a safety critical industry or sufficient value to justify the development effort. The multiple requirements associated with cabin design, can be viewed as an area for optimisation, accepting trade-offs between the various parameters. Good design, however, is often defined as developing a concept that resolves the contradictions and takes the solution towards a win-win scenario. Indeed our understanding and practice of design allows for behaviors that enhance design thinking through divergence and convergence, the use of abductive reasoning, experimentation and systems thinking. This paper explores and defines the challenges of designing the aircraft cabin of the future that will deliver on the multiple
Loeb, M.; Moran, S. V.
It has been suggested that expressions of annoyance attributable to aircraft noise may reflect in part fear of aircraft overflights and possible crashes. If this is true, then residents of areas where crashes have occurred should express more annoyance. To test this hypothesis, 50 residents of an Albany, New York area where an aircraft crash producing fatalities recently occurred and 50 residents of a comparable nearby area without such a history, were asked to respond to a 'Quality of Life Questionnaire.' Among the items were some designed to test annoyance by noise and fear of aircraft overflights. It was predicted that those in the crash area would express more fear and would more often identify aircraft as a noise source. These hypotheses were sustained. A near-replication was carried out in Louisville, Kentucky; results were much the same. Analyses indicated that for the crash-area groups, there was associating of aircraft fear and noise annoyance responses; this was true to an apparently lesser extent for non-crash groups. The greater annoyance of crash groups by aircraft community noise apparently does not carry over to situations in which aircraft noise is assessed in the laboratory.
Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.
In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.
Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.
The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.
...- Sport Aircraft; Modifications to Rules for Sport Pilots and Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating... rule; OMB approval of information collection. SUMMARY: This document announces the Office of Management... rule, ``Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft; Modifications...
Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas
The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.
Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.
The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the... that its value is less than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of... than the amount of the fine which may be imposed. If seizure of an aircraft for violation of section...
Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy
Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.
Berg, Frederick T N
An increasing emphasis on energy eciency in aircraft systems has in recentyears led to greater interest in integrated design and optimisation withinthe industry. New tools are needed to understand, compare and manage energyuse of an aircraft throughout its design and operation. This thesis describes a new methodology to meet this need: aircraft exergy mapping.The choice of exergy, a 2nd law metric, to describe the energy ows is fundamental to the methodology, providing numerous advantages ove...
Non-destructive testing (NDT) in the aircraft industry is used primarily to detect process defects in the manufacturing stage and failure defects in the in-service stage. Inspection techniques such as X- or gamma ray radiography are used for examination. Eddy current and ultrasonic are applied for examination, fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particles are applied for examination of aircraft and engine. With the wide scope of application, this paper discussed one type of NDT that is much used in aircraft being the latest technique in aircraft manufacturing. 1 fig
Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald
... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...
Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.
Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a
Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 22.214.171.124), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)
Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 126.96.36.199), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ...
Berc Radisic, Branka; Basan, Lorena
As a business system, an enterprise represents a complex, dynamic, stochastic, open and organisational system. Certain specific features of a hotel enterprise as a business system of project business result from the activity it performs and from project-based business and development management. As an enterprise based on project business, its distinguishing features include the interconnectedness of business subsystems and the overlapping a hotel enterprise’s business function.
Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.
Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin
The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.
Eline Haan; Martin Zoet; Koen Smit
Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.
Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)
Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.
Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.
The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references
Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole
as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...
McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.
The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.
Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.
The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.
Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta
Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum
The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an
Schmidt, R.; Heckhausen, H.; Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.; Lemons, G.W.
The Soft Shell-Hardcore approach to nuclear power plant auxiliary structure design was developed to attenuate the crash effects of impacting aircraft. This report is an initial investigation into defining the important structural features involved that would allow the Soft Shell-Hardcore design to successfully sustain the postulated aircraft impact. Also specified for purposes of this study are aircraft impact locations and the type and velocity of impacting aircraft. The purpose of this initial investigation is to determine the feasibility of the two 0.5 m thick walls of the Soft Shell with the simplest possible mathematical model
Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy; Stanislav Stanislavovich Daletskiy
The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is ...
Aircraft maintenance technician decision-making and actions have resulted in aircraft system errors causing aircraft incidents and accidents. Aircraft accident investigators and researchers examined the factors that influence aircraft maintenance technician errors and categorized the types of errors in an attempt to prevent similar occurrences. New aircraft technology introduced to improve aviation safety and efficiency incur failures that have no information contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft maintenance technicians must use only approved aircraft maintenance documents to repair, modify, and service aircraft. This qualitative research used a grounded theory approach to explore the decision-making processes and actions taken by aircraft maintenance technicians when confronted with an aircraft problem not contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. The target population for the research was Federal Aviation Administration licensed aircraft and power plant mechanics from across the United States. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to obtain aircraft maintenance technicians with the experience sought in the study problem. The sample population recruitment yielded 19 participants for eight focus group sessions to obtain opinions, perceptions, and experiences related to the study problem. All data collected was entered into the Atlas ti qualitative analysis software. The emergence of Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making themes regarding Aircraft Maintenance Manual content, Aircraft Maintenance Technician experience, and legal implications of not following Aircraft Maintenance Manuals surfaced. Conclusions from this study suggest Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making were influenced by experience, gaps in the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, reliance on others, realizing the impact of decisions concerning aircraft airworthiness, management pressures, and legal concerns
Antcliff, Kevin R.; Guynn, Mark D.; Marien, Ty V.; Wells, Douglas P.; Schneider, Steven J.; Tong, Michael T.
The purpose of this study was to explore advanced airframe and propulsion technologies for a small regional transport aircraft concept (approximately 50 passengers), with the goal of creating a conceptual design that delivers significant cost and performance advantages over current aircraft in that class. In turn, this could encourage airlines to open up new markets, reestablish service at smaller airports, and increase mobility and connectivity for all passengers. To meet these study goals, hybrid-electric propulsion was analyzed as the primary enabling technology. The advanced regional aircraft is analyzed with four levels of electrification, 0 percent electric with 100 percent conventional, 25 percent electric with 75 percent conventional, 50 percent electric with 50 percent conventional, and 75 percent electric with 25 percent conventional for comparison purposes. Engine models were developed to represent projected future turboprop engine performance with advanced technology and estimates of the engine weights and flowpath dimensions were developed. A low-order multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment was created that could capture the unique features of parallel hybrid-electric aircraft. It is determined that at the size and range of the advanced turboprop: The battery specific energy must be 750 watt-hours per kilogram or greater for the total energy to be less than for a conventional aircraft. A hybrid vehicle would likely not be economically feasible with a battery specific energy of 500 or 750 watt-hours per kilogram based on the higher gross weight, operating empty weight, and energy costs compared to a conventional turboprop. The battery specific energy would need to reach 1000 watt-hours per kilogram by 2030 to make the electrification of its propulsion an economically feasible option. A shorter range and/or an altered propulsion-airframe integration could provide more favorable results.
Los Alamos National Laboratory Search Site submit About Mission Business Newsroom Publications Los : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Business LANL 75th logo Business Los Alamos is a premier R&D laboratory seeking to do business with qualified companies offering value and
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of public meetings; request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business...
Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...
... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907...
Heikkila, J.; Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.
Business Model Innovation is attracting more and more attention from business as well as from academics. Business Model Innovation deals with both technological and knowledge related changes that either may disrupt or sustain existing product/market strategies. Timing of Business Model Innovation
Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.
The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate
Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.
We investigate whether there were common causes for the withdrawal from the regional aircraft market of three established manufacturers (BAE Systems, Fokker and Saab), while competitors thrived. We focus on the markets for 50- and 100-seat aircraft. One cause concerning the 50-seat market was the
Having examined the concepts of sustainable business and advantages and disadvantages of business sustainability management models, the objective of the dissertation is to formulate a management model of business transformation to sustainable business and to verify it in present business conditions in Lithuania. In the dissertation, the essence of the concepts of sustainable development and sustainability is characterized, the criteria of sustainable society are distinguished and the concept ...
Meertens, Lucas Onno; Starreveld, E.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, Boris
Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model
Tämä opinnäytetyö keskittyy markkinointistrategian kehittämiseen business-to-business -yritykselle sosiaalisissa medioissa tapahtuvaa markkinointia varten. Opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan sosiaalisia medioita ja markkinointistrategian luomista eri kirjallisuus- ja verkkolähteiden avulla. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää sosiaalisten medioiden mahdollisuuksia business-to-business -markkinointia harjoittavalle yritykselle ja kehittää konkreettinen markkinointi-suunnitelma sosiaalisissa medi...
Williams, L. J.
In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.
Foley, Ryan Patrick
so that the demand and airline operations evolve over time. The studies indicate that, despite an increased cost, improved equipage provides benefits to airline profits as long as equipped airports are available. Improved equipage also reduces fuel burn on a per-flight basis, but depending on the percentage of equipped aircraft in the fleet, the overall airline fuel burn may increase. Improved equipage does increase capacity at busy airports - such as Chicago O'Hare - allowing a greater number of aircraft to operate at the airport on any given day. A sensitivity study indicates that, in the FLEET model, airline profits are most sensitive to changes in the underlying demand for air travel, followed by the price of jet fuel. Equipage related factors, such as the number of equipped airports in the network or the cost of improved equipage, have a comparatively minor influence on airline profit. Of these secondary factors, the assumed decrease in trip or segment distance enabled by improved equipage systems has the greatest impact on profit. Ability to retrofit aircraft and entry-in-service date of equipped aircraft has the greatest impact on the number of equipped aircraft in the fleet.
Desirée Blankenburg Holm; Kent Eriksson; Jan Johanson
Cooperative relationships between firms can be better understood if they are examined in the context of a network of connected business relationships. Based on research on business relationships and business networks, this paper formulates a LISREL model that analyses cooperation in international business relationships between suppliers and customer firms. Theory suggests that cooperation can raise the value of business relationships, and that business network connections have an impact on co...
The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.
Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...
Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.
A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.
Steen, B.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Iacob, Maria Eugenia
In recent years, business process models are increasingly being used as a means for business process improvement. Business rules can be seen as requirements for business processes, in that they describe the constraints that must hold for business processes that implement these business rules.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...
Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict resolution by course maneuvering has been developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done
Full Text Available Future 4D aircraft trajectories demand comprehensive consideration of environmental, economic, and operational constraints, as well as reliable prediction of all aircraft-related processes. Mutual interdependencies between airports result in system-wide, far-reaching effects in the air traffic network (reactionary delays. To comply with airline/airport challenges over the day of operations, a change to an air-to-air perspective is necessary, with a specific focus on the aircraft ground operations as major driver for airline punctuality. Aircraft ground trajectories primarily consists of handling processes at the stand (deboarding, catering, fueling, cleaning, boarding, unloading, loading, which are defined as the aircraft turnaround. Turnaround processes are mainly controlled by ground handling, airport, or airline staff, except the aircraft boarding, which is driven by passengers’ experience and willingness/ability to follow the proposed boarding procedures. This paper provides an overview of the research done in the field of aircraft boarding and introduces a reliable, calibrated, and stochastic aircraft boarding model. The stochastic boarding model is implemented in a simulation environment to evaluate specific boarding scenarios using different boarding strategies and innovative technologies. Furthermore, the potential of a connected aircraft cabin as sensor network is emphasized, which could provide information on the current and future status of the boarding process.
Olayinka, Olakunle; Wynn, Martin G; Bechkoum, Kamal
Within the last decade, there has been a global increase in the use of e-business by both large and small companies. Today, it is generally acknowledged that e-business provides a range of opportunities for small businesses to operate and compete effectively; however, in developing countries such as Nigeria, there is very limited research on e-business adoption in the small business sector. This paper reviews existing literature on e-business adoption in developing countries, identifies key i...
"Mediating Business" is a study of the expansion of business journalism. Building on evidence from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, "Mediating Business" is a comparative and multidisciplinary study of one of the major transformations of the mass media and the realm of business - nationally...... and globally. The book explores the history of key innovations and innovators in the business press. It analyzes changes in the discourse of business journalism associated with the growth in business news and the development of new ways of framing business issues and events. Finally, it examines...... the organizational implications of the increased media visibility of business and, in particular, the development of corporate governance and media relations....
Popovič, Aleš; Turk, Tomaž; Jaklič, Jurij
With advances in the business intelligence area, there is an increasing interest for the introduction of business intelligence systems into organizations. Although the opinion about business intelligence and its creation of business value is generally accepted, economic justification of investments into business intelligence systems is not always clear. Measuring the business value of business intelligence in practice is often not carried out due to the lack of measurement methods and resourc...
The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...
Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.
School-business partnerships have been shown to enhance educational experiences for students. There has, however, been limited research demonstrating the priorities and perspectives of for-profit business leaders on those partnerships. In order to address that gap, the researcher interviewed business leaders in two different areas of Texas. After…
Full Text Available This paper discusses the definition of business rules using business vocabulary and semantics. At the beginning business rules, business vocabulary and semantics of business rules are specified. There is also outlined the current state of research on this topic. Then the definition and formalization of business rules using semantics and business vocabulary is described. Based on these proposed procedures was created a tool that implements and simulate these processes. The main advantage of this tool is “Business Rules Layer”, which implements business rules into the system but is separated from this system. Source code of the rules and the system are not mixed together. Finally, the results are evaluated and future development is suggested.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 47.19 Section 47.19... REGISTRATION General § 47.19 FAA Aircraft Registry. Each application, request, notification, or other communication sent to the FAA under this Part must be mailed to the FAA Aircraft Registry, Department of...
Ennis, Rachelle Lea
Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from
Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Cox, Geoff; Pold, Søren Bro
intersections between business and art become a crucial territory for re-invention and the rewriting of symbolic and cultural codes, generating political actions or social hacks that use a deep level of irony, but also unexpected consequences. The tactics demonstrate the permeability of systems — that these can...... this mean that well-meaning critical strategies of artists and activists are self-defeating? How do we develop disruptive business models that do not simply become new models for business that ultimately follow capitalist logic? We maintain there is nothing wrong with doing business as such.......DON’T HATE THE BUSINESS, BECOME THE BUSINESS The panel investigates some of the interconnections between art, activism and business. “Don’t hate the media, become the media”, was one of the slogans of Indymedia. We are applying this critical hands-on perspective to the business framework...
... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service, as...
