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Sample records for bushveld complex south

  1. Shear wave velocity structure of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgaswane, EM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the crust in the environs of the Bushveld Complex has been investigated by jointly inverting high-frequency teleseismic receiver functions and 2–60 s period Rayleigh wave group velocities for 16 broadband seismic stations located...

  2. CONTINUITY BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN BUSHVELD COMPLEX, SOUTH AFRICA, CONFIRMED BY XENOLITHS FROM KIMBERLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Cawthorn, G.

    2009-12-01

    The eastern and western limbs of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa have been interpreted by some as dipping sheets of mafic cumulate rocks ever since the modeling of gravity and geoelectrical data by Meyer & de Beer (Nature 325, 610, 1987). However, re-interpretation of the regional gravity data by Cawthorn & Webb (Tectonophys. 330, 195, 2001), with consideration of isostatic crustal flexure and depressing of the Moho, allows Bushveld to be modeled as a single, connected body. This is consistent with the anomalously thick sub-Bushveld crust (to 48 km) as revealed by seismic data (Nguuri et al, Geophys. Res. Lett 28, 2501, 2001). Here we provide direct evidence from xenoliths in kimberlite for a regionally interconnected Bushveld Complex, implying its emplacement as a single sill-like body ~400 km across and ~8 km thick. The Cretaceous Palmietgat Group 1 kimberlites, located mid-way between the eastern and western lobes, about 70 km N of Pretoria, form a cluster of 6 pipes linked by dikes, over a distance of ~3 km. The K15W pipe is actively mined for diamonds. We recovered 5 small (~4 cm across) xenoliths of pyroxenitic rocks in the waste pile representing the high density portion of crushed material that was rejected for diamond recovery by a Sortex apparatus. The xenoliths are medium-grained orthopyroxene cumulates (80-90% opx) with interstitial zoned plagioclase (8-15%), clinopyroxene (chemistry and mg# to our measured xenoliths from Palmietgat. We suggest, therefore, that the recovered xenoliths provide strong evidence that significant thicknesses of Bushveld rocks occur at depth between the eastern and western lobes, hence supporting connectivity of the Complex, at least at the level of the Upper Critical Zone. The presence of a prominent gravity high near the Palmietgat kimberlites may indicate that high-density Bushveld cumulate rocks reside at shallow depths (~1-3 km?) due to diapiric doming or folding of the floor. In any case, our results imply that the

  3. Assessment of atmospheric trace metals in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. Van Zyl"

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trace metal species emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources can cause various health-related and environmental problems. Limited data exist for atmospheric trace metal concentrations in South Africa, which has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of these mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, with the western limb being the most exploited. To partially address this knowledge gap, atmospheric trace metals were collected in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex at Marikana in the North West Province. Diurnal PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected for 1 year. A total of 27 trace metal species were determined. With the exception of Ni, none of the trace metals measured during the sampling period exceeded local or international air quality standard limit values. Total trace metal concentrations in the PM10 fraction peaked during the dry months and were regularly washed out during the wet season. A less significant seasonal trend was observed for the trace metal concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction; a finding attributed to a faster replenishment of smaller particles into the atmosphere after rain events. About 80% of the PM10 trace metal levels measured occurred in the PM2.5 fraction, while 40% or more of all metals emanated from the PM2.5 fraction. This finding indicated a strong influence of anthropogenic sources. Four meaningful emission sources were determined from explorative principal component factor analysis: crustal, vanadium related, base metal related and ferrochromium related, which correlated well with the anticipated atmospheric trace metal sources in the region.

  4. An air quality assessment in the industrialised western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of the South African mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC, with the western limb being the most exploited. Because the majority of the world’s platinum is produced in the BIC, this area is also of international interest. There are some indications that the western BIC should be considered an air pollution hotspot; however, inadequate data exist to substantiate these claims scientifically. To partially address this knowledge gap, a comprehensive air quality monitoring station was operated for more than 2 years in this area. Meteorological parameters, trace gas concentrations and total mass concentration of particulate matter up to 10 µm in size (PM10 were measured. Compared with South African and European ambient air quality standards, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations were generally acceptable. The major sources of SO2 were identified as high-stack industry emissions, while household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements was identified as the predominant source of NO2 and CO. In contrast, O3 exceeded the 8-h moving average more than 322 times per year. The main contributing factor was identified to be the influx of regional air masses, with high O3 precursor concentrations. PM10 exceeded the current South African 24-h standard 6.6 times per year, the future (2015 standard 42.3 times per year and the European standard more than 120 times per year. The main source of PM10 was identified as household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements. The findings clearly indicate that atmospheric O3 and PM10 levels in the western BIC need to be addressed to avoid negative environmental and human health impacts.

