WorldWideScience

Sample records for bushveld complex south

  1. Isotope and trace element patterns below the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: evidence for fluids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralization in the Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Complex has recently been attributed to the ingress of fluids, possible via channels beneath depressions in the foot of the Reef referred to as potholes. Samples from immediately below three potholes and from the same horizon under the normal reef have been analyzed for oxygen and strontium isotopes, chlorine, and noble metals to investigate this possibility. Results from one pothole are interpreted as retaining the primary magmatic oxygen isotope signature. These results from the western lobe of the Bushveld Complex are practically identical to those already established for the laterally equivalent horizons in the eastern lobe. A second pothole showed more variability. The secondary alteration of the foot wall was accompanied by the introduction of chlorine. Gold contents also appear to be slightly enriched in the foot wall under the pothole reef. The sporadic nature of the secondary alteration, the interaction with low δ18 O fluids, and the enrichment in volatile elements such as chlorine is emphasized. 40 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Subsurface Structure of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa: An Application of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, G.; Galindo, B. L.; Carranza, V.; Gomez, C. D.; Ortiz, K.; Castro, J. G.; Falzone, C.; Guandique, J.; Emry, E.; Webb, S. J.; Nyblade, A.

    2014-12-01

    South Africa is host to the largest single known platinum group metal supply in the world. The Bushveld Igneous Complex, spanning 300x400 kilometers, hosts hundreds of years' worth of platinum, chromite, vanadium, and other ore. Its wealth of these metals is tied directly to the large layered igneous intrusion that formed roughly 2061 million years ago. The extraction of platinum is vital to the industrial world - as these metals are widely used in the automotive industry, dental restorations, computer technology, in addition to many other applications. In collaboration with the Africa Array geophysics field school and the Penn State Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP), we surveyed the Modikwa mine located along the border of the provinces of Mpumalanga and Limpopo in South Africa. The following techniques were applied to survey the area of interest: seismic refraction and reflection, gravity, magnetics, electrical resistivity, and electromagnetics. The data collected were used to determine the depth to bedrock and to identify potential mining hazards from dykes and faults in the bedrock. Several areas were studied and with the combination of the above-mentioned methods several possible hazards were identified. One broad, major dyke that was located in a prior aeromagnetic survey and several previously undetected, parallel, minor dykes were identified in the region. The overburden thickness was determined to be ̴4-5 meters in some regions, and as thin as several centimeters in others. This section of rock and soil lies above an area where platinum will likely be mined in the future. The removal of overburden can be accomplished by using power shovels or scrapers; while remaining material can be contained with the use of galvanized steel culverts. Additionally, a number of joints were located that may have allowed water to accumulate underground. The models created from the data permit us to estimate which hazards could be present in different parts of the

  3. Osmium, ruthenium, iridium and uranium in silicates and chromite from the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijbels, R.h.; Millard, H.T., Jr.; Desborough, G.A.; Bartel, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Osmium, ruthenium, iridium and uranium contents were determined in eight ortho pyroxene, seven plagioclase, and three chromite mineral separates from the eastern Bushveld Complex. Neutron activation analysis was used to measure the platinum metals, and uranium was determined by a fission track technique. The platinum metals were found to be present within each mine??ral in the proportions Os:Ru:Ir = 1:7:1, while the concentrations of these metals in the minerals are in the ratios orthopyroxene:plagioclase:chromite = 1:16:700. The concentration of uranium was found to range from 11 to 66 ppb (parts per billion) and not to vary significantly from mineral to mineral. The data for the platinum metals are consistent with a model in which the eastern Bushveld Complex was formed by the fractional crystallization of two separately injected magmas. A computer fit of this model to these data indicates that the initial concentrations of Os, Ru and Ir in the first magma were 0.24, 2.0 and 0.21 ppb and in the second magma were 0.16, 1.1 and 0.18 ppb, respectively. The fit also yields the distribution coefficients for the partitioning between the liquid and cumulus orthopyroxene, cumulus plagioclase and cumulus chromite. These coefficients (mineral/liquid) for osmium are 4.5, 66 and 2700; for ruthenium, they are 5, 65 and 2700; and for iridium, they are 4, 60 and 1600. To make this fit, it was necessary to hypothesize the existence of two types of chromite: one type with a large distribution coefficient, presumably formed as a cumulus phase at high temperature, and another, more prevalent type with a smaller distribution coefficient, which may have been formed by postcumulus growth at a lower temperature. This hypothesis is supported by data for coexisting chromite-silicate pairs, which indicate that the chromite grains expelled these platinum metals as they cooled. ?? 1974.

  4. Characterisation of sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events in the western Bushveld Igeneous Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, A.; Vakkari, V.; Tiitta, P.; Manninen, H. E.; Gagné, S.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Mirme, A.; Mirme, S.; Mabaso, D.; Beukes, J. P.; Laakso, L.

    2012-01-01

    South Africa holds significant mineral resources, with a substantial fraction of these reserves occurring in a large geological structure termed the Bushveld Igeneous Complex (BIC). The majority of the world's platinum group metals (PGMs) and chromium originate from the BIC. Considering the importance of PGMs in the manufacturing of automotive catalytic converters, as well as the relatively poor current state of air quality and the general lack of atmospheric research in the BIC, atmospheric related research in this geographical area is of local (South African) and of international interest. The western limb of the BIC is the most exploited, with at least eleven pyrometallurgical smelters occurring within a 55 km radius. Due to the lure of employment in the industrialised BIC, the area is populated by informal, semi-formal and formal residential developments. In order to investigate the characteristics and processes affecting sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events, air ion and aerosol particle size distribution and concentration measurements were conducted for over two years at Marikana in the heart of the western BIC. Our results indicated that high amounts of Aitken and accumulation mode particles originated from domestic burning for heating and cooking in the morning and evening, while during daytime SO2-based nucleation (from industrial emissions) was the most probable source for large number concentrations of nucleation and Aitken mode particles. Nucleation event day frequency was extremely high, i.e. 86% of the analysed days, which to the knowledge of the authors is the highest frequency ever reported. Secondary particle formation was influenced both by local pollution sources and regional ambient conditions. Therefore, our observation of the annual cycle and magnitude of the particle formation and growth rates during nucleation events were similar to the results from a semi-clean savannah site in South Africa.

  5. Characterisation of sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, A.; Vakkari, V.; Tiitta, P.; Manninen, H. E.; Gagné, S.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Mirme, A.; Mirme, S.; Mabaso, D.; Beukes, J. P.; Laakso, L.

    2012-05-01

    South Africa holds significant mineral resources, with a substantial fraction of these reserves occurring and being processed in a large geological structure termed the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC). The area is also highly populated by informal, semi-formal and formal residential developments. However, knowledge of air quality and research related to the atmosphere is still very limited in the area. In order to investigate the characteristics and processes affecting sub-micron particle number concentrations and formation events, air ion and aerosol particle size distributions and number concentrations, together with meteorological parameters, trace gases and particulate matter (PM) were measured for over two years at Marikana in the heart of the western BIC. The observations showed that trace gas (i.e. SO2, NOx, CO) and black carbon concentrations were relatively high, but in general within the limits of local air quality standards. The area was characterised by very high condensation sink due to background aerosol particles, PM10 and O3 concentration. The results indicated that high amounts of Aitken and accumulation mode particles originated from domestic burning for heating and cooking in the morning and evening, while during daytime SO2-based nucleation followed by the growth by condensation of vapours from industrial, residential and natural sources was the most probable source for large number concentrations of nucleation and Aitken mode particles. Nucleation event day frequency was extremely high, i.e. 86% of the analysed days, which to the knowledge of the authors is the highest frequency ever reported. The air mass back trajectory and wind direction analyses showed that the secondary particle formation was influenced both by local and regional pollution and vapour sources. Therefore, our observation of the annual cycle and magnitude of the particle formation and growth rates during nucleation events were similar to results previously published for a semi

  6. A chilled margin of komatiite and Mg-rich basaltic andesite in the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W. D.; Barnes, S.-J.; Karykowski, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    A chill sequence at the base of the Lower Zone of the western Bushveld Complex at Union Section, South Africa, contains aphanitic Mg-rich basaltic andesite and spinifex-textured komatiite. The basaltic andesite has an average composition of 15.2 % MgO, 52.8 % SiO2, 1205 ppm Cr, and 361 ppm Ni, whereas the komatiite has 18.7 % MgO, 1515 ppm Cr, and 410 ppm Ni. Both rock types have very low concentrations of immobile incompatible elements (0.14-0.72 ppm Nb, 7-31 ppm Zr, 0.34-0.69 ppm Th, 0.23-0.27 wt% TiO2), but high PGE contents (19-23 ppb Pt, 15-16 ppb Pd) and Pt/Pd ratios (Pt/Pd 1.4). Strontium and S isotopes show enriched signatures relative to most other Lower Zone rocks. The rocks could represent a ~20 % partial melt of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. This would match the PGE content of the rocks. However, this model is inconsistent with the high SiO2, Fe, and Na2O contents and, in particular, the low K2O, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Th, LREE, Rb, and Ba contents of the rocks. Alternatively, the chills could represent a komatiitic magma derived from the asthenosphere that underwent assimilation of the quartzitic floor accompanied by crystallization of olivine and chromite. This model is consistent with the lithophile elements and the elevated Sr and S isotopic signatures of the rocks. However, in order to account for the high Pt and Pd contents of the magma, the mantle must have been twice as rich in PGE as the current estimate for PUM, possibly due to a component of incompletely equilibrated late veneer.

  7. Platinum-group minerals in the LG and MG chromitites of the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Thomas; Junge, Malte; Rudashevsky, Nikolay; de Meyer, Eveline; Gutter, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The chromitites of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa contain vast resources of platinum-group elements (PGE); however, except for the economic upper group (UG)-2 chromitite seam, information on the distribution of the PGE in the ores and on the mineralogical nature, assemblages, and proportions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) is essentially missing. In the present geochemical and mineralogical study, PGE concentrates originating from the lower group (LG)-6 and middle group (MG)-1/2 chromitites were investigated with the intention to fill this gap of knowledge. Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of bulk rock and concentrates are characterized by a positive slope from Os to Rh, a slight drop to Pt, and an increase to Pd again. The pronounced similarities of the PGE patterns indicate similar primary processes of PGE concentration in the chromitites, namely "sulfide control" of the PGE mineralization, i.e., co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide. Further, the primary control of PGE concentration in chromitites appears to be dual in character: (i) base-level concentrations of IPGE (up to ˜500 ppb) hosted within chromite and (ii) co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide, the latter containing virtually the entire remaining PGE budget. Sulfides (chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and pyrite; pyrrhotite is largely missing) are scarce within the chromitites and occur mainly interstitial to chromite grains. Pd and Rh contents in pentlandite are low and erratic. Essentially, the whole PGE inventory of the ores occurs in the form of discrete PGM. The PGM are almost always associated with sulfides. The dominant PGM are various Pt-Pd-Rh sulfides (cooperite/braggite [(Pt,Pd)S] and malanite/cuprorhodsite [CuPt2S4]/[CuRh2S4]), laurite [RuS2], the main carrier of the IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru), sulfarsenides [(Rh,Pt,Ir)AsS], sperrylite [PtAs2], Pt-Fe alloys, and a large variety of mainly Pd-rich PGM. The LG and MG chromitites have many characteristics in common and define a general, "typical

  8. Drilling through the largest magma chamber on Earth: Bushveld Igneous Complex Drilling Project (BICDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, R. B.; Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Veksler, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    A scientific drilling project in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa has been proposed to contribute to the following scientific topics of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP): large igneous provinces and mantle plumes, natural resources, volcanic systems and thermal regimes, and deep life. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from eight countries met in Johannesburg to exchange ideas about the scientific objectives and a drilling strategy to achieve them. The workshop identified drilling targets in each of the three main lobes of the Bushveld Complex, which will integrate existing drill cores with new boreholes to establish permanently curated and accessible reference profiles of the Bushveld Complex. Coordinated studies of this material will address fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of parental Bushveld magma(s), the magma chamber processes that caused layering and ore formation, and the role of crust vs. mantle in the genesis of Bushveld granites and felsic volcanic units. Other objectives are to study geophysical and geodynamic aspects of the Bushveld intrusion, including crustal stresses and thermal gradient, and to determine the nature of deep groundwater systems and the biology of subsurface microbial communities.

  9. The uranium potential of the Bushveld igneous complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of published literature supported by field observations on the uranium potential of the Bushveld Complex indicates that this geological region may host deposits with reserves in the range of a few thousand tons U3O8. The possibility that the Bushveld Complex or its cover rocks hosts, or has ever hosted in the past, giant uranium deposits such as those of Olympic Dam, Key Lake, Jabiluka or Rossing is considered to be unlikely. The potential for volcanogenic, caldera-type deposits in the Rooiberg Felsites remains at present untested. Recommendations for research currently sponsored by the AEC at the University of Pretoria are presented

  10. Hf isotopic evidence for a cogenetic magma source for the Bushveld Complex and associated felsic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we test the hypothesis that the rhyolitic lavas of the Rooiberg Group and granophyres associated with the roof of the Bushveld Complex are differentiation products of Bushveld-age mafic liquids. We present Lu-Hf isotopic compositions in zircons from roof rocks that have been interpreted to represent thermally metamorphosed and remelted Rooiberg Group lavas and from granophyres interpreted to be differentiation products of the cumulate rocks that make up the Bushveld Complex. All of these rocks were found to possess εHf (2.06 Ga) statistically indistinguishable from the intrusion-wide average εHf (2.06 Ga) value of - 8.6 ± 1.2 of the Bushveld Complex. Our results, combined with chronologic and field relations, suggest that the felsic rocks were generated by fractional crystallization of Bushveld mafic liquids, including those that gave rise to the cumulate rocks of the Bushveld Complex.

  11. Magmatogene fluids of metal-bearing reefs in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Based on research data on fluid inclusions in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, L. M.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Gora, M. P.; Shevko, E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in the Merensky Reef quartz and later pegmatite veins crosscutting the Platreef rocks of the Bushveld Complex are studied by a suite of advanced high-precision methods. Based on the conducted studies, we identify a few types of fluids, some having been separated during the crystallization of volatile matter-rich residual melt of original basic magma, while others are derivatives of later felsic (granite) melts that formed crosscutting veins in fully devitrified ultrabasic and basic rocks. The earliest fluid is captured by quartz in symplectitic intergrowths with intercumulus plagioclase from the Merensky Reef pyroxenite occurs as a homogenous dense dry reduced gas (CH4-N2 ± CO2) mixture separated from the aluminosilicate melt at 800-900°C and 3050 bar. The following heterophase highly concentrated fluids (60-80 wt % NaCl eq.) separated at over 550°C and below 3050 bar transport a large number of metals. Major saline components of such fluids included Na, K, Fe, Ca, and Mn chlorides, Ca and Na sulphates and carbonates. According to LA ICP-MS analysis data, inclusions of these fluids contain high concentrations of Fe, Cr, K, and Na at the level of a few wt % and also significant contents of Cu, Sn, Sb, Mo, Au, Ag, Bi, and Ni in a concentration range from a few to thousands of ppm. Relatively lower-temperature (much higher than 450°C) fluids accompanying the crystallization of crosscutting quartz-feldspar pegmatite veins at the Platreef are also highly concentrated (from 70-80% to 40-14 wt % NaCl eq.), oxidized and metal-bearing. High concentrations of metals such as Na, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Pb at the level of wt % and also Ni, Co, Cu, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, and Bi (1-500 ppm) in inclusions in quartz of later pegmatite veins suggest the possible participation of magmatogene fluids related to later felsic intrusions in the redistribution of primary magmatic concentrations of metals. The oxidation of reduced heterophase fluids may be the most important

  12. Apatite as a record of extreme differentiation in the uppermost part of the Bushveld Complex (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Bushveld Complex consists of an 8 km+-thick sequence of ultramafic to dioritic cumulate rocks. As expected for such rocks, concentrations of incompatible trace elements are low compared to typical basalts, suggesting the existence of a residual magma that had escaped from the original chamber. VanTongeren et al. (2010 Journal of Petrology vol. 51, no. 9, p. 1891-1912) proposed that the missing magma is represented by portions of the overlying Rooiberg Group rhyolites or associated Rashoop granophyres, both of which have traditionally been regarded as older than the Bushveld cumulates despite possessing a similar age and Sr isotopic composition. The hypothesis that the felsic rocks originated from the Bushveld chamber is supported by phase equilibria and certain geochemical characteristics of the cumulate sequence. To test this hypothesis further, we determined by EPMA and LA-ICPMS the minor and trace element contents of apatite and other coexisting cumulus phases in the top 500 m of the section, the rationale being that the missing magma likely escaped from near the top of the chamber. Apatite should be a particularly good recorder of the composition of a coexisting liquid because it contains high abundances of REEs, Y, and other typically incompatible elements. Using published partition coefficients, we calculate the composition of the equilibrium liquid at the top of the Bushveld Complex and compare it with those of the Rooiberg and Rashoop rocks. Our results show that the cumulates near the top of the Bushveld Complex were in trace element equilibrium with a liquid similar in composition to those felsic rocks. We therefore conclude that (1) the Bushveld magma evolved by fractional crystallization to a rhyolitic composition; (2) portions of the Rooiberg and/or Rashoop roof rocks represent the residual liquids after extensive fractional crystallization of the Bushveld magmas; and (3) if some of the extrusive rocks directly overlying the Bushveld were derived

  13. Evaluation of the uranium potential of the Bushveld Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poor quality of the airborne radiometric surveys and the lack of exploration geochemical data in the public domain prevent a satisfactory assessment of the uranium potential of the Bushveld area. Undue reliance must be placed upon fitting models of uranium ore deposits to the geology of the Bushveld area. Although the Bushveld granites have an unusually high background of uranium (20 to 40 ppm), they probably only host small vein-type deposits. The vein at the Albert Silver mine should be investigated as a type example to determine if it is only economic in the narrow interval of supergene enrichment. The Rooiberg Group has considerable potential for caldera-related deposits and for uranium-bearing sulphide deposits (including Olympic Dam-type deposits) in sedimentary interbeds. The Loskop Formation appears to be correlative with the Glentig and lower Swaershoek Formations of the Waterberg area. The Waterberg Group is the logical host to investigate for giant uncomformity/vein-type uranium deposits like those in Canada and Australia. Because the Waterberg consists of four uncomformity-bounded sequences, it is rarely more than 3 km thick; all of the sequences could be younger than 1770 Ma

  14. Textural, geochemical and genetic aspects of the granophyric rocks of the Bushveld Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memoir presents the results of a study on the granophyric rocks of the Bushveld Complex. It is generally accepted that a number of different granophyre types are present and the primary purpose of the investigation was to confirm the existence and determine the significance of the various granophyre types as well as to establish the origin and genetic associations for each of the recognised types. Rb-Sr isotopic analysis have been made of a number of samples of Stavoren Granophyre and associated rock types of the Bushveld and the Transvaal Sequence in order to obtain geochronological data as well as initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios for these rocks. These data could be expected to have a bearing on the emplacement history of the Bushveld Complex and also to provide indications of the source regions where the magmas of the various igneous rocks were generated. The study involved a detailed field examination in each of the selected areas underlain by granophyric and associated rock types, undertaken in conjunction with geochemical and isotopic analyses. In addition, textural studies were made of the granophyres and heat transfer modelling of both granophyre and the basic rocks of the Bushveld Complex is presented

  15. Geophysical Imaging of the Stillwater and Bushveld Complexes and Relation to Platinum-group Element Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.; Bedrosian, P.; Zientek, M. L.; Cole, J.; Webb, S. J.; Bloss, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    Exploring for platinum-group elements (PGEs) relies on understanding the geophysical signature of the entire magmatic system in which they form, from bottom to top. New potential field and electromagnetic data and methods effectively map internal structures of layered intrusions that host PGE-bearing magmatic ore deposits, the volume of the intrusion and its extent under cover, and locations of sulfide mineralization. High resolution aeromagnetic data can image fine scale linear anomalies related to layering in the Stillwater and Bushveld Complexes. At Stillwater, the aeromagnetic anomalies relate to boundaries between major stratigraphic units and olivine-bearing rock layers altered to a mixture of serpentine and magnetite. The PGE-enriched sulfide mineralization hosted by olivine-bearing rocks in the Stillwater Complex produces a distinct linear magnetic high. In the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex, primary magnetite layers generate linear magnetic highs. Electromagnetic (EM) data over the Stillwater Complex highlight contact-type mineralization which contain low resistivity sulfide minerals. Stochastic inversions reveal a low resistivity zone along the southern edge of the Stillwater Complex corresponding to mineralization in banded iron formation or contact-type sulfide mineralization in the Basal zone. Gravity highs characterize the exposed and interpreted buried extent of the Stillwater and Bushveld complexes. A 3D inversion of gravity data of the Sillwater Complex indicates that the complex extends 30 km north and 40 km east of its outcrop beneath Phanerozoic cover. Geophysical models image the 3D geometry of the Bushveld Complex north of the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament (TML), critical for understanding the origin of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion and associated platinum- group element deposits, as a ~4 km thick, 160 km x ~125 km body underlying ~1-2 km of cover. Locally thick regions in the TML portion of the model may represent feeders

  16. Determining the Total Volume of the 2.05 Ga Bushveld Magmatic Event: Correlation of the Molopo Farms Complex, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, E.; Gates, M.; Pitcavage, E.; Bybee, G. M.; Feineman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa, erupted 2.05 billion years ago, is the world's largest layered intrusion in the range of 710-1060 x 103 km3 conservatively. However, the total volume of the magmatic event that produced the BIC remains poorly known. Several other intrusions occurred approximately contemporaneously with the BIC, but a clear relationship between these multiple intrusions is yet to be determined. The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) is a layered igneous complex of similar age 2.044 Ga ­± 24 Ma located in Botswana, 200km west of the far western limb of the BIC, with a total volume of 1300 km2. Using trace element analysis, this study makes an attempt to find a correlation between the magma that emplaced the Molopo Farms Complex with the Bushveld Igneous Complex. The MFC is related to the BIC and is located under approximately 200m of Kalahari sands, which prevents any direct sampling or observation. Unlike the BIC, the MFC is poorly studied creating a lack of information for the complex. Drill core samples from the MFC were analyzed to determine the trace element composition using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Using previously reported values for the BIC; a comparison can be made on both complexes to find possible correlations. The comparison of trace element schematics in the MFC and the BIC suggest that both complexes are derived from the same parental magma, often referred to as the "B1" magma. These comparisons allow for an assumption that the initial parental magma of the BIC may have also emplaced the MFC.

  17. Internal parasites of horses on mixed grassveld and bushveld in Transvaal, Republic of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Reinecke, R K; Horak, I G

    1989-11-01

    Between 1980 and 1982, the gastrointestinal tracts of 17 horses which had been grazing on mixed grassveld at Potchefstroom and bushveld at Onderstepoort in the province of Transvaal, Republic of South Africa, were examined at necropsy and processed for parasite recovery. The large strongyles and their prevalences were as follows: Strongylus vulgaris and associated lesions (88-94%), Strongylus edentatus (24%), Strongylus equinus (30%), Triodontophorus nipponicus (35%) and Craterostomum acuticaudatum (18%). The seven most prevalent and abundant cyathostomes collected were Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicostephanus minutus and Cyathostomum coronatum. Gasterophilus intestinalis was the most prevalent and abundant botfly larva recovered. Most of the cyathostome larvae and adults were present during all seasons except winter. The distribution of cyathostome species in the large intestine of the host is discussed. PMID:2588465

  18. Metamorphic and thermal evolution of large contact aureoles - lessons from the Bushveld Igneous Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, D.

    2012-04-01

    Large igneous intrusions crystallise, cool, and transfer heat out into their host rocks. The thermal structure of the resulting aureole can be mapped as a series of assemblage zones and isograds, and can in principle be modelled on the assumption that heat transfer is dominantly by conduction. The local peak of contact metamorphism occurs later in time with increasing distance from the igneous contact. The importance of fluids as a metamorphic/metasomatic agent or heat transfer mechanism depends on volatile contents of magma and country rock, and on the geometry of the intrusion. Many of these features are spectacularly illustrated by the aureole beneath the mafic Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex, which was emplaced at ca. 2060 Ma sub-concordantly into the shale-quartzite succession of the Pretoria Group in the Transvaal Basin. The layered suite reaches a thickness of at least 8 km, and the metamorphic aureole extends 4 km or more downwards into the "floor" of the intrusion. The great extent and relative absence of deformation make this a remarkable natural laboratory for studying the fundamental processes of metamorphism. In quantifying the thermal history, however, a number of second-order factors need to be taken into account. The first relates to the markedly different thermal properties of the major quartzite and shale units, and the second to the importance of endothermic metamorphic reactions in shale units relative to the quartzites. Further insights into metamorphic processes arise from the exquisite detail of poikiloblast growth microstructures preserved in graphite-poor metapelites of the Timeball Hill and Silverton Formations, 2.5 to 3.5 km beneath the igneous contact. These allow a detailed reconstruction of the time sequence of mineral growth and replacement, revealing a marked overlap of the growth intervals of porphyroblastic staurolite, cordierite, biotite, garnet and andalusite at the expense of muscovite, chlorite and chloritoid

  19. The cumulate succession in the Critical Zone of the Rustenburg Layered Suite at Brits, western Bushveld Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diamond drill hole SF-7, situated on the farm Sandfontein in the vicinity of Brits, intersected the lower part of the cumulate succession of the Critical Zone (CZ) of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. The Upper Group 1 chromitite, all of the Middle Group chromitite layers, and the lower/upper CZ boundary, were identified and correlated along strike with the sequence further west. Lower group (LG) chromitites are much attenuated and geochemically distinct from the well-developed LG chromitite further west. The entire cumulate succession below the Middle Group 2 chromitite is assigned to the lower CZ, which in the Sandfontein sequence comprises abundant cumulus plagioclase-bearing rocks associated with pyroxenites, chromitites, and two olivine-bearing horizons. Lithological and compositional variations along strike within the lower CZ are attributed to distance from the putative feeder zone. In this interpretation, the olivine-, ortho pyroxene-, and chromite-rich lower CZ at Union Section in the northwestern sector of the Western Bushveld Complex represents a proximal facies, while the plagioclase-rich lower CZ of the Sandfontein sequence represents a more distal facies produced by the same parental magma, after fractionation along strike. 27 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Composition of the ultramafic-mafic contact interval of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe at Ngezi mine: Comparisons to the Bushveld Complex and implications for the origin of the PGE reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W. D.; Määttää, S.; Yang, S.; Oberthür, T.; Lahaye, Y.; Huhma, H.; Barnes, S.-J.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Dyke contains the world's second largest platinum resource after the Bushveld Complex. Isotopic and trace element data from the interval straddling the contact between the Ultramafic and Mafic Sequences of the Great Dyke indicate a less enriched composition than in the Bushveld Complex (Great Dyke: Sri 0.7024-0.7028, εNd mostly - 1 to + 1, Ce/Sm 2-6; Bushveld: Sri 705-0.709, εNd - 5 to - 7, Ce/Sm 5-15). These data are interpreted to reflect relatively moderate amounts of contamination of the Great Dyke parent magma. All analyzed isotopes show little variation across the Main Sulfide Zone and the ultramafic-mafic contact. This corroborates earlier work by other researchers that the Great Dyke crystallized from a single magma type. Mixing of compositionally distinct magmas, proposed to have caused sulfide melt saturation in the Bushveld Complex, seemingly played little or no role in the formation of the PGE mineralization in the Main Sulfide Zone, and neither did enhanced crustal contamination of specific magma batches. Instead, sulfide melt saturation of the magma was likely triggered by silicate fractionation. The mechanism of concentration of the sulfide melt remains uncertain, but theoretical considerations suggest that phase sorting in response to slumping of crystal mushes, possibly caused by chamber subsidence, played an important role. This model is consistent with the highly irregular, undulating nature of the contact between the mafic and ultramafic zones of the intrusion, in the hanging wall of the Main Sulfide Zone.

  1. Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Stephen H; Shirey, Steven B

    2008-06-12

    The emplacement of the 2.05-billion-year-old Bushveld complex, the world's largest layered intrusion and platinum-group element (PGE) repository, is a singular event in the history of the Kaapvaal craton of southern Africa, one of Earth's earliest surviving continental nuclei. In the prevailing model for the complex's mineralization, the radiogenic strontium and osmium isotope signatures of Bushveld PGE ores are attributed to continental crustal contamination of the host magmas. The scale of the intrusion and lateral homogeneity of the PGE-enriched layers, however, have long been problematical for the crustal contamination model, given the typically heterogeneous nature of continental crust. Furthermore, the distribution of Bushveld magmatism matches that of seismically anomalous underlying mantle, implying significant interaction before emplacement in the crust. Mineral samples of the ancient 200-km-deep craton keel, encapsulated in macrodiamonds and entrained by proximal kimberlites, reveal the nature of continental mantle potentially incorporated by Bushveld magmas. Here we show that sulphide inclusions in approximately 2-billion-year-old diamonds from the 0.5-billion-year-old Venetia and 1.2-billion-year-old Premier kimberlites (on opposite sides of the complex) have initial osmium isotope ratios even more radiogenic than those of Bushveld sulphide ore minerals. Sulphide Re-Os and silicate Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotope compositions indicate that continental mantle harzburgite and eclogite components, in addition to the original convecting mantle magma, most probably contributed to the genesis of both the diamonds and the Bushveld complex. Coeval diamonds provide key evidence that the main source of Bushveld PGEs is the mantle rather than the crust. PMID:18548068

  2. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  3. Pb-isotope geochronology of the Schiel complex, Northern Transvaal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, F.; Frick, C.; Lubala, R. T.

    1992-07-01

    New Pb-isotopic data from various lithological units of the Schiel Alkaline Complex, northern Transvaal, South Africa, indicate an age of 2059 + 35 - 36 Ma for this intrusion. As such the Schiel Complex represents another manifestation of the widespread magmatism that affected the Kaapvaal Craton at this time and which also includes, among others, the Bushveld Complex and the Phalaborwa Complex. The new data additionally show that alkali granite, formerly grouped with the complex, should rather be interpreted as country rocks that were metasomatised during the emplacement of the Schiel Complex. Age determinations have also been made of pyroxenite occurring within the Schiel Complex and of migmatite of the Bandelierkop Formation adjoining the complex to its southwest. The results provide indistinguishable dates close to 3.2 Ga for both the pyroxenite and the migmatite and confirm the interpretation of the pyroxenite as a xenolith of Bandelierkop Formation incorporated in the Schiel Complex. The high μ-values of the pyroxenite and migmatite dates furthermore suggest that the ca. 3.2. Ga date represents metamorphism (serpentinisation and migmatisation respectively) of these lithologies and that the Bandelierkop Formation has a pre-history before 3.2 Ga.

  4. In situ determination of U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of the Phalaborwa carbonatite Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yang, Yue-Heng; Li, Qiu-Li; Mitchell, Roger H.; Dawson, J. Barry; Brandl, Günther; Yuhara, Masaki

    2011-11-01

    The Phalaborwa carbonatite Complex, situated in the northeastern part of South Africa, is characterized by copper and zirconium mineralization, and is composed principally of pyroxenites, phoscorite and carbonatite (banded and transgressive). The complex is transected by mafic dykes, and is geographically associated with a satellite syenite and minor granite intrusions. Zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb isotopic age determinations using CAMECA 1280 secondary ion mass spectrometry have shown that the outer pegmatitic pyroxenite at the Loolekop pipe was emplaced at 2060 ± 4 Ma, and the main phoscorite at 2062 ± 2 Ma. Both ages are identical to those of 2060 ± 2 and 2060 ± 1 Ma for the banded and transgressive carbonatites, respectively. The satellite syenite, which forms plug-like bodies outside of the border of the main complex, and the later mafic dyke have “similar” emplacement ages of 2068 ± 17 and 2062 ± 53 Ma, indicating that these intrusions were apparently near-synchronously emplaced. In contrast to other carbonatites, the Phalaborwa Complex is characterized by high initial Sr and low initial Nd and Hf isotopic compositions. In situ isotopic analyses of apatite, calcite, zircon and baddeleyite indicate that the primary magma was derived from an enriched mantle. As the complex was emplaced slightly earlier at ~ 2060 Ma than the nearby mafic phase of the Bushveld Complex (~ 2055 Ma), it is proposed that the Phalaborwa carbonatite magmatism was triggered by the same mantle plume activity, which partially melted the overlying lithospheric mantle. This contribution also highlights that isotopic studies used to constrain the genesis of ancient igneous complexes should concentrate on minerals with low parent/daughter elemental ratios, such as apatite and calcite for Sr isotopes, and zircon and baddeleyite for Hf isotopes.