Full Text Available Business English is commonly understood language, yet Harvard Business Review called business jargon “The Silent Killer of Big Companies”. As we all have been taught in school, we are aware of the fact that in communication we must comply with linguistic rules so that our message gets across succinctly. Yet, there is one place where all these rules can be omitted (at least in the recent decades: the corporate office. Here, one can use euphemisms and clichés, can capitalize any word that is considered important, the passive voice is used wherever possible and abbreviations occur in every sentence. The worst part is that all of these linguistic enormities are carried out deliberately. The purpose of this paper is to analyse to what extent business jargon and abbreviations have affected business communication (which most of the time, it is filled with opaque language to mask different activities and operations and the reasons for which these linguistic phenomena have become so successful in the present. One of the reasons for the research is that in business English, jargon can be annoying because it overcomplicates. It is frequently unnecessary and it can transform a simple idea or instruction into something very confusing. It is true that every field has its jargon. Education, journalism, law, politics, medicine, urban planning – no filed is immune. Yet, it seems that business jargon has been described as “the most annoying”. Another reason is that jargon tends to be elitist. Those who do not understand the terms feel confused and uncertain. The paper starts with defining these two concepts, business jargon and abbreviations, and then it attempts to explain the “unusual” pervasion of these, both in business communication and in everyday communication. For this, the paper includes a list with the most common business jargon and abbreviations. In this view, the authors have accessed different economic blogs and specialty journals
From a business process perspective, the business value of information technologies (IT) stems from how they improve or enable business processes. At the same time, in the field of strategic IT/business alignment, the locus of discussion has been how IT/business partnerships enhance the value of IT....... Despite this apparent relationship, the business process perspective has been absent from the IT/business alignment discussion. In this paper, we use the case of an industrial company to develop a model for understanding IT/business partnerships in business process terms. Based on our findings, we define...... these partnerships by allocating responsibilities between central IT and the local business during two stages of a process lifecycle: formation and standardization. The significance of the findings lies in how the model’s configuration leads to different types of IT units’ process centricity. This in turn affects...
Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao
In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....
Business-to-business (B2B) interactions concerned with the fulfilment of a given business function (e.g., order processing) requires business partners to exchange electronic business documents and to act on them. This activity can be viewed as the business partners taking part in the execution of a shared business process, where each partner is responsible for performing their part in the process. Naturally, business process executions at each partner must be coordinated at run-time to ensure that the partners are performing mutually consistent actions (e.g., the seller is not hipping a product when the corresponding order has been cancelled by the buyer). A number of factors combine to make the task of business process coordination surprisingly hard:
... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach...
The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)
Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.
The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.
EPA adopted emission standards and related provisions for aircraft gas turbine engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons. These engines are used primarily on commercial passenger and freight aircraft.
Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)
This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers. (author)
Meertens, Lucas Onno; Starreveld, Eelco; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, Boris
Intuitively, business cases and business models are closely connected. However, a thorough literature review revealed no research on the combination of them. Besides that, little is written on the evaluation of business models at all. This makes it difficult to compare different business model
... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and..., contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone: (772) 567-4361...
Gohardani, Amir S.; Doulgeris, Georgios; Singh, Riti
This paper highlights the role of distributed propulsion technology for future commercial aircraft. After an initial historical perspective on the conceptual aspects of distributed propulsion technology and a glimpse at numerous aircraft that have taken distributed propulsion technology to flight, the focal point of the review is shifted towards a potential role this technology may entail for future commercial aircraft. Technological limitations and challenges of this specific technology are also considered in combination with an all electric aircraft concept, as means of predicting the challenges associated with the design process of a next generation commercial aircraft.
... Vol. 76 Friday, No. 29 February 11, 2011 Part VII Small Business Administration 13 CFR Parts 121 and 124 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status... Regulations#0;#0; [[Page 8222
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.
Organizations operate in dynamic environments, which require continuous modifications of business policies. The latter also implies changes in business informatics, the basis for effective and prosperous operation. To answer to the constant need for modifications and adaptations, a new approach to information systems design and implementation has been developed, based on separating business rules from the rest of the information system. In such solutions, business rule execution is entrusted ...
Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.
Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.
Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the
Mikhalkina, T.; Cabantous, L.
Despite ample research on the topic of business model innovation, little is known about the cognitive processes whereby some innovative business models gain the status of iconic representations of particular types of firms. This study addresses the question: How do iconic business models emerge? In other words: How do innovative business models become prototypical exemplars for new categories of firms? We focus on the case of Airbnb, and analyze how six mainstream business media publications ...
Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.
Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.
AbstractThis thesis discuss how United Parcel Service (UPS) develop its aircraft maintenanceprogram after import of McDonnell Douglas MD-11aircraft and the process of exporting newMD-11 aircraft from manufacturer in USA to European operator as passenger aircraft. It alsodiscusses the process of importing the same types of aircraft as freight carrier. The aircraftundergo, through different modifications at Singapore Technologies Aerospace (STA)conversion from passenger to freight carrier, a pr...
Full Text Available The purpose of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN is to provide easily understandable graphical representation of business process. Thus BPMN is widely used and applied in various areas one of them being a business process simulation. This paper addresses some BPMN model based business process simulation problems. The paper formulate requirements for business process and resource models in enabling their use for business process simulation.
Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.
Murphy, James R.; Chinn, Fay; Monheim, Spencer; Otto, Neil; Kato, Kenji; Archdeacon, John
Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have developed an aircraft data streaming capability that can be used to visualize live aircraft in near real-time. During a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/NASA Airborne Collision Avoidance System flight series, test sorties between unmanned aircraft and manned intruder aircraft were shown in real-time at NASA Ames' FutureFlight Central tower facility as a virtual representation of the encounter. This capability leveraged existing live surveillance, video, and audio data streams distributed through a Live, Virtual, Constructive test environment, then depicted the encounter from the point of view of any aircraft in the system showing the proximity of the other aircraft. For the demonstration, position report data were sent to the ground from on-board sensors on the unmanned aircraft. The point of view can be change dynamically, allowing encounters from all angles to be observed. Visualizing the encounters in real-time provides a safe and effective method for observation of live flight testing and a strong alternative to travel to the remote test range.
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
environment but, in turn, is affected by it. Sustainability has until relatively recently been seen as irrelevant to business practice, but, today, environmental issues are increasingly becoming a key business concern at local, national, international and global levels (e.g. Worthington, 2013). Corporate......This paper argues that environment issues in general and energy transition in particular have become central issues in the twenty-first century. Environmental problems pervade all areas of daily life, including the world of business. Put simply, business activity not only affects the natural...... Sustainability Responsibility (CSR) is an important part of the “greening” of business (Worthington, 2013). But it is also used as “greenwashing”. Thus, CSR is an exemplar of the type of “wicked problem” that characterizes much of sustainability: It is a solution that poses as many threats and complications...
... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel... Modification Do not incorporate Cessna Aircraft Company Engine Fuel Return System Modification Kit MK 172-28-01...
Soule, V. A.; Badri-Nath, Y.
The results of a study of the use of composite materials in the wing of a tilt rotor aircraft are presented. An all-metal tilt rotor aircraft was first defined to provide a basis for comparing composite with metal structure. A configuration study was then done in which the wing of the metal aircraft was replaced with composite wings of varying chord and thickness ratio. The results of this study defined the design and performance benefits obtainable with composite materials. Based on these results the aircraft was resized with a composite wing to extend the weight savings to other parts of the aircraft. A wing design was then selected for detailed structural analysis. A development plan including costs and schedules to develop this wing and incorporate it into a proposed flight research tilt rotor vehicle has been devised.
The main purpose of this research is to formulate a preliminary business plan for a business consultancy which will operate between Finland and Turkey and be headquartered in Finland. The research focuses on practical information on entrepreneurship, business planning and business models as well as starting up a new business in Finland. During the theoretical framework, information is provided on entrepreneurship and business planning. Hoffren’s Dynamic Business Model and Osterwalder’s Bu...
Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala
Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.
Full Text Available Business intelligence systems are widely employed in industries. However, students concerns about Business Intelligence course are largely missed in the business education curriculum. To take a proper decision on Business intelligence integration in business education, it is important to understand students’ concerns. This study employed a survey questionnaire to investigate 142 graduate students concerns about integrating business intelligence into business education curriculum. The survey questionnaire was adopted from previous studies to measure students’ concerns on a Business Intelligence job opportunity, interest and relevance in the Business intelligence education. The survey items have a reliability scales of Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.818, factor loading > 0.5, and Average Variance Extracted (AVE ≥ 0.5, and Composite Reliability (CR ≥ 0.6. Descriptive statistics and Independent sample t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test were performed on the survey data. Students revealed that Business intelligence knowledge is relevant (mean = 4.29, SD = 0.710, has several job opportunities (mean = 4.16, SD = 0.675, and should be integrated into business education curriculum (mean = 3.95.08, SD = 0.79. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference (t (140 = –0.027, p > 0.05 between the concerns of students with Business Intelligence lecture experience and those without. Further, perceived importance and job opportunity significantly, F = 24.601 and p = .000(< .05 relates to the Business intelligence integration in Business Education. The findings draw implications for university management and business institutions in updating curriculum so as to equip business students with the essential Business Intelligence knowledge and skills for the betterment of the business organizations.
Kampf, Constance Elizabeth
Tensions between global corporations and digital artists who use business as an artistic and activist medium reveal rough edges in the interface between business and society. This interaction can be seen as a space where the interface between business and society is being challenged, with artists...... performing online art that raises awareness about hidden aspects of business practices. As digital artists place the spotlight on activities and business strategies that are not part of corporate plans for communicating their “transparency,” they also work to reconfigure and re(de)fine this interface. To set...... the scene for understanding digital activism, this chapter examines a partial history of digital artist activism focused on ®™ark and etoy, two artist collectives that were networked and cooperated on some projects in the late 1990s. The focus is on two projects and their impacts: Toywar and Vote...
GEAMBASU Gabriel George
Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.
Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.
Lund, Morten; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Nielsen, Louise Møller
” The term business model can be defined as a business concept that has been put into practice. The increase in dynamics in markets, technology, economies etc. challenge the requirements to make consistent and synchronized decisions on which business models to develop and implement. Complexity...... efficiently. This paper describes initial experiences of facilitating business model mapping or business model innovation by game-like setups.”...
Los Alamos National Laboratory Search Site submit About Mission Business Newsroom Publications Los : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Business Â» Short- and long-term opportunities Business opportunities Setting new standards and developing small business initiatives within NNSA
... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Aircraft Oversight Safety Forum which will begin at 9 a... ``Public Aircraft Oversight Forum: Ensuring Safety for Critical Missions'', are to (1) raise awareness of...
Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent
The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.
Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.
... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44...
Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...
Full Text Available In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL and health-related quality of life (HQoL were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.
For anyone who wants to communicate effectively in business, this is your complete reference guide for any form of written communication. Packed with over 500 sample documents, over 100 tips for better business writing and useful templates you can apply to your writing immediately, Model Business Letters will help you put the key rules of good business writing into action.
Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.
First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)
Dextern, H. B.
Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.
Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.
Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.
This document is intended to enable the more effective transition of NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) SBIR technologies funded by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program as well as its companion, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Primarily, it is intended to help NASA program and project managers find useful technologies that have undergone extensive research and development (RRD), through Phase II of the SBIR program; however, it can also assist non-NASA agencies and commercial companies in this process. aviation safety, unmanned aircraft, ground and flight test technique, low emissions, quiet performance, rotorcraft
The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.
Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.
Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those
Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.
A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.
Albers, James A.; Zuk, John
Report describes geography and transportation needs of Asian Pacific region, and describes aircraft configurations suitable for region and compares performances. Examines applications of high-speed rotorcraft, vertical/short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft, and short-takeoff-and landing (STOL) aircraft. Configurations benefit commerce, tourism, and development of resources.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and maritime safety. 538.519..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.519 Aircraft and maritime safety. Specific licenses may... aircraft, and to ensure the safety of ocean-going maritime traffic in international waters. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract (particularly...
Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.
Thirty-seven objectives and related test items for business law courses taught in grades 10 through 12 are organized into the following categories: (1) foundations of law; (2) law of contracts, property, and negotiable instruments; (3) business relations and business organizations; and (4) vocabulary. Each objective contains three elements: the…
Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul
Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…
Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.
Tomazic, W. A.
The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.
Lystbæk, Christian Tang
For the last decades, business ethics have spread from a new brand of a few socially and environmentally benevolent companies to the corporate mainstream. Thus, today, business ethics have become a central concern for both business managers and researchers in order to manage the cultural value base...... of the organization, stakeholder relations, etc.. Throughout the history of business ethics, though, and especially in the last decade, a series of studies have criticized the dominant view of business ethics for being instrumental and reductive. This critique often dismisses business ethics altogether. This paper...... addresses these “movements” or approaches to business ethics. It argues that business ethics is caught between two conceptions of what it is for. The first movement promotes the idea that it can be a reassuring and satisfying set of ideas that reminds us how to do the right thing in order to manage...
Heikkinen, A.-M. (Anne-Mari)
Abstract It is current phenomena that business environment has changed and has set new requirements for companies. Companies must adapt to the changes comes from outside its normal business environment and take into consideration wider business environment where it operates. These changes also have set new demands for company business model. Companies Business models need to be changed to match state of art business environ...
Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense
A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.
Lindgren, Peter; Abdullah, Maizura Ailin
Too many businesses are being marginalized by blind "business model innovations (BMIs)" and simple "BMIs". As documented in previous research (Markides 2008, Lindgren 2012), most businesses perform BMIs at a reactive level i.e. perceiving what the market, customers and network partners might want...... rather than what they actually demand. Few businesses have the ability to proactively lead BMIs and on a strategic level lead BMIs to something that fits the business’s long term perspective (Hamel 2011). Apple, Ryanair, Facebook, Zappo are some businesses that have shown BMI Leadership (BMIL......) in a proactive way - and more importantly, as some examples of first level BMIL. The overall aim of the BMIL is to prevent businesses from being marginalized by the BMI and thereby to optimize the business’s total BMI investment. The literature research and case research we studied gave us some important...
In contemporary economic science study of е-business becomes necessary and imperative in contemporary work. The purpose of the program is available in a clear and acceptable way to meet the needs, models, application and protection of electronic business. Here are the basic models of electronic commerce, electronic banking, e-business infrastructure and so on. Electronic business or short e-business aims to expand the powers of an organizational unit in the development of innovative inform...
Nicolosi, S.L.; Jordan, H.; Foti, D.; Mancuso, J.
Potential aircraft accidents involving facilities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) are evaluated to assess their safety significance. This study addresses the probability and facility penetrability of aircraft accidents at the Site. The types of aircraft (large, small, etc.) that may credibly impact the Site determine the types of facilities that may be breached. The methodology used in this analysis follows elements of the draft Department of Energy Standard ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'' (July 1995). Key elements used are: the four-factor frequency equation for aircraft accidents; the distance criteria for consideration of airports, airways, and jet routes; the consideration of different types of aircraft; and the Modified National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) formula for projectile penetration, perforation, and minimum resistant thickness. The potential aircraft accident frequency for each type of aircraft applicable to the Site is estimated using a four-factor formula described in the draft Standard. The accident frequency is the product of the annual number of operations, probability of an accident, probability density function, and area. The annual number of operations is developed from site-specific and state-wide data
Ruffles, P C
Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.
Schmitt, A [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.
Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.
Larsen, Jesper; Løve, Michael; Sørensen, Kim Riis
The Aircraft Recovery Problem (ARP) involves decisions concerning aircraft to flight assignments in situations where unforseen events have disrupted the existing flight schedule, e.g. bad weather causing flight delays. The aircraft recovery problem aims to recover these flight schedules through...... a series of reassignments of aircraft to flights, delaying of flights and cancellations of flights. This article demonstrates an effective method to solve ARP. A heuristic is implemented, which is able to generate feasible revised flight schedules of a good quality in less than 10 seconds. This article...
Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.
Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.
Full Text Available The Internet technology has brought major changes to the way business is conducted today. Many terms have been coined to represent the electronic concepts and applications such as e-Business and e-Commerce terms. These terms are commonly used to represent the new transformation of business processes and transactions. In Malaysia, e-Business adoption has not only captured the interest of large organizations but it has also been acknowledged and adopted by small, medium and micro sized enterprises. Implementing e-Business requires significant changes in the company’s structure, culture, strategy, procedures and responsibilities. However, the challenges never stop people from venturing into this new business concept. The aim of this study is to look into e-Business potential for micro sized businesses that operates from home. In this study both qualitative and quantitative method are used. This paper present a review of the literature pertaining to e-Business, home-based business, the qualitative study and the early findings from the study.
Mccarty, J. E.
The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.
Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.
for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Fighter aircraft systems and weapons designs are known to involve substantial capital investment . Due to possible budget constraints in the U.S. Navy, the...of fighter aircraft to analysts and decision-makers before they invest further resources into larger-scale, higher-resolution simulations for
The Pathfinder-Plus solar-powered aircraft is shown taking off from a runway, then flying at low altitude over the ocean. The vehicle, which looks like a flying ruler, operates at low airspeed. Among the missions proposed for a solar-powered aircraft are communications relay, atmospheric studies, pipeline monitoring and gas leak detection, environmental monitoring using thermal and radar images, and disaster relief and monitoring.
Bakalyar, John A.
This presentation provides a high-level overview of JSC aircraft and missions. The capabilities, including previous missions and support team, for the Super Guppy Transport (SGT) aircraft are highlighted.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....
agencies’ Offices of Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization, as well as officials from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , and other small business...being lower than anticipated by SBA. Officials from SBA, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council, the...certified as SDBs. Officials from SBA, two federal agencies’ Offices of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce , the
This thesis looks into the examination of polymer composite wreckage from the perspective of the aircraft accident investigator. It develops an understanding of the process of wreckage examination as well as identifying the potential for visual and macroscopic interpretation of polymer composite aircraft wreckage. The in-field examination of aircraft wreckage, and subsequent interpretations of material failures, can be a significant part of an aircraft accident investigation. ...
The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards
The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards.
Abbas, H.; Paul, D.K.; Godbole, P.N.; Nayak, G.C.
In this paper, analysis of an aircraft crash upon an outer containment of a nuclear power plant is presented. The effect of target yielding is considered simultaneously by calculating the reaction time in a time marching scheme. The concrete model employed is capable of predicting the cracking and yielding. The response for different cracking strains and different locations of aircraft strike for different aircraft has been studied. Critical location of aircraft strike for the containment has been investigated. The analytical procedure and the material model used are found to be capable of representing the aircraft impact response of the containment structure. (orig.)
Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.
The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.
McCool, Felix J.
This curriculum guide gives a brief review of the relation of business to the community and an introduction to problems in organizing a small business. These problems include basic long-range decisions: type of financing, need for the business, and method of financing. The document also focuses on the more immediate problems of location, housing,…
Dodgson, Mark; Gann, David; Phillips, Nelson; Massa, Lorenzo; Tucci, Christopher
The chapter offers a broad review of the literature at the nexus between Business Models and innovation studies, and examines the notion of Business Model Innovation in three different situations: Business Model Design in newly formed organizations, Business Model Reconfiguration in incumbent firms, and Business Model Innovation in the broad context of sustainability. Tools and perspectives to make sense of Business Models and support managers and entrepreneurs in dealing with Business Model ...
Technology flight vehicles were defined for three different approaches which demonstrate the concept and characteristics of the multipurpose aircraft established for Navy missions. The propulsion system used for the various technology flight vehicles was representative of that established for the multipurpose aircraft. Existing J97-GE100 gas generators were selected based on cost, availability and exhaust characteristics. The LF459 fans were also selected and are compatible with both technology and operational vehicles. To comply with the design guideline safety criteria, it was determined that three gas generators were required to provide engine out safety in the hover flight mode. The final propulsion system established for the technology aircraft was three existing J97 gas generators powering three LF459 fans. Different aircraft candidates were evaluated for application to the three designated design approaches. Each configuration was evaluated on the basis of (1) propulsion system integration, (2) modification required, (3) pilot's visibility, (4) payload volume, and (5) adaptability to compatible location of center-of-gravity/aerodynamic center and thrust center.
Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship between commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance. Data of commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance were collected from 100 participants through a questionnaire survey. The survey was conducted in 2015 in Croatian large and medium sized companies. The questionnaire for assessing commitment to business ethics contained nine different dimensions while the nonfinancial business performance contained three dimensions: client satisfaction, human resource management plus innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. Multiple regression methods were applied in the analysis. The empirical results of three multiple linear regression models show that certain dimension of commitment to business ethics had a positive influence on the nonfinancial performance of the companies. Motivation and rewarding policy for ethical behavior and responding to unethical behavior, as a dimension of commitment to business ethics, has distinctive effects on all three nonfinancial performance dimensions. It was also found that selecting suppliers based on the standards of ethics and compliance has a positive and strong influence on client satisfaction while using ethical criteria in the performance and efficiency evaluation of employees has a positive and significant influence on innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. This research leads to the conclusion that some dimensions of commitment to business ethics can be important predictors of nonfinancial business performance. Therefore, results of the research could be considered as valid motivation for further improvement of commitment to ethics in the business environment.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. [67 FR 8350, Feb. 22, 2002] ...
It is a common belief among managers that branding is only useful in Business-to-Consumer markets and not in Business-to-Business. These managers think that the Busi-ness-to-Business rational and unemotional buying decision-making process cannot be affected by brand because it is only concerned with features, price, quality and so on. This is incorrect information. The possibility to choose between competitors has grown during time and this has expanded the traditional view of branding. A tru...
Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.
Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.
Nelu BURCEA; Ion CROITORU
Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...
Grustam, Andrija S; Vrijhoef, Hubertus; Cordella, Antonio; Koymans, Ron; Severens, Johan L
For telemonitoring to support care coordination, a sound business model is conditional. The aim of this study is to explore the systemic and economic differences in care coordination via business-to-business and business-to-consumer models for telemonitoring patients with chronic diseases. We performed a literature search in order to design the business-to-business and business-to-consumer telemonitoring models, and to assess the design elements and themes by applying the activity system theory, and describe the transaction costs in each model. The design elements are content, structure, and governance, while the design themes are novelty, lock-in, complementarities, and efficiency. In the transaction cost analysis, we looked into all the elements of a transaction in both models. Care coordination in the business-to-business model is designed to be organized between the places of activity, rather than the participants in the activity. The design of the business-to-business model creates a firm lock-in but for a limited time. In the business-to-consumer model, the interdependencies are to be found between the persons in the care process and not between the places of care. The differences between the models were found in both the design elements and the design themes. Care coordination in the business-to-business and business-to-consumer models for telemonitoring chronic diseases differs in principle in terms of design elements and design themes. Based on the theoretical models, the transaction costs could potentially be lower in the business-to-consumer model than in the business-to-business, which could be a promoting economic principle for the implementation of telemonitoring.
Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.
This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.
Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of enterprise architecture management with a specific focus on the business aspects. While recent approaches to enterprise architecture management have dealt mainly with aspects of information technology, this book covers all areas of business architecture from business motivation and models to business execution. The book provides examples of how architectural thinking can be applied in these areas, thus combining different perspectives into a consistent whole. In-depth experiences from end-user organizations help readers to understand the abstract concepts of business architecture management and to form blueprints for their own professional approach. Business architecture professionals, researchers, and others working in the field of strategic business management will benefit from this comprehensive volume and its hands-on examples of successful business architecture management practices..
Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.
Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…
The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...
Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng
Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...
... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...
"Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...
Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.
The commercial aircraft manufacturing industry has been largely dominated by the advanced economies in North America and Western Europe. During recent decades, several emerging economies have invested heavily in the commercial aircraft industry, notably in regional aircraft manufacturing. This paper
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...
Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune Klok
Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...... with hypotheses and experiment with scenarios as a way of innovating their business models, and why this is so...... to offer. This paper compares 'tangible business models' in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play...
Christiansen, Christian O.
Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015.......Guest Post to the Society for U.S. Intellectual History Blog. Brief introduction to the book Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society, Oxford U.P., 2015....
Beryllium has been in use in aircraft brakes for ten years. During the original design phases of the several aircraft programs using beryllium a number of problems requiring solution confronted the designers. In actual service the solution to these problems performed much better than had been anticipated. A summary is presented. (author)
Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee
.... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...
Arunachalam, S.; Baek, B. H.; Vennam, P. L.; Woody, M. C.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F.; Fleming, G.
Commercial aircraft emit substantial amounts of pollutants during their complete activity cycle that ranges from landing-and-takeoff (LTO) at airports to cruising in upper elevations of the atmosphere, and affect both air quality and climate. Since these emissions are not uniformly emitted over the earth, and have substantial temporal and spatial variability, it is vital to accurately evaluate and quantify the relative impacts of aviation emissions on ambient air quality. Regional-scale air quality modeling applications do not routinely include these aircraft emissions from all cycles. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), a software system that dynamically models aircraft performance in space and time to calculate fuel burn and emissions from gate-to-gate for all commercial aviation activity from all airports globally. To process in-flight aircraft emissions and to provide a realistic representation of these for treatment in grid-based air quality models, we have developed an interface processor called AEDTproc that accurately distributes full-flight chorded emissions in time and space to create gridded, hourly model-ready emissions input data. Unlike the traditional emissions modeling approach of treating aviation emissions as ground-level sources or processing emissions only from the LTO cycles in regional-scale air quality studies, AEDTproc distributes chorded inventories of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles and cruise activities into a time-variant 3-D gridded structure. We will present results of processed 2006 global emissions from AEDT over a continental U.S. modeling domain to support a national-scale air quality assessment of the incremental impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality. This includes about 13.6 million flights within the U.S. out of 31.2 million flights globally. We will focus on assessing spatio-temporal variability of these commercial aircraft emissions, and
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 107 RIN 3245-AG57 Small Business Investment Companies--Investments in Passive Businesses AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... Investment Company (SBIC) program concerning investments in passive businesses. SBICs are generally...
This study discovers concept and principles to become new theories regarding educational business, study business theories with regard to educational business format, business planning, strategic management, marketing management, financial management and educational business ethics. Some educational business success in Indonesia has executed well by formal and informal organization in university level, study group and courses. This is implicative scientific development and educational busines...
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...
Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)
The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.
Pirrello, C. J.; Baker, A. H.; Stone, J. E.
A detailed analytical study was made to investigate the effects of fuselage cross section (circular and elliptical) and the structural arrangement (integral and nonintegral tanks) on aircraft performance. The vehicle was a 200 passenger, liquid hydrogen fueled Mach 6 transport designed to meet a range goal of 9.26 Mn (5000 NM). A variety of trade studies were conducted in the area of configuration arrangement, structural design, and active cooling design in order to maximize the performance of each of three point design aircraft: (1) circular wing-body with nonintegral tanks, (2) circular wing-body with integral tanks and (3) elliptical blended wing-body with integral tanks. Aircraft range and weight were used as the basis for comparison. The resulting design and performance characteristics show that the blended body integral tank aircraft weights the least and has the greatest range capability, however, producibility and maintainability factors favor nonintegral tank concepts.
Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.
The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)
Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.
Individual aircraft tracking data can be used by aircraft fleet managers to detect patterns in historical usage as a means to aid aging aircraft decision-making. This work tackles two aspects of applying these tracking data: investigating retirement patterns and assessing how base assignment can
... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...
George Cristian Calugaru
Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for an efficient control of the aircraft landing and attitude through Dynamic Matrix Control. The idea of MPC structures used in aircraft control has been well established during the last few years, but some aspects require further investigation. With this in mind, the paper proposes structures for aircraft landing and aircraft attitude control by using single DMC controllers for landing and respectively one DMC controller for each of the attitude axis (pitch attitude hold, bank angle hold and heading hold. The model used for analysis of the aircraft landing structure is based on the last phase of landing. Also, the model used to illustrate the attitude control is that of a pitch attitude hold system of a N250-100 aircraft. Simulations are performed for a variety of control and prediction horizons, taking into account the possibility of adding a weighting factor for the control actions. Apart from separate studies on step reference variations, for some use cases, a generic reference trajectory is provided as a control purpose of the system. Results show a better performance of the proposed method in terms of control surface transition and protection of the actuators involved and a better time response in stabilizing the aircraft attitude. Overall, the aspects shown ensure an improved aircraft attitude control and landing stabilization.
Exhaust emissions from aircraft include oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), water vapor (H 2 O), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particles (soot and sulfates). These emissions are small compared to industrial/urban surface emissions. However, because (1) atmospheric residence times of exhaust constituents are longer at altitude, particularly in the stratosphere, than they are in the boundary layer, (2) their background concentrations at altitude are lower than those near the surface, (3) the radiation balance is the more sensitive to atmospheric trace constituents the colder the temperature aloft and (4) inter-hemispheric mixing of aircraft effluents is inhibited, aircraft emissions near and above the tropopause and polewards of 40 degrees latitude can be environmentally critical. That's why atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions have again received scientific, economic and political scrutiny in the last few years, motivated by growth of subsonic traffic at about 5% per year over the past two decades and the advent of a technologically feasible operation of a supersonic high speed commercial transport (HSCT) fleet
In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results
Full Text Available During developing an information system is important to create clear models and choose suitable modeling languages. The article analyzes the SRML, SBVR, PRR, SWRL, OCL rules specifying language and UML, DFD, CPN, EPC and IDEF3 BPMN business process modeling language. The article presents business rules and business process modeling languages theoretical comparison. The article according to selected modeling aspects of the comparison between different business process modeling languages and business rules representation languages sets. Also, it is selected the best fit of language set for three layer framework for business rule based software modeling.
This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10 -6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further
Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J [and others
This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.
Jerman, Damjana; Završnik, Bruno
Much of the research into marketing communications has focused on the consumer market with little regard to date for the business-to-business market. This paper focuses on a development and testing of a model of marketing communication effectiveness in the business-to-business market. Building on past research from the marketing communications and business-to-business marketing literature, the model (which incorporates facets of the marketing communication objectives, bidirectional communicat...
An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...
... such treatment. Certain businesses, however, do not meet the definition of ``affected business,'' and... definition of ``affected business,'' and are not covered by today's notice. They consist of any business that... Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...
... claims for such treatment. Certain businesses, however, do not meet the definition of ``affected business.... Certain businesses, however, do not meet the definition of ``affected business,'' and are not covered by... Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...
... (2) Model 172S, S/N l72S11074 through 172S11193. (d) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...
... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of chafing of a new... flight, reinstall the fuel return line assembly (Cessna P/N 0516031-1) following Cessna Aircraft Company...
... Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB04-28-03, dated August 30, 2004, and Engine Fuel Return System... Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 2820, Aircraft Fuel Distribution System. (e) Unsafe Condition... Fuel Return System Modification Do not install Cessna Aircraft Company Service Bulletin SB 04- 28-03...