  5. Subsurface Structure of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa: An Application of Geophysics

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    Vallejo, G.; Galindo, B. L.; Carranza, V.; Gomez, C. D.; Ortiz, K.; Castro, J. G.; Falzone, C.; Guandique, J.; Emry, E.; Webb, S. J.; Nyblade, A.

    2014-12-01

    South Africa is host to the largest single known platinum group metal supply in the world. The Bushveld Igneous Complex, spanning 300x400 kilometers, hosts hundreds of years' worth of platinum, chromite, vanadium, and other ore. Its wealth of these metals is tied directly to the large layered igneous intrusion that formed roughly 2061 million years ago. The extraction of platinum is vital to the industrial world - as these metals are widely used in the automotive industry, dental restorations, computer technology, in addition to many other applications. In collaboration with the Africa Array geophysics field school and the Penn State Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP), we surveyed the Modikwa mine located along the border of the provinces of Mpumalanga and Limpopo in South Africa. The following techniques were applied to survey the area of interest: seismic refraction and reflection, gravity, magnetics, electrical resistivity, and electromagnetics. The data collected were used to determine the depth to bedrock and to identify potential mining hazards from dykes and faults in the bedrock. Several areas were studied and with the combination of the above-mentioned methods several possible hazards were identified. One broad, major dyke that was located in a prior aeromagnetic survey and several previously undetected, parallel, minor dykes were identified in the region. The overburden thickness was determined to be ̴4-5 meters in some regions, and as thin as several centimeters in others. This section of rock and soil lies above an area where platinum will likely be mined in the future. The removal of overburden can be accomplished by using power shovels or scrapers; while remaining material can be contained with the use of galvanized steel culverts. Additionally, a number of joints were located that may have allowed water to accumulate underground. The models created from the data permit us to estimate which hazards could be present in different parts of the

  6. Mineralogical siting of platinum-group elements in pentlandite from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

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    Junge, Malte; Wirth, Richard; Oberthür, Thomas; Melcher, Frank; Schreiber, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The Bushveld Complex in South Africa hosts the world's largest resources of platinum-group elements (PGEs), which are mainly mined from three ore bodies, namely the Merensky Reef, the UG-2 chromitite, and the Platreef. In these ores, the PGEs are bimodally distributed, occurring both as discrete platinum-group minerals (PGMs) and hosted by sulfides. The presence of PGEs in sulfides has been demonstrated by electron probe microanalysis, laser ablation induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and particle-induced X-ray emission. However, evidence is lacking on the mineralogical siting of the PGEs, e.g., whether they occur in solid solution, as nano-inclusions, and/or micro-inclusions. Therefore, in the present study, a combination of focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy was used which allows to obtain crystal structural relationships between the host mineral and incorporated trace elements and revealing the physicochemical state of the PGE in sulfides. The present study confirms the existence of micrometer-sized discrete PGMs in the ores. Further, the PGEs occur in a number of forms, namely (1) as discrete nano-inclusions of PGMs, (2) as patchily distributed solid solution, (3) ordered within the pentlandite crystal structure, substituting for Ni and/or Fe (superlattice), and (4) as homogenous solid solution. Nanometer-sized PGMs (nPGMs) show no orientation relationship with the host sulfide mineral. Consequently, they are discrete phases, which were trapped within pentlandite during sulfide growth. Heterogeneous and patchy distributions of Rh and Ir within the pentlandite lattice suggest that Rh and Ir were already present within the sulfide liquid. The absence of possible reaction partners (e.g., Bi, As, and Sn) necessary for the formation of discrete PGMs forced Rh and Ir to remain in the crystal lattice of pentlandite and down-temperature exsolution caused patchy distribution patterns of Rh and Ir. High

  7. Occurrence and petrological significance of graphite in the Upper Critical Zone, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhaus, Christian G.; Stumpfl, Eugen F.