  5. The complexity of South China Sea kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Gao, Jinyao; Zhao, Minghui; Wu, Jonny; Ding, Weiwei; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chao-Shing

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the age of the youngest South China Sea (SCS) oceanic crust is controversial (e.g. 15.5 Ma, Briais et al., JGR 1993 and 20.5 Ma, Barckhausen et al., MPG 2014). Close to the rift axis of the East sub-basin, Ar-Ar age dating of oceanic crustal rocks collected during IODP Leg 349 gives ages of 15 and 15.2 +/- 0.2 Ma (Koppers, Fall AGU meeting, 2014), which seems to favor the 15.5 Ma age given by Briais et al. modeling. However, basaltic samples might belong to a sill and not to the typical oceanic crust. As post-spreading magmatic activity (~8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East sub-basin, the published locations of the axial magnetic anomaly and spreading rates are incorrect. The compilation of available swath bathymetric data shows that if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is globally characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055°in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065° and N085° in the oldest portions of the SCS (Sibuet et al., Tectonophysics 2016) suggesting the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending instead of E-W. We present an updated version of the whole SCS structural sketch based on previously published swath bathymetric trends and new detailed magnetic lineations trends compiled from an extremely dense set of magnetic data. The new structural sketch shows: - The distribution of conjugate kinematic domains, - The early opening of the NW and East sub-basins, before a jump of the rift axis, - A second ridge jump in the East basin, - The different expressions of the post-spreading magmatism in the East and SW sub-basins. In the East sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions led to the formation of extrusive basalts associated with the presence of numerous volcanoes (Wang et al., Geological Journal 2016). In the SW

  6. Power and precision of replicated helicopter surveys in mixed bushveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Reilly

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that aerial game counts in South Africa are often applied in a non-standardised, unreplicated fashion. They contribute to poor management decisions based on their results as they may be subject to large statistical Type I and II errors. Replicate counts of large herbivores were conducted in a 8 500 ha sample site in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve in July 1991. These data were used to estimate precision of the counts and estimate statistical power to detect population changes for different combinations of replications and significance levels.

  7. Applying complex networks to evaluate precipitation patterns over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemer, Catrin; Boers, Niklas; Barbosa, Henrique; Kurths, Jürgen; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The climate of South America exhibits pronounced differences between the wet- and the dry-season, which are accompanied by specific synoptic events like changes in the location of the South American Low Level Jet (SALLJ) and the establishment of the South American Convergence Zone (SACZ). The onset of these events can be related to the presence of typical large-scale precipitation patterns over South America, as previous studies have shown[1,2]. The application of complex network methods to precipitation data recently received increased scientific attention for the special case of extreme events, as it is possible with such methods to analyze the spatiotemporal correlation structure as well as possible teleconnections of these events[3,4]. In these approaches the correlation between precipitation datasets is calculated by means of Event Synchronization which restricts their applicability to extreme precipitation events. In this work, we propose a method which is able to consider not only extreme precipitation but complete time series. A direct application of standard similarity measures in order to correlate precipitation time series is impossible due to their intricate statistical properties as the large amount of zeros. Therefore, we introduced and evaluated a suitable modification of Pearson's correlation coefficient to construct spatial correlation networks of precipitation. By analyzing the characteristics of spatial correlation networks constructed on the basis of this new measure, we are able to determine coherent areas of similar precipitation patterns, spot teleconnections of correlated areas, and detect central regions for precipitation correlation. By analyzing the change of the network over the year[5], we are also able to determine local and global changes in precipitation correlation patterns. Additionally, global network characteristics as the network connectivity yield indications for beginning and end of wet- and dry season. In order to identify

  8. The geology of the area south of Vioolsdrif, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological reconnaissance of an area of 1 500 square km to the South of Vioolsdrif in northern Namaqualand has revealed that this region straddles the boundary between the upper crustal Richtersveld domain and the subjacent Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The Vioolsdrif batholith, which underlies much of the Richtersveld, is a composite body, essentially granodioritic, which was emplaced in a number of epizonal magmatic pulses into an overlying comagmatic canopy of intermediate to felsic lavas and pyroclastics during Bushveld times. It is unlikely that this volcanic carapace exceeded 9 km in thickness. During or following consolidation at about 1 800 Ma, the southern margin of the batholith was affected by a thermotectonic episode of regional extent during which the rocks of the igneous complex were foliated and lineated in sympathy with the dominant tectonic fabric of the contiguous metamorphic complex. Metamorphic mineral parageneses indicate that during the climax of this dynamothermal episode, rocks along the southern margin of the batholith were subjected to temperatures of 620 - 670 degrees and pressures of 0,4 - 0,5 MPa (4 - 5 kbar). During this deformational episode the batholith acted as a tectonic resister which preserved the overlying volcanics from incorporation into the metamorphic complex. More or less coincident with the boundary between the metamorphic complex and the Vioolsdrif batholith is a zone about 10 km in width which is characterised by the development of abundant pegmatites

  9. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  10. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jaars

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters, the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters, the Johannesburg–Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people, the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries, the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal

  11. Leading and Managing in Complexity: The Case of South African Deans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Oliver; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deanship in universities has become more complex and challenging. Deans in South African universities take up their positions without appropriate training and prior executive experience, and with no clear understanding of the ambiguity and complexity of their roles. This paper calls for appropriate leadership development…

  12. Morphosyntax of Complex Predicates in South Caucasian Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomashvili, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The argument structure of complex predicates such as causatives and applicatives is closely associated with the functional heads that introduce core and non-core arguments: Voice, causative and applicative. These elements merge in a sentence structure at various cycles of derivation and take complements whose "size" accounts for the meaning and…

  13. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, south Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilímaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  14. Complexity in word–formation processes in New Varieties of South African English

    OpenAIRE

    Bertus van Rooy; Lize Terblanche

    2010-01-01

    The research question posed in the article is whether South African English (SAE) has reached Phase four of Schneider's (2007) Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes. This phase is characterised by early indications of linguistic convergence between the Indigenous and Settler strands. In the article, the focus is on lexical innovation and morphologically complex forms in a corpus of approximately 703 300 words from the Vaal Weekly community newspaper. The data are analysed according to seman...

  15. Gold mineralisation at the southern margin of the Loch Doon granitoid complex, south-west Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Leake, R.C.; Auld, H.A.; Stone, P.; C. E. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Following the identification of gold in a panned concentrate sample from the diverted headwaters of Glenhead Burn, south-east of Loch Trool in Galloway, Scotland,and the discovery of nativegold with arsenopyrite in a quartz vein upstream of this site, a programme of geochemical exploration of the margin and aureole of the Loch Doon plutonic complex in the drainage basin was initiated. Since rock samples showed a highly significant positive correlation between gold and ...

  16. Enrolling adolescents in HIV vaccine trials: reflections on legal complexities from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Glenda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is likely to be the first country in the world to host an adolescent HIV vaccine trial. Adolescents may be enrolled in late 2007. In the development and review of adolescent HIV vaccine trial protocols there are many complexities to consider, and much work to be done if these important trials are to become a reality. Discussion This article sets out essential requirements for the lawful conduct of adolescent research in South Africa including compliance with consent requirements, child protection laws, and processes for the ethical and regulatory approval of research. Summary This article outlines likely complexities for researchers and research ethics committees, including determining that trial interventions meet current risk standards for child research. Explicit recommendations are made for role-players in other jurisdictions who may also be planning such trials. This article concludes with concrete steps for implementing these important trials in South Africa and other jurisdictions, including planning for consent processes; delineating privacy rights; compiling information necessary for ethics committees to assess risks to child participants; training trial site staff to recognize when disclosures trig mandatory reporting response; networking among relevant ethics commitees; and lobbying the National Regulatory Authority for guidance.

  17. Age of carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism of the Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, S.C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Bernard Price Inst. of Geophysical Research)

    1984-12-01

    The Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa) has been dated by U-Pb analysis of uranothorianite and baddeleyite yielding an age of 2047 + 11/-8 Ma for carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism. Baddeleyite yields an age comparable to the age determined on uranothorianite and provides a reliable age indicator. Ages of carbonatite and silicate magmatism cannot be resolved as different events. Confirmation of K-rich alkaline magmas produced in the mantle as early as 2047 Ma suggests that significant chemical heterogeneities existed prior to 2000 Ma.

  18. Age of carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism of the Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phalaborwa Complex (South Africa) has been dated by U-Pb analysis of uranothorianite and baddeleyite yielding an age of 2047 + 11/-8 Ma for carbonatite and phoscorite magmatism. Baddeleyite yields an age comparable to the age determined on uranothorianite and provides a reliable age indicator. Ages of carbonatite and silicate magmatism cannot be resolved as different events. Confirmation of K-rich alkaline magmas produced in the mantle as early as 2047 Ma suggests that significant chemical heterogeneities existed prior to 2000 Ma. (Auth.)

  19. Petrography, age and origin of the Schiel alkaline complex, northern Transvaal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. M.; Barton, E. S.; Smith, C. B.

    1996-02-01

    UPb ion microprobe data for zircon from syenitic phases of the Schiel alkaline complex, South Africa, indicate that it was emplaced at about 1.85 Ga and that it contains xenocrystic zircon of about 2.0 Ga and Archaean ages. Zircon with an age of 2.0 Ga may be derived from the hornblende granite (fenite) associated with the complex. In contrast, RbSr and uranogenic PbPb whole rock data suggest an age of about 2.1 Ga and may reflect mixing of Pb from at least two sources: the lithospheric source of the magma and the crust into which the magma was intruded. SmNd whole-rock isotopic data yield an apparent isochron age of about 2.3 Ga, but are interpreted to indicate that the syenitic magma was derived from a lithospheric source that underwent LREE enrichment between about 2.6 and 2.8 Ga ago. This source is chemically similar to that of the 2.05 Ga Phalaborwa complex, suggesting that both complexes were derived from a common, more primitive source but at different times. Emplacement of the Schiel alkaline complex may have been related to rifting leading to deposition of the rocks of the Soutpansberg Group.

  20. Maps compiled by the ESSO Minerals Company during their exploration program for uranium in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a bibliography of approximately one thousand maps. The maps contain information of ESSO Minerals Company's prospecting activities for mainly uranium in South Africa. ESSO explorated for uranium in the Karoo, Northwestern Cape and the Bushveld. The bibliography contains two indexes. The one is a list of prospects and projects as per geological province and the other is an alphabetic list of projects and prospects. Three geological provinces are distiguished, namely, the Bushveld province, Karoo province and Namaqualand province. The annotations contain information on the location and geographic area of the map, the name of the project or prospect, the title, a statement of resposibility (this includes the compiles i.e. geologists, and/or draftsmen), the statement of scale which is always expressed as a ratio, the date of compilation and/or revision and a few keywords to indicate the topical subject matter

  1. The South Asian Security Complex in a Decentring World Order: Reconsidering Regions and Powers Ten Years On

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Buzan

    2011-01-01

    This article updates the arguments about the South Asian regional security complex (RSC) given in Buzan and Wæver’s (2003) Regions and Powers (RaP). In terms of the South Asian RSC itself, there have been lots of events, but little in the way of structural change from the analysis in RaP. In terms of South Asia’s regional context, the picture is mixed. In relation to the Gulf, there has been a minimal structural change. However, in relation to East Asia, there are more signs of interaction be...

  2. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ditlopo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective: This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD remuneration policy. Design: Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results: The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions: The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  3. Complex networks identify spatial patterns of extreme rainfall events of the South American Monsoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Marengo, José

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall synchronicity of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) by means of Complex Networks (CN). By introducing a new combination of CN measures and interpreting it in a climatic context, we investigate climatic linkages and classify the spatial characteristics of extreme rainfall synchronicity. Although our approach is based on only one variable (rainfall), it reveals the most important features of the SAMS, such as the main moisture pathways, areas with frequent development of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS), and the major convergence zones. In addition, our results reveal substantial differences between the spatial structures of rainfall synchronicity above the 90th and above the 95th percentiles. Most notably, events above the 95th percentile contribute stronger to MCS in the La Plata Basin.

  4. Analysis of Cattle Location Data in Complex Agro-Ecosystem of South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V.; Kiker, G. A.; Williams, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    Cow-calf operations are a major landuse activity in south Florida, especially in Okeechobee County. These grazing lands have become a matter of concern as Phosphorus (P) loadings in this basin have greatly exceeded the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the receiving water body, Lake Okeechobee. Our hypothesis is that cattle's position within these complex agro-ecosystems can be potentially degrading the water quality exiting these systems. GPS position data was collected from collars placed on grazing cattle at the research site: MacArthur Agro- ecology Research Center, Lake Placid, Florida. The data was collected across seasons (fall, winter, spring and summer) and in many fields from 2001 to 2003. The data has been analyzed using spatial analysis techniques. Information and spatial relationships from this analysis will be used to develop animal movement sub-models within a spatially-explicit water quality/hydrologic modeling system (ACRU2000).

  5. High resolution seismic imaging of complex structures: a case study of the South China Sea data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jun; Fu, Geping

    2016-03-01

    Seismic imaging is an effective way for marine geophysical investigation. Different types of imaging schemes, such as pre-stack time migration (PSTM) and pre-stack depth migration (PSDM), are often used to reveal subsurface structures. Theoretically, the PSDM method, which better honors the wave field propagation, can produce more accurate subsurface images compared with PSTM. However, it is challenging for PSDM to obtain a proper velocity model. In the South China Sea basin, the presence of complex structures such as carbonate pinnacles makes velocity model building more difficult due to the complex geometry and strong velocity variation. We have developed a seismic processing work flow which aims to circumvent these difficulties and can improve the PSDM velocity model via iterative updating. In order to improve the data quality and obtain optimal results, a proper pre-processing is required. In this workflow, we use the full waveform inversion to update the velocity model, followed by the application of the tomography inversion. In this way, a geologically plausible velocity model for PSDM is obtained. Afterwards, we use the Q-tomography approach to estimate the Earth quality factor (Q), which numerically quantifies the earth absorption and attenuation effect. Finally we use a de-absorption pre-stack depth migration scheme to compensate for the Earth absorption and attenuation effect in the process of imaging. The amplitudes are balanced and a high quality subsurface image is obtained.

  6. Aspects of the petrochemistry of the Phalaborwa complex, northeastern Transvaal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Phalaborwa Complex, northeastern Transvaal, South Africa, consists of the main body of clinopyroxenites and subordinate phoscorite, carbonatite and syenite which is surrounded by numerous pipe-like bodies of syenitic compositions and rare clinopyroxenites. Clinopyroxenes from clinopyroxenites are characterized by Fe/(Fe+Mg) = 0.07-0.29, low TiO2 (0.00-0.25%), Al2O3 (0.00-1.63%), Na2O (0.00-1.06%), and Cr, and high Wo component and Sr. Minerals from carbonatites have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70393-0.70623 and 0.71022 and minerals from clinopyroxenites have values of 0.71152-0.71242. Small-scale inhomogeneities exist within samples. Post-crystallization processes can account for variations within samples, but cannot account for variations within a rock type or for raising initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of pyroxene from 0.7039 to 0.7115. Magmas forming pyroxenites and some carbonatites were generated in a high Rb/Sr mantle from isotopically distinct sources. U-Pb dating of uranothorianite and baddeleyite from phoscorite and carbonatite yields an age of 2047+11/-8 m.y. Rb-Sr dating of phlogopites gives widely disparate apparent ages. Multiple intrusion of the Phalaborwa Complex is proposed. Initial injection of potassic, probably ultrabasic, liquid formed the pyroxenites. A second intrusion of low-silica, carbonate-rich magma formed phoscorite and banded carbonatite

  7. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  8. Anonymous nuclear markers data supporting species tree phylogeny and divergence time estimates in a cactus species complex in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-03-01

    Supportive data related to the article "Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America" (Perez et al., 2016) [1]. Here, we present pyrosequencing results, primer sequences, a cpDNA phylogeny, and a species tree phylogeny. PMID:26900589

  9. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, South Greenland Contribution to the mineralogy of Ilimaussaq, no. 144

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilimaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  10. Organizational adaptation to Complexity: A study of the South African Insurance Market as a Complex Adaptive System through Statistical Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Satyakama; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2011-01-01

    South Africa assumes a significant position in the insurance landscape of Africa. The present research based upon qualitative and quantitative analysis, shows that it shows the characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System. In addition, a statistical analysis of risk measures through Value at risk and Conditional tail expectation is carried out to show how an individual insurance company copes under external complexities. The authors believe that an explanation of the coping strategies, and the subsequent managerial implications would enrich our understanding of complexity in business.

  11. Natural radioactivity in groundwaters around a fertilizer factory complex in South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the concentration of the U isotopes, 226Ra and 230Th in a groundwater system has been carried out. This aquifer, located in the provinces of Sevilla and Huelva, is the most important in the south of Spain having a surface area of 2500 km2. The proximity of a fertilizer factory complex to this aquifer system is of particular concern given that it releases a significant part of its waste directly into the estuary of the Odiel and Tinto rivers, also storing a further part on the right bank of the Tinto river. Investigation has been made of the environmental impact of the fertilizer factory, either as a result of leaching of radionuclides from the phosphogypsum piles or otherwise as a result of intrusion of the Odiel and Tinto waters, both of which are in close contact with the aquifer. Results show U concentration in waters of this system around the phosphogypsum piles to be significantly higher than those in other areas of the same aquifer. The low 226Ra concentrations found in the same locations add support to the origin of part of the U in these samples

  12. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  13. Changing land- and seascape environments at Cape Sable, a coastal wetland complex in south florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaswinkel, B.; Wanless, H.; Rankey, E.

    2003-04-01

    Cape Sable, a large coastal wetland complex at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula (U.S.), is currently undergoing dramatic changes in land- and seascape in response to historical sea level rise. The rise in sea level is progressively inundating a low marl ridge that has separated interior freshwater marshes of the Everglades from marine waters, leading to rapid widening of both natural tidal creeks and constructed canals. The linear rate of widening (0.7 to 1.2 meter per year since 1922) reflects a system out of equilibrium, in which the channels are seeking to accommodate the volume of water in the tidal prism. Rising sea level has enlarged the tidal prism by expanding the intertidal zone into former low-lying uplands. Opening of the channels has resulted in the creation and erosive widening of secondary channels into adjacent wetlands, further enlarging the tidal prism and tendency to widening. In the vicinity of some tidal inlets, the shoreline has eroded over 310 meters (since 1922; an overall rate of 4.6 m/yr), although erosion occur in steps in response to hurricanes (category 5 hurricanes in 1935, 1960 and 1992). In addition to changing channel morphology and beach erosion, rising sea level has shifted the mangrove/ freshwater marsh ecotone boundary inland significantly. Continued sea-level rise will inundate the marl ridge and accelerate erosion and breakup of the Cape Sable beach shoreline. The coastal red mangrove wetland could possibly keep pace with accelerated sea level rise, but hurricane setbacks negate this effect in south Florida. Category 4 and 5 hurricanes devastate the red mangrove forests and set into motion a phase of root-peat substrate decay and subsidence which has caused stepwise loss of both coastal and interior forests during the past 70 years of rapidly rising sea level. Changes in the coastal wetland environments of south Florida, in which critical habitats are imminently threatened, are driven by nonlinear processes that

  14. The insect pest complex and related problems of lowland rice cultivation in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halteren, van P.

    1979-01-01

    CHAPTER 1.The Department of Entomology of the Research Institute for Agriculture at Maros is concerned with insect pests of food crops, and serves the needs of farmers, most of them living near subsistance level, and of extension workers.South Sulawesi, formerly known as South Celebes, is a major ri

  15. N cycle and retention of croplands in complex terrain, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, J.; Arnhold, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.; Lee, B.; Lindner, S.; Ok, Y.; Ruidisch, M.; Tenhunen, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    The aims of our research are to gain a deeper understanding of processes and interactions in agricultural ecosystems as well as to make a contribution to sustainable agricultural production in changing environments. While crop production is highly desirable, negative effects include high input of nutrients, greater erosion rates, removal of nutrients and carbon in harvests, and decreases in the quality of soil organic matter. The field sites of this project are located in Haean basin in the central part of Korea, just south of the demilitarized zone. Intensive land use with high levels of fertilization together with distinctive erosion during the summer monsoon can be found on site. One part of this study focuses on general fertilizer budgets at catchment scale as well as on detailed information about the dynamics and pathways of nitrogen in soil-plant systems on upland slopes. These balances of elements and their fluxes are the main background information in soil-plant studies. The integrative approach of a general budget is based on a large spatial allocation of the field sites, different management types (conventional, organic), and on several typical crops of the Haean basin. In this project, various perspectives are combined (i.e. insects, weed, crops, nutrients). This allows representative conclusions for the entire catchment as well as for the modeling. The approach of a detailed N cycle uses an integrated experimental strategy within run-off plots. Charred biomass and synthetic polymers were additionally applied in these run-off plots to determine whether these additives can contribute significantly to sustainable farming methods in such complex terrain. Within this integrative approach, each treatment was tested for erosion prevention, soil hydrological parameters and flow systems, nutrient balances, as well as plant growth and yields. Finally, best agricultural management practices for sustainable land use of sloping uplands will be suggested. The methods

  16. New Palaeomagnetic Constraints for the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa Around 2.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, S. A.; Torsvik, T.; Ashwal, L.; Webb, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Kaapvaal Craton was the scene of two major magmatic events around 2.0 Ga, namely the Bushveld Complex (BC) and the Phalaborwa Complex. Both Complex's have been the subject of numerous palaeomagnetic studies during and prior to the 80s. Despite these studies systematic inconstancies have been found between the palaeomagnetic findings and well constrained ages obtained for the Bushveld Complex. The greatest concern with the results is the large spread in pole positions previously determined for the different zones of the BC. This has been interpreted in prior studies to indicate that the Bushveld was emplaced and cooled below the Curie temperature of magnetite over a time span of 50 Ma. While the results obtained for the Phalaborwa Complex appear to be out of position (~16°) with respect to those for the BC, this is of concern due to the Rustenburg Layered suite of the BC being emplaced approximately 1 Ma after the Phalaborwa Complex. These inconsistencies have prompted the current re- investigation of the palaeomagnetic results for both the BC and the Phalaborwa Complex. New palaeomagnetic data collected from all zones of the Rustenburg layered suite from the Eastern, Northern and Western limbs of the BC, yielded palaeomagnetic poles that eliminated the spread in the apparent polar wander path. This observation is in agreement with precise age data, constraining the time period of emplacement of the BC. Fold tests applied to each zone yielded statistically positive results supporting a primary magnetic signature and indicate that the complex was intruded in a near horizontal position. While new palaeomagnetic data from the Phalaborwa complex have produced a pole position that is in close proximity to those obtained from the BC. In light of these new data the Kaapvaal craton apparent polar wonder path has been refined around 2.0 Ga

  17. Some unresolved complexities in matters involving paternity: a South African Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus, Latiefa

    2014-01-01

    A controversial aspect regarding paternity in South African law is whether or not South African Courts are empowered to compel an adult or a minor to submit to DNA/blood tests. The High Courts were not unanimous in this regard, and thus the issue required clarification by the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA). An opportunity presented itself for the SCA to not only address the issue of the use of DNA/blood tests in paternity matters, but several other issues surrounding paternity. ...

  18. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh [South African Young Nuclear Professional Society, PO Box 9396, Centurion, 0157 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  19. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  20. Mineral exploration in the area of the Fore Burn igneous complex, south-western Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    P M Allen; Cooper, D. C.; Parker, M.E.; Easterbrook, G.D.; Haslam, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Fore Burn igneous complex consists mainly of quartz-microdiorite, tonalite and feldspar porphyry forming semiconcordant or concordant bodies within early Devonian volcanic and sedimentary rocks, just north of the Southern Upland Fault, some 24 km east of Girvan. There is evidence that the complex has been folded. Several small bodies of intrusion breccia occur within both the complex and the country rock and there is a zone of monolithologic breccias along a fau...

  1. Ambition, Regulation and Reality. Complex use of land and water resources in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this book I present three case studies of the complex regulation of use of land and water resources in Luwu. Attention to the role of legalcomplexity -the existence of different sources and definitions of normative-legal regulation in

  2. K-Ar ages of the Jecheon granitic complex and related molybdenite deposits in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K-Ar age determinations were carried out on the Jecheon mass and adjacent rocks occurring in the Ogcheon Zone of South Korea. Biotites separated from the Jecheon mass yield ages of 179, 169 and 159 Ma, confirming that the mass and the related molybdenum deposit were formed by the Daebo igneous activity. Muscovite from the Daehwa mine gives an age of 89 Ma and belongs to the Bulgugsa activity. Muscovite from pegmatite near the Dangdu mine, which intrudes into the Ogcheon Group, gives a Precambrian age of 1720 Ma. Thus the original rocks of the Ogcheon Group appear to have a middle Proterozoic age. (author)

  3. K-Ar ages of the Jecheon granitic complex and related molybdenite deposits in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Ken; Uchiumi, Shigeru; Ishihara, Shunso (Geological Survey of Japan, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan)); Park, No-Young

    1983-07-01

    K-Ar age determinations were carried out on the Jecheon mass and adjacent rocks occurring in the Ogcheon Zone of South Korea. Biotites separated from the Jecheon mass yield ages of 179, 169 and 159 Ma, confirming that the mass and the related molybdenum deposit were formed by the Daebo igneous activity. Muscovite from the Daehwa mine gives an age of 89 Ma and belongs to the Bulgugsa activity. Muscovite from pegmatite near the Dangdu mine, which intrudes into the Ogcheon Group, gives a Precambrian age of 1720 Ma. Thus the original rocks of the Ogcheon Group appear to have a middle Proterozoic age.

  4. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  5. The complex post-rift evolution of the South Atlantic margin, South Africa: new insights from joint inversion of apatite (U-Th)/He and fission track thermochronometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Persano, Cristina; Beucher, Romain; Stuart, Finlay

    2013-04-01

    The continental edge of southwestern Africa has long been seen as a type example of a high elevation passive margin, with its characteristic topography forming during or shortly after rifting (c. 130 Ma). Recent work along the South Atlantic passive margin has highlighted the importance of interactions between rift-tectonics, mantle flow and dynamic topography on controlling margin evolution, however, the temporal relationship between these processes is still poorly understood. There is now increasing evidence from satellite imagery, onshore field observations (e.g. Viola et al., 2012) and offshore sedimentary basin analysis (e.g. Hirsch et al., 2010) that suggests that these processes have resulted in a much more complex structural and thermal history along the margin than previously thought. A critical step towards developing a better understanding of the post-rift evolution of this margin is to quantify the surface response (i.e. uplift and erosion) to these major structural and thermal events. Apatite fission track analysis (AFTA) has been used world-wide as a powerful means of extracting quantitative constraints on the timing and rate of major episodes of onshore denudation. Previous AFTA studies in SW Africa have identified two distinct cooling events occurred during early and late Cretaceous, respectively. However, in places AFT ages vary significantly over relatively short distances and this has been interpreted to indicate local differential erosion levels controlled by tectonic displacements related to fault reactivation. A limitation of the AFT system is that it is sensitive to a temperature range of c. 120-60°C and therefore is unable to evaluate the magnitude of denudation episodes where the amounts are less than c. 1.5-2 km. So while the Cretaceous history of erosion is well established from existing AFTA data, the details of the timing and amount of erosion occurring during the Cenozoic remain relatively poorly constrained. The apatite (U

  6. Brief introduction to the geology of the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, and its exploration history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, the type locality of agpaitic nepheline syenites, is made up of three intrusive phases, 1) augite syenite, 2) alkali acid rocks and 3) agpaitic nepheline syenites which occupy the major part of the complex. The agpaitic phase comprises a roof series, a floor series and an intermediate sequence of rocks. The roof series crystallised from the roof downwards beginning with non-agpaitic pulaskite and ending with distinctly agpaitic naujaite. The exposed part of the floor series is made up of the layered agpaitic nepheline syenite kakortokite. The intermediate sequence consists of several types of distinctly agpaitic lujavrites which are accompanied by occurrences of uranium and other rare elements. The complex was first visited by K.L. Giesecke in 1806 and 1809. The first detailed mapping of the complex was carried out by N.V. Ussing in 1900 and 1908. He presented a precise description of the major rock types and an illuminating discussion of the petrology of the complex in his 1912 memoir. In the period 1912-1955 there was very limited activity in the complex. Exploration for radioactive minerals in Ilimaussaq was initiated in 1955 and in subsequent years followed by geological mapping carried out by the Geological Survey of Greenland. This led to a series of detailed studies of the occurrences of not only U, but also Be, Nb, REE and Zr, and to mineralogical, geochemical and petrological studies as well as commercial evaluation and drilling. (au)

  7. Prediction of the most extreme rainfall events in the South American Andes: A statistical forecast based on complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Barbosa, Henrique; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Marengo, Jose

    2015-04-01

    During the monsoon season, the subtropical Andes in South America are exposed to spatially extensive extreme rainfall events that frequently lead to flashfloods and landslides with severe socio-economic impacts. Since dynamical weather forecast has substantial problems with predicting the most extreme events (above the 99th percentile), alternative forecast methods are called for. Based on complex network theory, we developed a general mathematical framework for statistical prediction of extreme events in significantly interrelated time series. The key idea of our approach is to make the internal synchronization structure of extreme events mathematically accessible in terms of the topology of a network which is constructed from measuring the synchronization of extreme events at different locations. The application of our method to high-spatiotemporal resolution rainfall data (TRMM 3B42) reveals a migration pattern of large convective systems from southeastern South America towards the Argentinean and Bolivian Andes, against the direction of the northwesterly low-level moisture flow from the Amazon Basin. Once these systems reach the Andes, they lead to spatially extensive extreme events up to elevations above 4000m, leading to substantial risks of associated natural hazards. Based on atmospheric composites, we could identify an intricate interplay of frontal systems approaching from the South, low-level moisture flow from the Amazon Basin to the North, and the Andean orography as responsible climatic mechanism. These insights allow to formulate a simple forecast rule predicting 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of extreme rainfall events at the eastern slopes of the subtropical Andes. The rule can be computed from readily available rainfall and pressure data and is already being tested by local institutions for disaster preparation.

  8. Toward an analytical framework for understanding complex social-ecological systems when conducting environmental impact assessments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bowd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of biophysical impacts has historically dominated environmental impact assessment (EIA practice. Despite the emergence of social impact assessment, the consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA is variable, as is the extent of their integration in EIA findings. There is growing recognition for the need to move EIA practice toward sustainability assessment, characterized by comprehensiveness, i.e., scope of impacts, integration, i.e., of biophysical and socioeconomic impacts, and a greater strategic focus. This is particularly the case in developing regions and in countries like South Africa, which have statutory requirements for the full consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA. We suggest that EIA practice could benefit from incorporating evolving theory around social-ecological systems (SES as an effective way of moving toward sustainability assessment. As far as we are aware, our study constitutes the first attempt to apply and formalize SES constructs to EIA practice within a regulated procedure. Our framework goes beyond conventional scoping approaches reliant on checklists and matrices by requiring the EIA practitioner to cocreate a conceptual model of the current and future social-ecological system with the implicated communities. This means social and biophysical impacts are assessed integratively, and that communities participate meaningfully in the EIA process, thereby helping address two of the most common shortfalls of EIA practice. The framework was applied in two case studies, establishment of community-based accommodation linked to existing tourism infrastructure (Eastern Cape, South Africa, and a proposed wine estate (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The framework revealed impacts, which would not be considered in a biophysically-oriented EIA, and helped identify development synergies and institutional and governance needs that are equally likely to have been overlooked. We suggest the framework has value as a

  9. Zirconosilicates in the kakortokites of the Ilímaussaq Complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, T.;

    2016-01-01

    mineral stabilities in terms of component activities in the late-stage melts and fluids. Widespread alteration of EGM to catapleiite records an overall increase in water activity, and reflects interaction of EGM with late-magmatic Na-, Cl- and F-rich aqueous fluids at the final stages of kakortokite......-magmatic fluids, in which REE-F compounds are insoluble and remobilization of REE as Cl complexes is inhibited by precipitation of nacareniobsite-(Ce) and various Ca-REE silicates. A subsequent decrease in F– activity would furthermore restrict the mobility of Zr as hydroxyl-fluoride complexes, and promote...

  10. The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, H; Keegan, A; Fallowfield, H; Bentham, R

    2015-06-01

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction along two South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines at maximum concentrations of 10⁵, 10³ and 10⁵ copies/mL, respectively. During the summer period of sampling the concentration of all three organisms significantly increased (P residual along the pipelines was observed. This suggests that the combination of reduced chlorine residual and increased water temperature promoted the presence of these opportunistic pathogens. PMID:26042986

  11. Unraveling The Complex Interaction Between The Southern Caribbean, Northwest South America And The Pacific Plates During The Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez, D.; Spikings, R.