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...
... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models... throughout the AD for Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and...
Alberta Education, 2008
The Ministry of Education has identified one core business that is an ongoing key responsibility. It is called "Core Business One: Lead and Support the Education System So That All Students Are Successful at Learning." The core business includes three goals with specific outcomes that describe the end results the Ministry wants to…
Dorożyński, Tomasz; Urbaniak, Wojciech
Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...
Full Text Available Business model describes how a business identifies and creates value for customers and how it organizes itself to capture some of this value in a profitable manner. Previous studies of business models in creative industries have only recently identified the unresolved issues in this field of research. The main objective of this article is to analyse the structure and diversity of business models and to deduce how these components interact or change in the context of micro and small businesses in creative services such as advertising, architecture and design. The article uses a qualitative approach. Case studies and semi-structured, in-depth interviews with six owners/managers of micro businesses in Croatia provide rich data. Structural coding in data analysis has been performed manually. The qualitative analysis has indicative relevance for the assessment and comparison of business models, however, it provides insights into which components of business models seem to be consolidated and which seem to contribute to the diversity of business models in creative industries. The article contributes to the advancement of empirical evidence and conceptual constructs that might lead to more advanced methodological approaches and proposition of the core typologies or classifications of business models in creative industries. In addition, a more detailed mapping of different choices available in managing value creation, value capturing or value networking might be a valuable help for owners/managers who want to change or cross-fertilize their business models.
Žabkar, Vesna; Završnik, Bruno; Jerman, Damjana
The composition of communication mix and the integration of the different instruments vary with time and also depend on type of product market (consumer or business-to-business). This paper focuses on a development and testing of the model of marketing communication effectiveness in the business-to-business market. Building on past research from the marketing communications and business-to-business marketing literatures, the model (which incorporates concepts of the source of communication, c...
Maria Cristina Enache
Full Text Available A Social Business embraces networks of people to create business value. A Social Business connects people to expertise. It enable individuals – whether customers, partners or employees – to form networks to generate new sources of innovation, foster creativity, and establish greater reach and exposure to new business opportunities. It establishes a foundational level of trust across these business networks and, thus, a willingness to openly share information. It empowers these networks with the collaborative, gaming and analytical tools needed for members to engage each other and creatively solve business challenges. A Social business strives to remove unnecessary boundaries between experts inside the company and experts in the marketplace. It embraces the tools and leadership models that support capturing knowledge and insight from many sources, allowing it to quickly sense changes in customer mood, employee sentiment or process efficiencies. It utilizes analytics and social connections inside and outside the company to solve business problems and capture new business opportunities. A Social Business leverages these social networks to speed up business, gaining real time insight to make quicker and better decisions. It gets information to customers and partners in new ways -- faster. Supported by ubiquitous access on mobile devices and new ways of connecting and working together in the Cloud and on open platforms, a Social Business turns time and location from constraints into advantages. Business is free to occur when and where it delivers the greatest value, allowing the organization to adapt quickly to the changing marketplace. We believe the most effective approach to enabling a Social Business centers around helping people discover expertise, develop social networks and capitalize on relationships.
Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.
Hange, Craig E.
This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.
Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.
A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.
Clark, M A; Wagner, G N; Wright, D G; Ruehle, C J; McDonnell, E W
Deaths resulting from terrorism involving aircraft have occurred incident to hijackings as well as bombings. Passengers or groups of passengers have been chosen by terrorists as the recipients of violence based on citizenship, religion, and political beliefs. They have usually been segregated from other passengers and subsequently mistreated and/or murdered. Thorough documentation of the injuries of victims is essential to the investigation of such atrocities; a medicolegal autopsy correlated with a scene investigation is of paramount importance. Aircraft bombings can create extremely sensitive political situations and public demands for quick resolution. The autopsy of victims in such circumstances, if properly conducted, can yield invaluable trace evidence leading to the identification of the explosive device. The examination of any surviving victims as well as the aircraft is also critical in reconstructing the event. Deaths occurring as the result of in-flight aircraft bombings can produce injuries by five different mechanisms, viz. blast, shrapnel, decompression, impact with the aircraft, and ground impact.
...) Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code Fuel, 28...-1245; Directorate Identifier 2011-CE-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. The existing AD requires you to...
...-0756; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and PA-19 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...
Barkana, A.; Cook, G.
A mathematical model describing the generation of aircraft noise is developed with the ultimate purpose of reducing noise (noise-optimizing landing trajectories) in terminal areas. While the model is for a specific aircraft (Boeing 737), the methodology would be applicable to a wide variety of aircraft. The model is used to obtain a footprint on the ground inside of which the noise level is at or above 70 dB.
Foss, Nicolai J.; Saebi, Tina
While research on business models and business model innovation continue to exhibit growth, the field is still, even after more than two decades of research, characterized by a striking lack of cumulative theorizing and an opportunistic borrowing of more or less related ideas from neighbouring...
Full Text Available Business performance management (BPM is a key business initiative that enables companies to align strategic and operational objectives with business activities in order to fully manage performance through better informed decision making and action. Effec
Kromphardt, Benjamin D.
Aircraft are frequently involved in ground damage incidents, and repair costs are often accepted as part of doing business. The Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) estimates ground damage to cost operators $5-10 billion annually. Incident reports, documents from manufacturers or regulatory agencies, and other resources were examined to better understand the problem of ground damage in aviation. Major contributing factors were explained, and two versions of a computer-based model were developed to project costs and show what is possible. One objective was to determine if the models could match the FSF's estimate. Another objective was to better understand cost savings that could be realized by efforts to further mitigate the occurrence of ground incidents. Model effectiveness was limited by access to official data, and assumptions were used if data was not available. However, the models were determined to sufficiently estimate the costs of ground incidents.
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9678-1] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages 36341-36386 in the issue of Monday, June 18, 2012, make the following corrections: Sec. 87.2...
Santema, S.C.; Rijt, van de J.
Oak b-to-b bedrijven gaan steeds meer relationeel in plaats van transactioneel denken. Complicerende factor voor CRM in business to business is alleen, dat bedrijven niet alleen met een verkoper maar ook met een koper te maken hebben. Hoe kan CRM in business to business het beste worden ingezet?
Muntean, Mihaela; Cabau, Liviu Gabriel
Subordinated to performance management, Business Intelligence approaches help firms to optimize business performance. Key performance indicators will be added to the multidimensional model grounding the performance perspectives. With respect to the Business Intelligence value chain, a theoretical approach was introduced and a practice example, based on Microsoft SQL Server specific services, for the customer perspective was implemented.
Full Text Available Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA. In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.
Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin
Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and
... Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G; (Forney) F-1 and F-1A... inspection results. This new AD was prompted by a report of a Univair Aircraft Corporation Model ERCO 415-D...
Newcamp, Jeffrey; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curran, R.
It is well known that aircraft fleets are aging alongside rising operations and support costs. Logisticians and fleet managers who better understand the milestones and timeline of an aging fleet can recognise potential savings. This paper outlines generalised milestones germane to military aircraft
Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.
The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.
Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Türetken, O.
In the modern economy, we see a shift towards networked business scenarios. In many contemporary situations, the operation of multiple organizations is tightly coupled in collaborative business networks. To allow this tightly coupled collaboration, business process management (BPM) in these
Swanson, Robert A.
Stating that small business represents most of the nation's business but that business courses focus on corporate giants, the author presents arguments for a course in small business management. This course could prepare students for small business opportunities and provide an understanding of the nature of small business management and ownership.…
Putnam, Terrill W.; Christiansen, Richard S.
It is shown that the integration of the propulsion and flight control systems for high performance aircraft can help reduce pilot workload while simultaneously increasing overall aircraft performance. Results of the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HiDEC) flight research program are presented to demonstrate the emerging payoffs of controls integration. Ways in which the performance of fighter aircraft can be improved through the use of propulsion for primary aircraft control are discussed. Research being conducted by NASA with the F-18 High Angle-of Attack Research Vehicle is described.
Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby
during implementation and value creation. This article presents lessons learned from our action research, lessons that we incorporated into a business case method and subsequently evaluated with IS managers. There are three lessons on: (1) improving the content of business cases, (2) how to develop...... research study seeks to improve the usefulness of business cases in IS projects. We used collaborative action research with Danish municipalities to improve their practices when developing and using business cases and to change their perceptions of what constitutes a good business case that is useful...... business cases, and (3) the use of business cases in subsequent value creation. These lessons summarize our findings and the contributions are that we in the business case method propose to: (1) include minimal contents, (2) develop social commitment, and (3) structure for dynamic use during value creation...
... holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A... Aircraft Industries GmbH has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 20, 2012. The... Aircraft Industries GmbH Mandatory Service Bulletin 40NG-018/1, dated November 26, 2012. (2) If chafing...
Julija Avakumovic, Jelena Avakumovic
Potential of businesses is available and relevant developed business opportunities which under certain conditions can affect the results of the business. Those are certain conditions possible exposure of the company. The success of a business depends of the knowledge of these resources and the way how to find the optimum combination of scale, structure and dynamics of available resources by the management of the business.
Win Ko Ko Oo
Full Text Available Vertical Take Off and Landing Vehicles VTOL are the ones which can take off and land from the same place without need of long runway. This paper presents the design and implementation of tricopter mode and aircraft mode for VTOL aircraft system. Firstly the aircraft design is considered for VTOL mode. And then the mathematical model of the VTOL aircraft is applied to test stability. In this research the KK 2.1 flight controller is used for VTOL mode and aircraft mode. The first part is to develop the VTOL mode and the next part is the transition of VTOL mode to aircraft mode. This paper gives brief idea about numerous types of VTOLs and their advantages over traditional aircraftsand insight to various types of tricopter and evaluates their configurations.
Parfet, James A.
This document is meant to be used as a teaching aid to help business teachers in Pennsylvania high schools prepare pupils to assume positions in business offices. Methods are suggested by which business mathematics may be presented to develop the greatest level of pupil achievement. The chapters outline business mathematics in the high school…
Future 4D aircraft trajectories demand comprehensive consideration of environmental, economic, and operational constraints, as well as reliable prediction of all aircraft-related processes. Mutual interdependencies between airports result in system-wide, far-reaching effects in the air traffic network (reactionary delays). To comply with airline/airport challenges over the day of operations, a change to an air-to-air perspective is necessary, with a specific focus on the aircraft ground opera...
Deursen, van A.P.J.
A novel sensor for the detection of the lightning current through the fuselage of an aircraft has been tested on an A320 aircraft. An accurate method-of-moment model of the window edge provided reliable calibration of the sensor for external fields. The data have been analyzed and the good
Zhao, X.; Verhagen, W.J.C.; Curan, R.
n an integrated aircraft design and analysis practice, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is essential for decision making. The LCC of an aircraft is ordinarily partially estimated by emphasizing a specific cost type. However, an overview of the LCC including design and development cost, production cost,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract In modern fighter aircraft with statically unstable airframe designs, the flight control system is considered flight critical, i.e. the aircraft will...
Witcofski, R. D.
The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.
One key issue in process-aware E-commerce collaboration is the orchestration of business processes of multiple business partners throughout a supply chain network in an automated and seamless way. Since each partner has its own internal processes with different control flow structures and message interfaces, the real challenge lies in verifying…
... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... published in the Federal Register. AD 2013-13-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P... nitrile parts are installed for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T...
Willshire, K. F.
To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.
Porretta, Marco; Schuster, Wolfgang; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington
A number of automated decision support tools will be required in the future air traffic management system to enable continued provision of safe and efficient services in increasingly congested skies. In particular, Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) tools should allow for early detection of possible conflicts and propose safe and efficient resolution manoeuvres to avoid loss of separation. However, current approaches in the open literature not only use different levels of aircraft intent information but also make a number of assumptions on models of aircraft motion. Furthermore, information relevant to aircraft performance is often not considered with the consequence of the resulting resolution strategies being potentially unreliable. This paper presents an enhanced, strategic, pairwise, performance-based and distributed CDR algorithm. It accounts for the weaknesses of current approaches by using the maximum level of aircraft intent information together with a novel trajectory prediction model. Numerical results for representative conflict scenarios show that the proposed CDR method is able to generate conflict-free trajectories for participating aircraft while taking into account the actual aircraft capabilities to perform the recommended resolution manoeuvres.
Balut, Stephen J; McNicol, David L; Nelson, J. R; Harmon, Bruce R; Holder, Stephen G
During a December 2007 visit to China to share information about civilian aircraft costs, a delegation from IDA visited the Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Facility where the commercial chinese ARJ21...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....
Full Text Available For the successful development and business support, it is necessary to inform all interested parties about the structure of the transaction, future development plans, the resources needed for the realization, the effects which we plan to achieve and of course financial outcomes that will follow from that job. The business plan is important precondition for starting any business venture, as well as for realisation of that business. Modern business conditions are characterized by intensive changes in the market, strong competition and increasingly demanding customers. Modern business involves meticulous market research and the possibility of profitable use of capital, which is achieved through the simulation of a business plan. It could be said that a business plan is a map of activities for developing business ideas, with all the necessary activities and resources - a map that has been tested and tested/checked first on paper. The business plan does not guarantee the company success, but is definitely a secure way to increase the likelihood of success and present a set of projected activities through the relevant, understandable and accurate information. The results of these activities are appeling to all stakeholders and motivate them to achieve set goals.
Chesser, J.B.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.
One of the missions of the Future Aircraft Carriers Program is to investigate methods that would improve aircraft turnaround servicing activities on carrier decks. The major objectives and criteria for evaluating alternative aircraft servicing methods are to reduce workload requirements, turnaround times (TAT), and life-cycle costs (LCC). Technologies in the field of Robotics and Automation (R and A) have the potential to significantly contribute to these objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate aircraft servicing functions on carrier decks which would offer the potentially most significant payoff if improved by various R and A technologies. Improvement in this case means reducing workload, time and LCC. This objective was accomplished using a ''bottom-up'' formalized approach as described in the following.
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business... Business Administration (SBA) is reopening the comment period for the Small Business Innovation Research...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...
Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.
Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.
Marien, Ty V.
A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.
Suñer Perucho, Carles
The study illustrated in these pages was developed in the Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity Department of the Military Aircraft division of Airbus Defence and Space in Getafe, Madrid (Spain). That department is a multidisciplinary one involving several categories. Some of its competences are the analysis of impacts, acoustics and vibrations for the aircraft and all their systems. Also, the dynamic response of the aircraft to different events is part of the tasks for that department. It i...
Ahmad, Nashat N.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.
Interval Management (IM) is an ADS-B-enabled suite of applications that use ground and flight deck capabilities and procedures designed to support the relative spacing of aircraft (Barmore et al., 2004, Murdoch et al. 2009, Barmore 2009, Swieringa et al. 2011; Weitz et al. 2012). Relative spacing refers to managing the position of one aircraft to a time or distance relative to another aircraft, as opposed to a static reference point such as a point over the ground or clock time. This results in improved inter-aircraft spacing precision and is expected to allow aircraft to be spaced closer to the applicable separation standard than current operations. Consequently, if the reduced spacing is used in scheduling, IM can reduce the time interval between the first and last aircraft in an overall arrival flow, resulting in increased throughput. Because IM relies on speed changes to achieve precise spacing, it can reduce costly, low-altitude, vectoring, which increases both efficiency and throughput in capacity-constrained airspace without negatively impacting controller workload and task complexity. This is expected to increase overall system efficiency. The Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment provides speeds to the flight crew that will deliver them to the achieve-by point at the controller-specified time, i.e., assigned spacing goal, after the target aircraft crosses the achieve-by point (Figure 1.1). Since the IM and target aircraft may not be on the same arrival procedure, the FIM equipment predicts the estimated times of arrival (ETA) for both the IM and target aircraft to the achieve-by point. This involves generating an approximate four-dimensional trajectory for each aircraft. The accuracy of the wind data used to generate those trajectories is critical to the success of the IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the FIM equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather
Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA
A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.
Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA
A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.
Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P
Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.
Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana
Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...
Business model describes the company’s most important activities, proposed value, and the compensation for the value. Business model visualization enables to simply and systematically capture and describe the most important components of the business model while the standardization of the concept allows the comparison between companies. There are several possibilities how to visualize the model. The aim of this paper is to describe the options for business model visualization and business mod...
This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is taxiing to a position on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple. For pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.
Denola, G; Hanhela, P J; Mazurek, W
Monitoring of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) contamination of cockpit air was undertaken in three types of military aircraft [fighter trainer (FT), fighter bomber (FB), and cargo transport (CT) aircraft]. The aircraft had a previous history of pilot complaints about cockpit air contamination suspected to originate from the engine bleed air supply through the entry of aircraft turbine engine oil (ATO) into the engine compressor. Air samples were collected in flight and on the ground during engine runs using sorbent tubes packed with Porapak Q and cellulose filters. A total of 78 air samples were analysed, from 46 different aircraft, and 48 samples were found to be below the limit of detection. Nine incidents of smoke/odour were identified during the study. The concentrations of toxic o-cresyl phosphate isomers were below the level of detection in all samples. The highest total TCP concentration was 51.3 μg m(-3), while most were generally found to be contamination of cabin/cockpit air has been the subject of much concern in aviation, quantitative data are sparse.
Sze, San-Nah; Sze, Jeeu-Fong; Chiew, Kang-Leng
This research studies a manpower scheduling for aircraft maintenance, focusing on in-flight food loading operation. A group of loading teams with flexible shifts is required to deliver and upload packaged meals from the ground kitchen to aircrafts in multiple trips. All aircrafts must be served within predefined time windows. The scheduling process takes into account of various constraints such as meal break allocation, multi-trip traveling and food exposure time limit. Considering the aircrafts movement and predefined maximum working hours for each loading team, the main objective of this study is to form an efficient roster by assigning a minimum number of loading teams to the aircrafts. We proposed an insertion based heuristic to generate the solutions in a short period of time for large instances. This proposed algorithm is implemented in various stages for constructing trips due to the presence of numerous constraints. The robustness and efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated in computational results. The results show that the insertion heuristic more efficiently outperforms the company's current practice.
..., however, do not meet the definition of ``affected business,'' and are not covered by today's notice. They.... Certain businesses, however, do not meet the definition of ``affected business,'' and are not covered by... Businesses Assert Business Confidentiality Claims AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...
Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.
The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.
Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.
An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.
Lopez, Israel; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin
Situational awareness and learning are necessary to identify and select the optimal set of mutually non-exclusive hypothesis in order to maximize mission performance and adapt system behavior accordingly. This paper presents a hierarchical and decentralized approach for integrated damage assessment and trajectory planning in aircraft with uncertain navigational decision-making. Aircraft navigation can be safely accomplished by properly addressing the following: decision-making, obstacle perception, aircraft state estimation, and aircraft control. When in-flight failures or damage occur, rapid and precise decision-making under imprecise information is required in order to regain and maintain control of the aircraft. To achieve planned aircraft trajectory and complete safe landing, the uncertainties in system dynamics of the damaged aircraft need to be learned and incorporated at the level of motion planning. The damaged aircraft is simulated via a simplified kinematic model. The different sources and perspectives of uncertainties in the damage assessment process and post-failure trajectory planning are presented and classified. The decision-making process for an emergency motion planning and landing is developed via the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The objective of the trajectory planning is to arrive at a target position while maximizing the safety of the aircraft given uncertain conditions. Simulations are presented for an emergency motion planning and landing that takes into account aircraft dynamics, path complexity, distance to landing site, runway characteristics, and subjective human decision.
Marshall, R. Scott; Harry, Sean P.
Purpose--To outline the themes, topics and material used in a new course, Global business and sustainability, for business educators interested in integrating this emerging paradigm into their courses. Design/methodology/approach--The structure, design and reference materials for the Global business and sustainability course are reviewed. Specific…
Westenberger, A.; Bleil, J.; Arendt, M. [Airbus Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)
The intention of using a highly integrated component using on fuel cell technology installed on board of large commercial passenger aircraft for the generation of onboard power for the systems demand during an entire aircraft mission was subject of several studies. The results of these studies have been based on the simulation of the whole system in the context of an aircraft system environment. In front of the work stood the analyses of different fuel cell technologies and the analyses of the aircraft system environment. Today onboard power is provided on ground by an APU and in flight by the main engines. In order to compare fuel cell technology with the today's usual gas turbine operational characteristics have been analysed. A second analysis was devoted to the system demand for typical aircraft categories. The MEA system concept was supposed in all cases. The favourable concept represented an aircraft propelled by conventional engines with starter generator units, providing AC electrical power, covering in total proximately half of the power demand and a component based on fuel cell technology. This component provided electrical DC power, clean potable water, thermal energy at 180 degrees Celsius and nitrogen enriched air for fire suppression and fire extinguishing agent. In opposite of a usual gas turbine based APU, this new unit was operated as the primary power system. (orig.)
Breslin, S.G.; Tøffner-Clausen, S.; Grimble, M.J.
A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point.......A robust controller is designed for a linear model of an Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) aircraft at one operating point....
Martuccio, Michelle Therese
A study of a full-scale, semi-span business jet wing has been conducted to investigate the potential of two types of high-lift devices for improving aircraft high-lift performance. The research effort involved low-speed wind-tunnel tests of micro-vortex generators and Gurney flaps applied to the flap system of the business jet wing and included force and moment measurements, surface pressure surveys and flow visualization on the wing and flap. Results showed that the micro-vortex generators tested had no beneficial effects on the longitudinal force characteristics in this particular application, while the Gurney flaps were an effective means of increasing lift. However, the Gurney flaps also caused an increase in drag in most circumstances.
Gregory, Irene M.
High performance aircraft of the future will be designed lighter, more maneuverable, and operate over an ever expanding flight envelope. One of the largest differences from the flight control perspective between current and future advanced aircraft is elasticity. Over the last decade, dynamic inversion methodology has gained considerable popularity in application to highly maneuverable fighter aircraft, which were treated as rigid vehicles. This paper is an initial attempt to establish global stability results for dynamic inversion methodology as applied to a large, flexible aircraft. This work builds on a previous result for rigid fighter aircraft and adds a new level of complexity that is the flexible aircraft dynamics, which cannot be ignored even in the most basic flight control. The results arise from observations of the control laws designed for a new generation of the High-Speed Civil Transport aircraft.
Warner, Edward P
There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.
D'Souza, Austin; Velthuijsen, Hugo; Wortmann, J.C.; Huitema, George
Purpose: To facilitate the design of viable business models by proposing a novel business model design framework for viability. Design: A design science research method is adopted to develop a business model design framework for viability. The business model design framework for viability is
The F-15 PCA (Propulsion Controlled Aircraft) simulation was used from 1990 to 1993. It was used for the development of propulsion algorithms and piloting techniques (using throttles only) to be used for emergency flight control in the advent of a major flight control system failure on a multi-engine aircraft. Following this program with the Dryden F-15, similiar capabilities were developed for other aircraft, such as the B-720, Lear 24, B-727, C-402, and B-747.
The aim of the thesis is to successfully implement a business system based on franchising into the author's own business. The thesis will provide information about the actual busi-ness plan, theoretical and practical investigation on how franchising would efficiently work in the Finnish market, basic principles of cooperation on a franchise basis, categories of fran-chising (in general and in cooperation with the author's business plan), advantages and dis-advantages of having franchising as ...
Ştefan Claudiu CĂESCU; Ionel DUMITRU
Any product traded on the consumer goods market, in its evolution from raw material to finished products undergoes a series of successive transactions on the business to business market. On the business to business market, the competitive environment and the marketing mix are essentially different than those on the business to consumer market, under the aspect of the instruments used to analyse the marketing environment and the product, price, distribution, and promotion policies. The objecti...
An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.
Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.
The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.
Reinhart, Eugene R.
Considerable attention has been focused on the life extension of ageing military and commercial aircraft by the government and major aircraft fabricators. A vital, but often neglected segment of the aircraft industry is the are of inspecting ageing fleets of corporate and privately-owned aircraft. Many of these aircraft are inspected and maintained by the various FAA-approved repair stations located around the country. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods, equipment, and trained inspectors are a key aspect of maintaining these aircraft; however, there are currently several issues that need to be addressed by the private sector NDI community. Personnel training and certification to an accepted standard is critically needed in this industry since experience and capability in NDI can vary considerably between FAA stations and inspectors. Also, the updating of NDI methods are standards is needed. A review of these issues and suggestions for improvement are presented.
Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney
This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.
Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.
The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... officer, or a Federal Aviation Administration safety inspector, authorized in an order of seizure issued...
Garcia, A.; Faus, L. J.; Garcia, A. M.
The community response to aircraft noise has been studied through a social survey. A total of 1800 persons living in the vicinity of six major Spanish airports have been interviewed at their homes concerning the environmental quality of the area, dissatisfaction with road traffic noise and aircraft noise, activities interfered with by noise, most disturbing aircraft types, and subjective evaluation of airport impact. All the responses obtained in this survey have been compared with aircraft noise levels corresponding to the residence locations of the people interviewed (values of NEF levels were calculated with the INM model). The results obtained in this work allow one to evaluate the impact of aircraft noise under a wide range of different situations.
neck Access door toprille capm enrFuel tank Figue 3. Fangblefiler eckinsalgbelati n. A-j L)n wal Aircraft skin Frangible filler neck Failure plane...This is because a number of major assumptions must be made in the extrapolation: the smoke generated is uniformly distri- buted and is independent
Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis
Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.
Business plays a key role for the sustainable development of the society. However, business models of today do not have a sustainable perspective, indicating that they do not balance the three dimensions of sustainability; the social, environmental and economical dimension. A change at the business model level is therefore required for sustainable business models to become the new business models of tomorrow. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of how companies can con...
Full Text Available The paper examines three types of liens on aircraft: mortgage (as contractual lien, statutory and judicial lien on aircraft. Special attention is paid to statutory liens and its relationship with mortgage and judicial lien on same aircraft. The author highlights the problem of priority of different type of secured creditors due to the fact of existing competition between their interests. This problem is especially enlarged because of simultaneously applying three different source of law: Cape Town Convention 2001, Serbian Law of Air Transport 2011 and Geneva Convention on the Recognition of Rights in Aircraft 1948. Conclusion is that the creditor with statutory lien on aircraft has the biggest priority in realization of his right over other creditors and even creditors secured with mortgage and judicial lien which have priority between themselves in comply with principle 'first in time, first in right'. In order to achieve the ideas of this conclusion in practice it is necessary for courts to use teleological interpretation in applying laws. This is especially because of certain inconsistencies between different legal sources in regard of notion, order of priority and effect of different type of liens on aircraft.
The subject of business ethics has continued to provoke debate among academicians, proprietors, politicians and even members of the public because of its continued relevance to the prevailing situation in the business arena the world over. In the case of Zimbabwe, the economic challenges faced by the country have ...
von Wietersheim, Julia
The objective of this Thesis is to investigate the process of creating an extensive Business Plan and thereby to practically apply the theory studied during the Degree Programme of International Business. To achieve this objective, a practical business plan for a start-up Business Consultancy in Namibia (called VW-Business Consulting) is created, which at the same time provides a deeper understanding of the current demand for, and awareness of, business consulting companies in Namibia. An...
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice
The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…
Liu, Yitao; Deng, Junxiang; Liu, Chao; Li, Sen
The More Electric Aircraft (MEA) underlines the utilization of the electrical power to drive the non-propulsive aircraft systems. The critical features of the MEA including no-bleed engine architecture and advanced electrical system are introduced. Energy and exergy analysis is conducted for the MEA, and comparison of the effectiveness and efficiency of the energy usage between conventional aircraft and the MEA is conducted. The results indicate that one of the advantages of the MEA architecture is the greater efficiency gained in terms of reduced fuel consumption.
Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.
The business cycle accounting method introduced by Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) is a useful tool to decompose business cycle fluctuations into their contributing factors. However, the model estimated by the maximum likelihood method cannot replicate business cycle moments computed from data. Moment-based estimation might be an attractive alternative if the purpose of the research is to study business cycle properties such as volatility, persistence and cross-correlation of variables inst...
Petrock, Christopher T; Huizenga, Thomas D
...) sharing airspace with manned assets. There have been at least two recent collisions between unmanned and rotary-wing aircraft at lower altitudes in Iraq, as well as numerous near misses with fixed-wing aircraft at higher altitudes...
Lin, Jin; Tan, Yihua; Tian, Jinwen
Due to the weak feature and wide angle of long-distance aircraft targeting in the parking apron from front-looking infrared images, there are always false alarms in aircraft targeting detection. This leads to relatively poor reliability for detection results. In this paper, we present a scene-driven coarse-to-fine aircraft target detection method. First, we preprocess the image by combining the sharpened and enhanced images. Second, the region of interest (ROI) is segmented by using the local mean variance of the image and a series of subsequent processing. Then, target candidate areas are located by using the feature of local marginal distributions. Lastly, aircrafts can be detected accurately by a novel aircraft shape filter. Experiments on three infrared image sequences have shown that the presented method is effective and robust in detecting long-distance aircraft from front-looking infrared images and can also improve the reliability of the detection results.
... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...
Momoti, S.; Dongmo, G.B.; Combrink, Y.
Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA): Tool for determining safe functioning of nuclear power plant to meet regulatory requirements; One of the inputs to the PSA are the frequency and consequences of an aircraft crash. Overview: Frequency of Aircraft Crash; Effective Area of an Aircraft Crashing into Koeberg - Aviation Categories, - Shielding of sensitive target buildings; Impact of refining the Effective AreaFrequency of Aircraft Crash
This paper defines e-business, its dimensions with respect to differences between traditional business, partial, or pure e-business. Also, a model for moving to e-business is illustrated. The results of the study on current practices in evolving the e-business in top Croatian companies are presented. In this paper some aspects of business process innovation and e-business usage have been investigated (general e-business issues with levels of e-business usage, key objectives of participating i...