    2013-05-01

    We have studied the prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (the highest peak in the world whose local base is at sea level, ~5.75km) in Northern Colombia and we are interested in quantifying the thermal and tectonic history of the Northernmost Andes during the Cenozoic in order to understand the complex interaction between the Caribbean, the South American and the Pacific plates. In order to do so, apatite fission track data (by the LA-ICP-MS method) has been used, collected along several traverses and a single vertical profile within the massif. Our results show that the easternmost part of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (≥0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with north-western South America. A second pulse of exhumation (≥0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was probably driven by the underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. More southern portions of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Sierra Nevada Province) exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (~0.7 Km/My), whereas farther north, the northwestermost corner of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (the Santa Marta Province) exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. Our thermochronological data show that the highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed towards the northwest via the propagation of NW-verging thrusts. The late Oligocene-Miocene exhumation was mainly a consequence of compression originating at the Pacific margin of South America that also gave rise to uplift and exhumation in other regions of Eastern Colombia (e.g. in the Santander Massif). Major continental faults such as the left-lateral Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault have played an important role transferring the deformation, Exhumation of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif is not recorded after ~16 Ma, which is unexpected, given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and

  12. The Lost Gardar Intrusion: Critical Metal Exploration at the Paatusoq Syenite Complex, South East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Mark; Finch, Adrian; Hughes, Josh; Christiansen, Ole

    2014-05-01

    Regional mapping by GEUS (Garde, 1998) of the Paatusoq region, South-East Greenland, defined two intrusive centres, the Paatusoq Gabbro (~23km2) and the Paatusoq Syenite (~240km2). These intruded the lithospherically weak boundary between Ketilidian meta-sedimentary rock to the East and to the West the Pelite-Psammite zone sediments unconformably overlying the Julianehåb batholith. Following the discovery of high rare earth element (REE=La-Yb+Y) anomalies in stream sediments (Steenfeldt, 2012) in the Paatusoq region, Paatusoq was the target of exploration by Nuna Minerals A/S in June 2013. The objective was to provide an assessment of the critical metal potential of the region. Exploration involved helicopter reconnaissance and sampling. The Paatusoq syenite (1144±1 Ma) was recognised by Garde (2002) as part of the Gardar Alkaline Igneous Province (1300-1140 Ma). Gardar centres are predominantly found on the South-Western coast and represent products of magmatism associated with repeated Mesoproterozoic rifting. Globally significant critical metal deposits are associated with the province including Motzfeldt (Ta-Nb) and Ilímaussaq (REE-Zr-Nb). Gardar intrusions with significant critical metal mineralisation often record interaction with late-stage fluorine-bearing fluids.Analysis integrated petrography and geochemistry, supplemented by two indicators of fluid interaction with the syenite; the cathodoluminescence textures of feldspars and the halogen content of biotite. The Paatusoq Gabbro showed heterogeneous primary layering and pegmatite schlieren to the West against the syenite. A Gardar Lamprophyre dyke cuts the Gabbro. Petrology showed; subhedral olivine, labradorite, biotite and quartz. Incompatible element geochemistry showed the gabbro has a Zr/Nb ratio >15 consistent with a Ketilidian affinity and the lamprophyre has a Zr/Nb ratio ~5, comparable with other Gardar lamprophyres. The Paatusoq syenite showed lithological variation from quartz

  13. Analysis of spatial and temporal extreme monsoonal rainfall over South Asia using complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Nishant [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); University of Potsdam, Institute of Physics, Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Bookhagen, Bodo [University of California Santa Barbara, Department of Geography, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Marwan, Norbert [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Juergen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P.O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt University, Department of Physics, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We present a detailed analysis of summer monsoon rainfall over the Indian peninsular using nonlinear spatial correlations. This analysis is carried out employing the tools of complex networks and a measure of nonlinear correlation for point processes such as rainfall, called event synchronization. This study provides valuable insights into the spatial organization, scales, and structure of the 90th and 94th percentile rainfall events during the Indian summer monsoon (June-September). We furthermore analyse the influence of different critical synoptic atmospheric systems and the impact of the steep Himalayan topography on rainfall patterns. The presented method not only helps us in visualising the structure of the extreme-event rainfall fields, but also identifies the water vapor pathways and decadal-scale moisture sinks over the region. Furthermore a simple scheme based on complex networks is presented to decipher the spatial intricacies and temporal evolution of monsoonal rainfall patterns over the last 6 decades. (orig.)

  14. Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniu, Ian; Darby, Iain G.; Kalambuka Angeyo, Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusive complexes are rich in a variety of mineral deposits such as rare earth elements (REEs), including Nb, Zr and Mn. These are often associated with U and Th bearing minerals, including monazite, samarskite and pyrochlore. Mining waste resulting from mineral processing activities can be highly radioactive and therefore poses a risk to human health and environment. The Jombo complex located in Kenya's south coastal region is potentially one of the richest sources of Nb and REEs in the world. It consists of the main intrusion at Jombo hill, three associated satellite intrusions at Mrima, Kiruku and Nguluku hills, and several dykes. The complex is highly heterogeneous with regard to its geological formation as it is characterized by alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites which also influence its radio-ecological dynamics. In-situ gamma spectrometry offers a low-cost, rapid and spatially representative radioactivity estimate across a range of landscapes compared to conventional radiometric techniques. In this work, a wide ranging radiological survey was conducted in the Jombo complex as follow up on previous studies[1,2], to determine radiation exposure levels and source distributions, and perform radiological risk assessments. The in-situ measurements were carried out using a 2.0 l NaI(Tl) PGIS-2 portable detector from Pico Envirotec Inc integrated with GPS, deployed for ground (back-pack) and vehicular gamma-ray spectrometry. Preliminary results of radiological distribution and mapping will be presented. [1] Patel, J. P. (1991). Discovery and Innovation, 3(3): 31-35. [2] Kebwaro, J. M. et. al. (2011). J. Phys. Sci., 6(13): 3105-3110.

  15. Mineralogical, radiographic and uranium leaching studies on the uranium ore from Kvanefjeld, Ilimaussaq Complex, South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    102 samples of low-grade uranium ore from 70 drill holes at Kvanefjeld, Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion, South Greenland were studied by means of autoradiography, fission-track investigations, microscopy, microprobe analyses and uraniumleaching experiments. The principal U-Th bearing mineral, steenstrupine, and several less common uranium minerals are disseminated in lujavrite (nepheline syenite) and altered volcanic rocks. Steenstrupine has average composition Nasub(6.7)Hsub(x)Casub(1.0) (REE+Y)sub(5.8)(Th,U)sub(0.5)(Mnsub(1.6)Fesub(1.8)Zrsub(0.3)Tisub(0.1)Alsub(o.2))Sisub(12)Osub(36)(Psub(4.3)Sisub(1.7))Osub(24)(F,OH) x nHsub(2)O; n and x are variable. It either is of magnetic origin (type A) or connected with metasomatic processes (type B), or occurs in late veins (type C). Preponderance of grains are metamict (usually 2000-5000 ppm U3O8) or altered (usually above 5000 ppm U3O8), sometimes zoned with both components present. Occasionally they are extremely altered with U content falling to 500-5000 ppm U3O8 and local accumulations of high-U minerals formed. Replacement by crystalline monazite (+- metamict uranothorite and other components) is locally important. Uranium recovery by carbonate leaching (NaHCO3+Na2CO3+O20) depends both on alteration of steenstrupine and on hydration of parent rocks. Yield is between 98 and 50%, the average U concentration in the examined rock around 350 ppm U. (author)

  16. Ambition, Regulation and Reality. Complex use of land and water resources in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this book I present three case studies of the complex regulation of use of land and water resources in Luwu. Attention to the role of legalcomplexity -the existence of different sources and definitions of normative-legal regulation in the same socio-political space - is an important conceptual point of departure of this study. Each of the three case study sections contains specific conclusions pertaining to the issues involved. The last chapter of the book (chapter 11) is primarily a refle...

  17. Late ordovician age of camptonite dike of Agardak complex in south-east Tuva as an evidence of the presence of plume magmatism in collision orogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For studying specific features of evidence and evolution of mantle magmatism in the area of the Agardak complex in south-east of Tuva geochronological investigation of biotite and kersutite samples from camptonite dike was conducted. The age of biotite calculated on the basis of isotopic data made up 446±4 mln. years. It is shown that Late Ordovician age of camptonite dikes in the Agardak complex permits considering them as a manifestation of post-collision plume magmatism

  18. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  19. Genetic and morphological variability in South American rodent Oecomys (Sigmodontinae, Rodentia): evidence for a complex of species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. C. Rosa; T. Flores; J. C. Pieczarka; R. V. Rossi; M. I. C. Sampaio; J. D. Rissino; P. J. S. Amaral; C. Y. Nagamachi

    2012-12-01

    The rodent genus Oecomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises ∼16 species that inhabit tropical and subtropical forests in Central America and South America. In this study specimens of Oecomys paricola Thomas, 1904 from Belém and Marajó island, northern Brazil, were investigated using cytogenetic, molecular and morphological analyses. Three karyotypes were found, two from Belém ($2n = 68$, fundamental number (FN) = 72 and $2n = 70$, FN = 76) and a third from Marajó island ($2n = 70$, FN = 72). No molecular or morphological differences were found between the individuals with differing cytotypes from Belém, but differences were evident between the individuals from Belém and Marajó island. Specimens from Belém city region may represent two cryptic species because two different karyotypes are present in the absence of significant differences in morphology and molecular characteristics. The Marajó island and Belém populations may represent distinct species that have been separated for some time, and are in the process of morphological and molecular differentiation as a consequence of reproductive isolation at the geographic and chromosomal levels. Thus, the results suggest that O. paricola may be a complex of species.

  20. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications of Paleoproterozoic Metapelitic Rocks in the Archean Kongling Complex from the Northern Yangtze Craton, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, W.; Xiong, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The Archean Kongling Complex in the northern Yangtze Craton is an ideal target to investigate the Precambrian accretion and evolution of continental crust in South China. This study aims to unravel the crustal evolution and tectonic setting of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time, using integrated studies of petrography, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic metapelitic rocks in the Kongling Complex. These rocks contain garnet, sillimanite, biotite, plagioclase, minor graphite and ilmenite. Zircons from the samples show nebulous sector-zoning and rim-core structure, suggesting both metamorphic origin and detrital origin with metamorphic overprints. The metamorphic zircons and metamorphic overprints have concordant 207Pb/206Pb age at ~2.0 Ga, while detrital grains yield three distinct concordant-age populations of >2.5 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. The age patterns indicate that the depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks was 2.1-2.0 Ga. Those 2.2-2.1 Ga detrital zircons with variable ɛHf(t) values (-7.28 to 2.97) suggest the addition of juvenile materials from depleted mantle to the crust during 2.2-2.1 Ga. The 2.4-2.2 Ga zircons have Hf model ages (TDM2) of ~2.6-3.5 Ga and >2.5 Ga zircons have TDM2 ages varying from 2.9 Ga to 3.3 Ga. The new data suggest that the Kongling Complex was originally a Paleoarchean (old up to 3.5 Ga) continental nucleus, which experienced multiple episodes of growth and reworking events at 3.3-3.2 Ga, 2.9 Ga, 2.7-2.6 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. In combination with available data, the new results in this study suggest a continent-arc-continent evolution model to explain the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time: the western margin of Yangtze Craton was originally an individual continent, which underwent a reworking event during 2.4-2.2 Ga and a crust growth event caused by continent-arc collision during 2.2-2.1 Ga; it subsequently collided

  1. Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Won; Lee, Kyoungho; Cho, Yong-Sung; Choi, Ji-Hee; Yang, Wonho; Kang, Tack-Shin; Park, Choonghee; Kim, Geun-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Son, Bu-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Spatial interpolation is employed to improve exposure estimates and to assess adverse health effects associated with environmental risk factors. Since various studies have reported that high ozone (O3) concentrations can give rise to adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function, we investigated the association between O3 levels and lung function using a variety of spatial interpolation techniques and evaluated how different methods for estimating exposure may influence health results for a cohort from an industrial complex (Gwangyang Bay) in South Korea in 2009. To estimate daily concentrations of O3 in each subject, four different methods were used, which include simple averaging, nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting, and kriging. Also, to compare the association between O3 levels and lung function by age-groups, we explored ozone’s impacts on three age-related groups: children (9–14 years), adults (15–64 years), and the elderly (≥65 years). The overall change of effect size on lung function in each age group tended to show similar patterns for lag and methods for estimating exposure. A significant negative association was only observed between O3 levels and FVC and FEV1 for most of the lag and methods in children. The largest effect of O3 levels was found at the average for the lung function test day and last 2 days (0–2 days). In conclusions, the spatial interpolation methods may benefit in providing individual-level exposure with appropriate temporal resolution from ambient monitors. However, time-activity patterns of residents, monitoring site locations, methodological choices, and other factors should be considered to minimize exposure misclassification. PMID:27447653

  2. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  3. Phylogeny of Amazona barbadensis and the Yellow-headed Amazon complex (Aves: Psittacidae): a new look at South American parrot evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantówka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Strzała, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) is the sole parrot of the genus Amazona that inhabits only dry forests. Its population has been dropping; therefore it has been the topic of many studies and conservation efforts. However, the phylogenetic relationship of this species to potential relatives classified within the Yellow-Headed Amazon (YHA) complex are still not clear. Therefore, we used more extensive data sets, including the newly sequenced mitochondrial genome of A. barbadensis, to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Various combinations of genes and many phylogenetic approaches showed that A. barbadensis clustered significantly with A. ochrocephala ochrocephala from Colombia and Venezuela, which created the Northern South American (NSA) lineage, clearly separated from two other lineages within the YHA complex, the Central (CA) and South American (SA). Tree topology tests and exclusion of rapidly evolving sites provided support for a NSA+SA grouping. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the YHA complex and its colonization of the American mainland. The NSA lineage likely represents the most ancestral lineage, which derived from Lesser Antillean Amazons and colonized the northern coast of Venezuela about a million years ago. Then, Central America was colonized through the Isthmus of Panama, which led to the emergence of the CA lineage. The southward expansion to South America and the origin of the SA lineage happened almost simultaneously. However, more intensive or prolonged gene flow or migrations have led to much weaker geographic differentiation of genetic markers in the SA than in the CA lineage. PMID:24823658

  4. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  5. Cytogenetic studies in the Eragrostis curvula Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Vorster

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies were undertaken in the  Eragrostis curvula Complex. Three plants were studied at each of 16 collecting points. The overall morphology and embryo sac development of all plants were evaluated, while the chromosome number and microsporogenesis of some of the plants were also studied. The collecting points were chosen so ^s to represent a variable environment extending from the bushveld to the highveld regions of the Transvaal. It was found that the embryo sac development of the plants from the bush\\eld and the highveld were, for all practical purposes, obligate diplosporic apomicts, whereas the transition area contained obligate as well as facultative diplosporic apomicts. The same pattern also held as far as the plant morphology, chromosome number and microsporogenesis were concerned.

  6. First discovery of Quercus-feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in South America, with description of new species and designation of the S. nigriverticella complex in the S. saginella group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeikis, Andrius; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-01-01

    We describe three new species: Stigmella crassifoliae Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (a leaf-miner on Quercus crassifolia and Q. crispipilis from the highlands of Guatemala), S. robleae Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. humboldti Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (leaf-miners on Quercus humboldtii from the Colombian Andes). No Quercus-feeding Nepticulidae species were previously known from South America. All new species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, cocoons, adults, and genitalia. In the S. saginella species group, for the species possessing in male genitalia M-shaped gnathos with caudal processes closely juxtaposed and phallus without cornuti, a new species complex (the S. nigriverticella complex) is defined. We also provide a pictorial key to the species of the new complex. PMID:26701490

  7. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  8. Simple Lu-Hf isotope patterns resulting from complex Archean geodynamics: example of the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin

    2015-04-01

    The combined use of U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from Hadean and Archean zircons is widely used to constrain the mechanisms of continental crust formation and evolution in the early Earth. Such data generally define ɛHf-time arrays, interpreted as reflecting the closed-system, protracted reworking of single crustal reservoirs episodically extracted from depleted mantle (DM) sources. Many models about early Earth evolution and continental growth rely on this interpretation and its consequences (i.e. determination of Hf model ages and crustal residence times). However, this straightforward interpretation is difficult to reconcile with the complex evolution of Archean terranes, involving progressive crustal maturation and a range of crustal and mantle sources to granitoid magmas. Here we present a database of U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes measured in situ by LA-(MC-)ICPMS in zircons from >30 samples, representative of the temporal and spatial record of a single segment of Archean crust, the Pietersburg block (Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa). Coupling of age-Hf data with petrological and geochemical constraints shows that >1 Ga-long crustal evolution in the PB is characterized by (i) crustal nucleation in an intra-oceanic setting between 3.4 and 3.1 Ga; (ii) rapid formation of large volumes of juvenile TTG crust in an accretionary orogen at the northern edge of the proto-Kaapvaal craton between 3.1 and 2.9 Ga; (iii) intracrustal reworking and subduction of TTG-derived sediments along an Andean-type continental margin between 2.9 and 2.75 Ga; (iv) continental collision with the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt at 2.75-2.69 Ga, resulting in magmatism derived from local crust and metasomatized mantle; (v) a discrete anorogenic event at ~2.05 Ga with the emplacement of SCLM-derived alkaline magmas. Despite the diversity of magmas and geodynamic settings depicted by this evolution, all samples emplaced between 3.0 and 2.0 Ga plot along a single, robust array of decreasing

  9. A DIVERSE SOCIETY, A REPRESENTATIVE MILITARY? THE COMPLEXITY OF MANAGING DIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ARMED FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    Lindy Heinecken

    2011-01-01

    After providing a brief background as to why issues of diversity managementwithin armed forces have become important internationally, this article outlines thediversity challenges facing the South African National Defence Force (SANDF).The first part of the article describes how the racial, language/ethnic and genderprofile of the SANDF has changed since 1994 and the tensions this has evoked. Thesecond part provides a brief conceptual framework against which diversitymanagement in the SANDF c...

  10. Detrital zircon provenance of the Late Triassic Songpan-Ganzi complex: Sedimentary record of collision of the North and South China blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, A.L.; Graham, S.A.; Chang, E.Z.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Yang, H.

    2006-01-01

    Using detrital zircon geochronology, turbidite deposystems fed from distinct sediment sources can be distinguished within the Songpan-Ganzi complex, a collapsed Middle to Late Triassic turbidite basin of central China. A southern Songpan-Ganzi deposystem initially was sourced solely by erosion of the Qinling-Dabie orogen during early Late Triassic time, then by Qinling-Dabie orogen, North China block, and South China block sources during middle to late Late Triassic time. A northern Songpan-Ganzi system was sourced by erosion of the Qinling-Dabie orogen and the North China block throughout its deposition. These separate deposystems were later tectonically amalgamated to form one complex and then uplifted as the eastern Tibet Plateau. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  11. Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-02-01

    The Pilosocereus aurisetus complex consists of eight cactus species with a fragmented distribution associated to xeric enclaves within the Cerrado biome in eastern South America. The phylogeny of these species is incompletely resolved, and this instability complicates evolutionary analyses. Previous analyses based on both plastid and microsatellite markers suggested that this complex contained species with inherent phylogeographic structure, which was attributed to recent diversification and recurring range shifts. However, limitations of the molecular markers used in these analyses prevented some questions from being properly addressed. In order to better understand the relationship among these species and make a preliminary assessment of the genetic structure within them, we developed anonymous nuclear loci from pyrosequencing data of 40 individuals from four species in the P. aurisetus complex. The data obtained from these loci were used to identify genetic clusters within species, and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among these inferred clusters using a species tree methodology. Coupled with a palaeodistributional modelling, our results reveal a deep phylogenetic and climatic disjunction between two geographic lineages. Our results highlight the importance of sampling more regions from the genome to gain better insights on the evolution of species with an intricate evolutionary history. The methodology used here provides a feasible approach to develop numerous genealogical molecular markers throughout the genome for non-model species. These data provide a more robust hypothesis for the relationship among the lineages of the P. aurisetus complex. PMID:26582125

  12. A DIVERSE SOCIETY, A REPRESENTATIVE MILITARY? THE COMPLEXITY OF MANAGING DIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy Heinecken

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available After providing a brief background as to why issues of diversity managementwithin armed forces have become important internationally, this article outlines thediversity challenges facing the South African National Defence Force (SANDF.The first part of the article describes how the racial, language/ethnic and genderprofile of the SANDF has changed since 1994 and the tensions this has evoked. Thesecond part provides a brief conceptual framework against which diversitymanagement in the SANDF can be interpreted, whereafter the various diversitymanagement programmes instituted over the years to cultivate a respect for diversityare outlined. It is argued that the predominant emphasis on ‘workplace diversity’ atthe cost of ‘valuing diversity’ has meant that existing stereotypes and tensionswithin the ranks have remained, with dire consequences not only for thecohesiveness and effectiveness of the SANDF, but also for civil-military relations.

  13. Diseases leading to accelerated decline of reef corals in the largest South Atlantic reef complex (Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Fabiano L; Reis, Rodrigo M; Kaufman, Les; Kikuchi, Ruy K P; Leão, Zelinda M A N

    2008-05-01

    Although reef corals worldwide have sustained epizootics in recent years, no coral diseases have been observed in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean until now. Here we present an overview of the main types of diseases and their incidence in the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic (Abrolhos Bank, eastern Brazil). Qualitative observations since the 1980s and regular monitoring since 2001 indicate that coral diseases intensified only recently (2005-2007). Based on estimates of disease prevalence and progression rate, as well as on the growth rate of a major reef-building coral species (the Brazilian-endemic Mussismilia braziliensis), we predict that eastern Brazilian reefs will suffer a massive coral cover decline in the next 50 years, and that M. braziliensis will be nearly extinct in less than a century if the current rate of mortality due to disease is not reversed. PMID:18348890

  14. Age estimation of the mid-Pleistocene microtektite event in the South China Sea: A case showing the complexity of the sea-land correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present study confirms the stratigraphical position of microtektite layer being clearly located below the Brunhes/Matuyama (B/M) boundary. Based on the sedimentation rate derived from the stable isotopic and magnetic data of ODP Site 772A, cores 17957 and 17959 in the South China Sea, the age of the mid-Pleistocene impact event was estimated at 10-12 ka earlier than the Brunhes-Matuyama polarity reversal. However, the microtektites were found above the measured B/M boundary in the loess profile due to the downward deviation of the measured B/M boundary from its true position[1] . This demonstrates the complexity of paleo-magnetic records in the loess profiles which, in turn, causes the confusion in the sea-land stratigraphic correlation.

  15. Astrophyllite-group minerals from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland (contribution to the mineralogy of Ilímaussaq no. 123)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, R.; Karup-Møller, Sven; Rose-Hansen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for astrophyllite-group minerals from hydrothermal veins and pegmatites of the Ilimaussaq complex, South Greenland. The analyses fall mainly into two groups: (1) niobophyllites with the highest Nb/(Nb+Ti) ratios yet recorded (∼0.9), occurring only in the...... veins, and (2) an essentially continuous sequence from astrophyllite to niobophyllite with Nb/(Nb+Ti) up to 0.6, found in veins and pegmatites. It is highly likely that there is complete solid solution between astrophyllite and niobophyllite. More limited substitution of Mn for Fe has resulted in the...... oxygen fugacity, whereas those in the pegmatites were formed from water-rich melts which were hotter (≥450°C), less basic and more oxidized. © 2007 The Mineralogical Society....

  16. From the Cover: Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Lyn; Hodgskiss, Tamaryn; Grant, Michael

    2009-06-16

    Compound adhesives made from red ochre mixed with plant gum were used in the Middle Stone Age (MSA), South Africa. Replications reported here suggest that early artisans did not merely color their glues red; they deliberately effected physical transformations involving chemical changes from acidic to less acidic pH, dehydration of the adhesive near wood fires, and changes to mechanical workability and electrostatic forces. Some of the steps required for making compound adhesive seem impossible without multitasking and abstract thought. This ability suggests overlap between the cognitive abilities of modern people and people in the MSA. Our multidisciplinary analysis provides a new way to recognize complex cognition in the MSA without necessarily invoking the concept of symbolism. PMID:19433786

  17. Eudialyte decomposition minerals with new hitherto undescribed phases from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Rose-Hansen, J.; Sørensen, H.

    2010-01-01

    the complex. Alteration to zircon is caused by fluids of external origin or by fluids expelled from intersecting lujavrite and pegmatite dykes. Alteration to catapleiite is caused by late-magmatic interstitial fluids. The alteration has resulted in distinct fractionation of some elements; Zr is, for...

  18. The complexity of security dimensions: A comparison of the North-West and South-East European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Chmutina, Ksenia; Jovanovic, Milos; Bosher, Lee; Dainty, Andrew; Burbiel, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Prone to multiple interpretations, ‘security’ is becoming a multiple and hence, nebulous concept. Security can be associated with national security and the State’s military power;notions of the individual safety; or human values and fundamental rights issues. This is clearly demonstrated in Europe with various member states using various concepts of security, making them event and space specific. Using two case study regions, this paper demonstrates the increasing complexity of the concept of...

  19. The Paleoproterozoic Singo granite in south-central Uganda revealed as a nested igneous ring complex using geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Katumwehe, Andrew B.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Le Pera, Alan K.; Achang, Mercy

    2016-04-01

    We used high-resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data and satellite gravity data to investigate the form of occurrence of the Paleoproterozoic Singo granite in west-central Uganda. This granitic body covers an area of ∼700 km2, intrudes Paleoproterozoic crystalline rocks and overlain by Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks, both of which belong to the Rwenzori terrane, and it is host to hydrothermally-formed economic minerals such as gold and tungsten. Our analysis provided unprecedented geometrical details of the granitic body and revealed the following: (1) the margins of the Singo granite are characterized by a higher magnetic signature compared to the interior of the granitic body as well as the surroundings. These anomalies are apparent in both the total magnetic field and horizontal derivative images and define eight overlapping ring features. (2) the depth continuation of these magnetic anomalies define outward but steeply-dipping features as indicated by the tilt images extracted from the airborne magnetic data. This is further supported by forward modeling of the magnetic and gravity data. (3) the Singo granite is characterized by relatively high and evenly-distributed equivalent concentration of Uranium (eU) and Thorium (eTh) compared to the surroundings and this is apparent in the Potassium (K)-eTh-eU radiometric ternary image. (4) the granitic body is defined by a gravity low anomaly that persisted to a depth of three km as shown by the Bouguer anomaly image and its five km upward continuation. We used these observations to identify this granitic body as a nested igneous ring complex and we refer to it as the Singo Igneous Ring Complex (SIRC). We further interpreted the eight ring structures as individual igneous ring complexes aligned in an E-W and NE-SW direction and these were developed due to repeated calderas collapse. Additionally, we interpreted the ring-shaped magnetic anomalies as due to hydrothermally-altered margins

  20. The Lagoa Real subalkaline granitic complex (south Bahia, Brazil): a source for uranium mineralizations associated with Na-Ca metasomatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the central zone of the Sao Francisco Craton (South Bahia), the lower Proterozoic Lagoa Real granites and orthogneisses overthrust to the West the younger Urandi and Espinhaco metamorphic series, probably a late Brazilian event. This thrust is related to the regional metamorphism (amphibolite facies) of the Lagoa Real granites and induces a reverse HP metamorphism in the over thrusted series. Undeformed granites (sao Timoeto type) present two feldspars, perthitic orthoclase largely predominant over plagioclase (oligoclase ≥ albite), blue quartz, Fe-rich amphibole and biotite ± clinopyroxene assemblages, ilmenite ≥ magnetite, zircon, apatite, allanite and Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates. The crystallization of the granites begins at high temperature and under low fO2 and PH2O conditions. Fractional crystallization of pyroxene and plagioclase leads to silica enrichment during magmatic differentiation. Increasing fO2 and PH2O are observed during this evolution. Orthogneisses show strongly recrystallized paragenesis: equal abundance of non-perthitic microcline and plagioclase (oligoclase ≤ albite), quartz, more Al-rich amphibole and biotite, magnetite, sphene, zircon, allanite, Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates, and ± apatite. HT Na and Ca metasomatism occurs 330 Ma later than granite emplacement and is synchronous with important uranium mineralizations. Major elements and trace-elements geochemistry of the granites and orthogneisses indicate subalkaline to alkaline typology. Incompatible behaviour of Th, REE, Y, Zr, Nb, and F points out a convergence with alkaline magmatism. CI, F, Th, Y, REE, NB enrichments and Ba, Sr depletions are also related to a late magmatic stage. U-Th-rich and metamict accessory minerals of the granites represent a favorabl source for the Lagoa Real uranium ore-deposits

  1. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  2. Complex network analysis of high rainfall events during the northeast monsoon over south peninsular India and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Malik, N.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Indian Summer monsoon (ISM) accounts for a large part of the annual rainfall budget across most of the Indian peninsula; however, the coastal regions along the southeast Indian peninsula, as well as Sri Lanka, receive 50% or more of their annual rainfall budget during the northeast monsoon (NEM), or winter monsoon, during the months from October through December. In this study, we investigate the behavior of the NEM over the last 60 years using complex network theory. The network is constructed according to a method previously developed for the ISM, using event synchronization of extreme rainfall events as a correlation measure to create directed and undirected links between geographical locations, which represent potential pathways of moisture transport. Network measures, such as degree centrality and closeness centrality, are then used to illuminate the dynamics of the NEM rainfall over the relevant regions, and to examine the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the rainfall. Understanding the circulation of the monsoon cycle as a whole, i.e. the NEM together with the ISM, is vital for the agricultural industry and thus the population of the affected areas.

  3. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  4. Assessment of the ARW-WRF model over complex terrain: the case of the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Iman; Bonnardot, Valérie; Sturman, Andrew; Quénol, Hervé; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has implications for thermal stress for grapevines during ripening, so that wine producers need to adapt their viticultural practices to ensure optimum physiological response to environmental conditions in order to maintain wine quality. The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to accurately represent atmospheric processes at high resolution (500 m) during two events during the grapevine ripening period in the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa. Two case studies were selected to identify areas of potentially high daytime heat stress when grapevine photosynthesis and grape composition were expected to be affected. The results of high-resolution atmospheric model simulations were compared to observations obtained from an automatic weather station (AWS) network in the vineyard region. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the ability of the WRF model to reproduce spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters at 500-m resolution. The model represented the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological variables very well, with an average model air temperature bias of 0.1 °C, while that for relative humidity was -5.0 % and that for wind speed 0.6 m s-1. Variation in model performance varied between AWS and with time of day, as WRF was not always able to accurately represent effects of nocturnal cooling within the complex terrain. Variations in performance between the two case studies resulted from effects of atmospheric boundary layer processes in complex terrain under the influence of the different synoptic conditions prevailing during the two periods.

  5. Otolith Trace Elemental Analyses of South American Austral Hake, Merluccius australis (Hutton, 1872) Indicates Complex Salinity Structuring on their Spawning/Larval Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, Paul; Schuchert, Pia C.; Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Reid, Malcolm R.; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-01-01

    Trace element signatures of otolith edges and cores from 335 austral hake (Merluccius autralis) were analysed using LA-ICPMS from samples collected in Chilean and Falkland Islands' waters, in order to provide potential insights into stock discrimination and migrations. Fish were caught in two locations in Chile and four locations in the south-west of the Falkland Islands Shelf. Univariate and multivariate analyses of trace element signatures in the edges of otoliths, representing adult fish, were not able to distinguish between samples collected in Chile and the Falkland Islands. Cluster analyses based on Ward’s similarity/distance metric suggested that it was possible to identify two groups from core signatures. Further analyses of this perceived clustering of the core concentrations revealed that this was largely due to the wide spread of Sr/Ca ratios in the otoliths’ cores. Gaussian finite mixtures using MCMC methods confirmed that Sr/Ca ratios form two separate distributions with significantly different mean values while concentrations of other elements showed no evidence of the presence of two or more distributions. The results suggest that there is only one spawning stock of austral hake with spawning situated in and around the Chilean fjords (43°30’S– 47°S) and the variation in Sr/Ca ratios likely suggests complex salinity structuring in this area. PMID:26727274

  6. Otolith Trace Elemental Analyses of South American Austral Hake, Merluccius australis (Hutton, 1872 Indicates Complex Salinity Structuring on their Spawning/Larval Grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brickle

    Full Text Available Trace element signatures of otolith edges and cores from 335 austral hake (Merluccius autralis were analysed using LA-ICPMS from samples collected in Chilean and Falkland Islands' waters, in order to provide potential insights into stock discrimination and migrations. Fish were caught in two locations in Chile and four locations in the south-west of the Falkland Islands Shelf. Univariate and multivariate analyses of trace element signatures in the edges of otoliths, representing adult fish, were not able to distinguish between samples collected in Chile and the Falkland Islands. Cluster analyses based on Ward's similarity/distance metric suggested that it was possible to identify two groups from core signatures. Further analyses of this perceived clustering of the core concentrations revealed that this was largely due to the wide spread of Sr/Ca ratios in the otoliths' cores. Gaussian finite mixtures using MCMC methods confirmed that Sr/Ca ratios form two separate distributions with significantly different mean values while concentrations of other elements showed no evidence of the presence of two or more distributions. The results suggest that there is only one spawning stock of austral hake with spawning situated in and around the Chilean fjords (43°30'S- 47°S and the variation in Sr/Ca ratios likely suggests complex salinity structuring in this area.