L-F. Pau (Louis-François)
textabstractWith the emergence of smart business networks, agile networks, etc. as important research areas in management, for all the attractiveness of these concepts, a major issue remains around their design and the selection rules. While smart business networks should provide advantages due to
This article illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the field of corporate business diplomacy using examples from academic disciplines, such as economics and political science, which can contribute to the understanding of corporate business diplomacy. Examples also show that corporate business...... diplomacy can complement business theories such as stakeholder theory and agency theory. Examples from practice show that in a broad sense, corporate business diplomacy is concerned with managing external stakeholders, while in a narrow sense, it is concerned with managing internal stakeholders....... The usefulness of an analytical research triangulation is illustrated....
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...
Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; Thompson, T. R.
Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10-30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high tempera- tures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.
Moon, Il Hwan; Kim, Do Yeon; Kim, Jae Hee; Kim, Sang Yun
The implementation of a protection to withstand aircraft impact on safety-related structures and systems is basically based on a probabilistic evaluation for each site, if the licensing body doesn't require a deterministic approach. Existing nuclear power plants in Korea were designed based on the probabilistic approach, and the aircraft impact hazard remained less than a probability of 10 -7 . However, a man-made aircraft impact have been considered as a possible external accident for the nuclear power plant. New plant designs that are to be constructed in the U.S. after July 2009 must consider the effect of impact from a large commercial aircraft according to the requirements of 10 CFR 50.150. Especially, Reactor Containment Building (RCB) housing the safety-related equipment and fuels should be protected safely against aircraft crash without perforation and scabbing failure of external wall. APR1400 RCB is constructed as a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) which is surrounded by the auxiliary building housing additional safety-related equipment and other systems. In this study, the aircraft impact analyses for the RCB are carried out using Riera forcing function and aircraft model. Considered external wall thickness is 4 ft 6 in. for the cylindrical wall and 4 ft for the dome. Actual strengths of concrete and steel are considered as the material properties. For these analyses, the dynamic increment factor and concrete aging effect are considered in accordance with NEI 07-13(2011)
Iqbal, Mohd Ashraf, E-mail: email@example.com; Sadique, Md. Rehan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Bhargava, Pradeep, E-mail: email@example.com; Bhandari, N.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation.
... entitled, ``State of the Art of Supersonics Aircraft Technology--What has progressed in science since 1973... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation...
This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance
The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...
Stanislav Fábry; Marek Češkovič
In the Czech and Slovak aviation are in service elderly aircrafts, usually produced in former Soviet Union. Their power units can be operated in more efficient way, in case of using additional diagnostic methods that allow evaluating their health. Vibration diagnostics is one of the methods indicating changes of rotational machine dynamics. Ground tests of aircraft gas turbine engines allow vibration recording and analysis. Results contribute to airworthiness evaluation and making corrections...
In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429
Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei
In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.
Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.
Many business domains are currently transitioning towards a service-dominant business setting. After the transition, business will be centered on the provisioning of solution-oriented, composed services to customers. The emphasis shifts from the value of the individual product or service to the
Meek, Gordon E.
In order to remain relevant in the face of both national and global challenges, the U.S. Navy must recognize that its once useful organizational constructs and business operations that fought the Cold War must be supplanted by significantly more nimble and effective organizations and business models. To realize the Force Transformation vision as outlined by Sea Power 21, the Navy must be vigilant in transforming its business operations. The Navy has devised several business improvement strate...
Birbraer, A.N.; Roleder, A.J.; Arhipov, S.B.
Methodology of probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact is described below. The assessment is made taking into account not only the fact of aircraft fall onto the NPP building, but another casual parameters too, namely an aircraft class, velocity and mass, as well as point and angle of its impact with the building structure. This analysis can permit to justify the decrease of the required structure strength and dynamic loads on the NPP equipment. It can also be especially useful when assessing the safety of existing NPP. (author)
Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don
Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.
Hehemann, David G.
Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.
Davis, Pamela A.; Martinson, Veloria J.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.
Preliminary results from testing of 26 x 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. The 26 x 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 x 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.
... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...
Full Text Available Aircraft-assisted pilot suicide is a rare but serious phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pilot aircraft-assisted suicide risks, i.e., a copycat effect, in the U.S. and Germany after the Germanwings 2015 incident in the French Alps. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides were searched in the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB accident investigation database and in the German Bundestelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung (BFU Reports of Investigation database five years before and two years after the deliberate crash of the Germanwings flight into the French Alps in 2015. The relative risk (RR of the aircraft-assisted pilot suicides was calculated. Two years after the incident, three out of 454 (0.66% fatal incidents were aircraft-assisted suicides compared with six out of 1292 (0.46% in the prior five years in the NTSB database. There were no aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the German database during the two years after or five years prior to the Germanwings crash. The relative aircraft-assisted pilot suicide risk for the U.S. was 1.4 (95% CI 0.3–4.2 which was not statistically significant. Six of the pilots who died by suicide had told someone of their suicidal intentions. We consider changes in the rate to be within a normal variation. Responsible media coverage of aircraft incidents is important due to the large amount of publicity that these events attract.
Vuorio, Alpo; Bor, Robert; Budowle, Bruce; Navathe, Pooshan; Pukkala, Eero; Sajantila, Antti
Aircraft-assisted pilot suicide is a rare but serious phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pilot aircraft-assisted suicide risks, i.e., a copycat effect, in the U.S. and Germany after the Germanwings 2015 incident in the French Alps. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides were searched in the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation database and in the German Bundestelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung (BFU) Reports of Investigation database five years before and two years after the deliberate crash of the Germanwings flight into the French Alps in 2015. The relative risk (RR) of the aircraft-assisted pilot suicides was calculated. Two years after the incident, three out of 454 (0.66%) fatal incidents were aircraft-assisted suicides compared with six out of 1292 (0.46%) in the prior five years in the NTSB database. There were no aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the German database during the two years after or five years prior to the Germanwings crash. The relative aircraft-assisted pilot suicide risk for the U.S. was 1.4 (95% CI 0.3–4.2) which was not statistically significant. Six of the pilots who died by suicide had told someone of their suicidal intentions. We consider changes in the rate to be within a normal variation. Responsible media coverage of aircraft incidents is important due to the large amount of publicity that these events attract. PMID:29534475
As a consequence of this reorganization, the business of the Safety Administration Division became a wide range such as the management of a labor safety health, the crisis management, the security and the management of an entrance, the business of the sanction concerning the Tokai Works, the protection of nuclear materials, the nuclear material safeguards, the transport of nuclear materials and the business of a quality assurance. In the respect of the purpose of summarizing these businesses and utilizing the data concerning the businesses, the report about a business achievement was determined to make. (author)
Roth, Brian Douglas
Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component
Vorbach, Stefan; Wipfler, Harald; Schimpf, Sven
This contribution addresses the impact of disruptive technologies on business model innovation. While such technologies have the potential to significantly alter the way in which businesses operate, business model inertia hinders companies from adopting the new technological possibilities. Little research has focused on the difficulties incumbents face when innovating their business models. By reviewing current literature on business model innovation, this paper summarizes challenges companie...
Love, John F.; Chan, William N.; Lee, Chu Han
This paper describes an analysis of using trajectory-based automation to resolve both aircraft and weather constraints for near-term air traffic management decision making. The auto resolution algorithm developed and tested at NASA-Ames to resolve aircraft to aircraft conflicts has been modified to mitigate convective weather constraints. Modifications include adding information about the size of a gap between weather constraints to the routing solution. Routes that traverse gaps that are smaller than a specific size are not used. An evaluation of the performance of the modified autoresolver to resolve both conflicts with aircraft and weather was performed. Integration with the Center-TRACON Traffic Management System was completed to evaluate the effect of weather routing on schedule delays.
Lampl, Thomas; Muschkorgel, Sandra; Hornung, Mirko;
The trend towards More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) and the introduction of new system technologies lead to considerable changes at the system level of commercial transport aircraft. Because the number of systems and power requirements are increasing, the consideration and integration of aircraft systems in early aircraft design phases is important. The objective of this contribution is to develop a characteristic flight mission with modelled aircraft systems to estimate the secondary power requir...
Gabriel, Cle-Anne; Kirkwood, Jodyanne
Against the background of mounting research suggesting entrepreneurship as a means of increasing the uptake of renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries, this paper presents the findings of an exploratory investigation into the business models used by renewable energy entrepreneurs in such countries. Forty-three entrepreneurs were interviewed in 28 developing countries and secondary information about country and regional conditions was analysed. We chose the Business Model Canvas as an analytical tool and the findings shed new light on established renewable energy business types. Three different types of businesses were identified – Consultants, Distributors, and Integrators; yet, there is also some overlap between these types. These business types appeared to parallel the life cycle progression of the business, but this requires further research. A key component of the study was to assess whether the types of businesses were related to country-level conditions to assess the impact of regional differences. These comparisons revealed consistencies between country-level characteristics and the entrepreneurs’ choice of business model. Conclusions suggest that different regions may support certain business models more than others due to differing levels of government interest in renewables, governance and policy support and the relative ease of doing business. - Highlights: •Business model canvas used to analyse renewable energy entrepreneurs’ businesses. •Consultants, distributors and integrators are the main business models used. •Business model characteristics are related to country and regional conditions. •Entrepreneurs in least favourable policy environments likely to be Consultants. •Energy entrepreneurship policy should focus on promoting specific business models.
What are the main elements of successful Key Account Management (KAM)? What is the nature of quality for the company and for the individual in business-to-business relationships? What kind of managerial practices are required at the company and individual level in Key Account Management? This paper focuses on these central aspects of KAM. It describes the main elements of KAM, which is a systematic marketing management approach in the business-to-business context with the objective to build p...
With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...
Full Text Available Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be present in all of that type of aircraft. This safety protocol and its associated unscheduled maintenance requirement drive up the operational costs of the fleet and limit the availability of the aircraft. Hence, there is an opportunity at present for developing novel sensing technologies and schemes to aid in shifting time-based maintenance schedules towards condition-based maintenance procedures. In this work, part of the ongoing development of a multiparameter integrated corrosion sensor is presented. It consists of carbon nanotube/polyaniline polymer sensors and commercial-off-the-shelf sensors. It is being developed primarily for monitoring environmental and material factors for the purpose of providing a means to more accurately assess the structural integrity of aerospace aluminium alloys through fusion of multiparameter sensor data. Preliminary experimental test results are presented for chloride ion concentration, hydrogen gas evolution, humidity variations, and material degradation.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the importance of business intelligence and its growing influence. It also shows when the concept of business intelligence was used for the first time and how it evolved over time. The paper discusses the utility of a business intelligence system in any organization and its contribution to daily activities. Furthermore, we highlight the role and the objectives of business intelligence systems inside an organization and the needs to grow the incomes and reduce the costs, to manage the complexity of the business environment and to cut IT costs so that the organization survives in the current competitive climate. The article contains information about architectural principles of a business intelligence system and how such a system can be achieved.
Rock, J.C.; Kiffe, J.; McNerney, M.T.; Turen, T.A.
Aircraft accidents pose a quantifiable threat to facilities used to store and process surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently published its first aircraft accident analysis guidelines: Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities. This document establishes a hierarchy of procedures for estimating the small annual frequency for aircraft accidents that impact Pantex facilities and the even smaller frequency of hazardous material released to the environment. The standard establishes a screening threshold of 10 -6 impacts per year; if the initial estimate of impact frequency for a facility is below this level, no further analysis is required. The Pantex Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) calculates the aircraft impact frequency to be above this screening level. The DOE Standard encourages more detailed analyses in such cases. This report presents three refinements, namely, removing retired small military aircraft from the accident rate database, correcting the conversion factor from military accident rates (accidents per 100,000 hours) to the rates used in the DOE model (accidents per flight phase), and adjusting the conditional probability of impact for general aviation to more accurately reflect pilot training and local conditions. This report documents a halving of the predicted frequency of an aircraft impact at Pantex and points toward further reductions
... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tanks containing a mixture of anhydrous hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine (M86 fuel) and designed...
The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three
Business process modelling is an important part of system design. When designing or redesigning a business process, stakeholders specify, negotiate, and agree on business requirements to be satisfied, including non-functional requirements that concern the quality of the business process. This thesis
Hannink, M.H.C.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Ivanov, N.I.; Crocker, M.J.
The EU project FACE (Friendly Aircraft Cabin Environment) aims to improve the environmental comfort in aircraft cabins. As part of this project, this paper focuses on the reduction of noise in aircraft cabins. For modern aircraft flying at cruise conditions, this cabin noise is known to be dominated
Johansson, Björn; Sudzina, Frantisek; Pucihar, Andreja
people perceived their business strategy and information strategy to be aligned. Respondents’ statements from the questionnaire survey on their perceived alignment between business strategy and information strategy were checked against the firms’ revenue growth. The analysis of perceived alignment...... between business strategy, information strategy, and revenue growth shows that there is a significant relationship between alignment and revenue growth in Slovenia, and this link is positive. Managers should aim to align business and information strategies in order to achieve better business performance.......Alignment between business strategy and information strategy has been focused on for several years with research suggesting different explanations to how this alignment influences a firm’s performance. This article presents results from an investigation of firms in Slovenia about how business...
the city-pair markets. Probably the most important feature of FA-7 is the fact that it allows for investigation of the behavior of airlines to changes...FINANCIAL INFORMfATION YLIGHTS BY AIRCRAFT TPE ~.4/J \\ FUEL COSUMED PASSENGERS UARRIED BY TOA IR F FLIGHITS TOTAL AIRCRAFT USAGE coded data. Sample...the various levels of operations. Similar behavior can be identified in the simultaneous increase of both types of aircraft at Dulles. Tables lAthrough
Lee, D S; Gonzalez, L F; Walker, R; Periaux, J; Onate, E
With rising environmental alarm, the reduction of critical aircraft emissions including carbon dioxides (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) is one of most important aeronautical problems. There can be many possible attempts to solve such problem by designing new wing/aircraft shape, new efficient engine, etc. The paper rather provides a set of acceptable flight plans as a first step besides replacing current aircrafts. The paper investigates a green aircraft design optimisation in terms of aircraft range, mission fuel weight (CO 2 ) and NO x using advanced Evolutionary Algorithms coupled to flight optimisation system software. Two multi-objective design optimisations are conducted to find the best set of flight plans for current aircrafts considering discretised altitude and Mach numbers without designing aircraft shape and engine types. The objectives of first optimisation are to maximise range of aircraft while minimising NO x with constant mission fuel weight. The second optimisation considers minimisation of mission fuel weight and NO x with fixed aircraft range. Numerical results show that the method is able to capture a set of useful trade-offs that reduce NO x and CO 2 (minimum mission fuel weight).
The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.
Clayton, Dean; Ruby, Ralph, Jr.
Discusses the development of a curriculum in business ownership and management for secondary business education programs in Arkansas. Content was determined from community small businesses, the Small Business Administration, and an advisory committee. The curriculum concentrated on generic skills varying instructional strategies to localize…
Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.
Murray, W. E.; Feiner, L. J.; Flores, R. R.
This report covers a study by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) of electrical power systems for advanced transport aircraft based upon an all-electric design concept. The concept would eliminate distributed hydraulic and pneumatic secondary power systems, and feature an expanded secondary electrical power system redesigned to supply power to the loads customarily supplied by hydraulic or pneumatic power. The initial study was based on an advanced 20-kHz electrical power transmission and distribution system, using a system architecture supplied by NASA-Lewis Research Center for twin-engine aircraft with many advanced power conversion concepts. NASA-LeRC later requested DAC to refocus the study on 400-Hz secondary power distribution. Subsequent work was based on a three-engine MD-11 aircraft, selected by DAC as a baseline system design that would provide data for the comparative cost/benefit analysis. The study concluded that the 20-kHz concept produced many expected benefits, and that the all-electric trijet weight savings on hardware redesign would be 2,304 pounds plus a 2.1-percent fuel reduction and resized for a total weight reduction of 11,000 pounds. Cost reductions for a fleet of 800 aircraft in a 15-year production program were estimated at $76.71 million for RDT&E; $2.74 million per aircrat for production; $9.84 million for nonrecurring expenses; $120,000 per aircraft for product support; and $300,000 per aircraft per year for operating and maintenance costs, giving a present value of $1.914 billion saved or a future value of $10.496 billion saved.
As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in students’ ethical attitudes depending on their gender, level of study as well as university. This study examines the attitude of sample of 670 business students, studying at five (out of seven existing state-owned universities in the Republic of Croatia, as to predict their attitude towards business ethics. Results of the study show that there are significant differences between demographic and personal characteristics in relation to the attitude of business students towards ethics in the Republic of Croatia. It is believed that this study, based on the analysis of business students’ attitudes towards business ethics, could contribute to understanding their future behaviour in the process of ethical decision-making.
Full Text Available With increasing globalization in the business arena, the phenomenal growth of international business has created a heavy demand for intellectuals with international business communication competence. Business communication competence, as one of the paramount competences business English majors should acquire and the particular embodiment of competitiveness, is of vital significance not only in personal development, but also in enterprises management, just as Liu (2012 claims “[e]ffective business communication is the lifeblood of every organization, and a key to success in one’s career”. There is, nevertheless, no universally accepted model for what excellent business communication competence should consist of up to now. Hence, the overriding aim of the present study is to identify Chinese business English majors’ communication competence relevant to the contemporary communication environment. Identification of these skills should aid business communication educators and students in addressing practical concerns in their teaching and learning. The unified model to be put forward covers four kinds of core competence, i.e. English competence, fundamental business knowledge and skills, excellent intercultural communication competence, and luxuriant humanistic quality, together with three other skills, which are also indispensable, including scenario analysis competence, outstanding technology-mediated communication competence, and non-verbal communication competence.
Dekkers, K J.P.
This report describes a Logistics Management Systems design project that is performed at KLM Aircraft Services (AS). AS is the part of KLM that is responsible for a large portion of the tasks that must be done to an aircraft that has landed and has to be used again. When an aircraft has landed the
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair market value of... Fair market value of aircraft. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(e) and 48 CFR 1328.310-70(g) insert the following in all applicable contracts for leased aircraft: Fair Market Value of Aircraft (APR 2010...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal responds to the urgent need for improved pilot interfaces in the modern aircraft cockpit. Recent advances in aircraft equipment bring tremendous...
Tiassou, Kossi; Kanoun, Karama; Kaâniche, Mohamed; Seguin, Christel; Papadopoulos, Chris
The success of an aircraft mission is subject to the fulfillment of some operational requirements before and during each flight. As these requirements depend essentially on the aircraft system components and the mission profile, the effects of failures can be very severe if they are not anticipated. Hence, one should be able to assess the aircraft operational reliability with regard to its missions in order to be able to cope with failures. We address aircraft operational reliability modeling to support maintenance planning during the mission achievement. We develop a modeling approach, based on a meta-model that is used as a basis: (i) to structure the information needed to assess aircraft operational reliability and (ii) to build a stochastic model that can be tuned dynamically, in order to take into account the aircraft system operational state, a mission profile and the maintenance facilities available at the flight stop locations involved in the mission. The aim is to enable operational reliability assessment online. A case study, based on an aircraft subsystem, is considered for illustration using the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism
Zhang, X.; Xiong, B.; Kuang, G.
In SAR image interpretation, aircrafts are the important targets arousing much attention. However, it is far from easy to segment an aircraft from the background completely and precisely in SAR images. Because of the complex structure, different kinds of electromagnetic scattering take place on the aircraft surfaces. As a result, aircraft targets usually appear to be inhomogeneous and disconnected. It is a good idea to extract an aircraft target by the active shape model (ASM), since combination of the geometric information controls variations of the shape during the contour evolution. However, linear dimensionality reduction, used in classic ACM, makes the model rigid. It brings much trouble to segment different types of aircrafts. Aiming at this problem, an improved ACM based on ISOMAP is proposed in this paper. ISOMAP algorithm is used to extract the shape information of the training set and make the model flexible enough to deal with different aircrafts. The experiments based on real SAR data shows that the proposed method achieves obvious improvement in accuracy.
This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...
Turkson, Peter K. A.
Building on "Vocation of the Business Leader," the recently released document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, along with input from Catholic business and educational leaders from around the world, this essay examines five pillars on which a Catholic business school should build its mission: foundations; the purpose of…
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Light-Sport... relating to the provisions of the Sport Pilot and Light-Sport Aircraft rule issued July 16, 2004, and effective September 1, 2004. ASTM International Committee F37 on Light Sport Aircraft developed the new and...
Catalin Mihail BARBU; Radu Florin OGARCA; Mihai Razvan Constantin BARBU
In this paper we analyzed the branding in small business. Using a desk research on Internet and the press we have identified the practices small businesses use to enhance their brand and the brand dynamics in small business. Our main contribution is that we tried to figure out the strategy of branding in small business. This need further to be investigated in order to understand how branding works in small business and to better capture the role of branding in small business.
The business and Information Technology (IT) alignment issue has become one of the Top-10 IT management issues since 1980. IT has continually strived to achieve alignment with business goals and objectives. These IT efforts include ERP implementation to benefit from the best practices; data center consolidation and server virtualization to keep…
Witcofski, R. D.
The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.
Supersonic jets have been drawing great attention after the end of service for the Concorde was announced on April of 2003. It is believed, however, that civilian supersonic aircraft may make a viable return in the business jet market. This thesis focuses on the design optimization of feasible supersonic business jet configurations. Preliminary design techniques for mitigation of ground sonic boom are investigated while ensuring that all relevant disciplinary constraints are satisfied (including aerodynamic performance, propulsion, stability & control and structures.) In order to achieve reasonable confidence in the resulting designs, high-fidelity simulations are required, making the entire design process both expensive and complex. In order to minimize the computational cost, surrogate/approximate models are constructed using a hierarchy of different fidelity analysis tools including PASS, A502/Panair and Euler/NS codes. Direct search methods such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and a nonlinear SIMPLEX are employed to designs in searches of large and noisy design spaces. A local gradient-based search method can be combined with these global search methods for small modifications of candidate optimum designs. The Mesh Adaptive Direct Search (MADS) method can also be used to explore the design space using a solution-adaptive grid refinement approach. These hybrid approaches, both in search methodology and surrogate model construction, are shown to result in designs with reductions in sonic boom and improved aerodynamic performance.
Jenica Ileana Corcau; Liviu Dinca
The electrical power systems of aircrafts have made serious progress in recent years because the aircrafts depend more and more on the electricity. There is a trend in the aircraft industry to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems, achieving more comfort and monitoring features and enlarging the energetic efficiency. Thus, was born the concept More Electric Aircraft. In this paper is analyzed the integration of a fuel cell into the existing elect...
Many changes have occurred in the past 20 years in aircraft manufacture and development. New technologies have appeared, spanning the entire aircraft design environment, such as new production methods, new materials and new avionics systems. These new methods have been developed for two reasons. For military aircraft, they have arisen through the need to improve performance. However, for civil aircraft they have arisen through the need to reduce the overall cost. This report co...
Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.
Running a business on an international scale requires not only a substantial body of knowledge but also the ability to apply it in practice. That is why our textbook, with a vast collection of practical examples, discusses a wide variety of pertinent issues connected with business operations in international markets, from international market analysis, drafting business plans, concluding business transactions and the insurance of goods through to customs clearance procedures and professional ...
Full Text Available This paper makes the review of the literature dedicated to relevant social issues that have been addressed by business practices and the business ethics literature, especially during the past century. The review of practical literature is undertaken from the perspective of the practitioner and demonstrates that the business ethics literature has been lax in the sense that it mostly addresses specific managerial problems and personal ethics within the business environment.
Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.
Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.
Full Text Available The travelling population is increasing globally year on year. International tourist arrival figures reached 1087 million in 2013 and 1133 million in 2014; of which 53% and 54% respectively accounted for air transport. The water on board aircraft is sourced from surface or ground water; piped to a central filling point and distributed to each aircraft by water service vehicles at the home base or at the destination airport. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the microbial, chemical (pH; Total and Free chlorine and physical (temperature quality of water from two aircraft, long- and short-haul, as well as from the original water source and the water service vehicle. A total of 154 water samples were collected and analysed. Long-haul flights were found to be significantly poorer in terms of microbial quality than short haul flights (p = 0.015. Furthermore, correlation and regression analysis showed that the water service vehicle was a significant source of increased microbial load in aircraft. Microbial diversity was also demonstrated, with 37 bacterial species identified belonging to eight classes: γ-Proteobacteria; β-Proteobacteria; α-Proteobacteria; Bacilli; Actinobacteria; Flavobacteria; Sphingobacteria and Cytophaga; using phenotypic and 16S rDNA sequence-based analysis. We present a novel quantified study of aircraft-related potable water supplies.
Lewis, Timothy A.
With a proliferation of new and unconventional vehicles and operations expected in the future, the ab initio airspace design will require new approaches to trajectory prediction for separation assurance and other air traffic management functions. This paper presents an approach to probabilistic modeling of the trajectory of an aircraft when its intent is unknown. The approach uses a set of feature functions to constrain a maximum entropy probability distribution based on a set of observed aircraft trajectories. This model can be used to sample new aircraft trajectories to form an ensemble reflecting the variability in an aircraft's intent. The model learning process ensures that the variability in this ensemble reflects the behavior observed in the original data set. Computational examples are presented.
Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.
A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing
business problems, owners versus managers, age of business, training ... 24), and its market size is ranked at 120 out of 144 countries on a global competitive ... however, in developing countries in Africa and elsewhere, SMEs face a myriad of.
A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST
Evans, Joni K.
Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.
The doctoral thesis addresses the existing gap between business process models and states of business objects. Existing modelling methods such as BPMN and ArchiMate lack an explicitly declarative approach for capturing states of business objects and laws of state transitions. This gap hinders the compliance of business process models with regulations imposed internally or externally, and can result in potential legal problems for organizations. Also this g...
Crane, Frederick G.
This study reports the findings of an investigation of MBAs and their views on the teaching of business ethics. The author found that tomorrow's business leaders believe that there are ethical standards that should be followed in business but that current ethical standards do not meet society's needs adequately. Moreover, although most respondents…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine how business ethics can support business sustainability in hospitals. Business ethics is associated with: Hospital professional ethics, medical professional ethics, professional accounting ethics, and Islamic business ethics. This study used a qualitative approach with phenomenological analysis techniques to process the data collected from key informants, through Focus Group Discussions (FGD with 20 supervisors, in-depth interviews with six members of the management, 11 outside observations, and documentation over a period of six months. The business ethics theory was used to guide the research’s findings. The business sustainability theory was used to find the relationship of the research’s findings with the opinions of four expert informants for the purpose of triangulation on the reasons for conducting Islamic business ethics for a sustainable business. The finding of this study is the reason for running the hospital ethically. The finding of this study can be used to redesign the vision and mission of the hospital as a basis for achieving better performance. The implication of the finding of this research is the need for business ethics in the design of internal systems.
Mokhtar, Maizura; Zapatel-Bayo, Sergio Z.; Hussein, Saed; Howe, Joe M.
Good situation awareness is one of the key attributes required to maintain safe flight, especially for an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS). Good situation awareness can be achieved by incorporating an Adaptive Health Monitoring System (AHMS) to the aircraft. The AHMS monitors the flight outcome or flight behaviours of the aircraft based on its external environmental conditions and the behaviour of its internal systems. The AHMS does this by associating a health value to the aircraft's behaviour b...
FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A
This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...
.... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...
Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.
Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.
This book presents a process-oriented business modeling framework based on semantic technologies. The framework consists of modeling languages, methods, and tools that allow for semantic modeling of business motivation, business policies and rules, and business processes. Quality of the proposed modeling framework is evaluated based on the modeling content of SAP Solution Composer and several real-world business scenarios.
Score higher in your business statistics course? Easy. Business statistics is a common course for business majors and MBA candidates. It examines common data sets and the proper way to use such information when conducting research and producing informational reports such as profit and loss statements, customer satisfaction surveys, and peer comparisons. Business Statistics For Dummies tracks to a typical business statistics course offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels and provides clear, practical explanations of business statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, w
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Women-Owned Business (Other Than Small Business). 52.204-5 Section 52.204-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.204-5 Women-Owned Business (Other Than Small Business). As prescribed in 4.607(b...
to manage interactions between internal and external stakeholders of the organization they serve. The second proposition, on the other hand, depicts how business model innovators manage the interplay between strategic and operational activities by allocating responsibilities among internal and external...... the network of actors to achieve value co-creation. Based on a qualitative investigation, two propositions, which summarize the main findings, are developed. In the first proposition it is outlined how processes of business model innovation within support services require a certain degree of openness......The service industries are characterized by the involvement of stakeholders in the innovation process. The aim of this study is to understand how, in the context of business-to-business services, the interplay between operational and strategic activities of an organization can be managed across...
The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.
Rudey, R. A.
The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.
This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 has taxied to a position on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple. For pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.
...-0742; Directorate Identifier 2013-CE-012-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper... identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960; telephone...
Williams, R. K.
NASA's Zero-g aircraft, operated by the Johnson Space Center, provides the unique weightless or zero-g environment of space flight for hardware development and test and astronaut training purposes. The program, which began in 1959, uses a slightly modified Boeing KC-135A aircraft, flying a parabolic trajectory, to produce weightless periods of 20 to 25 seconds. The program has supported the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz and Shuttle programs as well as a number of unmanned space operations. Typical experiments for flight in the aircraft have included materials processing experiments, welding, fluid manipulation, cryogenics, propellant tankage, satellite deployment dynamics, planetary sciences research, crew training with weightless indoctrination, space suits, tethers, etc., and medical studies including vestibular research. The facility is available to microgravity research organizations on a cost-reimbursable basis, providing a large, hands-on test area for diagnostic and support equipment for the Principal Investigators and providing an iterative-type design approach to microgravity experiment development. The facility allows concepts to be proven and baseline experimentation to be accomplished relatively inexpensively prior to committing to the large expense of a space flight.
Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.
Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate
Gudiksen, Sune Klok; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig; Buur, Jacob
Well-established companies are currently struggling to secure profits due to the pressure from new players' business models as they take advantage of communication technology and new business-model configurations. Because of this, the business model research field flourishes currently; however, t...
Informed, critical business journalism is vital to a well-functioning society. But students are typically reluctant to study business journalism, often finding the topic intimidating. This article outlines how the author has taught a business journalism course in New Zealand and the United States. The course uses a variety of methods to help the…
Stats Means Business is an introductory textbook written for Business, Hospitality and Tourism students who take modules on Statistics or Quantitative research methods. Recognising that most users of this book will have limited if any grounding in the subject, this book minimises technical language, provides clear definition of key terms, and gives emphasis to interpretation rather than technique.Stats Means Business enables readers to:appreciate the importance of statistical analysis in business, hospitality and tourism understand statis
... Pachard Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division, Openvms Operating... Colorado, Marlborough, Massachuetts; Hewlett Pachard Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical... Company, Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division, OpenVMS Operating System...
...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Aircraft Drinking Water Rule... must include the following requirements for procedures for disinfection and flushing of aircraft water system. (i) The air carrier must conduct disinfection and flushing of the aircraft water system in...
Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Jian-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Qian
Highlights: ► A new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for high-altitude solar-powered aircraft is purposed. ► The simulations show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS. ► The proposed EMS is capable to alleviate the power consumed for aircraft during night. ► The main technologies to improve the flight performance of aircraft are analyzed. - Abstract: Development of solar-powered High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft has a great impact on both military and civil aviation industries since its features in high-altitude and energy source can be considered inexhaustible. Owing to the development constraints of rechargeable batteries, the solar-powered HALE aircraft must take amount of rechargeable batteries to fulfill the energy requirement in night, which greatly limits the operation altitude of aircraft. In order to solve this problem, a new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is proposed based on the idea that the solar energy can be partly stored in gravitational potential in daytime. The flight path of HALE aircraft is divided into three stages. During the stage 1, the solar energy is stored in both lithium–sulfur battery and gravitational potential. The gravitational potential is released in stage 2 by gravitational gliding and the required power in stage 3 is supplied by lithium–sulfur battery. Correspondingly, the EMS is designed for each stage. The simulation results show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS, and the power consumed during night can be also alleviated. Comparing with the current EMS, about 23.5% energy is remained in batteries with the proposed EMS during one day–night cycle. The sensitivities of the improvement of crucial technologies to the performance of aircraft are also analyzed. The results show that the enhancement of control and structural system, lithium–sulfur battery, and solar cell are ranked in descending order for the
... market value of the aircraft at the time of such loss or damage, which value may be specifically agreed to in clause 1252.228-71, “Fair Market Value of Aircraft,” less the salvage value of the aircraft... Contractor will be paid the fair market value of the aircraft as stated in the clause. (d) The Contractor...
Full Text Available Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would like to show the contradictions inherent to the connection of business and ethics are no coincidence. At the end a possible relationship between ethics and business sphere will be suggested.
Bernardez, Mariano L.
What is the business of business? How can planners and investors anticipate the true chances of failure and success of a business idea? This article describes a rationale for developing successful new business on the basis of a simple, sensible idea: the business of any business is to make its clients successful enough to continue purchasing and…
Tiffany, Paul; Barrow, Colin
A full updated and extended second edition of an established UK bestseller Business Plans For Dummies 2nd Edition features new and updated information on formulating a solid business plan to build a secure business - even in an economic downturn. Complete with a brand new business plan template to get you started this expert guide offers fresh advice on reading the competitive marketplace and assessing your business in the current economic climate. It walks you step-by-step through every aspect of planning achievable business goals and diversification strategies, identifying trends, exploring
Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.; Naylor, Bret
Trajectory optimization is an integral component for the design of aerospace vehicles, but emerging aircraft technologies have introduced new demands on trajectory analysis that current tools are not well suited to address. Designing aircraft with technologies such as hybrid electric propulsion and morphing wings requires consideration of the operational behavior as well as the physical design characteristics of the aircraft. The addition of operational variables can dramatically increase the number of design variables which motivates the use of gradient based optimization with analytic derivatives to solve the larger optimization problems. In this work we develop an aircraft trajectory analysis tool using a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto based collocation scheme, providing analytic derivatives via the OpenMDAO multidisciplinary optimization framework. This collocation method uses an implicit time integration scheme that provides a high degree of sparsity and thus several potential options for parallelization. The performance of the new implementation was investigated via a series of single and multi-trajectory optimizations using a combination of parallel computing and constraint aggregation. The computational performance results show that in order to take full advantage of the sparsity in the problem it is vital to parallelize both the non-linear analysis evaluations and the derivative computations themselves. The constraint aggregation results showed a significant numerical challenge due to difficulty in achieving tight convergence tolerances. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of applying analytic derivatives to trajectory optimization problems and lay the foundation for future application of this collocation based method to the design of aircraft with where operational scheduling of technologies is key to achieving good performance.
Castellanos, M.; Alves De Medeiros, A.K.; Mendling, J.; Weber, B.; Weijters, A.J.M.M.; Cardoso, J.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.
Business Process Intelligence (BPI,) is an emerging area that is getting increasingly popularfor enterprises. The need to improve business process efficiency, to react quickly to changes and to meet regulatory compliance is among the main drivers for BPI. BPI refers to the application of Business
Dostaler, Isabelle; Tomberlin, Thomas J.
In their 2005 "Harvard Business Review" article, Bennis and O'Toole described business schools as being "on the wrong track" as a result of their focus on so-called scientific research. Some commentators argue that business schools have slowly lost their relevance since the end of the 1950s when they undertook a major overhaul in response to the…
The General Aviation Spin Program at Langley Research Center devised the first-of-their-kind guidelines for designing more spin-resistant aircraft. Thanks to NASA's contributions, the Federal Aviation Administration introduced the Part 23 spin-resistance standard in 1991. Los Angeles-based ICON Aircraft has now manufactured a new plane for consumer recreational flying that meets the complete set of criteria specified for Part 23 testing.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII...
Jansen, Ralph H.; Bowman, Cheryl; Jankovsky, Amy; Dyson, Rodger; Felder, James L.
NASA is investing in Electrified Aircraft Propulsion (EAP) research as part of the portfolio to improve the fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise levels in commercial transport aircraft. Turboelectric, partially turboelectric, and hybrid electric propulsion systems are the primary EAP configurations being evaluated for regional jet and larger aircraft. The goal is to show that one or more viable EAP concepts exist for narrow body aircraft and mature tall-pole technologies related to those concepts. A summary of the aircraft system studies, technology development, and facility development is provided. The leading concept for mid-term (2035) introduction of EAP for a single aisle aircraft is a tube and wing, partially turbo electric configuration (STARC-ABL), however other viable configurations exist. Investments are being made to raise the TRL level of light weight, high efficiency motors, generators, and electrical power distribution systems as well as to define the optimal turbine and boundary layer ingestion systems for a mid-term tube and wing configuration. An electric aircraft power system test facility (NEAT) is under construction at NASA Glenn and an electric aircraft control system test facility (HEIST) is under construction at NASA Armstrong. The correct building blocks are in place to have a viable, large plane EAP configuration tested by 2025 leading to entry into service in 2035 if the community chooses to pursue that goal.
... Packard Company Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business Software Division, OpenVMS Operating... Colorado, Marlborough, MA; Hewlett Packard Company Business Critical Systems, Mission Critical Business... Assistance on August 27, 2009, applicable to workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Business Critical Systems...
Business activities considerably affect the fate and survival of natural ecosystems as well as the life conditions of present and future generations. In the light of Hans Jonas' theory of responsibility we can state that business has a one-way, non-reciprocal duty caring for the beings affected by its functioning. To become a fully ethical enterprise, business is to be carried out in sustainable, pro-social and future enhancing ways. Doing ethical business is not a luxury of advanced societie...
Webster, Robert L; Hammond, Kevin L; Harmon, Harry A
This study extends previous work concerning the market orientation culture within specialty businesses and schools of business. Specifically, member schools of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International are separated into public and private universities. Data were collected via a mailed survey to business schools holding membership. 106 public school deans and 35 private school deans responded, for a 23% response rate. Input from the deans was sought on their perceptions of the market orientation culture within the schools. Respondents' perceptions, rated on a 7-point scale, measured four dimensions of market orientation: customer orientation, competitor orientation, organizational coordination, and overall market orientation. Data for specialty businesses were drawn from a previous study. Comparison testing between the public and private business schools' deans and business managers was conducted. Analysis indicated perceived market orientation was significantly higher for deans of private business schools than public business schools. Compared with business managers, private school deans were statistically different on only one of the four dimensions, whereas public business school deans' scores were significantly different from those of business managers on all four. Compared with each other, business school deans were statistically different on three dimensions, with private school deans reporting greater market orientation.
Small Business Commitment Small Business Commitment Central to NREL's mission is our commitment to small business through a comprehensive and mature outreach program that combines proven techniques with the latest technology and best business practices. For More Information Contact Us Please email Rexann
Stinchcomb, Taylor R.
As human development expands across the Arctic, it is crucial to carefully assess the impacts to remote natural ecosystems and to indigenous communities that rely on wild resources for nutritional and cultural wellbeing. Because indigenous communities and wildlife populations are interdependent, assessing how human activities impact traditional harvest practices can advance our understanding of the human dimensions of wildlife management. Indigenous communities across Arctic Alaska have expressed concern over the last four decades that low-flying aircraft interfere with their traditional harvest practices. For example, communities often have testified that aircraft disturb caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and thereby reduce harvest opportunities. Despite this longstanding concern, little research exists on the extent of aircraft activity in Arctic Alaska and on how aircraft affect the behavior and perceptions of harvesters. Therefore, the overarching goal of my research was to highlight the importance of aircraft-harvester conflict in Arctic Alaska and begin to address the issue using a scientific and community-driven approach. In Chapter 1, I demonstrated that conflict between aircraft and indigenous harvesters in Arctic Alaska is a widespread, understudied, and complex issue. By conducting a meta-analysis of the available literature, I quantified the deficiency of scientific knowledge about the impacts of aircraft on rural communities and traditional harvest practices in the Arctic. My results indicated that no peer-reviewed literature has addressed the conflict between low-flying aircraft and traditional harvesters in Arctic Alaska. I speculated that the scale over which aircraft, rural communities, and wildlife interact limits scientists' ability to determine causal relationships and therefore detracts from their interest in researching the human dimension of this social-ecological system. Innovative research approaches like soundscape ecology could begin to
Full Text Available It has been suggested that business leaders—insofar as they are able to exert influence over public policy—do so through their personal networks rather than acting through, or on behalf of, wider groups of businesses. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which personal networks in Kenya give business leaders easy access to policy makers. The concern is that a few business leaders may be able to influence public policy, for good or ill, for public benefit or private gain, irrespective of the views of the majority of private businesses or, at least, the majority of businesses in their sector. This article takes a novel approach mapping relationships to explore the extent to which business leaders are appointed to public bodies. It finds little evidence to support the thesis that an inner circle of business leaders has undue influence.
Hima Bindu Kota
Full Text Available Family businesses are fundamental to nation building as they contribute towards the GDP of any country and are also major employment creators. Therefore, family business management is an emerging area of academic interest. In this regard, comparison between family and non-family businesses has become an important area of research. The present study analyses the performance of Indian family businesses in comparison to non-family business for firms listed on BSE 500 Index for a period of 11 years from 2005-2015. Any firm with 40% or more promoter or promoter group holding has been identified as a family business. Performance of family businesses was measured across 5 categories, viz, Profitability, Size, Market Position, Debt Position and Number of Employees. Within these 5 categories, comparison was done on the following 12 variables like Return on Net Worth (RONW, Return on Capital Employed (ROCE, Return on Total Assets (ROTA, Firm Size (SIZE, Total Assets (ASSETS, Total Revenue (REV, Market Capitalization (MACP, Current Ratio (CR, Quick Ratio (QR, Debt-Equity Ratio (DER, Interest Coverage Ratio (INTCOV and Number of Employees (EMP, using independent t-test. It was found that in the Indian context, non-family business outperform family businesses in all 5 categories studied.
Bruce Power's definition: an emerging and demonstrable event or change in business plan assumptions that could impact Bruce Power's achievement of its business plan objectives and results. Risks can be either negative (threats) or positive (opportunities). Risks against the 5 year business plan Net Risk = impact * probability.
Kaercher, B.; Busen, R. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Turco, R.P.; Yu Fangqun [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Danilin, M.Y.; Weisenstein, D.K. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Miake-Lye, R.C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)
To predict the environmental impacts of future commercial aviation, intensive studies have been launched to measure the properties and effects of aircraft emissions. These observations have revealed an extremely wide variance with respect to the number and sizes of the particles produced in the exhaust plumes. Aircraft aerosol ultimately contributes to the population of cloud-forming nuclei, and may lead to significant global radiative and chemical perturbations. In this paper, recent discoveries are coordinated and unified in the form of a physically consistent plume aerosol model that explains most of the observational variance. Using this new approach, it is now practical to carry out reliable global atmospheric simulations of aircraft effects, as demonstrated by a novel assessment of the perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer by a supersonic aircraft fleet. (orig.)
Camp, D.; Luers, J. K.; Kadlec, P. W.
A study has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of transmitting selected GOES images to aircraft in flight. Pertinent observations that could be made from satellite images on board aircraft include jet stream activity, cloud/wind motion, cloud temperatures, tropical storm activity, and location of severe weather. The basic features of the Satellite Aircraft Flight Environment System (SAFES) are described. This system uses East GOES and West GOES satellite images, which are interpreted, enhanced, and then retransmitted to designated aircraft.
Thams, Meg; Glueck, Deborah
The purpose of this study was to determine if a gap exists in the skill and knowledge businesses require of marketing employees and what the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools actually provide. In this quantitative study, two set of data were collected and compared, and a gap analysis conducted. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from members of the Business Marketing Association (BMA) regarding course preferences that would best prepare stud...
Full Text Available Business Intelligence Solutions represents applications used by companies to manage process and analyze data to provide substantiated decision. In the context of Semantic Web develop-ment trend is to integrate semantic unstructured data, making business intelligence solutions to be redesigned in such a manner that can analyze, process and synthesize, in addition to traditional data and data integrated with semantic another form and structure. This invariably leads appearance of new BI solution, called Semantic Business Intelligence.
Marian Pompiliu CRISTESCU
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the one hand on the importance of business intelligence in large and medium-sized businesses and on the other side on the evaluation and implementation of Business Intelligence. It shows how companies make better and faster decisions regarding their customers, partners and operations by converting data into valuable business information. The paper describes how to bring business intelligence information, people and technology together to help to create a successful business strategy. The conclusion of the paper is the assessment of the possibility of business intelligence to develop projects in large and medium-sized companies and the discussion of the possible alternatives with respect to the different functions.
Purpose: The author sets out the basis for a new research programme designed to demonstrate that by encouraging managers of small to medium-sized businesses (SMEs ) to take a positive approach to social and environmental risks, embedding and operationalising their responses into their business