  7. Otolith Trace Elemental Analyses of South American Austral Hake, Merluccius australis (Hutton, 1872) Indicates Complex Salinity Structuring on their Spawning/Larval Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, Paul; Schuchert, Pia C; Arkhipkin, Alexander I; Reid, Malcolm R; Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2016-01-01

    Trace element signatures of otolith edges and cores from 335 austral hake (Merluccius autralis) were analysed using LA-ICPMS from samples collected in Chilean and Falkland Islands' waters, in order to provide potential insights into stock discrimination and migrations. Fish were caught in two locations in Chile and four locations in the south-west of the Falkland Islands Shelf. Univariate and multivariate analyses of trace element signatures in the edges of otoliths, representing adult fish, were not able to distinguish between samples collected in Chile and the Falkland Islands. Cluster analyses based on Ward's similarity/distance metric suggested that it was possible to identify two groups from core signatures. Further analyses of this perceived clustering of the core concentrations revealed that this was largely due to the wide spread of Sr/Ca ratios in the otoliths' cores. Gaussian finite mixtures using MCMC methods confirmed that Sr/Ca ratios form two separate distributions with significantly different mean values while concentrations of other elements showed no evidence of the presence of two or more distributions. The results suggest that there is only one spawning stock of austral hake with spawning situated in and around the Chilean fjords (43°30'S- 47°S) and the variation in Sr/Ca ratios likely suggests complex salinity structuring in this area. PMID:26727274

  8. An enigmatic source of hematitic carbonate beds containing vast amounts of iron oxidizers in a paleozoic metamorphic complex, South Hungary, Geresd-Hills, Ófalu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáger, Viktor; Dabi, Gergely; Menyhárt, Adrienn

    2013-04-01

    Near the village of Ófalu, in the Geresd Hills, South Hungary, within the "Mecsekalja tectonic belt", low and intermediate grade paleozoic metamorphic complex (phyllite, gneiss) contains vein-like hematitic carbonate beds, up to 30 cm in thickness. The carbonate mineral is calcite. These hematitic carbonate beds cross-cut the foliation of the phyllite, and show no signs of any metamorphic alteration. In the studied section the red carbonate beds are associated with a vein system filled with multiple generations of vein carbonates(Dabi et al., 2011). The red carbonate beds contain a vaste number of twisted stalks of the iron oxidizing taxon of Gallionella. Rarely in some siliceous parts, Leptothrix-like microbial fossils can be found and these beds also contain numerous unidentifiable, hematitic foraminifers. According to ICP-AES measurements, the hematitic carbonate beds contains 8 % Fe, 0.86 % Mn and 0.12 % Ba. XRD and Raman measurements proved that the iron phase is hematite. The SEM observations revealed that the bacterial microfossils and foraminifers are built up of micron-submicron sized pseudohexagonal platy hematite. The bacterial microfossils of the Gallionella iron oxidizer are very well preserved and reaches about 80 µm length and about 2-3 µm width. The above observations raise the following issues: 1. how did these non metamorphic hematitic-carbonatic beds get inside into the metamorphic complex?, 2. what is the age of the formation of these beds?, and 3. what was the source of the iron? If we consider that the hematitic beds contain foraminifers and iron oxidizing bacteria, and no signs of metamorphic alteration nor foliations can be observed in these beds, the only answer for the first question is that the formations are fractures filled with lime-mud, i.e. neptunian dykes, which penetrated into the cracks of the phyllite. The presence of foraminifers and the geotectonic situation of the unit imply marine origin. Considering that these beds are

  9. A Paleozoic anorthosite massif related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits, south of the Polochic fault, Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, A.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.; Weber, B.; Solari, L.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Chiapas Massif Complex in the southern Maya terrane is mostly composed of late Permian igneous and meta-igneous rocks. Within this complex in southern Mexico and in the adjacent San Marcos Department of Guatemala, south of the Polochic fault, several small outcrops (~10 km2) of a Phanerozoic andesine anorthosite massif were found following an E-W trend similar to the Polochic-Motagua Fault System. Such anorthosites are related to rutile-bearing ilmenite ore deposits and hornblendite-amphibolite bands (0.1-3 meters thick). The anorthosites show recrystallization and metamorphic retrogression (rutile with titanite rims), but no relicts of high-grade metamorphic minerals such as pyroxene or garnet have been found. In Acacoyagua, Chiapas, anorthosites are spatially related to oxide-apatite rich mafic rocks; in contrast, further to the west in Motozintla, they are related to monzonites. Zircons from these monzonites yield a Permian U-Pb age (271.2×1.4 Ma) by LA-MC-ICPMS. Primary mineral assemblage of the anorthosites include mostly medium to fine-grained plagioclase (>90%) with rutile and apatite as accessory minerals, occasionally with very low amounts of quartz. Massive Fe-Ti oxide lenses up to tens of meters in length and few meters thick are an ubiquitous constituent of these anorthosites and their mineralogy include ilmenite (with exsolution lamellae of Ti-magnetite), rutile, magnetite, clinochlore, ×spinel, ×apatite, ×zircon and srilankite (Ti2ZrO6, first finding of this phase in Mexico). Rutile occurs within the massive ilmenite in two morphological types: (1) fine-grained (5-40 μm) rutile along ilmenite grain boundaries or fractures, and (2) coarse-grained rutile (1000 ppm Sr, and positive europium anomalies. The anorthosites probably represent the exhumed roots of a deep-seated and differentiated mafic body of late Permian age as part of the Chiapas batholith, apparently precluding major displacements across the Polochic fault.

  10. Timing of maturation of a Neoproterozoic oceanic arc during Pan-African Orogeny: the Asmlil complex (Anti-Atlas, South Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Antoine; Berger, Julien; Baele, Jean-Marc; Bruguier, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Ennih, Nasser; Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Watlet, Arnaud; Vandycke, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Many intra-oceanic paleo-arcs are exposed in the Pan-African belt surrounding the West African Craton. In the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, remnants of Intra-Oceanic Subduction Zone (IOSZ) are preserved in few erosional windows moulded along the Anti-Atlas Major fault. These complexes highlight a Neoproterozoic paleo-suture made of 760 My back-arc ophiolites thrusted to the south onto a dismembered band of oceanic arc relics. The Asmlil arc complex, located in the southern part of the Bou Azzer inlier, is made of (i) 755 to 745 My- intermediate banded gneiss interpreted as metavolcanic products of a juvenile oceanic arc. This latter has been intruded by (ii) medium-grained hornblende-gabbro and dioritic magmas, in turn intruded by (iii) medium- to coarse grained hornblenditic-granodioritic decametric intrusions under sub-magmatic HT conditions. Hornblende-gabbros are made of garnet + amphibole/cpx relics + epidote + rutile paragenesis. Calculated pseudosections yielded P ~ 11-12 kbar for T ranging between 600 and 720°C for garnet growth. Measured Zr-in-rutile thermometer gave slightly higher temperature ranging between 710-790°C. On the field, garnet-rich leucocratic veinlets suggest that moderate partial melting of the mafic rock or localized dehydration reactions took place under garnet-granulite conditions (>800°C for hydrated chemical system). New geochronological data on garnet-bearing leucogabbros constrain their emplacement at 700 ±7 My (U-Pb zircon with low Th/U age (age of 654 ±7 My (U-Pb method on rutile). Geochemical data of each mafic and ultramafic facies (hornblende gabbro, garnet-bearing facies and hornblendite) show typical arc signature (marked by e.g. Nb-Ta anomaly, (La/Sm)N: 0.8-1.6 ; (Nb/La) < 0.46 ; high Nb/Ba ratio ; 0.4 < K2O < 2.1 wt%). Intrusive granodioritic magmas show depleted HREE trend similar to granitoids in the Kohistan paleo-arc. Melting modeling suggests they are produced by partial melting of a REE-depleted gabbronorite with cpx

  11. Morphology and molecules on opposite sides of the diversity gradient: four cryptic species of the Cliona celata (Porifera, Demospongiae) complex in South America revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Thiago Silva; Zilberberg, Carla; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lôbo-Hajdu, Gisele

    2012-01-01

    A great number of marine organisms lack proper morphologic characters for identification and species description. This could promote a wide distributional pattern for a species morphotype, potentially generating many morphologically similar albeit evolutionarily independent worldwide lineages. This work aimed to estimate the genetic variation of South America populations of the Cliona celata species complex. We used COI mtDNA and ITS rDNA as molecular markers and tylostyle length and width as morphological characters to try to distinguish among species. Four distinct clades were found within the South American C. celata complex using both genetic markers. The genetic distances comparisons revealed that scores among those clades were comparable to distances between each clade and series of previously described clionaid species, some of which belong to different genera. Our results also suggest that one of the clades has a broad discontinuous distribution in the Atlantic Ocean, while another presents high gene flow between the southern Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. Conversely, spicule morphology was not able to distinguish each clade, due to the high degree of overlap among them. Therefore, we considered that each recovered clade correspond, in fact, to different species that cannot be differentiated via morphological characters, which are often used to describe species within the C. celata species complex. PMID:22115577

  12. A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin

    2015-11-01

    Combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope data from zircon populations are widely used to constrain Hadean-Archean crustal evolution. Linear Hf isotope-age arrays are interpreted to reflect the protracted, internal reworking of crust derived from the (depleted) mantle during a short-lived magmatic event, and related 176Lu/177Hf ratios are used to constrain the composition of the reworked crustal reservoir. Results of this study, however, indicate that Hf isotope-age arrays can also result from complex geodynamic processes and crust-mantle interactions, as shown by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses of zircons from well characterized granitoids of the Pietersburg Block (PB), northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa). Apart from scarce remnants of Paleoarchean crust, most granitoids of the PB with ages between 2.94 and 2.05 Ga (n = 32) define a straight Hf isotope-age array with low 176Lu/177Hf of 0.0022, although they show a wide compositional range, were derived from various sources and emplaced successively in different geodynamic settings. The crustal evolution occurred in five stages: (I) predominately mafic crust formation in an intra-oceanic environment (3.4-3.0 Ga); (II) voluminous TTG crust formation in an early accretionary orogen (3.0-2.92 Ga); (III) internal TTG crust reworking and subduction of TTG-derived sediments in an Andean-type setting (2.89-2.75 Ga); (IV) (post-)collisional high-K magmatism from both mantle and crustal sources (2.71-2.67 Ga); and (V) alkaline magmatism in an intra-cratonic environment (2.05-2.03 Ga). The inferred array results from voluminous TTG crust formation during stage II, and involvement of this crust during all subsequent stages by two different processes: (i) internal crust reworking through both partial melting and assimilation at 2.89-2.75 Ga, leading to the formation of biotite granites coeval with minor TTGs, and (ii) subduction of TTG-derived sediments underneath the PB, causing enrichment of the mantle that subsequently became

  13. "I Could Have Done Everything and Why Not?": Young Women's Complex Constructions of Sexual Agency in the Context of Sexualities Education in Life Orientation in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lou-Marie; Shefer, Tamara; Oakes, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Progressive policies protecting women's rights to make reproductive decisions and the recent increase in literature exploring female sexual agency do not appear to have impacted on more equitable sexual relations in all contexts. In South Africa, gender power inequalities, intersecting with other forms of inequality in society, pose a challenge…

  14. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  15. Otolith Trace Elemental Analyses of South American Austral Hake, Merluccius australis (Hutton, 1872) Indicates Complex Salinity Structuring on their Spawning/Larval Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Brickle, Paul; Schuchert, Pia C.; Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Malcolm R Reid; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-01-01

    Trace element signatures of otolith edges and cores from 335 austral hake (Merluccius autralis) were analysed using LA-ICPMS from samples collected in Chilean and Falkland Islands' waters, in order to provide potential insights into stock discrimination and migrations. Fish were caught in two locations in Chile and four locations in the south-west of the Falkland Islands Shelf. Univariate and multivariate analyses of trace element signatures in the edges of otoliths, representing adult fish, ...

  16. Growth of continental crust and its episodic reworking over >800 Ma: evidence from Hf-Nd isotope data on the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Moyen, Jean-François; Doucelance, Régis; Martin, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    The formation and evolution of the continental crust during the Precambrian, and in particular during the Archaean eon (4.0-2.5 Ga), is still a matter of debate. In particular, it is not yet clear in which tectonic environment the genesis of crust took place and how the large volume of granitoid rocks that form ~70% of the Archaean crust were extracted from the mantle. Many studies highlighted that radiogenic isotope systems, especially Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd, are powerful tools to unravel the respective extent of crustal growth and recycling in Archaean terranes. This work presents coupled Hf and Nd isotope data (analyzed both in situ in accessory minerals and in whole rock samples) of Meso- to Neoarchaean granitoids, applied to unravel the processes of crust formation and evolution of the Pietersburg crustal block in South Africa. This crustal segment, the northermost one of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton, is separated from older crust (3.65-3.10 Ga) by a large-scale suture zone, and the processes related to amalgamation of both blocks and their subsequent evolution are still unclear. The Pietersburg block is made up of a wide range of Archaean granitoid rocks, including tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series, high-K monzogranites as well as (grano)diorites belonging to the so-called "sanukitoid" group [1], all intruded by late Paleoproterozoic alkaline complexes. Age determinations highlighted two stages of granitoid formation: (1) TTG magmatism took place episodically over >400 Ma between 3.34 and 2.89 Ga, with a major pulse at 2.97-2.90 Ga; while (2) all the other (high-K) granitoid types emplaced subsequently between 2.84 and 2.69 Ga before a long magmatic shutdown until the intrusion of alkaline complexes at ~2.00 Ga [2-3]. Isotope systematics reveal that these two stages are related to juvenile crust formation and crust reworking, respectively. Indeed, all Hf-Nd isotope data from TTG gneisses are suprachondritic, pointing to a juvenile origin and precluding

  17. Geochronological data for lithostratigraphic complexes of a crystalline basement from the South regions of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New geochronological data (Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb) for the Amparo and Pinhal Complexes, southern State of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the State of Sao Paulo are presented and discussed with respect to other lithostratigraphic complexes which there occur. Among the different complexes considered, 4 are composed mainly by rock belonging to typical infrastructure associations. They are the Barcelona, the Guaxupe, the Amparo and the Pinhal complexes. The Barbacena Complex is a typical gray gneiss complex and geochronological data by different methods confirm its Archean age. The Guaxupe Complex is composed mainly by different types of charnockitic rocks and an Archean age is assumed on geotectonic basis due to its neighboring association with the gray gneiss/greenstone belt, a though confirming geochronological data are still missing, a normal feature in this type of mobile belts which generally show a complex, polycyling evolution. Geochronological data by different methods on diverse rock types indicates that the Amparo and Pinhal complexes are respectively of Lower an Upper proterozoic age. Geochronological, geological and petrographic data reveal that both complexes are composed mainly by 3 basic rock associations: a-mainly derived magmatic rocks including mafic/ultramafic ones as well as calc-alkaline, subalcaline and even alkaline granitoids; b-orthogneisses, migmatites and crustal granites derived by metamorphic processes acting on older, pre-existing rocks; corthogneisses and migmatites resulting from metamorphic processes acting on magmatic rocks intruded during the same tecto-metamorphic cycle during which its transformation took place. The results suggest a polycyclic evolution by successive tecto-metamorphic events which affected the older rocks of the considered are either by the reworking of enclosing rocks around pericratonic continental main magmatic arcs or by the remobilisation of older basement rocks during continental collisions. (author)

  18. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  19. Rocas Verdes Ophiolite Complexes in the Southernmost Andes: Remnants of the Mafic Igneous Floor of a Back-arc Basin that Rifted the South American Continental Crust in the Late Jurrassic and Early Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Rocas Verdes are an en echelon group of late Jurassic and early Cretaceous igneous complexes in the southernmost Andes. They consist of mafic pillow lavas, dikes and gabbros interpreted as the upper portions of ophiolite complexes formed along mid-ocean-ridge-type spreading centers. When secondary metamorphic affects are accounted for, the geochemistry of mafic Rocas Verdes rocks are similar to ocean-ridge basalts (MORB). The spreading centers that generated the Rocas Verdes rifted the southwestern margin of the Gondwana continental crust, during the start of break-up in the southern Atlantic, to form the igneous floor of a back-arc basin behind a contemporaneous convergent plate boundary magmatic arc. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous sediments from both the magmatic arc on the southwest and the continental platform on the northeast of the basin were deposited in the Rocas Verdes basin, and these sediments are interbedded with mafic pillow lavas along the margins of the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. Also, mafic dikes and gabbros intrude older pre-Andean and Andean lithologies along both flanks of the Rocas Verdes, and leucocratic country rocks are engulfed in the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. These relations indicate that the Rocas Verdes complexes formed in place and are autochthonous, having been uplifted but not obducted, which may explain the lack of exposure of the deeper ultramafic units. Zircon U/Pb ages of 150+/-1 Ma for the Larsen Harbour Formation, a southern extension of the Rocas Verdes belt on South Georgia Island, and 138+/-2 Ma for the Sarmiento complex, the northernmost in the Rocas Verdes belt, indicate that this basin may have formed by "unzipping" from the south to the north, with the southern portion beginning to form earlier and developing more extensively than the northern portion of the basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the Rocas Verdes basin developed in conjunction with the displacement of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening of

  20. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B.; Cladera, Jorge L.; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. PMID:27362546

  1. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae) Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariou-Papalexiou, Angeliki; Giardini, María Cecilia; Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B; Cladera, Jorge L; Caceres, Carlos; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6) pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT) applications. PMID:27362546

  2. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Gariou-Papalexiou

    Full Text Available Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6 pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT applications.

  3. GROWTH OF THE GREAT ESCARPMENT ACROSS THE INDIAN MARGIN OF SOUTH AFRICA: a couple stratigraphic-geomorphologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Guillaume; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Dall'Asta, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The South African Plateau is formed by marginal bulges clustered around an intracontinental basin (the Kalahari Basin) with a mean elevation between 1000 and 1400 m. On seaward side, marginal bulges form major escarpments that can reach an elevation up to 3500 m in the Drakensberg area, boundering the high elevation continent from a dissected coastal region. The factors controlling escarpment evolution of those high-elevation passive margins are highly debated. On the one hand, geomorphic studies interpret escarpments in term of pulses of uplift and scarp retreat (King, The Natal Monocline, 1982; Partridge & Maud, S.Afr.J.Geol., 1987). On the other hand, thermochronological data and numerical models of escarpment erosion (Gallagher & Brown, Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lon., 1999; Van der Beek et al., J.Geophys.Res., 2002) suggest that escarpments predate the breakup with a minimal escarpment retreat during post-rift margin evolution. To answer this question, we studied the Indian margin of South Africa (from Bushveld area to Port-Elizabeth) using sequence stratigraphy analysis of industrial seismic lines and wells. This study is coupled with an analysis of the adjacent landforms, constrained by dated sediments and weathering deposits. The first outcomes of our study are: 1. A first uplift during Late Cenomanian (95-90 Ma) created an initial escarpment along the Indian coast. 2. A second uplift occurred during the latest Cretaceous to earliest Cenozoïc with a sequential tilting and truncations of the inner part of the margin followed by the incision of pediments on the seaward side of the initial escarpment, 3. A third uplift that occurred during Late Eocene - Early Oligocene and Miocene with the incision of two new generations of pediments. These preliminary results suggest that the "Great Escarpment" along the Indian coast of South Africa results from the stepping of at least four generations of pediments which record the polyphasic uplift history of the South African

  4. Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raadik, Tarmo A

    2014-01-01

    The systematics of the Galaxias olidus hyper-species complex from freshwater habitats in south-eastern, mainland Australia is revised. Galaxias olidus Günther 1866 is redescribed, Galaxias fuscus Mack 1936 and Galaxias ornatus Castelnau 1873, previously synonymised with G. olidus (sensu lato), are reinstated as valid taxa and redescribed, and 12 taxa are described as new: Galaxias aequipinnis sp. nov., Galaxias arcanus sp. nov., Galaxias brevissimus sp. nov., Galaxias gunaikurnai sp. nov., Galaxias lanceolatus sp. nov., Galaxias longifundus sp. nov., Galaxias mcdowalli sp. nov., Galaxias mungadhan sp. nov., Galaxias oliros sp. nov., Galaxias supremus sp. nov., Galaxias tantangara sp. nov., and Galaxias terenasus sp. nov. These species are morphologically similar and, whilst there is extensive overlap in meristic counts and morphometric characters, each can be diagnosed by unique combinations of characters, including allozyme loci and colour pattern; morphological diagnosis is improved greatly if based on freshly formalin-fixed material. Galaxias schomburgkii Peters 1868, Galaxias bongbong Macleay 1881, Galaxias kayi Ramsay & Ogilby 1886 and Galaxias oconnori Ogilby 1912 are retained as junior synonyms of G. olidus (sensu stricto). The types for Galaxias findlayi Macleay 1882 are lost and no specimens matching its description were collected or examined from the Mt. Kosciuszko region; it is also currently retained as a junior synonym of Galaxias olidus s.s. The species G. terenasus sp. nov. and G. arcanus sp. nov. are the most morphologically specialised in the complex and G. olidus s.s remains the most morphologically variable species. It also remains the most widespread taxon, though its previously known distribution is reduced, particularly in the south-west of its range. Nine species are narrow-range endemics, known from one, or only a few, locations, and these restricted distributions most probably reflect the fragmentation and reduction of former ranges caused

  5. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of REE-Zr-Nb mineralised nepheline syenites in the peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha

    Summary: The rare earth elements (REE) share unique physical, chemical and light-emitting properties that are of great importance to the high-tech industry. Among the many rocks containing appreciable amounts of REE, alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites provide important resources for these...... elements. This thesis focusses on the Mesoproterozoic Ilímaussaq complex (c. 1160 ± 5 Ma) in Southern Greenland, a well-known alkaline intrusion that hosts significant resources of REE, as well as zirconium, niobium, tantalum, uranium, lithium and zinc. The Ilímaussaq complex is part of the rift...... potential of these rocks. It is shown that widespread hydrothermal alteration of primary magmatic eudialyte has led to the formation of fine-grained intergrowths of secondary Zr, Nb and REE phases. The alteration was not associated with significant loss or gain of the valuable metals, although the increased...

  7. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve. PMID:12345389

  8. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A; Oomen, Roelof J; du Preez, Chris C; Ruppert, Jan C; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be useful

  9. V oxidation state in Fe-Ti oxides by high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bordage, A.; Balan, Etienne; De Villiers, J.P.R.; Cromarty, R.; Juhin, A.; Carvallo, C.; Calas, G.; Raju, P. V. S.; Glatzel, P.

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation state of vanadium in natural and synthetic Fe-Ti oxides is determined using high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD-XAS). Eleven natural magnetite-bearing samples from a borehole of the Main Magnetite Layer of the Bushveld Complex (South Africa), five synthetic Fe oxide samples, and three natural hematite-bearing samples from Dharwar supergroup (India) are investigated. V K edge spectra were recorded on the ID26 beamline at the European ...

  10. The Achkal Oligocene ring complex: Sr, Nd, Pb evidence for transition between tholeiitic and alkali cenozoic magmatism in Central Hoggar (South Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Achkal Oligocene ring complex-cuts the Upper Eocene tholeiitic traps located on the top of the Hoggar swell. The plutonic rocks range from tholeiitic gabbros to alkali essexites, monzonites and syenites, whereas the volcanites are restricted to late per-alkaline rhyolites. The affinity change linked to the large isotopic heterogeneities (from EM1 to HIMU) suggests that the parental magmas are issued from two district mantle sources, first lithospheric then deeper. The Achkal has recorded the magmatic evolution of the Hoggar hot spot, between Eocene and Miocene. (authors)

  11. Clues to the chemical evolution of agpaitic magmas from compositional zoning in kakortokite-hosted eudialyte, Ilímaussaq Complex, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, A. M.; Smit, M. A.; Waight, T. E.; Nielsen, T. F. D.; Friis, H.

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses the petrological and geochemical variations of eudialyte and related phases in kakortokites from the ~1.16 Ga Ilímaussaq Complex, S Greenland. The kakortokites form a suite of rhythmically layered agpaitic nepheline syenites, highly enriched in REE, Zr, Nb, Ta (HFSE) and halogens (F, Cl). Instead of containing common HFSE-phases such as zircon or titanite, agpaitic rocks exhibit complex Na-Zr-Ti-silicates, e.g. eudialyte and rinkite. To gain further insight in the crystallisation parameters and layering forming processes in agpaitic systems, we performed major and trace-element analyses on cumulus eudialyte. The data reveal complex compositional zoning patterns, including hour-glass sector-zoning, sub-μm scale oscillatory zoning and core-rim relationships. The latter were explored to identify subtle trends in the chemical evolution and in-situ fractionation of the liquids from which they crystallised. Most crystals exhibit a general rimward increase in REE concentrations (1.0-1.3 wt% Ce203 and 0.5-0.7 wt% La2O3), which is consistent with REE enrichment in the fractionating bulk magma. Similarly, Ba contents significantly increase towards the rims (300-900 ppm), while Cl (1.0-1.6 wt%), Rb (7-20 ppm) and Pb (60-160 ppm) decrease. In few cases, crystals exhibit partial rims with relatively low REE contents (~0.5 wt% RE2O3), which is in contrast with the general core-rim trend in the euhedral cores. These particular eudialyte segments are tentatively interpreted as crystallites from inter-cumulate melt, which underwent a chemical evolution distinctly different from that of the bulk magma. The decrease in REE contents may reflect the introduction of new REE-phases at the inter-cumulus stage, such as rinkite-group minerals, which contain ~20 wt% RE2O3 and occur interstitial to the major cumulus minerals feldspar, nepheline, arfvedsonite and eudialyte. Hour-glass sector zoning in the euhedral eudialyte cores involves small variations (< 0.1 wt%) in

  12. Saturated South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heavy rain produced the worst floods in a century in some areas of China causing deaths and forcing whole communities to evacuate Millions have been forced to flee their homes in south China amid floods caused by heavy rainfall since the end of May.

  13. Clonal Structure and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Invasive Infections in Paediatric Patients from South Poland: Association between Age, spa Types, Clonal Complexes, and Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Sabat, Artur J; Akkerboom, Viktoria; Szkarlat, Anna; Klepacka, Joanna; Sowa-Sierant, Iwona; Wasik, Barbara; Kosecka-Strojek, Maja; Buda, Aneta; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of current study was to examine clonal structure and genetic profile of invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from infants and children treated at the Jagiellonian University Children's Hospital of Krakow, Poland. The 107 invasive S. aureus isolates, collected between February 2012 and August 2014, were analysed retrospectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis were performed to determine clonal distribution, diversity and gene content in regard to patients characteristics. In total, 107 isolates were recovered from 88 patients with clinical symptoms of invasive bacterial infection. The final set of 92 non-duplicate samples included 38 MRSA isolates. Additionally, a set of 54 S. aureus isolates collected during epidemiological screening was genotyped and analysed. There were 72 healthcare-associated (HCA) and 20 community-onset (CO) infection events caused by 33 and 5 MRSA isolates, respectively. The majority of isolates were affiliated with the major European clonal complexes CC5 (t003, spa-CC 002), CC45 (spa-CC 015), CC7 or CC15 (t084, t091, spa-CC 084). Two epidemic clones (CC5-MRSA-II or CC45-MRSA-IV) dominated among MRSA isolates, while MSSA population contained 15 different CCs. The epidemiological screening isolates belonged to similar genetic lineages as those collected from invasive infection cases. The HCA infection events, spa types t003, t2642 or CC5 were significantly associated with infections occurring in neonates and children under 5 years of age. Moreover, carriage of several genetic markers, including erm(A), sea (N315), egc-cluster, chp was significantly higher in isolates obtained from children in this age group. The spa types t091 and t008 were underrepresented among patients aged 5 years or younger, whereas spa type t008, CC8 and presence of splE was associated with infection in children aged 10 years or older. The HCA-MRSA strains were most frequently found in children under 5

  14. Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulite s of the Cerro Olivo complex, south-east Uruguay, Part 2: lithogeochemistry, mineral o chemistry and thermo barometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cerro Olivo complex in SE-Uruguay shows different kinds of orthogneisses containing biotite, amphibole and/or orthopyroxene-biotite (charnockitic gneisses). Minor occurrences of mafic granulites are associated. They include low and high pressure kinds. We present the lithogeochemistry and compared mineral chemistry analyses of both the charnockitic orthogneisses and the mafic rocks. Theres i a calc-alkaline geochemical affinity of the biotite-bearing and charnockitic gneisses, while the mafic rocks could derive from tholeitic gabbros. These results allow discrininatieg two kinds of mafic rocks: Low and hight MgO contents, both representing respectively garnet-bearing and garnet-free mafic granulites. The orthopyroxene in the Opx-Bt orthogneisses in FE-rich while MgO-rich mafic rocks show hypersthenes. The thermobarometric data of mafic granulites show temperatures higher than 850°C and two contrasting mineral assemblages, one formed by ∼ 1 Kbar and 770° - 800°C (pre-M). and the other by 5.5 Kbar and 680-700° (M). The mineral chemistry suggests the occurrence of contrasting protoliths to explain the stability of two different mineral associations

  15. Changes of the "Birch effect" in a course of post-agrogenic successions in abandoned fellows along the N-S transect from south taiga Podzols to dry steppe Calcisol-Solonetz soil complexes (European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, Dmitry; Chestnykh, Olga; Rostovceva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    This chronosequential longitudinal (58 - 48oN) study in European Russia includes measurements of the dynamics of soil respiration and changes of the so called "Birch effect" during different stages of self-restoration in post-agrogenic south taiga Pogzols (1, 7, 23, 55, 100, 170 yr after abandonment); Haplic Luvisols in the temperate broadleaf forest zone (1, 3, 7, 20, 60, 110 yr); forest-steppe Chernozems (1, 2, 8, 38, 66 yr), and Calcisol-Solonetz complexes in the dry steppe zone (1, 7, 12, 17 and 42 yr). This effect is well known in soil ecology studies (Birch, 1954) and results in intensive rise of surface CO2 emission and nitrogen release due to soil moistening after drought events. Measurements of the "Birch effect" in the agro-ecosystems were made in 2012 - 2015 during the vegetative periods (April- September). We measured CO2 emissions monthly at every succession stage, using a closed chamber technique before and after 200 ml of distilled water addition per base (equivalent of 2 mm rain). The maximum rates of observed CO2 soil emission fluxes due to "Birch effect" per initial respiration values were than compared between different zonal ecosystems and stages of agro-successions. Our results show that the fellows stages in dry steppe zone demonstrate the lowest seasonal rate of basic soil respiration at average: 3.5 times lower, if compared to the fellows chronosequence in Podzols, 4.6 times lower, if compared to Agro-chernozems, and the maximum difference was found with the Haplic Livisols in the zone of broadleaf forests - 7.8 times lower. The "Birch effect" for soil respiration of the zonal fellow chronosequences in study was shown to increase from 1.1 ± 0.6 for broadleaf Haplic Vertisols (no effect), to 7.1 ± 1.5 in the zone of forest steppe, and to 15.2 ± 3.5 in dry steppe, which is due to zonal deterioration of hydro-thermal conditions and aridization. In south taiga zone it is weakly expressed and changes within the limits of 1.0 - 2.5. In

  16. Analysis of lithofacies cyclicity in the Miocene Coal Complex of the Bełchatów lignite deposit, south-central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastej Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Markov chain analysis was applied to studies of cyclic sedimentation in the Coal Complex of the Bełchatów mining field (part of the Bełchatów lignite deposit. The majority of ambiguous results of statistical testing that were caused by weak, statistically undetectable advantage of either cyclicity over environmental barriers or vice versa, could be explained if only the above-mentioned advantages appeared in the neighbourhood. Therefore, in order to enhance the credibility of statistical tests, a new approach is proposed here in that matrices of observed transition numbers from different boreholes should be added to increase statistical reliability if they originated in a homogeneous area. A second new approach, which consists of revealing statistically undetectable cyclicity of lithofacies alternations, is proposed as well. All data were derived from the mining data base in which differentiation between lithology and sedimentary environments was rather weak. For this reason, the methodological proposals are much more important than details of the sedimentation model in the present paper. Nevertheless, they did reveal some interesting phenomena which may prove important in the reconstruction of peat/lignite environmental conditions. First of all, the presence of cyclicity in the sedimentation model, i.e., cyclic alternation of channel and overbank deposits, represents a fluvial environment. It was also confirmed that the lacustrine subenvironment was cut off from a supply of clastic material by various types of mire barriers. Additionally, our analysis revealed new facts: (i these barriers also existed between lakes in which either carbonate or clay sedimentation predominated; (ii there was no barrier between rivers and lakes in which clay sedimentation predominated; (iii barriers were less efficient in alluvial fan areas but were perfectly tight in regions of phytogenic or carbonate sedimentation; (iv groundwater, rather than surface flow

  17. Formation and emplacement of two contrasting late-Mesoproterozoic magma types in the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex (South Africa, Namibia): Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen H.; Frei, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The Namaqua Metamorphic Complex is a Mesoproterozoic low-pressure, granulite facies belt along the southern and western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The NMC has formed between ~ 1.3 and 1.0 Ga and its central part consists essentially of different types of granitoids intercalated with metapelites and calc-silicate rocks. The granitoids can be subdivided into three major groups: (i) mesocratic granitoids, (ii) leucocratic granitoids and (iii) leucogranites. The high-K, ferroan mesocratic granitoids (54-75 wt% SiO2) have a variable composition ranging from granitic to tonalitic, and contain biotite and/or hornblende or orthopyroxene. They are strongly enriched in REE and LILE, indicating A-type chemical characteristics, and are depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb, Ta and Ti. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites (68-76 wt% SiO2) differ from the other group in having a granitic or slightly syenitic composition containing biotite and/or garnet/sillimanite. They have lower REE and MgO, FeOt, CaO, TiO2, MnO concentrations, but higher Na2O and K2O contents. Compositional variations in mesocratic granitoids indicate their formation by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma. Leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites lack such trends, which suggests melting of a felsic crustal source without subsequent further evolution of the generated magmas. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the mesocratic granitoids are consistent magmatic differentiation of a mantle derived, hot (> 900 °C) parental magma. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites granites were formed from low-temperature magmas (< 730 °C), generated during fluid-present melting from metasedimentary sources. New U-Pb zircon ages reveal that both magma types were emplaced into the lower crust within a 30-40 million years interval between 1220-1180 Ma. In this time period the crust reached its thermal peak, which led to the formation of the leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites. A

  18. Analysis of lithofacies cyclicity in the Miocene Coal Complex of the Bełchatów lignite deposit, south-central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastej, Wojciech; Bartuś, Tomasz; Rydlewski, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    Markov chain analysis was applied to studies of cyclic sedimentation in the Coal Complex of the Bełchatów mining field (part of the Bełchatów lignite deposit). The majority of ambiguous results of statistical testing that were caused by weak, statistically undetectable advantage of either cyclicity over environmental barriers or vice versa, could be explained if only the above-mentioned advantages appeared in the neighbourhood. Therefore, in order to enhance the credibility of statistical tests, a new approach is proposed here in that matrices of observed transition numbers from different boreholes should be added to increase statistical reliability if they originated in a homogeneous area. A second new approach, which consists of revealing statistically undetectable cyclicity of lithofacies alternations, is proposed as well. All data were derived from the mining data base in which differentiation between lithology and sedimentary environments was rather weak. For this reason, the methodological proposals are much more important than details of the sedimentation model in the present paper. Nevertheless, they did reveal some interesting phenomena which may prove important in the reconstruction of peat/lignite environmental conditions. First of all, the presence of cyclicity in the sedimentation model, i.e., cyclic alternation of channel and overbank deposits, represents a fluvial environment. It was also confirmed that the lacustrine subenvironment was cut off from a supply of clastic material by various types of mire barriers. Additionally, our analysis revealed new facts: (i) these barriers also existed between lakes in which either carbonate or clay sedimentation predominated; (ii) there was no barrier between rivers and lakes in which clay sedimentation predominated; (iii) barriers were less efficient in alluvial fan areas but were perfectly tight in regions of phytogenic or carbonate sedimentation; (iv) groundwater, rather than surface flow, was the main

  19. Vaal Reefs South uranium plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vaal Reefs mining complex, part of the Anglo American Corporation, is the largest gold and uranium producing complex in the world, being South Africa's principal producer, accounting for about a quarter of the country's uranium production. Vaal Reefs South uranium plant in the Orkney district was recently officially opened by Dr AJA Roux, the retiring president of the Atomic Energy Board and chairman of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and will increase the country's uranium production. In the field of technology, and particularly processing technology, South Africa has shown the world unprecedented technology achievement in the field of uranium extraction from low grade ores and the development of the unique uranium enrichment process. New technical innovations that have been incorporated in this new plant are discussed

  20. Global South: Anthropological Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna; Kalb, Don

    2015-01-01

    The global south is a complex and dynamic concept that straddles multiple social science and humanist disciplines. Emerging around 2000, it reflects the agenda of two ascending forces in those years: the antiglobalist (alterglobalist/global justice) movement and the World Social Forum, on the one...... hand, and an alliance of Southern states within the World Trade Organization on the other. Generally seen as an inheritor of the emancipatory thought behind the notion of the ‘third world,’ in the social sciences the idea of the ‘global south’ is also entangled with more classical academic themes such...

  1. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  2. Utilization of Bellae Prehistory Cave Complex

    OpenAIRE

    supriadi

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is located in South Sulawesi. Bellae has rich archaeological heritage that make this cave complex important as cultural resource in South Sulawesi as well as in Indonesia generally. Nowadays, the Bellae Prehistoric Cave Complex is threatened by the local population as the sites are close to settlement. Furthermore, its archaeological potentials as well as the uniqueness of the complex which is situated in karstic area have attracted many parties to...

  3. Major Vegetation Types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun–Blanquet floristic–sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT’s were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana–Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum–Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum–Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata–Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis–Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon–Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida–Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora–Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  4. [South] Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects. PMID:12178022

  5. Migration, Refugees, and Racism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Handmaker, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe paper looks at South Africa’s complex history and policies of racism, social separation and control and the impact that this has had on the nature of migration and refugee policy. The paper argues that this legacy has resulted in policy and implementation that is highly racialized, coupled with a society expressing growing levels of xenophobia. Some causes and manifestations of xenophobia in South Africa are explored. It further examines how actions of police and civil servant...

  6. 多源遥感数据时空融合模型应用分析%Assessing the Accuracy of Spatial and Temporal Image Fusion Model of Complex area in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬明权; 牛铮; 王长耀

    2014-01-01

    Due to cloud coverage and obstruction, it is difficult to obtain useful images during the critical periods of monitoring vegetation using medium resolution spatial satellites such as Landsat and Satellite Pour l'Observa-tion de la Terre (SPOT), especially in pluvial regions. A solution for fine-scale vegetation research is to blend the data from both high temporal resolution sensors (e.g., MODIS) and moderate ground resolution satellites (e.g., Landsat) to generate synthetic observations with characteristics of both. In recent decades, several approaches have been proposed to enhance the temporal frequency of high-resolution spatial satellite observations. However, there is a lack of application research of those methods, especially in South China where the climate is complex and the region is scattered with broken terrain. In order to evaluate the application ability of spatial and temporal image fusion models in South China, five spatial and temporal image fusion models were assessed in this paper. The five models are LORENZO model, LIU model, statistical model, STARFM and ESTARFM. Using the Land-sat-ETM+and MODIS data, the five methods were tested in an area near the Nanjing city of Jiangsu Province. Qualitativeevaluation and quantitativeevaluation methods were used to evaluate the similarity between the simu-lated images and the real Landsat ETM+images. Results showed that except Lorenzo model, the other models were able to produce synthetic images very similar to the actual observed images with a correlation coefficients r of higher than 0.6. The more information, such as distance, temporal and spectral information, isused in the im-age fusion, the synthetic fusion image could better reflect the detailed features of land surface.%多源遥感数据时空融合模型是解决目前遥感数据获取能力不足问题的重要方法之一,当前主要融合方法的研究,集中于平原区域,缺乏复杂条件下的多源遥感数据融

  7. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  8. South China Sea Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  9. The rock coast of South and Central America : chapter 10

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Chao, R.; Pedoja, K.; De Witt, C.; Martinod, J.; Husson, L.; Regard, V; Audin, Laurence; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Saillard, M.; D. Melnick; Dumont, J.F.; Santana, E.; E Navarrete; Martillo, C.

    2014-01-01

    The great variety of climatic conditions, tidal ranges and wave regimes of South and Central America act on a complex geology and tectonic framework. Many of the rock and cliffed coasts of South America are strongly controlled by the occurrence of extensive Cenozoic and Pleistocene sediments that crop out at the coast. Geology and the different uplift rates are a major factor in the whole coastal geomorphology of South and Central America, and consequently are a very important control of the ...

  10. Secrets Of The South-Korean Economic Miracle

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra CIULU; Ioan CIOBANU

    2010-01-01

    This paper proves that, in order to accomplish the highest economic development at mac-roeconomical level, it is necessary to maintain and manage imbalances, so that they do not become unbearable. For this purpose, South-Koreans have created the ‘South-Korean essentials’, an ex-tremely complex concept, which involves multiple factors that together create the targetted effect. The South-Korean miracle challenges even the neoclassical model. State intervention in the economy is one of the key f...

  11. The Seis Lagos Carbonatite Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seis Lagos Carbonatite Complex located about 840 Km from Manaus, on the northwestern part of the Estado do Amazonas, Brazil is described. Geological reconnaissance mapping by Radam Project/DNPM, of the southwestern portion of the Guianes Craton, determined three circular features arranged in a north-south trend and outcroping as thick lateritic radioactive hills surrounded by gneisses and mignatites of the peneplained Guianense Complex. Results of core drilling samples analysis of the Seis Lagos Carbonatite Complex are compared with some igneous rocks and limestones of the world on the basis of abundance of their minor and trace elements. Log-log variation diagram of strontium and barium in carbonatite and limestone, exemplifield by South Africa and Angola carbonatites, are compared with the Seis Lagos Carbonatite Complex. The Seis Lagos Carbonatite Complex belongs to the siderite-soevite type. (E.G.)

  12. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  13. South Pacific newsletter : 9

    OpenAIRE

    Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific; カゴシマ ダイガク ミナミ タイヘイヨウ カイイキ ケンキュウ センター; 鹿児島大学南太平洋海域研究センター

    1998-01-01

    The Future of the Research Center for the South Pacific / INOUE Akio (Director, Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific) Unicellular Organisms with Calcareous Shells in the Subtropical and Tropical NW-Pacific / HOHENEGGER Johann (Visiting Professor, Kagoshima University Research Center for the South Pacific) [Symposium] Foraminifera as Indicators of Marine Environments in the Present and Past Why Does Foraminifera Act as Useful Proxies for Modern and Ancient ...

  14. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  15. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A

    2016-07-01

    The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21

  16. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  18. Coaltrans South Africa 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: overview of the South African coal industry; South African economy and coal reserves; black economic empowerment and new mining legislation; and transport logistics. Most of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads. Three papers which are not overheads have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  19. EVOLUTION OF SOUTHERN AFRICAN CRATONS BASED ON SEISMIC IMAGING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    present a new seismic model for the structure of the crust and lithospheric mantle of the Kalahari Craton, constrained by seismic receiver functions and finite-frequency tomography based on the seismological data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE). The combination of these two methods...... since formation of the craton, and (3) seismically fast lithospheric keels are imaged in the Kaapvaal and Zimabwe cratons to depths of 300-350 km. Relatively low velocity anomalies are imaged beneath both the paleo-orogenic Limpopo Belt and the Bushveld Complex down to depths of ~250 km and ~150 km...

  20. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  1. Complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  2. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  3. Census Snapshot: South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in South Dakota. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in South Dakota. In many ways, the nearly 1,000 same-sex couples living in South Dakota are similar to married cou...

  4. Census Snapshot: South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in South Carolina. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in South Carolina. In many ways, the more than 10,500 same-sex couples living in South Carolina are similar to married c...

  5. South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi warned against attempts to "in-ternationalize" the issue of the South China Sea, where China has territorial disputes with some ASEAN member states, including Viet Nam and the

  6. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  7. South and Southwest HSRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  8. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  9. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  10. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...

  11. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  12. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Steve; Ershaghi, Iraj

    2006-06-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to over 10,000,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intended to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. In the first phase of the project, state of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic, interference tests and production logs were employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database were used in the construction of a new geologic model of the fracture network. An innovative fracture network reservoir simulator was developed to better understand and manage the aquifer’s role in pressure maintenance and water production. In the second phase of this project, simulation models were used to plan the redevelopment of the field using high angle wells. Correct placement of the wells is critical to intersect the best-developed fracture zones and to avoid producing large volumes of water from the water leg. Particula r attention was paid to those areas of the field that have not been adequately developed with the existing producers. In cooperation with the DOE and the PTTC, the new data and the new fracture simulation model were shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the methodologies developed in this project. This report presents a summary of all technical work conducted during Budget Periods I

  13. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  14. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina

    2011-01-01

    Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in th...

  15. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  16. Tropical complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    We introduce tropical complexes, which are Delta-complexes together with additional numerical data. On a tropical complex, we define divisors and linear equivalence between divisors, analogous to the notions for algebraic varieties, and generalizing previous work for graphs. We prove a comparison theorem showing that divisor-curve intersection numbers agree under certain conditions.

  17. Medical Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Medical Complex. This project covers the construction of a new Hong Kong University Medical Complex on Sassoon Road, Pokfulam. The complex will comprise two buildings, one will house laboratories and a car park, while the other will contain lecture halls

  18. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  19. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.

    1999-03-01

    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  20. The rationale for South-South trade; An Alternative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Arguing that the theoretical literature on South-South trade is not satisfactory, the author provides an alternative framework and rationale for the South-South trade as a vehicle for industrialization and development of developing countries. He also applies this framework to developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In particular, showing that the low-income countries of the region are not benefiting much from the dynamism of the China market for their industrialization, he proposes, ...

  1. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  2. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. SOUTH WARNER WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Weldin, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral appraisal utilized geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and an examination of mining claims in the South Warner Wilderness, California. Results of this study indicate that little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources exists within the area. Small veins of optical quality calcite occur on the east side of the area but, are not considered a resource.

  4. South Moravian rural borderland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    Brno : MU Brno, 2010 - (Vaishar, A.; Zapletalová, J.). s. 61-62 ISBN 978-80-7375-418-1. [Eurorural ´10. 30.08.2010-03.09.2010, Brno, Křtiny] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : South-Moravia * rural borderland * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  5. North-South Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Melville

    1975-01-01

    Multinational corporations operating mostly in northern Canada export natural resources thus creating jobs and money for foreign shareholders. Similarly, businesses based in southern Canada reap benefits from northern resources. Environmentalists and churches can ally north-south interests to protect northern resources and people from corporate…

  6. Selatan—Sur—South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Campbell

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Kumpulan puisi dalam Bahasa Indonesia oleh IAN CAMPBELL/Poetry compilation in Indonesian by the Australian poet Ian Campbell. This collection of poems explores the notion of the 'south' from locations in Indonesia, Australia, Chile and Argentina, locations in which the poems were written. Explaining his topographical approach in these poems, Campbell says: "One of the poems, titled in the Indonesian original 'Lejano sur' (Ke Kejauhan Selatan, appears alongside an English version, called 'Further South.' This short poem takes Borges's short story 'Sur' and a reference to Avenida Rivadavia that he includes in 'Sur' as its starting point for crossing into 'the South' from the centre of Buenos Aires. I then explore ideas of southness - as paradoxically moving 'south' away from North into a region where 'the natural elements are supreme'. Recent Chilean poetry eg 'Despedidas Antárticas' by Julio Carrasco (2006 picks up this idea of 'towards the essence' better than recent Australian poetry. Only Tom Griffiths, the historian, has recently explored this in prose. There are Borgesian images of dust/lack of clarity, then we head into a region where eg Torre del Paine, admittedly on the Chilean side of the Andes, come to mind. The stress on the elements - stone, wind, fire - is an allusion to the way Indonesian poet, Acep Zamzam Noor, portrays these elements in a poem 'Batu dan Angin' (Stone and Wind which has strong sufi/meditative elements. We head into the polar area, which because of climate change, is now melting. But there is also an allusion to Douglas Stewart's play 'Fire on the Snow' about the 1911 Scott expedition and the value of 'human failure'. Even the 'essence' is melting and is no longer stable."

  7. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  8. South Africa : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in South Africa, within the broader context of institutional capacity available for ensuring high-quality financial reporting. National accounting and auditing standards in South Africa are developed on the basis of international standards; but lack of legal backing for accounting standards give rise to problems. South...

  9. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  10. South-South Cooperation in Times of Global Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Morais de Sa e Silva

    2013-01-01

    For South-South cooperation, the current moment of global economic downturn is one of anxiety. South-South cooperation was born with the Non-Aligned Movement. It went through a latent period, but re-emerged in the 1990s and early 2000s. The momentum gathered when a handful of middle-income countries such as Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa were set to improve their position as global players. They had developed some relatively successful social programmes, which they sought to share wit...

  11. Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...

  12. The Microeconomics of North-South Korean Cross-Border Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Haggard; Marcus Noland

    2012-01-01

    Economic integration between North and South Korea occurs through three modalities: traditional arm's-length trade and investment, processing on commission (POC) trade, and operations within the Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC). In order, these three modalities are characterized by decreasing exposure of South Korean firms to North Korean policy and infrastructure. Through a survey of 200 South Korean firms operating in North Korea, the authors find that these modalities of exchange matter gr...

  13. South Asia's health promotion kaleidoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Alok

    2007-01-01

    South Asia has 22 percent of the world's population but only 1.3 percent of the global income. Consequently 40 percent of the population is living in absolute poverty. However the health transition in some of its countries including India and Sri Lanka is a testimony to the fact that there are proven solutions to the problems of health and development within the region. The countries of the region have much in common, including a democratic political system, four major religions, a vibrant and living tradition of voluntarism and an extensive health infrastructure which is operating well below par. Despite the underlying unity, South Asia enjoys enormous cultural, linguistic and ethnic diversity. In this large, complex and vibrant region, health promotion is a challenging task, but it also holds the key to a dramatic change in the global health situation. Many of these solutions lie in wider areas of socio-political action. There are much needed shifts in the health promotion and development efforts, particularly in the area of poverty and social justice; gender inequity; population stabilisation; health and environment; control of communicable and non-communicable diseases; and urban health strategies. The principle of cooperation, partnership and intersectoral collaboration for health will be explored. Developing an appropriate, sustainable and people centred health and development strategy in the coming decades is an enormous challenge. There has been an attempt to focus on the emerging needs of the region, which call for health promotion, and involvement of civil society, private sector and the governments bestowed with the increased responsibility of ensuring health security for people. Strengthening the existing health systems, allocating adequate resources for health development and ensuring community participation are all prerequisites to the success of health promotion in the region. PMID:18372876

  14. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  15. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Carney complex are Cushing’s syndrome and multiple thyroid nodules (tumors). Cushing’s syndrome features a combination of weight gain, ... with Carney complex include adrenocortical carcinoma , pituitary gland tumors , thyroid , colorectal , liver and pancreatic cancers . Ovarian cancer in ...

  16. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  17. Hamiltonian complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have seen the birth of a new field known as Hamiltonian complexity lying at the crossroads between computer science and theoretical physics. Hamiltonian complexity is directly concerned with the question: how hard is it to simulate a physical system? Here I review the foundational results, guiding problems, and future directions of this emergent field.

  18. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  19. Geological-uraniferous favourability of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South American continent includes several metallogenic provinces some of which have excellent uranium possibilities. Basically, two types of lithological complex have contributed to this favourability: the large Precambrian shields covering about 5,500,000 km2 and the crystalline Hercynian nesocratons with about 300,000 km2 as source rocks. Only in Argentina and Brazil has continuous uranium exploration in South America been carried out, with moderate budgets, during the last twenty-five years. In the rest of South America the search for uranium has been performed intermittently and with limited resources. However, during recent years interest has increased and more continuous operation has been recorded in some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru). It can be estimated that only 20% of the favourable areas have been explored fairly intensively in Argentina and Brazil, the two most advanced uraniferous countries. Nevertheless, the uranium possibilities of South America are proved by the resources of 250,000 t U already defined (in Argentina and Brazil) for the category of production cost below US $130/kg U. The speculative uranium potential of the continent was estimated by the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project as between 770,000 and 1,500,000 t U. Within the South American geostructural framework, five main uraniferous geological areas have been defined on the basis of the geotectonic evolution of the continent, the succession of sedimentary and magmatic processes, and the participation in them of the endogenous and exogenous phases of the uranium geochemical cycle. In this paper the principal uranium metallogenic models occurring in the above five main areas are studied together with the uranium potential of each area. The possibility of uranium recovery from these sources in relation to the respective costs of production is briefly discussed

  20. Being Turned Inside Out: Researching Youth, Morality and Restitution from the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2011-01-01

    This article maps my journey as a scholar engaged in the research of youth morality (located in the Global South); as a beneficiary of injustice having grown up as a white South African; as a navigator of complex personal histories (discovering my mixed race family origins); and arriving at restitution as a career research focus. It reflects on…

  1. The Achkal Oligocene ring complex: Sr, Nd, Pb evidence for transition between tholeiitic and alkali cenozoic magmatism in Central Hoggar (South Algeria); Le complexe annulaire d`age Oligocene de l`Achkal (Hoggar Central, Sud Algerie): temoin de la transition au cenozoique entre magmatismes tholeitique et alcalin. Evidence par les isopopes du Sr, Nd et Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza, M.; Dautria, J.M. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France); Briqueu, L.; Bosch, D. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique; Maza, M. [Office National de la Recherche Geologique et Miniere, Boumerdes (Algeria)

    1998-08-01

    The Achkal Oligocene ring complex-cuts the Upper Eocene tholeiitic traps located on the top of the Hoggar swell. The plutonic rocks range from tholeiitic gabbros to alkali essexites, monzonites and syenites, whereas the volcanites are restricted to late per-alkaline rhyolites. The affinity change linked to the large isotopic heterogeneities (from EM1 to HIMU) suggests that the parental magmas are issued from two district mantle sources, first lithospheric then deeper. The Achkal has recorded the magmatic evolution of the Hoggar hot spot, between Eocene and Miocene. (authors)

  2. South Koreas Labor Woes

    OpenAIRE

    Miron Mushkat

    1992-01-01

    South Korea has been plagued by poor industrial relations since the mid-1980s and the inability of the government to effect a more orderly interaction between management and workers has proved costly for the ambitious nation. This article presents evidence showing that the problem has structural, rather than merely cyclical, roots and it is argued that, the recent decline in labor militancy notwithstanding, an escalation in industrial con?ict is inevitable unless the underlying imbalances are...

  3. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  4. Mining in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewis, T.

    1992-09-01

    Poor metals prices, high inflation, rapid political change and (in the case of gold) hot, deep mines all pose challenging problems. Nevertheless, mining plays an essential role in the South African economy and the long-term outlook is positive. The article discusses recent developments in technology and gives production figures for mining of gold, coal, platinum, diamonds, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and industrial minerals. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 photos.

  5. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia;

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  6. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  7. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  8. The South Greenland uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of the reconnaissance phase of the SYDURAN Project which was initiated in 1st. December 1978 to outline areas of increased uranium potential where more detailed prospection would be warranted. Districts and smaller zones in South Greenland which have the potential for containing economically exploitable uranium occurrences were defined using airborne gamma-spectroscopic, reconnaissance geochemical and geological methods. Other districts and areas have been shown to have no uranium potential and can be eliminated. The three promising districts are: 1. a 2000 square kilometre sub-circular district surrounding Ilimaussaq complex in which there are small high grade pitchblende occurences in faults and fractures in the surrounding granite. 2. the eastern area of the Motzfeldt Centre where large parts of the centre is mineralised and may give rise to exploitable, large tonnage, low grade uranium ore with associated niobium and rare earth elements in extractable quantities. 3. uraniferous rich districts or zones associated with the migmatitic supracrustal units in the area between Kap Farvel and Lindenows Fjord. The areas which were eliminated from having any uranium potential include: the Ketilidian supracrustal unit. the Nunarssuit alkaline complex. The uranium mineralisation in South Greenland is confined to two Proterozoic episodes: a) a late phase of granitisation and migmatisation with the formation of disseminated uraninite in the Migmatite Complex in the south of the project area between 1700-1800 m.y. and, b) hydrothermal activity associated with Gardar magmatic events between 1090-1170 m.y. in the central Granite Zone. Future work should be directed towards the definition and location of drilling targets. (EG)

  9. Simplifying complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Leemput, van de, J.C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior leads to the emergence of properties that would not be expected from behavior or properties of the individual parts of the system. Although the full behavior of the systems I address will probably...

  10. Representing the Economic Geographies of "Others": Reconsidering the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James T.

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines how undergraduate economic geography courses in Anglo-American institutions traditionally frame economic activities in developing regions and asserts that mainstream approaches have devalued the complexity and diversity of economic geographies in the Global South. Focusing on developmentalism as a commonly used heuristic frame,…

  11. Post Apartheid South Africa; Evaluating South Africa's Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hopper

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I aim to evaluate whether increasing or decreasing the level of consociationalism in South Africa would be beneficial for the country's stability. Analysing South Africa's political structure since the implementation of free and fair elections, I review the effects of its current degree of consociationalism and debate the arguments of those who contest South Africa's current institutional framework and its capacity to govern.

  12. Beyond rhetoric: South-South collaboration for REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhantumbo, Isilda; MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-11-15

    Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. In one example of South-South collaboration to do just this, IIED has helped facilitate a Mozambique-Brazil partnership to share expertise and create a unique REDD+ working group. The initiative provides key lessons for other countries contemplating South-South collaboration on REDD+, including the need for charismatic champions, continuity in government representation, and integration across sectors.

  13. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  14. South Africa calling cultural tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovic, Milena; Saayman, Melville

    2013-01-01

    Although cultural tourism is the most prevalent type of tourism in the world it still remains invisible in South Africa’s tourism landscape. Despite the country’s unique cultural heritage resource base and the fact that cultural diversity is the core feature of South African marketing strategy, absence of culture as a purpose for travel in the South African Tourism international exit survey means that the size of cultural tourism market as well as behaviour characteristics of cultural tourist...

  15. Liberal Peace and South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhumitra Chakma

    2014-01-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, South Asia has been in transition in a number of ways. Based on the Kantian tripod of democracy, economic interdependence and institution, this article assesses whether liberal peace has taken root in South Asia. It concludes that although an incipient liberal order may be discerned in the region, South Asia has yet to change fundamentally to become a zone of liberal peace. Particularly the Indo-Pakistani relationship remains frosty which constrains the buil...

  16. Mushroom Cultivation in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kemal Soylu; Mingu Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation in South Korea is increasing fast last decades. Mushroom cultivation of South Korea is 173577 tones and South Korea gains 800 million dollars income annually. Different kind of mushroom species are cultivated and 31% enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes), 26% king oyster (Pleurotus eryngii), 26% oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), 13% white buton mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and 4% rest of the total mushroom Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus vb. are produc...

  17. Precision Irrigation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...

  18. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  19. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The external current account in South Africa has strengthened significantly in 1999, mainly owing to a large decline in imports. Compared with a deficit of about 1.5 percent of GDP in recent years, it is close to balance during the first three quarters of 1999. A resumption of investor confidence has led to an increase in international reserves and facilitated a decline in the net open forward position (NOFP). The external current account deficit has declined to 0.2 percent of GDP during the ...

  20. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  1. A South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the recent changes in international environment security structures suited for specific situations should be conceived. In order to achieve the way to regional security in North-East Asia the outstanding issue left over from the cold war, divided Korean peninsula, and other subregional disputes have to be solved. In building confidence between the two countries the recently adopted security related accords ('The Agreement on Reconciliation, Non-aggression and Exchange and Cooperation between the South and the North' and the 'Joint declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula') provide a framework for improvements of relations

  2. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF6 to UO2) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  3. South-South Migration : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Campillo Carrete (Beatriz)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this paper is to provide an overview and a preliminary discussion of policy and academic works addressing South-South Migration (SSM) in depth. In the first part, three development categorizations used by international agencies to estimate migration flows (provided by th

  4. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  5. Innovation in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As our world becomes more global and competitive yet less predictable, the focus seems to be increasingly on looking to innovation activities to remain competitive. Although there is little doubt that a nation’s competitiveness is embedded in its innovativeness, the complex environment should not be ignored. Complexity is not accounted for in balance sheets or reported in reports; it becomes entrenched in every activity in the organisation. Innovation takes many forms and comes in different shapes.Objectives: The study objectives were, firstly, to establish the determinants for complexity and how these can be addressed from a design point of view in order to ensure innovation success and, secondly, to determine how this changes innovation forms and applications.Method: Two approaches were offered to deal with a complex environment – one allowing for complexity for organisational innovation and the other introducing reductionism to minimise complexity. These approaches were examined in a qualitative study involving case studies, open-ended interviews and content analysis between seven developing economy (South African organisations and seven developed economy (US organisations.Results: This study presented a proposed framework for (organisational innovation in a complex environment versus a framework that minimises complexity. The comparative organisational analysis demonstrated the importance of initiating organisational innovation to address internal and external complexity, with the focus being on the leadership actions, their selected operating models and resultant organisational innovations designs, rather than on technological innovations.Conclusion: This study cautioned the preference for technological innovation within organisations and suggested alternative innovation forms (such as organisational and management innovation be used to remain competitive in a complex environment. 

  6. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  7. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues

  8. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  9. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse of ...

  10. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a

  11. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  12. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  13. South African personality inventory : the development of an investigation into the psychometric properties of the intellect cluster / A. Labuschagne

    OpenAIRE

    Labuschagne, Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The Employment Equity Act, 55 of 1998, Section 8 (Government Gazette, 1998) provides clear guidelines for psychometric testing in South Africa. Due to the cultural complexity of the South African population, personality tests in particular do not always comply with these specifications. Most personality tests used in South Africa have been developed in and imported from other countries, and are consequently not always appropriate for all cultural groups. Also, the majority of indigenous perso...

  14. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  15. The South Greenland regional uranium exploration programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work and results of the last two field seasons (1080 and 1982) of the Syduran Project. The field work was concentrated in the Motzfeldt Centre and the Granite zone with a short reconnaissance of five uranium anomalies in the Migmatite Complex. The results from the Motzfeldt Centre show that it is composed of at least 6 syenite units which can be divided into two major phases of igneous activity. The radioactive mineralisation has been mapped by gamma-spectrometer and has proved to be very extensive. Uranium mineral occurrences found in the Granite Zone occur in the many faults and fractures, which dissect the area. A study of the fractures and fault movements in the zone makes it possible to suggest an overall structural framework in which to place the uranium occurrences in the zone. Field work on the Igaliko peninsula was confined to a small area known as Puissagtag where four pitchblende veins have been discovered. Numerous uraniferous showings, associated with fractures, have been located in the Vatnaverfi peninsula south of the Igaliko Fjord. Mineralogical studies have shown that 12 of these showings contain pitchblende, that 7 of them contain coffinite and that most of them contain brannerite. The most interesting find during the 1982 field season was in the Migmatite Complex. Five anomalously high uranium areas in the complex were explored briefly with the helicopter-borne scintillometer. Near a place called Igdlorssuit, where a particlarly high gamma-spectrometer anomaly was found during the reconnaissance gamma-spectrometer survey, a large raft of meta-sediments in rapakivi granite was found, in which radioactive mineralisation occurred. This proved to be due to fine disseminated uraninite which occurs over some 150 m of strike length with a width of 1-2 m. The results confirm that there is a good possibility of finding exploitable uranium mineral occurrences in South Greenland. (author)

  16. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    OpenAIRE

    R M�ller

    2004-01-01

    The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the developm...

  17. On the importance of cascading moisture recycling in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; van der Ent, R. J.; Donges, J. F.; Heinke, J.; Sampaio, G.; Rammig, A.

    2014-12-01

    Continental moisture recycling is a crucial process of the South American climate system. In particular, evapotranspiration from the Amazon basin contributes substantially to precipitation regionally as well as over other remote regions such as the La Plata basin. Here we present an in-depth analysis of South American moisture recycling mechanisms. In particular, we quantify the importance of cascading moisture recycling (CMR), which describes moisture transport between two locations on the continent that involves re-evaporation cycles along the way. Using an Eulerian atmospheric moisture tracking model forced by a combination of several historical climate data sets, we were able to construct a complex network of moisture recycling for South America. Our results show that CMR contributes about 9-10% to the total precipitation over South America and 17-18% over the La Plata basin. CMR increases the fraction of total precipitation over the La Plata basin that originates from the Amazon basin from 18-23 to 24-29% during the wet season. We also show that the south-western part of the Amazon basin is not only a direct source of rainfall over the La Plata basin, but also a key intermediary region that distributes moisture originating from the entire Amazon basin towards the La Plata basin during the wet season. Our results suggest that land use change in this region might have a stronger impact on downwind rainfall than previously thought. Using complex network analysis techniques, we find the eastern side of the sub-tropical Andes to be a key region where CMR pathways are channeled. This study offers a better understanding of the interactions between the vegetation and the atmosphere on the water cycle, which is needed in a context of land use and climate change in South America.

  18. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  19. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  20. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  1. Can Inclusive Education in South(ern) Africa Survive the HIV and AIDS Pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Christa; Hay, Johnnie

    2007-01-01

    Fagan (1986, p. 859) stated many years ago that "school psychology has survived the complex interaction between education and psychology, and will continue to do so in future". Applied and adapted to South(ern) Africa of 2007, one may ask whether inclusive education will survive the complex interaction with the HIV and AIDS pandemic, and whether…

  2. Do South-South trade agreements increase trade? Commodity-level evidence from COMESA

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Mayda; Chad Steinberg

    2009-01-01

    South-South trade agreements are proliferating: Developing countries signed 70 new agreements between 1990 and 2003. Yet the impact of these agreements is largely unknown, as existing North- North and North-South micro-level studies are likely to yield misleading predictions for South-South trade agreements. This paper focuses on the static effects of South-South preferential trade agreements stemming from changes in trade patterns. Specifically, it estimates the impact of the Common Market f...

  3. The impact of South-South trade agreements on FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif, Mondher; Dreger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The integration of emerging markets into the global economy is heavily promoted by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Within the factors driving the location of FDI, regional trade agreements (RTAs) become increasingly relevant for emerging markets. We explore the impact of South-South trade agreements on FDI by dynamic panel models. The MENA countries are compared to the better performing regions in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Several striking results emerge from the analysis. Fi...

  4. South Africa and SADC : South Africa, a benevolent regional hegemon?

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Summary: With the fall of apartheid Mandela and his Government expressed the need to commit itself to the Southern African region arguing that South Africa cannot prosper in a continuous underdeveloped region. Mandela s Government expressed the importance of not dominating or using power strength towards its neighbours. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether South Africa can be said to act as a benevolent regional hegemon in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). F...

  5. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  6. Tapping South-Asian Diaspora Studies: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Yadav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the identity issues of South-Asians in the Diaspora. It engages the theoretical and methodological debates concerning processes of culture and identity in the contemporary context of globalization and transnationalism. It analyses the works of South-Asian Diaspora writers tracing out the dynamics of power towards critical alternatives that recognise and value similarities and accommodation of groups and individuals. The themes taken up by these South-Asian Diaspora writers relate to the issues of racism, the experience of displacement, the process of transculturation, the tensions between individuals and so forth. Their writing, in its accounts of immigrant experience and otherness reflects the ambivalences and complexities inherent in the conceptions of the race, class, ethnicity and identity. The present paper taps this journey from ideological construct to identity formation in South-Asian Diaspora Studies. The paper makes an attempt to evolve the essence of cultural Diaspora.Keywords: South-Asian Diaspora; Immigrants; Transculturation; Cultural Identity

  7. New time-constraints on provenance, metamorphism and exhumation of the Bahía Mansa Metamorphic Complex on the Main Chiloé Island, south-central Chile Nuevas restricciones temporales sobre proveniencia, metamorfismo y exhumación del Complejo Metamórfico Bahía Mansa en la Isla Grande de Chiloé, centro-sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Duhart; Alberto C Adriasola

    2008-01-01

    The Coastal Ranges in the western part of the Chiloé Archipelago represent an emerged forearc high at the subduction front of south-central Chile. Prior to the Cenozoic framework of the subducting Farallón and Nazca plates beneath the South American plate, the history of the metamorphic basement in the Coastal Ranges involves episodes of subduction and/or accretion of oceanic and ensialic material along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana. Along different segments of the Main Chiloé Island t...

  8. Complex silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study presents the results of investigations carried out on silumins with additions of Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo and W. The silumins containing Mg, Cu and Ni are well-known and commonly used in construction of machines and equipment.Design/methodology/approach: Additions of Cr, Mo and W have not been thoroughly investigated yet. They are considered a new family of innovative cast aluminium alloys.Findings: In Al-Si systems they form silicides, like Cr3Si, Mo3Si, W3Si and intermetallic phases of Al13Cr4Si4, Al12Mo, Al12W and AlWSi. The silicides crystallise in cubic lattice of parameters similar to aluminium and silicon.Research limitations/implications: Therefore they can act as crystallisation substrates and occur as separate phases. The examinations under the microscope and X-ray microanalysis of the linear and point distribution of elements confirmed the presence of the above mentioned phases. A combination of two elements, e.g. Cr and Mo, or Cr and W, was observed to cause the formation of complex silicide layers of Mo3Si and (Cr, Mo3Si, or Cr3Si as well as (W, Cr3Si.Originality/value: The presence of the silicides has been indicated as a possible source of the refinement of α(Al and β(Si phases. The precipitations of these phases and of the intermetallic phases favour a high degree of the silumins hardening. A characteristic feature is the fact that nucleation and crystallisation of the successive phases takes place at the phase boundaries formed between the previously precipitated phase and solid solution α. The studies carried out so far have indicated that in complex silumins at high temperatures crystallise the silicides and peritectic phases of Al12W, AlWSi, Al12Mo and Al13Cr4Si4. Phases α or β are the next ones to crystallise, followed by complex eutectic α + β +Al(Si, Cr, Mo, W, Fe. Further crystallise the phases of Mg2Si, Al3Ni and Al2Cu. The silumins presented here are characterised by high mechanical properties: Rp0

  9. An Overview of the Main Quaternary Deformation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformation affecting continental South America during Quaternary is related to the Neogene geodynamic processes. These structures are mainly controlled by anisotropies inherited after a long and complex history as well as by the kinematic and geometric features of the ongoing plate interaction. Main Quaternary structures at both ends of South America are directly linked to plate interaction and some of them are considered to be plate boundaries. The main structures with Quaternary activity along the Caribbean coast have an E-W trend and a strike-slip regime. Between the Venezuelan Andes and the Gulf of Guayaquil, NE trending structures are dominant, with a kinematic regime ranging from strike-slip to transpressive and compressive. At the Central Andes (4ºS-46º30'S most Quaternary deformation results from a complex stress distribution and stress-partitioning at the interior of the South American plate, reactivating preexisting discontinuities. The present geometry of the subducted Nazca plate is here the main control with respect to the distribution and characteristics of Quaternary deformation, being them better exposed at the Andean eastern slope and foreland regions. The main structure with Quaternary activity at the southernmost Andes is represented at Tierra del Fuego by a left-lateral transform boundary, resulting from the South American and Scotia plate interaction.

  10. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  11. Mineral exploration in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal

  12. SOUTH AMERICA: Looking for partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Regional Meeting on Fundamental Physics organized at the CIF International Physics Centre in Bogota, Colombia, in April, looked at future international collaboration possibilities for physicists from the South American Andean region in general, and from Colombia in particular

  13. Sustainability in South Asian city

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Akhmat; Muhammad Mahroof Khan; Mumtaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we...

  14. Music Therapy in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Lia Rejane Mendes Barcellos

    2001-01-01

    Music is one of the most important and strongest types of cultural expression in South America. With diverse roots in the myriad of cultures of the many countries which shape our continent, music contributes to the South American identity. Distinct sounds, rhythms, styles and instruments compose a musical tissue, in which it is possible to recognize the special colors of a specific country or the printed image of the sonorous "language" from a special region.

  15. BUSINESS PLAN: SOUTH ASIAN ARTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saran, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide an understanding of South Asian Arts as an organization in the Arts industry in Vancouver. Elements of the company and the industry are explored in order to further comprehend the potential target markets and why they are as such. Due to the current surge in popularity of South Asian arts within mainstream culture, there is great potential in this company. Discussion segues into marketing initiatives that are necessary to compete with key players that...

  16. Locking Down the South Bronx

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Belford

    2010-01-01

    In this brief analysis is the intended beginning of a systemic integral analysis of the social systems and structures in use in the South Bronx, New York City. Informed by the writing of Jonathan Kozol as well as current articles in the New York Times, this analysis uses the systems theories of Talcott Parsons and Donella Meadows and the human identity work of Vern Redekop to understand the exterior and interior dimensions of systemic oppression as experienced by residents of the South Bronx.

  17. The South African Consumer Market

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Martins

    2007-01-01

    Investors interested in the private consumer market of South Africa have to take note of the size of the market but also of the diversity of its population as well as the methods of segmentation followed by the advertising media. South Africa houses 47 million people of different race groups and has 11 official languages. The country consists of nine provinces and vast differences occur among some of them in their population composition and economic activities. In the light of the above, this...

  18. Understanding South Africa's Economic Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2006-01-01

    South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...

  19. Labour market in South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    L. Guarcello; F. C. Rosati; Scott, L

    2011-01-01

    The report assesses labour market conditions in the new state of South Sudan (officially the Republic of South Sudan). It highlights a number of key challenges faced by the new country in ensuring adequate livelihood opportunites for its population. The overwhelmingly rural labour force is concentrated primarily in low productivity, non-wage employment. By far the largest share of workers remain in subsistance farming and animal husbandry. Levels of human capital in the work force are extreme...

  20. An Economic Perspective of Kaesong Industrial Complex in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, S

    2007-01-01

    Constructing of Kaesong industrial complex in North Korea is led by private enterprises such as Hyundai group, under the agreement of two Korean governments. So far the constructing of Kaesong industrial complex operates well with the agreement of Inter-Korean Economic Cooperation Promotion Committee. There are some grounds that should be preceded for Kaesong industrial complex in North Korea to get the political safety and economic prosperity as follow; First, South Korea should improve a sy...

  1. South Africa in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  2. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  3. South Sudan's capability trap: Building a state with disruptive innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Greg; Biar Ajak, Peter; Pritchett, Lant

    2013-01-01

    The prevailing aid orthodoxy works well enough in stable environments, but is ill-equipped to navigate contexts of volatility and fragility. The orthodox approach is adept at solving straightforward technical or logistical problems (paving roads, building schools, immunizing children), but often struggles or outright fails when faced with complex, adaptive challenges (fighting corruption, upholding the rule of law, establishing democratic institutions). South Sudan, the world's newest country...

  4. Fluid Governance: Scalar politics in the South African waterscape

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasar, Vasna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis offers a critical analysis of the scaling of water governance in South Africa and its implications for water access and allocation. As the complexity and severity of environmental problems increases, there is a growing tendency to look to environmental governance to offer solutions. I contend that water governance, as with all forms of environmental governance, is never an apolitical endeavour yet the antagonistic and collective decision-making aspect of environmental politics is ...

  5. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.) and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Briano; Luis Calcaterra; Laura Varone

    2012-01-01

    We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL) since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is repo...

  6. On the Move: Transnational South Asian Dancers and the 'Flexible' Dancing Body

    OpenAIRE

    KEDHAR, ANUSHA LAKSHMI

    2011-01-01

    "On the Move" combines ethnography and political economy to explore the complex racial politics in which South Asian dancers are immersed as they move across national borders as well as on local stages. Focusing on key South Asian dancer-choreographers in the UK in the late 20th/early 21st century, including Shobana Jeyasingh, Nina Rajarani, Subathra Subramaniam, Mayuri Boonham, and Akram Khan, as well as the transnational dancers they employ, I examine the way in which race, citizenship, and...

  7. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  8. Nuclear program of South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slightly larger than Portugal, South Korea comprises the lower half on the Korean Peninsula, covering approximately 38 thousand square miles. the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established in 1948, and until 1962 the country grew slowly. However, through a series of five-year economic plans initiated by South Korean President Park Ching Hee, South Korea has since created an export-oriented economy, which now plays a major role in regional as well as global trade. South Korea has been forced to constantly upgrade its power generation structure in order to sustain the explosive growth it has experienced. Nuclear power has been a major player in this expansion and is expected to play an ever-increasing role. The country presently operates nine nuclear reactors with a total net generating capacity of 7,266 MWe. By the year 2006, the nuclear program is scheduled to grow to 27 reactors, with a net generating capacity exceeding 23 thousand MWe. Once this goal is reached, nuclear-generated power would account for more than 40 percent of the country's total installed electrical capacity

  9. Complexity, Modeling, and Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cilliers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that natural resource management (NRM issues are, by their very nature, complex and that both scientists and managers in this broad field will benefit from a theoretical understanding of complex systems. It starts off by presenting the core features of a view of complexity that not only deals with the limits to our understanding, but also points toward a responsible and motivating position. Everything we do involves explicit or implicit modeling, and as we can never have comprehensive access to any complex system, we need to be aware both of what we leave out as we model and of the implications of the choice of our modeling framework. One vantage point is never sufficient, as complexity necessarily implies that multiple (independent conceptualizations are needed to engage the system adequately. We use two South African cases as examples of complex systems—restricting the case narratives mainly to the biophysical domain associated with NRM issues—that make the point that even the behavior of the biophysical subsystems themselves are already complex. From the insights into complex systems discussed in the first part of the paper and the lessons emerging from the way these cases have been dealt with in reality, we extract five interrelated generic principles for practicing science and management in complex NRM environments. These principles are then further elucidated using four further South African case studies—organized as two contrasting pairs—and now focusing on the more difficult organizational and social side, comparing the human organizational endeavors in managing such systems.

  10. Uranium in South Africa: 1983 assessment of resources and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUCOR assesses South Africa's uranium resource and production capabilities on an ongoing basis. Assessments are carried out in close co-operation with the mining companies and the Government Mining Engineer. In carrying out this evaluation, the classification recommended by the NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources is followed. In order to preserve company confidentiality, the details of the findings are released in summary form only. Within South Africa, uranium occurrences are found in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates, Precambrian alkaline complexes, Cambrian to Precambrian granite gneisses, Permo-Triassic sandstones and coal, and Recent to Tertiary surficial formations. South Africa's uranium resources were reassessed during 1983 and the total recoverable resources in the Reasonably Assured and Estimated Additional Resource categories recoverable at less than $130/kg U were estimated to be 460 000 t U. This represents a decrease of 13,4% when compared with the 1981 assessment. South Africa's uranium production for 1983 amounted to 6 060 t U, a 4,21 % increase over the 1982 production of 5 816 t U. Ninety-seven percent of the production is derived from the Witwatersrand quartz-pebble conglomerates, the rest being produced as a by-product of copper mining at Palabora. South Africa maintained its position as a major low-cost uranium producer, holding 14% of the WOCA uranium resources, and during 1982 it produced 14% of WOCA's uranium. In making future production capability projections it may be safely concluded that South Africa would be able to produce uranium at substantial levels well into the next century

  11. On the importance of cascading moisture recycling in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Zemp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Continental moisture recycling is a crucial process of the South American climate system. Evapotranspiration from the Amazon river basin contributes to precipitation regionally and in the La Plata river basin. Here we present an in-depth analysis of South American moisture recycling. We quantify the importance of "cascading moisture recycling", which describes the exchange of moisture between the vegetation and the atmosphere through precipitation and re-evaporation cycles on its way between two locations on the continent. We use the Water Accounting Model 2-layers (WAM-2layers forced by precipitation from TRMM and evapotranspiration from MODIS for the period 2001 until 2010 to construct moisture recycling networks. These networks describe the direction and amount of moisture transported from its source (evapotranspiration to its destination (precipitation in South America. Model-based calculations of continental and regional recycling ratios in the Amazon basin compare well with other existing studies using different datasets and methodologies. Our results show that cascading moisture recycling contributes about 10% to the total precipitation over South America and 17% over the La Plata basin. Considering cascading moisture recycling increases the total dependency of the La Plata basin on moisture from the Amazon basin by about 25% from 23 to 29% during the wet season. Using tools from complex network analysis, we reveal the importance of the south-western part of the Amazon basin as a key intermediary region for continental moisture transport in South America during the wet season. Our results suggest that land use change in this region might have a stronger impact on downwind rainfed agriculture and ecosystem stability than previously thought.

  12. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals. PMID:12743881

  13. Important bird areas: South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Andrew; Croxall, John P.; Poncet, Sally; Anthony R Martin; Burton, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The mountainous island of South Georgia, situated in the cold but productive waters of the Southern Ocean, is one of the world’s most important seabird islands. It is estimated that over 100 million individual seabirds are based there, and that there may have been an order of magnitude more before the introduction of rats. South Georgia has 29 species of breeding bird, and is the world’s most important breeding site for six species (Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus, Grey-headed Albatros...

  14. Locking Down the South Bronx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Belford

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this brief analysis is the intended beginning of a systemic integral analysis of the social systems and structures in use in the South Bronx, New York City. Informed by the writing of Jonathan Kozol as well as current articles in the New York Times, this analysis uses the systems theories of Talcott Parsons and Donella Meadows and the human identity work of Vern Redekop to understand the exterior and interior dimensions of systemic oppression as experienced by residents of the South Bronx.

  15. Sustainable Building in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In view of sustainable building prioritized as a strategic sector by local government in South China, and the strong Dutch expertise and wide market recognition in this field especially the substantive presence of the Shanghai-based Dutch Sustainable Building Platform, the market in the South could be very potential and interesting to Dutch companies though strong competitors as well. An overview is given of the developments in the Chinese province Guangdong, Shenzhen city, Guangzhou City, Fujian Province, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hainan Province. Also information is given about important potential counterparts: China Merchant Group, Guangdong Energy Conservation Association, and potential areas for cooperation.

  16. South Africa; Selected Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Selected Economic Issues paper examines economic development in South Africa during 1995–96. The paper highlights that in 1995, the economy of South Africa grew by 3.3 percent, the third consecutive year of economic growth, and it is expected to grow between 3½ and 4 percent in 1996. Some aspects of the unemployment problem are addressed in this paper. The paper also focuses on the implications for policy of the steps taken in 1994 and 1995 to establish an outward-oriented economy, af...

  17. The use of English in South African science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edmund Cobbing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific reports, articles, strategies and plans in South Africa (and elsewhere are often written in unnecessarily confusing, complex and obscure language. While this is often unintended, it can be used by some to assert authority and discourage inquiry or dissent. Specialist styles of writing and jargon used by business, management or socio-economic development professionals are often copied or echoed in other contexts where their meaning is less clear. Although there is some very clear scientific writing in South Africa, confusing and obscure writing is common and may even be a growing problem. This style of writing may act as a barrier to entry for speakers of English as a second language (the majority of South Africans, who must devote extra time to mastering the medium rather than the content of science writing. The problem is even found in some school textbooks aimed specifically at speakers of English as a second language. The various uses of poor language in science in South Africa have unwanted and potentially serious implications, including supporting unwanted power and institutional hierarchies, alienating the general public, confusing decision-makers, hampering efforts towards transformation, discouraging debate, and diverting time and energy away from scientific work and cooperation.

  18. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starich, P. J.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A positive magnetic anomaly, which dominates the MAGSAT scalar field over the south-central United States, results from the superposition of magnetic effects from several geologic sources and tectonic structures in the crust. The highly magnetic basement rocks of this region show good correlation with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity and predominantly negative free-air gravity anomalies, all of which are useful constraints for modeling the magnetic sources. The positive anomaly is composed of two primary elements. The western-most segment is related to middle Proterozoic granite intrusions, rhyolite flows and interspersed metamorphic basement rocks in the Texas panhandle and eastern New Mexico. The anomaly and the magnetic crust are bounded to the west by the north-south striking Rio Grande Rift. The anomaly extends eastward over the Grenville age basement rocks of central Texas, and is terminated to the south and east by the buried extension of the Ouachita System. The northern segment of the anomaly extends eastward across Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi Embayment. It corresponds to a general positive magnetic region associated with the Wichita Mountains igneous complex in south-central Oklahoma and 1.2 to 1.5 Ga. felsic terrane to the north.

  19. An overview of the South American fossil squamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Adriana María; Brizuela, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of squamates in South America is the result of the complex geological and paleoclimatic history of this part of the world. The incomplete and episodic fossil record allows us to know only a small part of this evolution. Most Mesozoic squamate remains come from the Patagonian region, but remarkable specimens have also been recovered from Brazil. Both major squamate clades (Iguania and Scleroglossa) are present in the South American Mesozoic. Remains of Mesozoic snakes are common and diverse in Cretaceous deposits, including some of the most primitive terrestrial forms. Paleogene and Neogene squamate remains have been recognized from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Paleogene lizard record appears to be scarce in comparison to that of the Mesozoic, whereas snakes show an important Paleogene diversity. At least two extant boid snakes appeared during this epoch (Boa and Corallus). The South American Miocene included some extant genera of Iguania, Teiidae, and Boidae but extinct genera were also present. "Colubrids" appeared at the early Miocene, whereas the first viperid is known from the late Miocene. Most of the Paleogene and early Neogene squamate families and genera have been recognized outside their current range of distribution following favorable climatic conditions for ectothermic vertebrates. During the latest Miocene and Pliocene few extant squamate taxa are found to occur outside their present distribution. The earliest amphisbaenian of South America is known from the Pliocene. Most Pleistocene and Holocene squamate remains are assigned to living genera, and some extant species were recognized. PMID:24482358

  20. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  1. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  2. The South: Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Leslie W.

    1978-01-01

    This article suggests that the southern experience of the past two or three decades is one of the great transformations in American history. During these years the South moved into the present, something it had never done before (Author/AM)

  3. Quaternary chronostratigraphy of south Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Leszek; Marks, Leszek; Pekala, Kazimierz

    1987-01-01

    Recent detailed investigations of Quaternary sediments in south Spitsbergen enabled us to choose several key areas in this region (Lindner et al. 1984, 1986; Butrym et al. 1987). Samples collected in these areas were thermoluminescence and radiocarbon dated, and applied for a chronostratigraphic scheme of the Quaternary for this part of Svalbard (Fig. 1).

  4. Biobank Regulation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Bok

    2016-06-01

    Like many other countries, South Korea has recognized the importance of biobanks as a tool for medical research and has engaged in two very important tasks to foster biobanking infrastructure: funding biobanks and setting up rules to protect the integrity of biobanks that share potentially sensitive personal information. PMID:27338609

  5. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  6. South Texas Maquiladora Suppliers Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J. Michael

    This project was undertaken to assist South Texas industries in improving export to nearby Mexican maquiladoras (factories). The maquiladora program is based on co-production by two plants under a single management, one on each side of the border. Activities addressed four objectives: (1) to determine the dollar value, quantity, and source of the…

  7. South Asians in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  8. Soybeans production in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini Thula Sizwe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are a small but important and growing component of South Africa’s agricultural economy. Large-scale production of soybeans did not begin until the late 1990s in South Africa, and area planted to soybeans has expanded rapidly. Rising yields supported by a favourable agricultural policy environment backing the commercialisation and use of agricultural biotechnologies, has facilitated a smooth transition of commercial farmers from the production of traditional grains to soybean production and to be able to rotate soybeans with other grain crops to maximise profits. Although soybeans are produced in nearly all the 9 provinces in South Africa, there is significant variation in output from one province to the other. Using data from the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF, this paper examines the production efficiency of each province with respect to area under production, output and yield per hectare for the past 25 years. Despite the potential of the former homelands in soybean production, there is little progress owing to infrastructural problems and unfamiliarity with the crop. In order to improve production and consumption of soybeans in these areas of South Africa, it may help to set up soybean out-grower schemes, which will encourage smallholder farmers to pool their output and earn income from soybeans whilst learning the food value of the crop.

  9. Quo vadis South African universities?

    OpenAIRE

    Johann RE lutjeharms

    2007-01-01

    The Economist has recently identified some specific factors that explain why European universities are not competing adequately with their American counterparts. These factors are used here to evaluate South African government policy for universities. It is demonstrated that this current policy is directly contrary to what is now internationally considered best for universities in a knowledge economy.

  10. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  11. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  12. Moral Education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Pieter C.

    1980-01-01

    This overview notes that moral education permeates all school curriculum, especially social studies and religion, since South African law mandates that education for Whites have a Christian character. The code of conduct for White teachers is quoted. Different provisions for Blacks are described and segregated schooling discussed in this context.…

  13. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  14. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  15. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  16. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  17. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature

  18. Measuring Tax Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines a number of issues relating to the measurement of tax complexity. It starts with an analysis of the concept of tax complexity, distinguishing tax design complexity and operational complexity. It considers the consequences/costs of complexity, and then examines the rationale for measuring complexity. Finally it applies the analysis to an examination of an index of complexity developed by the UK Office of Tax Simplification (OTS). Postprint

  19. Rethinking responsibility in radiography: Some ethical issues in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Rosanne Etheredge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of radiography in South Africa is complex and presents a multitude of ethical issues. The discipline is often regarded as a supporting function in the healthcare chain, and a stepping-stone in the diagnostic process. This status of the discipline seems to have left many radiographers in a position of substantial confusion. In the course of numerous bioethics presentations for radiographers in South Africa, several ethical and legal issues have recurrently come to my attention. This article aims to address some of these issues and to offer ethically and legally acceptable solutions. The proposed solutions are not absolute – they are based on personal discussions and experiences – and their practicability needs to be scrutinised. Consequently, this article should be seen as a starting point only.

  20. Indigenous concepts of orientation of South Sulawesian sailors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst H. Liebner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some initial results of ongoing research on concepts of orientation of some maritime-orientated ethnic groups of South Sulawesi. I will not discuss the technicalities of indigenous navigation, but focus on the underlying concepts and categories of spatial orientation. I approach this through an analysis of the expressions and terms used by contemporary ‘traditional’ sailors and navigators to indicate a destination or direction. After outlining the problem and giving examples of spatial terminology used by South Sulawesian fishermen, sailors, and inter-island traders, in the second section I explain in detail the directional terms employed by the sailor-traders of Bira as an example of the complexity and sophistication of these patterns. The third and fourth sections place the discussion in the wider context of migration and settlement of insular Southeast Asia.

  1. South-South REDD: A Brazil-Mozambique initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-06-15

    The South-South REDD initiative - that aims to help facilitate the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ for Mozambique based on sound baselines and monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), clear analysis of the causes of deforestation and degradation, and appropriate benefit sharing mechanisms in support of activities to address them - is now in its second year. Extensive national consultations have led to the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ which is currently being used as the basis for developing the countries REDD-Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) for submission to the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). The National Action Plan for REDD+ seeks to create favourable conditions for the progressive reduction of the current rate of deforestation (0.58%) to 0.21% by 2025 and ultimately to zero, simultaneously reducing the rate of degradation and encouraging forest restoration to sequester 30 million tonnes of carbon by 2025.

  2. Analysis of a South-South International Migration: Chinese Newcomers in Antananarivo and Dakar

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Rajaoson

    2015-01-01

    South-South dynamic migrations offer the opportunity to some impoverished countries to establish a Diaspora outside their territorial bases in the perspective to address the issues raised by this phenomenon of extreme poverty from abroad. First of all, it is noteworthy that the volume of South-South dynamic migrations rises to more than 61 million people, versus 62 million people in the South-North dynamic migrations. In other words, this increased propensity to mobility, which represents alm...

  3. USING THE SOUTH AFRICAN EXCELLENCE MODEL TO FOCUS IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES IN SOUTH AFRICA.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce R Smit

    2012-01-01

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South African companies wish to join the world class family. As the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award in the USA and the European Quality Award in Europe have been effected, the South African Quality Institute (SAQI) pioneered and developed a National Quality Award together with leading South African companies. The South African Award model is a full hybrid of the Malcolm Baldrige and European Foundation Quality models. The awards process is now managed by the South Af...

  4. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  5. South-South Cooperation for Inclusive Green Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kishan Khoday; Leisa Perch

    2012-01-01

    Two critical megatrends are of central importance in implementing the green economy agenda launched at the recent Rio+20 Summit on Sustainable Development: the rise of emerging economies across the South, and the global challenges of resource security and ecological change. At the converging point of these trends are surging levels of outward investments by emerging economies, bringing social and ecological risks to resource-rich, vulnerable communities around the world, but also bringing opp...

  6. Fractal character of structural control on uranium mineralization in south china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South China is the most important uranium producer in the country. Most uranium ore deposits in south China are strictly controlled by NE-NNE trending regional fracture structure. Fractal analyses on spatial distribution of uranium ore deposits and regional fracture structure in south China have been done in this paper. It indicates that the spatial distribution of both uranium ore deposits and regional fracture structure in south China show fractal character. The fractal dimension D=1.414 2 for the spatial distribution of regional fracture structure in the whole area indicate a higher ripening degree in the fracture structure evolution and an advantages to fluid flow and uranium mineralization. The fractal dimension D=1.052 7 for the spatial distribution of uranium ore deposits in south China show a lower complexity than regional fracture structure. The fractal dimensions in three sub-areas in south China on spatial distribution of uranium ore deposits show a positive correlation to which of regional fracture structure. The fractal spatial distribution of uranium ore deposits in south China is the result of the evolution of the fractal fracture structure system. (authors)

  7. Pricing complexity options

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Alikhani; Bj{\\o}rn Kjos-Hanssen; Amirarsalan Pakravan; Babak Saadat

    2015-01-01

    We consider options that pay the complexity deficiency of a sequence of up and down ticks of a stock upon exercise. We study the price of European and American versions of this option numerically for automatic complexity, and theoretically for Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider run complexity, which is a restricted form of automatic complexity.

  8. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Bezada, Max; Thybo, Hans;

    2010-01-01

    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity...... damping parameter in the deeper layers progressively and examined the rms misfit and the imaged structure. Visual inspection of the tomographic images produced from these inversions showed that the lateral distribution of structures remained unchanged as the depth of the model was reduced and deep...... belts. We also image significant positive and negative anomalies (±3.0%) unconnected to the cratons under the cratonic keels and in the transition zone. We are currently inverting the P wave data using different reference models, and examining the S-wave travel times....

  9. "Why, Why Are We Not Allowed Even...?": A De/Colonizing Narrative of Complicity and Resistance in Post/Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subreenduth, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is poised at a critical moment in its de/colonizing efforts. Engulfed in laudable anti-apartheid policies and legislation, South Africa has created a strong base for addressing colonial and apartheid legacies of racial, economic and political oppression. Despite these efforts, education continues to be a complex and contested terrain…

  10. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and..., South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of...

  11. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  12. South Africa's "Developmental State" Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the South African ruling elite has the political will to establish a “developmental state” project early in the 21st century is popular, but is not borne out by evidence thus far. Patrick Bond reviews new information about the neoliberal project’s failures, which range from macroeconomics to microdevelopment to pro-corporate megaprojects, and which are accompanied by a tokenistic welfare policy not designed to provide sufficient sustenance or entitlements to the society. The critique by the independent left might be revised in the event that the trade unions and communist influences within the ruling Alliance strengthen, but there is a greater likelihood that the world capitalist crisis will have the opposite impact. Nevertheless, widespread grassroots protests and impressive campaigning by civil society keep alive the hope for a post-capitalist, post-nationalist politics, as bandaiding South African capitalism runs into trouble.

  13. Investigating Effects of Monsoon Winds on Hydrodynamics in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    The South China Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by land masses and island chains, and characterized by complex bathymetry and irregular coastlines. The circulation in South China Sea is subjected to seasonal and inter-annual variations of tidal and meteorological conditions. The effects of monsoon winds on hydrodynamics is investigated by applying spectral and harmonic analysis on surface elevation and wind data at stations located in the South China Sea. The analysis indicates varying responses to the seasonal monsoon depending on the location of the station. At Kaohsiung (located in northern South China Sea off Taiwan coast), tides from the Pacific Ocean and the southwest monsoon winds are found to be dominant mechanisms. The Kota Kinabalu and Bintulu stations, located to the east of South China Sea off Borneo coast, are influenced by low energy complex winds, and the shallow bottom bathymetry at these locations leads to tidal energy damping compared to other stations. The tidal dynamics at Tioman, located in southern South China Sea off Malaysia coast, are most responsive to the effects of the northeast monsoon. The complexity of our problem together with the limited amount of available data in the region presents a challenging research topic. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of the circulation in South China Sea. Skill assessment of the model is performed by comparing model predictions of the surface elevations and currents with observations. The results suggest that the quality of the model prediction is highly dependent on horizontal grid resolution and coastline accuracy. The model may be used in future applications to investigate seasonal and inter-annual variations in hydrodynamics.

  14. Magnetic Separation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Corrans, Ian James; Svoboda, Jan

    1985-01-01

    The use of magnetic separators in the various mineral processing facilities in South Africa is described. A large number are used to recover medium in dense medium plants. The manufacture of various types of magnetic separation machines by three local suppliers is highlighted. The potential use of highgradient and/or high–intensity magnetic separation in the recovery of gold, uranium, and phosphate minerals is discussed.

  15. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  16. Passives in South Asian languages:

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Pritha; Anindita SAHOOA

    2013-01-01

    Haspelmath (2010) debates whether universal (descriptive) categories of the types that generativists (cf. Newmeyer, 2007) envisage are real and needed for cross-linguistic studies. Instead every language has its own unique set of categories. We raise doubt on this “categorial particularism” position by drawing on underlying similarities of passive constructions of three South Asian languages - Oriya (Indo-Aryan), Malayalam (Dravidian) and Kharia (Austro-Asiatic). Unlike English-type passives,...

  17. Quality Management in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kwanten, Tine

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This dissertation addresses something which is extremely important for both individual enterprises as well as entire nations i.e. the ability to deliver quality goods and services. Notwithstanding its geographical distant location, South Africa is increasingly becoming a more important participant in the global economy and increasingly relying on export. Local businesses therefore need to meet international quality standards. For this matter this dissertation investigated the sta...

  18. Traffic congestion in interconnected complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Fei; Xia, Yongxiang; Tse, Chi K

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion in isolated complex networks has been investigated extensively over the last decade. Coupled network models have recently been developed to facilitate further understanding of real complex systems. Analysis of traffic congestion in coupled complex networks, however, is yet to come. In this paper, we try to explore the effect of interconnections on traffic congestion in interconnected BA scale-free networks. We find that assortative coupling can alleviate traffic congestion better than disassortative and random coupling when the node processing capacity is allocated based on node usage probability. Furthermore, the optimal coupling probability can be found for assortative coupling. However, three types of coupling preferences achieve similar traffic performance if all nodes share the same processing capacity. We analyze interconnected Internet AS-level graphs of Japan and South Korea and obtain similar results. Some practical suggestions are presented to optimize such real-world interconnect...

  19. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  20. Mushroom Cultivation in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Soylu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation in South Korea is increasing fast last decades. Mushroom cultivation of South Korea is 173577 tones and South Korea gains 800 million dollars income annually. Different kind of mushroom species are cultivated and 31% enoki mushroom (Flammulina velutipes, 26% king oyster (Pleurotus eryngii, 26% oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus, 13% white buton mushroom (Agaricus bisporus and 4% rest of the total mushroom Lentinula edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus vb. are produced in Korea. 764 ha mushroom growing area was used for mushroom cultivation. 31% of total growing area is oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus and 14% king oyster (Pleurotus eryngii, 6% winter mushroom (Flummulina velutipes, 16% white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, 3% Phellinus, 3% reishii (Ganoderma lucidum and 27% other mushrooms. Mushroom is consumed frequently in Korea and mushroom consumption per person is 4.2 kg. Growing on log culture (oak mushroom, reishi and Phellinus, growing on shelves (Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus and bottle culture (Flummulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii are commonly used growing systems.

  1. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  2. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we will give an overview of urbanisation problems in South Asia. We will also suggest some key interventions for sustainable development in the region. Urbanisation problems in South Asia are manifested in the form of lopsided urbanisation and faulty urban planning with poor economic base. Urban poverty has been increasing in the region, resulting in the growth of a massive number of slums. As a manifestation of social injustice and the social divide, slums exclude the poor from accessing the basic amenities. South Asia has the highest regional urbanisation of poverty at any given overall urbanisation. Concerted government efforts with long-term commitment at the highest political levels are required to reduce urban poverty and deprivation. The way cities are growing in the region is not at all sustainable, with a clear imbalance between economic, environmental, socio-political and technological aspects. Sustainable communities can be established by focusing on social and human development programmes to develop intangible assets in the community such as inclusion, tolerance, public participation, and democratic governance, which do not depreciate through use but rather become more valuable the more they are used. Place matters in different ways, which have yet to be fully appreciated and incorporated into how planners teach place. But it needs to directly adopt the Bottom-up Approach to provide solutions for the problems going on in the cities of the region

  3. English Education for Young Children in South Korea: Not Just a Collective Neurosis of English Fever!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to rethink English education for young children in South Korea through exploring a great variety of complex, interrelated terrains in terms of its emergence and popularity in an era of globalisation. I critically examine the relevance of discursive and non-discursive conditions derived from social, political, economic,…

  4. The "Uptake" of a Sport-for-Development Programme in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Cora

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the "uptake" dynamics and resultant manifestations of a school-based, incentive-driven, sport-for-development programme in the South African context of poverty. The ecological systems theory of Brofenbrenner, the theory of complexity and a neo-liberal framework underpin the social constructions of local meanings…

  5. Community Detection in Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Du; Bai Wang; Bin Wu

    2008-01-01

    With the rapidly growing evidence that various systems in nature and society can be modeled as complex networks, community detection in networks becomes a hot research topic in physics, sociology, computer society, etc. Although this investigation of community structures has motivated many diverse algorithms, most of them are unsuitable when dealing with large networks due to their computational cost. In this paper, we present a faster algorithm ComTeetor,which is more efficient for the community detection in large complex networks based on the nature of overlapping cliques.This algorithm does not require any priori knowledge about the number or the original division of the communities. With respect to practical applications, ComTector is challenging with five different types of networks including the classic Zachary Karate Club, Scientific Collaboration Network, South Florida Free Word Association Network, Urban Traffic Network, North America Power Grid and the Telecomnmnication Call Network. Experimental results show that our algorithm can discover meaningful communities that meet both the objective basis and our intuitions.

  6. Early paleozoic magmatism manifestation of the South-Yenisei ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the geological history of the magmatic complexes in the South-Yenisej ridge region one carried out the U-Pb-geochronological investigation of zircons from the granitoid rocks of the Posolnenskij and the Nizhnekanskij massive, as well as, the Ar-Ar isotopic analysis of the biotites contained in the mentioned rock samples. On the basis of the obtained coordinated U-Pb- and Ar-Ar-isotopic data one determined that formation of the mentioned granitoid rocks took place 510-455 million years ago

  7. Relation among Summer Rainfall in South Shandong and High Pressure in South Asia and Atmospheric Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relation among summer rainfall in south Shandong and high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation.[Method] Taking the precipitation in south Shandong along the Yellow River and Huaihe River,using the NCEP/NCAR data and summer rainfall data in south Shandong in summer from 1961 to 2005,the characteristics of high pressure in South Asia and atmospheric circulation in drought year and flood year in summer in south Shandong Province were expounded.The mechanism of...

  8. Radioecological monitoring of south Caucasus - main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    height) that stipulated denominated vertical zoning climatic factors, particularly mode of moistening. 3. Particularities to circulations of air masses in conditions of complex mountain relief (blazed circulation, sharing a precipitation on leeward and windward declivities and etc.). For limited territory of redistribution of global radioactive fallout occur, basically, with the precipitation (draft). At the evaluation of external and internal doses of irradiating a population of South Caucasus must be accepted splitting a territory an on regions. Reflects a whole complex of geophysical particularities of under study regions of; it is 'objective existing', revealed in the process of perennial studying the particularities of global radioactive product fallout on Caucasus. Obviously that presence of certain regularities, allowing use such a approach, is a manifestation of deep geophysical regularities, in than convinces an analysis of territorial and circular particularities of under study region. For large regions a role of atmospheric precipitation in the redistribution of radioactive fallout uniquely is not revealed; when considering small territory possible to confirm that redistribution occurs, with the precipitation. This is well revealed when studying a territorial sharing the radioactive fallout on, where on the strength of geographical conditions a swing of a flat atmospheric precipitation for close situated regions reaches nearly 100%. Possible characterized picture region South Caucasus on global radioactive fallout levels as satisfactory complying with sharing a precipitation in such correspondence approximately: precipitation (draft) over 1500 mms - 100% fallout from 900 before 1500 mms - 70-90% fallout from 700 before 900 mms - 50-70% fallout from 300 before 700 mms - 30-50% fallout less than 300 mms - less than 30% fallout. For 100% take fallout in 8,75 m Cu/km2.sut. on beta-radioactivity (at periods of maximum fallout)

  9. Cardiovascular Disease in South Asian Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Eshan; Razak, Fahad; Lear, Scott A; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a significant cause of global mortality and morbidity. South Asians (SAs) have a particularly high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review describes current literature regarding the prevalence, incidence, etiology, and prognosis of CVD in SA migrants to high-income nations. We conducted a narrative review of CVD in the SA diaspora through a search of MEDLINE and PubMed. We included observational studies, randomized clinical trials, nonsystematic reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses written in English. Of 15,231 articles identified, 827 articles were screened and 124 formed the basis for review. SA migrants have a 1.5-2 times greater prevalence of CAD than age- and sex-adjusted Europids. Increased abdominal obesity and body fat and increased burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia appear to be primary drivers of the excess CAD burden in SAs. Sedentary lifestyle and changes in diet after immigration are important contributors to weight gain and adiposity. Early life factors, physical activity patterns and, in some cases, reduced adherence to medical therapy may contribute to increased CVD risks in SAs. Novel biomarkers like leptin and adipokines may show distinct patterns in SAs and provide insights into cardiometabolic risk determinants. In conclusion, SAs have distinct CVD risk predispositions, with a complex relationship to cultural, innate, and acquired factors. Although CVD risk factor management and treatment among SAs is improving, opportunities exist for further advances. PMID:26321436

  10. Comparative studies on the administrative convergence revealed by national strategies of administrative reform in some South-Eastern European states

    OpenAIRE

    Lucica MATEI; Matei, Ani; Zanovschi, Diana; Stoian, Oana

    2010-01-01

    The paper has as main topic the administrative convergence and its reflection in the national strategies of administrative reform in some states in South Eastern Europe. Having a complex content, sometimes even ambigous, the administrative convergence will have as finality the integration in the European Administrative Space and the administrative reforms as support. From this prospect, the South-Eastern Europe has a certain specificity emphasised by: different positions of the states under d...

  11. DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC OPINION ON PROSTITUTION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN KWAZULU-NATAL PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Pudifin; Shannon Bosch

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years ther...

  12. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  13. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  14. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure

  15. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervenka, Z.; Rogers, B.

    1978-01-01

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure.

  16. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Serfontein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at establishing freedom and security for everyone and a democracy 'for the people, by the people'. The aim of this article is to determine whether South African public education is safe from the corruption 'bogey', where reflection is made on professional public school management, which is the responsibility of school principals. Our objectives include designing an education-specific definition of corruption to advance accountable and transparent leadership; establishing the degree to which corruption has infiltrated the public education sphere; and making recommendations to fight corruption in public schools at professional public school management level. Among other findings, we found that even though some principals actively advocate upholding high morals, their conduct proves differently.

  17. The South-East Karst Province of South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    The South-East Karst Province of South Australia is an extensive area of low relief with dolines, cenotes, uvalas, and a variety of cave types developed in the soft, porous, flat-lying Tertiary Gambier Limestone and also as syngenetic karst in the overlying calcarenite dunes of the Pleistocene Bridgewater Formation. The most spectacular surface karst features are the large collapse dolines, especially those that extend below the water table to form cenotes. Shallow swampy hollows occur in superficial Quaternary sediments. These are an enigmatic feature of the Bool Region, where all gradations appear to occur between definite karst dolines and nonkarstic hollows. Some depressions may be polygenetic—involving a combination of: (1) primary depositional hollows on coastal flats or in dune fields, (2) deflation, and (3) karst solution and subsidence. There are extensive underwater cave systems in the southern part of the province, and the bulk of the cave development there may well lie below the present water table, although these systems would have been at least partly drained during the lower sea levels of the last glacial period. Systematic variations within the province reflect differences in the parent rock types, the extent and nature of the cover and, most importantly, the hydrology—in particular the depth to the water table and its gradient.

  18. Unsung heroes in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    While recognizing the important role played by lesbian women in HIV/AIDS prevention in many countries, and as members of some gay organizations in the South, this article focuses only on gay men. Even though formidable societal proscriptions against homosexuality exist in many developing countries and Eastern European countries, gay men served duty on the front lines as AIDS educators and care givers. The threat of the AIDS crisis impelled some to openly acknowledge their sexuality in an effort to reach gay men at risk. In the West, gay organizations had already laid a 10 year foundation of organization and community trust, when the AIDS epidemic appeared in the public spot light. This fact allowed them to act as effective educators of their own gay communities. They were so effective that the number of new HIV cases has leveled off in the gay community. In Central and South America, gay movement cohered in 1976 and responded quickly to AIDS in 1983. In Africa, homosexuality is often considered a contamination of the West and national gay organizations (NGOs) have only recently been formed in Ghana, Tanzania, and Nigeria. The only AIDS services organizations (ASOs) for black men exist in Zimbabwe and South Africa. In Asia NGOs are a new phenomenon that exist only in Hong Kong, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. All NGOs have several things in common. Governments are rarely interested in working with NGOs so they are forced to find their own funding and develop their own education campaigns. Even in countries that recognize the implications and magnitude of the AIDS crisis, their education programs and policies are often homophobic or anti-gay. In the countries where the government is sympathetic to the gay community they rely upon NGOs to help them develop national education programs for both gays and the rest of the population. PMID:12285096

  19. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  20. Forestry and Water Conservation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Brett; Kruger, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This innovative interdisciplinary study focuses on the history, science, and policy of tree planting and water conservation in South Africa. South Africa’s forestry sector has sat—often controversially—at the crossroads of policy and scientific debates regarding water conservation, economic development, and biodiversity protection. Bennett and Kruger show how debates about the hydrological impact of exotic tree planting in South Africa shaped the development of modern scientific ideas and sta...

  1. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF), it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor). According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published ...

  2. Demographics of South African Households - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Rantho, Lillian

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the demographics of the South African population based on the October Household Survey (OHS) and the Income and Expenditure Survey (IES), both conducted by Statistics South Africa in 1995. Figures and tables are used throughout to paint a picture of the structure of the South African population, both at household level (IES data) and individual level (OHS data). Specific reference is made to the racial and spatial composition of households and individuals, t...

  3. South Africa; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for South Africa. South Africa’s financial sector operates in a challenging economic environment. Despite remarkable progress since the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africa still has one of the world’s highest unemployment and income inequality rates. Slow economic growth since 2008 has further aggravated unemployment, real disposable income is stagnant, and households are heavily indebted. Relatively high capita...

  4. Country of origin and employment prospects among immigrants: An analysis of south-south and north-south migrants to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amos C Peters; Asha Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between country of origin and employment prospects for immigrants to South Africa, an emerging host country characterized by high levels of unemployment, labour market imperfections and a scarcity of skills. Using the 2001 South African census, we estimate the probability of being employed for working-age immigrant men and South African internal migrants. We find that, conditional on individual characteristics and education levels, the probability of being employed v...

  5. A South Asian American diasporic aesthetic community?

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1990s, a diverse group of British South Asian musicians began to gain notoriety in the UK for their distinctive blends of synthesized beats with what were considered South Asian elements (e.g. tabla, sitar and `Hindustani' samples). Following these successes, the British media industries engaged in discourses on whether these South Asian musicians should be labelled under pre-existing musical genres such as acid jazz and electronic music or under an ethnically ...

  6. Second Quantized Kolmogorov Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Caroline; Vedral, Vlatko; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2008-01-01

    The Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of its shortest description. We define a second quantised Kolmogorov complexity where the length of a description is defined to be the average length of its superposition. We discuss this complexity's basic properties. We define the corresponding prefix complexity and show that the inequalities obeyed by this prefix complexity are also obeyed by von Neumann entropy.

  7. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  8. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  9. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...... TNC-driven markets in developing countries); (3) The upgrading impact of FDI; (4) Non-equity linkages as a platform for business development, and (5) The learning perspective on international business linakges. The chapter offers at the end a three-dimanional model for impacts of business linkages....

  10. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  11. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  12. Adding South Africa to The BRICS Mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    South Africa’s membership in the BRICS club may bring more opportunities to the whole of Africa At their third summit,leaders from Brazil,Russia,India and China,known as the BRIC group of major emerging economies,welcomed a new member,South African President Jacob Zuma.Zuma led a high-level delegation,including South Africa’s international relations and cooperation minister,economic development minister and trade and industry minister,to attend the summit on April14in Sanya,south China’s Hainan Province

  13. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  14. Prospects of South Sumatra to export electricity to the South East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasjim, H.M.; Ismail, H.S.; Toha, H.M.T. [Sriwijaya University, South Sumatra (Indonesia)

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays electric power has become a basic need in daily lives and electric power demand has increased. South Sumatra has a large amount of coal of quality suitable for coal-fired power plant, so there is a chance for South Sumatra to fulfill the national electricity demand. Furthermore the strategic location of South Sumatra makes it possible to play a part in electric power export to the South East Asia region. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. SOUTH-SOUTH REGIONALISM AND TRADE COOPERATION IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    This study of regional South-South (S-S) trade and cooperation in East, South and South-East Asian countries (ESSEA) aims to provide an economic rationale for S-S trade; shed some light on the extent and pattern of S-S trade in the ESSEA region; examine the dynamic forces behind the expansion of such trade, and its shortcomings and vulnerabilities; propose policies for enhancing and strengthening regional cooperation; and identify areas for further research. The main conclusi...

  16. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013, seismotectonics of South America (Nazca Plate Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The South American arc extends over 7,000 kilometers (km), from the Chilean margin triple junction offshore of southern Chile, to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore of the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their descent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate, the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 millimeters/year (mm/yr) in the south, to approximately 65 mm/yr in the north. Although the rate of subduction varies little along the entire arc, there are complex changes in the geologic processes along the subduction zone that dramatically influence volcanic activity, crustal deformation, earthquake generation and occurrence all along the western edge of South America.

  17. On the tidally driven circulation in the South China Sea: modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelko, Varjola; Saha, Abhishek; Chua, Vivien P.

    2014-03-01

    The South China Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by land masses and island chains, and characterized by complex bathymetry and irregular coastlines. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS model is employed to perform depth-averaged simulations of the circulation in the South China Sea. The model is tidally forced at the open ocean boundaries using the eight main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software. The model simulations are performed for the year 2005 using a time step of 60 s. The model reproduces the spring-neap and diurnal and semidiurnal variability in the observed data. Skill assessment of the model is performed by comparing model-predicted surface elevations with observations. For stations located in the central region of the South China Sea, the root mean squared errors (RMSE) are less than 10 % and the Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r) is as high as 0.9. The simulations show that the quality of the model prediction is dependent on the horizontal grid resolution, coastline accuracy, and boundary locations. The maximum RMSE errors and minimum correlation coefficients occur at Kaohsiung (located in northern South China Sea off Taiwan coast) and Tioman (located in southern South China Sea off Malaysia coast). This may be explained with spectral analysis of sea level residuals and winds, which reveal dynamics at Kaohsiung and Tioman are strongly influenced by the seasonal monsoon winds. Our model demonstrates the importance of tidally driven circulation in the central region of the South China Sea.

  18. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sihuang; W.Lynn Watney

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China,there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks,and ten sets of reservoir rocks.The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods,results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China.To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background,the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper.The fluid sources,including the gas cracked from crude oil,the gas dissolved in water,the gas of inorganic origin,hydrocarbons generated during the second phase,and the mixed pool fluid source,were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools.The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale.Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction,the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time,and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous.Pool elements,such as preservation conditions,traps and migration paths,and reservoir rocks and facies,also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China.Especially,the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale.According to several dominant control factors of a pool,the pool-controlling model can be constructed.As an example,the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up.

  19. Dominant factors in controlling marine gas pools in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Watney, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    In marine strata from Sinian to Middle Triassic in South China, there develop four sets of regional and six sets of local source rocks, and ten sets of reservoir rocks. The occurrence of four main formation periods in association with five main reconstruction periods, results in a secondary origin for the most marine gas pools in South China. To improve the understanding of marine gas pools in South China with severely deformed geological background, the dominant control factors are discussed in this paper. The fluid sources, including the gas cracked from crude oil, the gas dissolved in water, the gas of inorganic origin, hydrocarbons generated during the second phase, and the mixed pool fluid source, were the most significant control factors of the types and the development stage of pools. The period of the pool formation and the reconstruction controlled the pool evolution and the distribution on a regional scale. Owing to the multiple periods of the pool formation and the reconstruction, the distribution of marine gas pools was complex both in space and in time, and the gas in the pools is heterogeneous. Pool elements, such as preservation conditions, traps and migration paths, and reservoir rocks and facies, also served as important control factors to marine gas pools in South China. Especially, the preservation conditions played a key role in maintaining marine oil and gas accumulations on a regional or local scale. According to several dominant control factors of a pool, the pool-controlling model can be constructed. As an example, the pool-controlling model of Sinian gas pool in Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin was summed up. ?? Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007.

  20. Comparative analysis of post-breakup basin evolution along the South-American and South-African margins, southern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, F.; Back, S.; Kukla, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, considerable attempts have been made to compare the sedimentary basin evolution and the associated tectonic framework on both sides of the South-Atlantic. However, yet there are still unresolved questions concerning the tectono-sedimentary styles of margin basin evolution that markedly differ from north to south. Amongst the most striking observations is that multiple phases of uplift and subsidence are recorded after the break-up of the southern South Atlantic margin segment on both sides of the Florianopolis-Walvis Ridge volcanic complex, features that are regarded as atypical when compared to published examples of other post-breakup margin successions. Adding to the heterogeneity of the system, the northernmost segment of the South Atlantic rift and salt basins is also characterized by a pronounced asymmetry, with the Brazilian margin now comprising narrower and deeper rift basins with less salt than the Congo-Gabon conjugate margin. This project deals with a large-scale comparison of this very different post-breakup tectono-stratigraphic development of the southern and northern South American and African continental margins that both record thick post-rift sedimentary successions. To gain detail of the basin margin evolution, we focus on a regional comparison between the post-breakup records archived in the large offshore southern Brazil basins (Pelotas, Santos, Campos) and the post-breakup continental margin successions of offshore Namibia (e.g. Orange Basin) and southern Angola (e.g. Kwanza Basin). A tectonic-stratigraphic comparison of representative geological transects provides a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key factors influencing margin development which include the subsidence development through time, the sediment (in-)flux and storage patterns and the respective type of basin fill (e.g. salt vs. non-salt systems; carbonate-rich vs. clastics-dominated systems). Data from the salt-prone areas offshore South America and southern

  1. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project

  2. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neel, D. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  3. Labor Unions and the Distribution of Wages and Employment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T Paul; Mwabu, Germano

    1997-01-01

    Labor unions are an important economic and political force in South Africa. Inequality in wage rates is among the largest in the world in South Africa, with African and white workers receiving wages that differ by a factor of five. The complex role of unions in closing and creating this wage gap is assessed in this paper. Union membership among Africa male workers is shown to be associated in 1993 with their receiving wages that are 145 percent higher than comparable nonunion workers in the b...

  4. Nanotechnology, Human Rights, Patent law and the Global South: a brief overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Starting from a Global South perspective, this chapter presents a brief overview of the potential of nanotechnology to serve either as vehicle for broader attainability of human rights or to undermine current efforts. Particular attention is drawn to the complex interconnected issues of ensuring...... art and expectations for the future. The second part explores the social and economic relevance of nanotechnology and its implication for the Global South. In the third part, social, ethical and legal aspects of nanotechnology are framed in terms of human rights issues. The fourth part devotes closer...... functioning of exclusions, exceptions and limitations to patent rights as mechanisms for safekeeping accessibility....

  5. Clouded plagioclase: an origin by epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouded plagioclase containing needles, rods or blebs of opaque minerals has been reported in basic igneous rocks from numerous plutonic environments, as well as from several lunar and meteoritic samples. An alternative origin for the clouded plagioclase of the Bushveld Complex is suggested, namely simultaneous epitaxial growth of Fe-Ti-oxides along rational faces of plagioclase. The magnetite inclusions in plagioclase of the Bushveld Complex are of particular interest in palaeomagnetism since they result in a characteristic magnetic signature which is typically a 'hard' magnetization. On the basis of crystal-chemical data it seems that inclusions in plagioclase represent incipient epitaxial crystal growth on rational faces in plagioclase

  6. Subordination strategies in South America: Nominalization

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gijn, Rik

    2014-01-01

    This chapter argues that nominalization, as a subordination strategy, is significantly more pervasive in South America than would be predicted on the basis of global patterns. The patterns found within South America are most consistent with a scenario of several smaller spreads, possibly promoted by a few language families with major extensions (e.g. Quechuan, Tupian, Cariban).

  7. Inglased peavad "South Parki" liiga karmiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Inglise kooliõpetajaid teeb murelikuks ropp dialoog animafilmis "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker ja Matt Stone : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  8. Local Economic Development Debates in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.

  9. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  10. Lessons from the South African Electricity Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Kate

    2008-01-01

    South Africa is suffering an electricity crisis. Blackouts have been widespread and the impact disastrous. Electricity supply is predicted to constrain growth for at least the next five years. How could this have occurred when until recently South Africa had a surplus of cheap electricity? This One Pager explores the causes. (...)

  11. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  12. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  13. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  14. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  15. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  16. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type ... at least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications ...

  17. Curve complexes are rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, Kasra; Schleimer, Saul

    2007-01-01

    Any quasi-isometry of the complex of curves is bounded distance from a simplicial automorphism. As a consequence, the quasi-isometry type of the curve complex determines the homeomorphism type of the surface.

  18. Complexity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Parwani, R R

    2002-01-01

    This article summarises a Web-book on "Complexity" that was developed to introduce undergraduate students to interesting complex systems in the biological, physical and social sciences, and the common tools, principles and concepts used for their study.

  19. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  20. Quantum Communication Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of quantum communication complexity. Some interesting recent results are collected concerning relations to classical communication, lower bound methods, one-way communication, and applications of quantum communication complexity.

  1. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  2. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  3. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  4. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO I KNOW ... THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused by common ...

  5. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  6. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  7. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  8. A COLORFUL TOUR TO SOUTH KOREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ LOCATION The South Korean peninsula extends southward from the eastern end of the Asian continent. The peninsula is roughly 1,030 km(612 miles) long and 175 km (105 miles)wide at its narrowest point.Mountains cover70% of South Korea's land mass, making it one of the most mountainous regions in the world.The lifting and folding of South Korea's granite and limestone base has created breathtaking landscapes of scenic hills and valleys. The mountain range that stretches the length of the east coast plunges steeply into the East Sea, while along the southern and western coasts, the mountains descend gradually to the coastal plains that produce the bulk of South Korea's agricultural crops, especially rice. Administratively,the Republic of South Korea consists of nine provinces; the capital Seoul; and the six metropolitan cities of Busan, Daegu, Incheon,Gwangju, Daejeon and Ulsan. In total, there are 77 cities and 88 counties.

  9. Feeding grounds of the eastern South Pacific humpback whale population include the South Orkney Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Dalla Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on two photo-identified humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae that were sighted in different years in the proximity of the South Orkney Islands, at the boundary between the Scotia and Weddell seas (60°54.5'S—46°40.4'W and 60°42.6'S—45°33'W. One of the whales had been previously sighted off Ecuador, a breeding ground for the eastern South Pacific population. The other whale was subsequently resighted in Bransfield Strait, off the western Antarctic Peninsula, a well-documented feeding ground for the same population. These matches give support to a hypothesis that the area south of the South Orkney Islands is occupied by whales from the eastern South Pacific breeding stock. Consequently, we propose 40°W as a new longitudinal boundary between the feeding grounds associated with the eastern South Pacific and western South Atlantic breeding stocks.

  10. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  11. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  12. The South African mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers six of the many mining and associated developments in South Africa. These are: (1) Deep level gold mining at Western Deep Levels Limited - (2) Palabora Mining Company Limited - SA's unique copper mine - (3) Production of steel and vanadium-rich slag at Highveld Steel and Vanadium Corporation - (4) Coal mining at Kriel and Kleinkopje Collieries - (5) A mass mining system for use below the Gabbro Sill at Premier Diamond Mine - (6) Uranium production - joint metallurgical scheme- Orange Free State Gold Mines. - For publication in this journal the original paper has been summarised. Should any reader wish to have the full text in English he should write to the author at the address below. (orig.)

  13. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae): insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasis Panda; Indranil Kirtania

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pol...

  14. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  15. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  16. Randomness, Information, and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Grassberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We review possible measures of complexity which might in particular be applicable to situations where the complexity seems to arise spontaneously. We point out that not all of them correspond to the intuitive (or "naive") notion, and that one should not expect a unique observable of complexity. One of the main problems is to distinguish complex from disordered systems. This and the fact that complexity is closely related to information requires that we also give a review of information measures. We finally concentrate on quantities which measure in some way or other the difficulty of classifying and forecasting sequences of discrete symbols, and study them in simple examples.

  17. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  18. A judicial revolution? The court-led achievement of same-sex marriage in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre de Vos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article maps the legal developments that led to the adoption of the Civil Union Act, which extended full marriage rights to same-sex couples in South Africa. It points out that this extension of marriage to same-sex couples would not have been possible if it was not for the groundbreaking decisions on sexual orientation discrimination handed down by the South African Constitutional Court over the past ten years. It al so describes the complex legal regime now in place which allows different sex couples to enter into marriage in terms of a traditional Marriage Act or the new Civil Union Act but restricts same-sex couples to entering into marriage in terms of the latter Act. The article concludes that while this extension of marriage rights can be viewed as a legal revolution, some problems remain with the legal regulation of same-sex relationships in South Africa.

  19. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Long, Jordan; Abbas, Sawaid; Murali, R Mani; Qamer, Faisal M; Pengra, Bruce; Thau, David

    2015-01-15

    environmental conditions highlights complex patterns of mangrove distribution and change. Results from this study provide important insight to the conservation and management of the important and threatened South Asian mangrove ecosystem. PMID:24735705

  20. The South China sea margins: Implications for rifting contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D.E.; Nissen, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Implications regarding spatially complex continental rifting, crustal extension, and the subsequent evolution to seafloor spreading are re-examined for the northern and southern-rifted margins of the South China Sea. Previous seismic studies have shown dramatic differences in the present-day crustal thicknesses as the manifestations of the strain experienced during the rifting of the margin of south China. Although the total crustal extension is presumed to be the same along the margin and adjacent ocean basin, the amount of continental crustal extension that occurred is much less along the east and central segments of the margin than along the western segment. This difference was accommodated by the early formation of oceanic crust (creating the present-day South China Sea basin) adjacent to the eastern margin segment while continued extension of continental crust was sustained to the west. Using the observed cross-sectional areas of extended continental crust derived from deep penetration seismics, two end-member models of varying rift zone widths and varying initial crustal thicknesses are qualitatively examined for three transects. Each model implies a time difference in the initiation of seafloor spreading inferred for different segments along the margin. The two models examined predict that the oceanic crust of the South China Sea basin toward the west did not begin forming until sometime between 6-12 my after its initial formation (???32 Ma) toward the east. These results are compatible with crustal age interpretations of marine magnetic anomalies. Assuming rifting symmetry with conjugate margin segments now residing along the southern portions of the South China Sea basin implies that the total width of the zone of rifting in the west was greater than in the east by about a factor of two. We suggest the most likely causes of the rifting differences were east-west variations in the rheology of the pre-rift crust and associated east-west variations in the

  1. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa. PMID:22432681

  2. A hidropolítica platina no contexto do complexo regional de segurança da América do Sul: entre o conflito e a cooperação (1960-1979 Hydropolitics in the river plate basin in the context of the South American regional security complex: between conflict and cooperation (1960-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Albergaria de Queiroz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em várias regiões do mundo, os múltiplos usos de águas compartilhadas apresentam-se como um componente importante no jogo de poder regional. Essa situação explica por que a gestão de recursos hídricos se encontra vinculada a preocupações de ordem estratégica ou outras questões de alta política em muitos desses casos. Mas em que intensidade? Em busca de respostas para essa questão, o presente estudo analisa o caso da Bacia do Prata, empregando, para tanto, conceitos como securitização, atores securitizadores, objetos de referência, Complexos Regionais de Segurança (CRS e, também, a ideia dos Complexos Hidropolíticos, originalmente desenvolvida por Michael Schulz como uma forma distinta de CRS aplicável em áreas onde as questões relacionadas aos recursos hídricos se destacam como uma característica proeminente nas dinâmicas políticas regionais.In many regions of the world, the multiple uses of transboundary fresh water have been seen as a critically important component for regional stability. This situation explains why, in many cases, water management has commonly become linked to national security concerns or other issues of a "high politics" nature. But, at what intensity? In search of answers for this question, this research analyzes the case of the River Plate Basin employing Barry Buzan's central concepts of securitization, securitizing actors, referent objects, Regional Security Complex (RSC and the related concept of Hydropolitical Complex (HC developed by Michael Schulz as a distinct form of RSC applicable on areas where water-related issues stand out as a salient feature in regional political dynamics.

  3. Review of the Trifolium amabile Complex in Peru, with the Description of a New Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio Molinari-Novoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe Trifolium absconditum sp. nov., a new species of the T. amabile complex from South America. It differs from other Peruvian Trifolia of the complex by having smaller stipules, leaves, inflorescences, and floral pieces. A key for Peruvian species of the complex is presented, and typifications for them are made when necessary and material is available in Peruvian herbaria. Thus, the number of Peruvian species in the complex is elevated to three: T. amabile, T. absconditum, and a resurrected T. peruvianum. Finally, it is suggested that Chile must be excluded from the distribution of this complex.

  4. South American legal perspective on professional nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fagner Alfredo Ardisson Cirino; Nekrassovski, Oleg

    This study involved a literature review aimed at describing the professional duties, stipulated in federal legislation, of nursing professionals in South America. According to the federal legislation that regulates the professional nursing practice, nurses are supposed to apply their skills and knowledge in an autonomous and secure way. Since it is through this legislation that professional competence of nurses is determined, the laws of each South American nation were consulted, to see how professional nursing functions differ according to each. In general, according to the South American federal nursing legislations, professional nursing practice must be grounded in quality patient care and good nursing administration. PMID:24260995

  5. When did globalization begin in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Boshoff, Willem H.; Johan Fourie

    2015-01-01

    Economic globalization is defined as the co-movement of prices across a large number of countries (O’Rourke and Williamson, 2002). This research note identifies the period when South African prices began to move in unison with those of the country’s lead trading partner or, in other words, when South Africa globalized. We find that South African wheat prices started reflecting UK trends soon after the discovery of diamonds and gold in the interior of the country. The mineral revolution, it se...

  6. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  7. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Heine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E–W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (≈126 Ma when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ≈17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the

  8. Archeomagnetism of Jesuit Missions in South Brazil (1657-1706 AD) and assessment of the South American database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Damiani, Nadir; Rech, Raquel M.

    2016-07-01

    South America contributes only a small fraction of the global archeomagnetic data. Recent work in the region has expanded significantly the previous database with new data being generated from Chile, Argentina, Northeast and Southeast Brazil. We report here new results from Jesuit Missions in South Brazil, at the triple border with Argentina and Paraguay. Our archeological collection comprises a total of 24 fragments of baked clay construction materials from three Jesuit Missions, São Luiz Gonzaga 1657-1687 AD (3 fragments), São João Batista 1667-1697 AD (4 fragments) and Santo Ângelo 1676-1706 AD (17 fragments). Archeointensity determinations were performed with the double-heating technique in its modified form, with pTRM checks and pTRM tail checks. Measurements were complemented by anisotropy and cooling-rate corrections. A total of 24 specimens (11 fragments) passed strict quality selection, corresponding to a success rate of 45%. We also performed an experimental test for the 6-specimen average anisotropy correction technique and we show that it does not correct for the effects of TRM anisotropy. Results were similar within error for the three missions: São Luiz Gonzaga (40.2 ± 2.4 μT), São João Batista (39.1 ± 1.6 μT) and Santo Ângelo (41.1 ± 2.0 μT). These data were then compared with the most reliable data from South America, after a critical assessment of the current database. According to our analysis, only 39 intensity data for the continent can be considered as high-quality, most within the last 700 years; only three data were retained for older periods (800-1100 AD). The filtered data match reasonably well the available models for the past five centuries. A combined curve for South and Southeast Brazil plus Argentina plot systematically below relocated data from NE Brazil and Chile. These differences are likely due to complexities in the geometry of the field in South America not appropriately accounted for by a simple axial dipole. Our

  9. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  10. Phylodynamics of influenza A(H3N2) in South America, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Priscila Silva; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Resende, Paola Cristina; Motta, Fernando Couto; Bello, Gonzalo

    2016-09-01

    The limited influenza A(H3N2) genetic data available from the Southern Hemisphere (particularly from Africa and Latin America), constrains the accurate reconstruction of viral dissemination dynamics within those regions. Our objective was to describe the spatial dissemination dynamics of influenza A(H3N2) within South America. A total of 469 sequences of the HA1 portion of the hemagglutinin gene (HA) from influenza A(H3N2) viruses sampled in temperate and tropical South American countries between 1999 and 2012 were combined with available contemporary sequences from Australia, Hong Kong, United Kingdom and the United States. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that influenza A(H3N2) sequences from South America were highly intermixed with sequences from other geographical regions, although a clear geographic virus population structure was detected globally. We identified 14 clades mostly (≥80%) composed of influenza sequences from South American countries. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses of those clades support a significant role of both temperate and tropical regions in the introduction and dissemination of new influenza A(H3N2) strains within South America and identify an intensive bidirectional viral exchange between different geographical areas. These findings indicate that seasonal influenza A(H3N2) epidemics in South America are seeded by both the continuous importation of viral variants from other geographic regions and the short-term persistence of local lineages. This study also supports a complex metapopulation model of influenza A(H3N2) dissemination in South America, with no preferential direction in viral movement between temperate and tropical regions. PMID:27275847

  11. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  12. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  13. New time-constraints on provenance, metamorphism and exhumation of the Bahía Mansa Metamorphic Complex on the Main Chiloé Island, south-central Chile Nuevas restricciones temporales sobre proveniencia, metamorfismo y exhumación del Complejo Metamórfico Bahía Mansa en la Isla Grande de Chiloé, centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Duhart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Coastal Ranges in the western part of the Chiloé Archipelago represent an emerged forearc high at the subduction front of south-central Chile. Prior to the Cenozoic framework of the subducting Farallón and Nazca plates beneath the South American plate, the history of the metamorphic basement in the Coastal Ranges involves episodes of subduction and/or accretion of oceanic and ensialic material along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana. Along different segments of the Main Chiloé Island the thermal record of the metamorphic basement rocks includes regional metamorphism, exhumation and finally magmatism. Detrital zircons conventional U-Pb ages from a pelitic schist of the Central Segment of the Main Chiloé Island constrain the maximum possible sedimentation age to the Carboniferous (310 Ma. Other concordant zircon fractions (360, 390 and 412 Ma suggest Ordovician primary sources. The sedimentary provenance of zircons could correspond to continental magmatic rocks of similar ages presently exposed in adjacent areas such as Nahuelbuta Mountains and Principal Cordillera and, additionally, from distal areas in the North-Patagonian and Deseado massifs. Widespread metamorphism in greenschist facies is well represented in the basement unit of the Main Chiloé Island. K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages in white mica range between 245 to 220 Ma, interpreted as near the peak of metamorphism during Middle to early Late Triassic times. Zircon and apatite fission-track (FT central ages in metamorphic rocks range from Late Jurassic (ca. 156 Ma to Eocene (ca. 38 Ma and are accompanied by relatively large dispersions. The modelling of the zircon FT single-grain age distributions depicts younger deconvoluted Late Cretaceous peak (ca. 80 Ma and the apatite modelling shows two populations, an older Late Cretaceous peak (ca. 64-91 Ma and a younger Eocene peak (ca. 3 8-5 3 Ma. The zircon and apatite Late Cretaceous peaks together with the presence of a marine

  14. Preparing the Perfect Cuttlefish Meal: Complex Prey Handling by Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were ...

  15. The Palabora complex - triumph over low grade ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial mining complex at Phalaborwa in the north east Transvaal of South Africa is an important source of copper, phosphate, vermiculite, baddeleyite, precious and radioactive metals (U and Th from uranothorianite) and other raw materials for the country's domestic needs as well as for the export market. This article reviews the development of this unique mineral resource from the geological, technological, and commercial aspects. (author)

  16. Application of Origin Rules in Kaesong Industrial Complex, North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Na Young

    2012-01-01

    Under the expansion of regional economic integration, a product may be assembled in more than one country, creating the problem to determine the origin of the product. This paper aims to analyze the issue to recognize products manufactured in Kaesong Industrial Complex, North Korea, as products originating from South Korea.  Sebagai akibat dari berkembangnya kesatuan-kesatuan ekonomi regional, suatu produk dapat diproduksi di lebih dari satu negara. Hal ini menimbulkan masalah dalam menentuka...

  17. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  18. Two giant stellar complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  19. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  20. Problem of tectonic belonging of folded structures of the middle and south Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Caspian Aquatorium adjacent to continental territory of Azerbaijan Republic covers the western part of the middle and south Caspian. Tectonically it together with adjacent land is presented by two heterogeneous geodynamic units. Folded construction of the Greater Caucasus os located towards south from Kusar-Devechi piedmont trough in geologic structure of which Mesozoic deposits take part and South-East paleogene ones. As it is known folded construction of the Greater Caucasus undergoes a subsidence of over thrust folds in south-east direction and due to this its width is reduced and faults framing it from and from south in the middle Caspian are completely combined. Local folded structures of Absheron archipelago consist of weak Cenozoic deposits bedded at not large depth on Mesozoic complex. It should be mentioned that manifestations of mud volcanoes are of insignificant distribution within both folded construction of the Greater Caucasus and Absheron archipelago. On contrary, majority of local structures of Baku archipelago and especially Gobustan is characterized by availability of large mud volcanoes, possessing different types, geometrical forms and intensive eruptions of paroxysm.

  1. Geopolitics, economy and international solidarity in the new South-South cooperation: the case of Bolivarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele BENZI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show an overview of the energy cooperation scheme called PETROCARIBE, proposed in 2005 by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the Caribbean and Central American countries. It argues that the emergence of this project, like other South-South cooperation initiatives, is clearly linked to several strategic foreign policy goals, which basically refer to geopolitical, economic, security and, last but not least, international solidarity parameters. The first section outlines some general characteristics of South-South cooperation and current trends and debates. The following presents the peculiar features of the Bolivarian foreign and energy policies. The next presents a general description of the PETROCARIBE framework, working mechanisms and its most important projects. Finally, after a discussion on PETROCARIBE as a South-South cooperation initiative, by highlighting its scopes, problems and vulnerabilities, some conclusions are drawn.

  2. How evolution guides complexity

    OpenAIRE

    LARRY S. YAEGER

    2009-01-01

    Long-standing debates about the role of natural selection in the growth of biological complexity over geological time scales are difficult to resolve from the paleobiological record. Using an evolutionary model—a computational ecosystem subjected to natural selection—we investigate evolutionary trends in an information-theoretic measure of the complexity of the neural dynamics of artificial agents inhabiting the model. Our results suggest that evolution always guides complexity change, just n...

  3. Quantum Computational Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Watrous, John

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.

  4. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  5. Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikos, Antonios G.; Herring, Susan W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Lu, Helen H.; Kandel, Rita; Schoen, Frederick J.; Toner, Mehmet; Mooney, David; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and ...

  6. Nuclear relations in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.

    1998-12-18

    The strategic landscape of South Asia changed dramatically in 1998. With the reciprocal testing of nuclear weapons, India and Pakistan emerged from the world of threshold status to an overt posture which has yet to be fully defined. Each claims the status of a nuclear weapon state, yet the contours of that status are unclear. A number of important strategic issues have been raised by these dramatic events. This paper will attempt to examine the implications of this new posture for each country and for the region. First and foremost, the decisions to test nuclear weapons are a product of each individual state making a sovereign decision about its national security needs. Both have made clear for a number of years that their attitudes toward nuclear weapons-and by default, toward nuclear nonproliferation-will not be directed by outsiders. They have rejected the global norms that oppose the further proliferation of nuclear weapons, embodied in the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and that embrace the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, captured in Article VI of that treaty. The decisions reached in New Delhi and lslamabad have been questioned by many, but the tests cannot be undone and it now falls on both countries to make further decisions about what strategies will best serve them, and what obligations they must now assume. Issues such as strategic planning, weaponization, deployment, and command and control, which heretofore were relegated to the back burner, may no longer be deferred.

  7. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  8. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  9. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.; Clemenson, P. I.; Carneiro, K.; Yueqiuan, S.; Mortensen, Kell

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  10. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  11. MULTISCALE COMPLEXITY/ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. BAR-YAM

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the role of scale dependence of entropy/complexity and its relationship to component interdependence. The complexity as a function of scale of observation is expressed in terms of subsystem entropies for a system having a description in terms of variables that have the same a priori scale. The sum of the complexity over all scales is the same for any system with the same number of underlying degrees of freedom (variables), even though the complexity at specific scales differs due t...

  12. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes.

  13. Indigenous Knowledge, South-South Exchange of New Technologies and a Warped Intellectual Property Rights System

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I analyse the contribution of new technologies in sustainable development and poverty alleviation in the global South. My research design is desktop analysis based on a theoretical communication model of the knowledge and communication interface. I present an analysis of the possibilities that exist in South-South exchange of indigenous knowledge using the new technologies, defined as the modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), to address problems of poverty an...

  14. South to south learning in great ape conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneveld-de Lange, Nicolien; Meijaard, Erik; Löhr, Ansje

    2016-06-01

    Despite evidence that killing of Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in South-East Asia is a major threat to the species, few researchers and non-governmental conservationists have addressed it in management and research, and there is virtually no implementation of anti-killing strategies. In large parts of the Congo Basin, Central Africa, instead, illegal killing of great apes is acknowledged to be their largest threat, and many conservation strategies have been used to reduce killing pressure. However, since these strategies have not been subject to systematic and comprehensive review, it remains unclear which of them have been successful and why. Knowledge of the success, failure, and practices of common conservation strategies to manage great ape killing is critical to ensure adaptive conservation management in the Congo Basin. Understanding the Congo context also facilitates simultaneously highlighting great ape killing in Borneo and suggesting solutions to manage orangutan killing. Here, we compile and analyze the available literature on great ape conservation strategies for reducing killing rates in the Congo Basin. Through a systematic literature review of 198 publications, we find that the most widely employed conservation strategies in the Congo Basin are legislation and law enforcement, protected area management, community-based conservation, alternatives to bushmeat consumption and trade, ecotourism, education, and capacity building. Despite lack of rigorous post-intervention evaluation of conservation impact, we derive several recommendations for addressing the orangutan killing issue in Borneo. A critical lesson, widely applicable to developing countries for conservationists and not limited to Congo Basin realities, is the need for rigorous post-intervention evaluations compared to pre-intervention baselines and over appropriate time frames. Am. J. Primatol. 78:669-678, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26828200

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  16. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  17. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  18. Natural gas integration in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South America Gas Trade study, a project of the Canadian Energy Research Institute, was discussed. The ongoing study involves an examination of natural gas reserves, exploration, and development in the onshore and offshore basins in South America. An analysis of various pipeline options is also part of the project, using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The forces driving natural gas development, (distribution of gas reserves, fuel substitution in the residential sector, focus on energy efficiency and cost control, potential export revenue growth, fuel substitution in electric power generation, development of co-generation capacity, and the impact of natural gas utilization on crude oil demand) and the legal, fiscal and regulatory regimes which govern the development of natural gas in each South American country were reviewed. figs

  19. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marlboro County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  20. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Williamsburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  1. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Greenwood County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  2. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Orangeburg County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  3. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Laurens County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  4. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chesterfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Union County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Newberry County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  7. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Marion County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  8. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Cherokee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  9. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Clarendon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  10. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Lancaster County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  11. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Chester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  12. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Fairfield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  13. Frogs and climate change in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Minter, Leslie Rory

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between frog declines and climate change, discusses the possible impact of climate change on the South African frog fauna, and highlights the necessity for increased research and monitoring of our frog populations.

  14. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Oconee County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  15. Perceptions, responses and challenges in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Pattanaik

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the hype of globalisation-driven South Asian prosperity, the plight of the landless, illiterate and chronically poor remains forgotten. Among the most vulnerable losers are those who migrate in search of better livelihoods.

  16. Pycnogonida from south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty species of Pycnogonida are recorded from shallow waters of the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia. Eight of these are new to science : Ammothea (Lecythorhynchus) ovatoides, Achelia transfugoides, Nymphon dubitabile, N. conirostrum, Pallenoides stylirostrum, Stylopallene longica

  17. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF, it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor. According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS, South Africa has 250 Centurian/Olifant tanks, 1 600 Eland armoured cars, 1 500 Ratel Infantry combat vehicles, 372 combat aircraft, 16 armed helicopters and 144 other helicopters. The SADF can mobilize over 400 000 personnel. Defence expenditures for 1985/6 were 2,27 billion dollars. The defence budget for 1986/7 indicates allocations of 2,012 billion dollars.

  18. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  19. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  20. Surfing on the South Korean Wave!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Have you ever watched this South Korean soap opera,Dae Jang Geum?That beautiful and tender girl with strong determination and indomitable spirit walked from ancient Korea into modern World through the program.

  1. South China Sea: Disputes and Great Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinming

    2011-01-01

    In the South China Sea disputes, China has ample proof to claim sovereignty over the Xisha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nansha Islands (the Spratly Islands) while the claims of certain southeast Asian countries do not hold any water. The South China Sea disputes have their origins in the San Francisco Peace Treaty signed in 1951, the result of intervention by the United States and Great Britain in regional affairs. Even today, the United States has not discarded its Cold War mentality and continues to intervene in the South China Sea disputes. The only change in the United States' attitude is that it has changed its pretext for intervention from "containing Communist expansion" in the past to "preserving freedom of navigation in the South China Sea" in the present.

  2. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    humanitarianism is an effective lens for viewing the multiple and diverse relationships that constitute the links between North and South. New empirical findings on celebrity humanitarianism on the ground in Thailand, Malawi, Bangladesh, South Africa, China, Haiti, Congo, US, Denmark and Australia illustrate the......Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either as...... a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity...

  3. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  4. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Darlington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  5. 2008 South Carolina Lidar: Dillon County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project area is composed of 16 counties in the State of South Carolina - Cherokee, Union, Laurens, Greenwood, Newberry, Chester, Fairfield, Lancaster,...

  6. South Korean Presidential System: A Troublesome Case?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, Petr

    2005. [Presented at the annual Korean Studies Gradute Student's Convention. London (GB), 10.05.2005-12.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : presidential system * South Korea Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  7. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  8. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  9. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  10. The dilemma of ethical political communication in South African elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Fourie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.

  11. Characterization of the coal resources of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, L.S. [CSIR, Auckland (New Zealand). Division of Mining Technology

    2005-02-01

    Estimates for South Africa's coal recoverable reserves made in 1999 range from nine to 59 billion tons; latest estimates by the Minerals Bureau suggest that 33 billion tons is a more likely figure. As much as 70% of that coal is located in the Waterberg, Witbank, and Highveld coalfields, as well as lesser amounts in the Ermelo, Free State and Springbok Flats coalfields. However, the Witbank and Highveld coalfields are approaching exhaustion (estimated 9 billion tons of recoverable coal remaining in each), while the coal quality or mining conditions in the Waterberg, Free State and Springbok Flats coalfields are significant barriers to immediate, conventional exploitation. New extraction technologies, technologies exploiting the energy content of the coal in situ, as well as suitable uses and markets for low-grade, high-ash coal are required before the country can utilize its admittedly vast coal resources. Major challenges for exploiting some Limpopo province coalfields are severe water shortages, insufficiently developed infrastructure, fragile environments and poor roof conditions due to the depth and complex geology. In the Central Basin (Witbank, Highveld and Ermelo coalfields) technical innovations for thin seam extraction, economic mining of both pillar coal and intrusion-fragmented resource blocks and the utilization of lower-grade coals are required. The success of the fluidized bed combustion technology is necessary to utilize the low-grade coals of the Free State and Molteno coalfields. Clean coal technologies, coal cost and quality, environmental considerations, sustainable development, the growth of the South African economy and Government's regulation of the electricity industry are the main challenges to the continued use of coal as South Africa's primary energy source.

  12. Spatial Variability of Drought for Continental South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos, J. Z.; Goncalves, L.; Herdies, D. L.; Dos Santos, A. F.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Drought is one of the most complex but least understood of all natural hazards, affecting more people than any other natural hazard. Unlike other disasters that quickly come and go, droughts generally persist for a long time, leading to extensive damage and, in some cases, is responsible for mass migration and civilization losses. In the last years, many countries in South America have undergone long periods of drought, leading to large scale decline in agricultural and livestock production. Understanding spatial variability and duration of drought is critical for establishing early warning systems to reduce vulnerability to this natural hazard. In this study, we investigated spatial variability and duration of drought espisodes over South America from 1948 to 2006. The analisys is based on a regional soil moisture dataset derived from a model simulation of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. The simulation is driven by a hybrid observation-reanalysis-based meteorological dataset and provides a globally consistent and physically based view of moisture availability. A clustering algorithm was used as well to identify individual drought events and their spatial extent from monthly summaries of simulated data. Results show that the 1960's was a period of most severe drought for the period of analysis. In addition, several other periods had intense droughts, such as 1995 where 40% of South America was under drought. Regions historically marked by droughts, such as the Brazil Northeast also shows intense intense droughts during 1997-1998. Information on spatiotemporal variability in droughts throughout S America using a consistent modeling framework and forcing data will be extremely valuable for assessing future drought vulnerability in these regions.

  13. ENSO impact on simulated South American hydro-climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stuck

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the simulated hydro-climatology of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM is analysed. Main object of this study is the ENSO-driven variability of the water storage of South America. The horizontal model resolution amounts to 0.5 degree and it is forced with monthly climate variables for 1961-1995 of the Tyndall Centre Climate Research Unit dataset (CRU TS 2.0 as a representation of the observed climate state. Secondly, the model is also forced by the model output of a global circulation model, the ECHAM4-T42 GCM. This model itself is driven by observed monthly means of the global Sea Surface Temperatures (SST and the sea ice coverage for the period of 1903 to 1994 (GISST. Thus, the climate model and the hydrological model represent a realistic simulated realisation of the hydro-climatologic state of the last century. Since four simulations of the ECHAM4 model with the same forcing, but with different initial conditions are carried out, an analysis of variance (ANOVA gives an impression of the impact of the varying SST on the hydro-climatology, because the variance can be separated into a SST-explained and a model internal variability (noise. Also regional multivariate analyses, like Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA provide information of the complex time-space variability. In particular the Amazon region and the South of Brazil are significantly influenced by the ENSO-variability, but also the Pacific coastal areas of Ecuador and Peru are affected. Additionally, different ENSO-indices, based on SST anomalies (e.g. NINO3.4, NINO1+2, and its influence on the South American hydro-climatology are analysed. Especially, the Pacific coast regions of Ecuador, Peru and Chile show a very different behaviour dependant on those indices.

  14. South China Sea: Controversies And Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Disputes have recently broken out between China and some Southeast Asian countries and the United States in the South China Sea. The Beijing-based Economic Information Daily spoke to Liu Nanlai, a research fellow at the Institute of International Law under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, on the origin of the South China Sea issue and China’s position on it. Excerpts follow:

  15. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  16. Interdependence of South Asian Equity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Ali; Haroon Hussain; Talat Islam

    2014-01-01

    This Study aimed at exploring the relationship between South Asian Equity Markets. Four major South Asian Equity Markets (Karachi Stock Exchange, Bombay Stock Exchange, Colombo Stock Exchange and Dhaka Stock Exchange) were taken to explore this relationship. Data was taken from the year 1999 to 2009 on monthly basis. Data Analysis was conducted using co-integration Analysis for the long run relationship and VECM (Vector Error Correction Model) for the short run relationship. For the purpose o...

  17. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  18. The South-Nonsouth Faculty Salary Differential

    OpenAIRE

    Ethel B. Jones; Rand W. Ressler

    1993-01-01

    Faculty salaries at American educational institutions are often assumed to be lower in the South than in the non-South. This paper presents a model inclusive of faculty and job characteristics for estimating the regional differential at community colleges (local markets) and at institutions awarding the bachelor's degree and above (national market). Differentials are estimated at the end points (1975, 1985) of a decade of more rapid Southern than non-Southern faculty employment-growth. Nomina...

  19. SOUTH AFRICA AT WAR, 1912-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Second Anglo-Boer War also put an end to the commando system that had been the core of military strength in South Africa. With the formation of the Union in 1910 it was realized that South Africa will have to provide its own defence. It was to be no easy task; seeing that the English and Afrikaans-speaking sections of the population had just concluded a bitter war which had left deep scars.

  20. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Deon Erasmus; Angus Lloyd Hornigold

    2015-01-01

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventu...

  1. Tackling Nuclear Terrorism in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Feroz Hassan; Burke, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Since India and Pakistan conducted their nuclear tests in 1998, every danger associated with nuclear weapons – proliferation, instability, and terrorism – has been linked to the region. And despite nuclear deterrence and the modernization of nuclear forces, South Asia is a far cry from achieving stability. Indeed, the security situation in South Asia has deteriorated and violent extremism has surged to unprecedentedly high levels. In the past decades, both states have ope...

  2. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  3. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  4. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez; Daniel Saloni; Sudipta Dasmohapatra; Frederick Cubbage

    2008-01-01

    South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exp...

  5. SOUTH AFRICA AND IMPERIAL NAVAL DEFENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cornwell

    2012-01-01

    There are various themes which emerge in a consideration of South Africa's involvement in British naval policy. There is the expansion of the British empire itself, from its Atlantic beginnings into eastern seas and its century-long conflict with France. There is the theme of India, and the fluctuating fortunes of a trading company. There are the changes in marine technology and the world's balance of naval power. All of these broad themes must be considered if the South African contribution ...

  6. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "A refreshing and intriguing interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which the history and cultures of the American South have been largely shaped by forces beyond the geographical boundaries of the United States." --Allison Graham, author of Framing the South "This is an impressive collecti...... author of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction. William A. Link, Richard J. Milbauer Professor of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History....

  7. Marine Ecotourism Development Analysis in South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Ambo Tuwo

    2010-01-01

    Land based development pt:ority tends to ignore marine resources development, especially marine ecotourism. The study analyzed marine ecotourism development prospect in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in four districts, namely: Pangkep, Makassar, Takalar and Selayar. This study planned to analyze marine and coastal resources that could support the marine ecotourism development in South Sulawesi. Indonesia. Tic study aims to: (1) analyze comprehensively marine ecotourism dev...

  8. MINIMUM WAGE VIOLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat; Ravi Kanbur; Natasha Mayet

    2011-01-01

    Minimum wage legislation is central in South African policy discourse, with both strong support and strong opposition. The validity of either position depends, however, on the effectiveness of minimum wage enforcement. Using detailed matching of occupational, sectoral and locational codes in the 2007 Labour Force Survey to the gazetted minimum wages, this paper presents, we believe for the first time, estimates of minimum wage violation in South Africa. Our results give considerable cause for...

  9. Global warming and north-south solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

  10. Services Trade Liberalisation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Raihan, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the services sector has boomed in the South Asian countries. Alongside the growth, liberalisation of the services trade too has become a critical economic agenda for these economies. Some of their services sectors have been liberalised as part of their commitment under GATS. Under the request-offer process of GATS, there have been requests from other developing and developed countries to open up services sectors of the South Asian countries. Additionally, they hav...

  11. Orf in South Africa: Endemic but neglected

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Scagliarini; Silvia Piovesana; Filippo Turrini; Federica Savini; Fortune Sithole; Cheryl M. McCrindle

    2012-01-01

    A survey amongst sheep and goat producers and veterinarians was undertaken to collect epidemiological data on orf in South Africa. Previous epidemiological studies on the presence of the disease in the country have not been documented and this report is the first descriptive epidemiological study of orf in South Africa. A seven-month investigation, realised by direct and indirect interviews and field observation, enabled us to outline incidence and risk factors of this disease and to bet...

  12. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  13. The costs of illiteracy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Gustafsson; Servaas van der Berg; Debra Shepherd; Cobus Burger

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa there has been a surge in publicly funded adult literacy education in recent years. There is a recognition that for the effective monitoring of adult literacy, direct measures of literacy are required. Grade attainment, self-reported ability to read and behavioural variables relating to, for instance, reading habits produce vastly different measures of adult literacy in South Africa. It is noteworthy that self-reported values change over time as people’s perceptions of what co...

  14. Generating Larger Tax Revenue in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Despite repeated attempts, South Asian countries have managed only limited and sporadic success in mobilizing larger tax revenue. Tax-to-GDP ratios in most countries in the region remain below cross country averages and are considered inadequate to meet their financing needs. Underperformance in tax revenue generation does not seem due to paucity of tax policy reforms. South Asian countries have undertaken considerable reforms in the last decade, and their tax structures have converged with t...

  15. Language Endangerment and Preservation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Hugo C.

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to language, few corners of the globe are as diverse as South Asia. Throughout history, this has been an area of high multilingualism and intense linguistic contact, leading to often extreme processes of change, linguistic conflict and accommodation, as well as the emergence of new languages. However, while diversity may be the order of the day in South Asia, language obsolescence and loss have now become equally conspicuous. As a matter of fact, the most linguistically diverse ...

  16. Oral Health in South Australia - 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, John; Beckwith, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Oral health in South Australia 2008 provides a comprehensive summary of the oral health of South Australian residents. This publication was developed from a range of surveys conducted by the Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health (ARCPOH) and administrative data provided by state dental services. Information provided in this publication includes data on caries experience and periodontal diseases of children and adults, tooth retention and loss among adults, access to denta...

  17. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  18. Short geological description of the Inkai uranium deposit in South Kazakstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inkai deposit is located in the territory of the Suzakski region of South Kazakhstan, at 160 km from the railroad station Kzyl-Orda, at the south-western part of Chu-Saryssu uranium ore province. The Chu-Saryssuiskaya depression presents an artesian basin which was formed by water-bearing complexes of upper chalk and of Paleocene-Eocene. During the neotectonic stage of the later Oligocene-Quarternary period, the artesian basin was developed mainly in infiltration regime, this fact led to comprehensive developing of stratum oxidation zones, the boundaries of which are forming regional fronts systems in ore-enclosing complexes horizons. Industrial uranium mineralization is linked with boundaries of stratum oxidation zones in water-bearing horizons (from lower Turonian to middle Eocene ones). The most significant industrial objectives are: in Paleocene sediments -deposits: Uvanas, Kanzhugan, Moinkum; in chalk sediments - Mynkuduk, Zhalpak and the deposit discovered in recent years - Inkai. (author)

  19. Isotopic study of a deep groundwater system near the Danube-river/South Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater flow regime in the jurassic karst and tertiary terrain near the Danube-river in the area of Ingolstadt/South Germany has been well discussed and investigated for years. However, a stringent explanation of the complex deep groundwater system at the meeting-point of young, karstic groundwater from the north (open karst) and old deep groundwater in the south (covered karst) is still lacking. Today, because of the increasing water use for drinking water supply in the high industrialized area of Ingolstadt, reliable hydrogeological answers and a future sustainable groundwater management system are needed. First symptoms of overexploitation are visible by hydrochemical and isotopic measurements. Coming from the actual state of hydrogeological knowledge, the use of isotope techniques provide distinct explanation for the complex genesis of the occurring groundwaters

  20. Stress Patterns Across South Africa: Something Amiss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Marco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Delvaux De Fenffe, Damien; Durrheim, Ray; Fagereng, Ake; Heidbach, Oliver; Van Der Merwe, Nielen; Saalmann, Kerstin; Saunders, Ian; Hodge, Matthew; Logue, Andrew; Malephane, Hlompho; Muaka, Joseph J.

    2013-04-01

    To mitigate the uncertainties in assessing the geohazards and rock conditions that affect the nuclear, mining (including hydrocarbon extraction) and civil engineering activities in South Africa, the authors are working to improve the data coverage concerning the present day stress field. In principle, this implies constraining the principal compressive stresses (σ1>σ2>σ3) or at least the maximum horizontal compressive stress (σH) because knowledge of these parameters may determine the reactivation potential of known faults, or the behaviour of large excavations and wells. By contrast, much of the subcontinent is under-represented in the World Stress Map database. For this reason we have taken a number of steps, firstly by installing a compact Trillium seismic sensor at Stofkloof (Namaqualand; adjacent to the Vaalputs low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility) and 1-sec sensors at Aggeneys and Koffiemeul (Bushmanland). All stations are equipped with Reftek data loggers and powered by solar panels. The data from these stations will be integrated with data from the national network to obtain focal mechanism solutions for seismic events in the Northern Cape - southernmost Namibia region (also known as the Grootvloer cluster). These neotectonic stress tensors are then combined with σH parameters obtained from calliper logs of off-shore wells and from the geometry of joints, faults and sheared fractures in palaeosols (Bushmanland), soils and calcrete (NW Free State) and aeolianites (southern Cape). We also include underground rock engineering phenomenological observations and measurements, and data in the public domain. Our data consistently indicate a NNW-SSE oriented σH (Wegener Stress Anomaly or WSA) that prevails across most of central, southern and western South Africa, Namibia up to the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant at the Angola border. However, in the Congo basin, a few earthquake focal mechanisms suggest rotation of the regional