    1985-06-01

    Graphite occurs as a major rock-forming constituent in pyroxenitic pegmatites near the platiniferous Merensky Reef in the western Bushveld. It is associated with amphibole, biotite, low-K phyllosilicates, chlorite, sulphides and platinum-group minerals (RhAsS-IrAsS). Locally, rocks with up to 80% graphite occur. Chlorine is a significant constituent in both, hydrous silicates (0.1-0.3% Cl) and graphite (0.2-1.9%). Magnetite and quartz also occur with the above association. This facilitates estimation of T (500-600°C) and fO 2 (10 -21 to 10 -23 bar) during graphite deposition, which took place from C sbnd O sbnd H sbnd S fluids at an oxygen fugacity in the vicinity of QMF in equilibrium with maximum H 2O mole fraction. The latter accounts for the widespread association of graphite with hydrous silicates. There is evidence for buffering of fO 2 of the melt by fluid phase; this process may be more widespread than hitherto assumed. C sbnd O sbnd H sbnd S fluids are considered instrumental not only in the formation of graphite-rich pegmatites and associated mineralization, but also in the genesis of pothole depressions, and in the general development of stratiform pegmatites (such as the Merensky Reef) in layered igneous complexes.

  8. Platinum group elements in stream sediments of mining zones: The Hex River (Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Clara; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Wepener, Victor; Prego, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    Assessment of the environmental impact of platinum group elements (PGE) and other trace elements from mining activities is essential to prevent potential environmental risks. This study evaluates the concentrations of PGE in stream sediments of the Hex River, which drains the mining area of the Bushveld Igneous Complex (South Africa), at four sampling points. Major, minor and trace elements (Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, Mn, V, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Co, Ni, Cd, and Pb) were analyzed by FAAS and ETAAS in suspended particulate matter and different sediment fractions (Cr, Pt, Pd, Rh and Ir show concentrations 3-, 13- 18-, 28-, 48- and 44- fold the typical upper continental crust levels, respectively, although lower than concentrations reported for the parent rocks. The highest concentrations were observed closer to the mining area, decreasing with distance and in the <63 μm fraction, probably derived from atmospheric deposition and surface runoff of PGE-rich particles released from mining activities. Thus, mining activities are causing some disturbance of the surface PGE geochemical cycle, increasing the presence of PGE in the fine fraction of river sediments. We propose that indicators such as airborne particulate matter, and soil and river sediment quality, should be added to the protocols for evaluating the sustainability of mining activities.

  9. Precise Crystallization Age of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Direct Dating of the Platiniferous Merensky Reef Using the Zircon U-Pb Chemical Abrasion ID-TIMS Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoates, J. S.; Friedman, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Determining the age of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered intrusion and host to the majority of the known resources of platinum group elements, chromium and vanadium, has been difficult given the very low abundance of U-bearing minerals in the ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks that comprise the body. This study provides a precise crystallization age for this giant layered intrusion and associated PGE mineralization, and allows for a re-evaluation of the duration and areal extent of Bushveld-related magmatic activity. Abundant, clear and colorless, anhedral zircon grains were separated from a sample of pegmatoidal feldspathic orthopyroxenite collected from the Merensky Reef in the West Mine (Townlands Shaft), Rustenburg Section. Low-U (21-105 ppm) zircon occurs with interstitial biotite and is locally directly in contact with sulfide. The zircon grains were subjected to different pre-treatment methods (no pre-treatment, air abrasion, and chemical abrasion [CA]) and isotope ratios for individual grains were analyzed by ID-TIMS. U-Pb data for the unabraded and air-abraded grains, and leachates from the CA procedure, are slightly discordant (0.1-1.6%) and yield overlapping 207Pb/206Pb dates ranging from 2052.5 to 2058.9 Ma. For the CA zircon grains (n=6), all data are concordant and give a Concordia age of 2054.3 ± 2.5 Ma (2sd, decay-constant errors included), which is interpreted as the age of crystallization of the Merensky Reef. This age is within error of published ages for the overlying, and locally cross-cutting, Bushveld or Lebowa granite suite, which implies that the entire Bushveld Complex was emplaced within a 2-3 myr interval. Comparison with ages from satellite intrusions (e.g. Moshaneng, Botswana; Uitkomst, South Africa) indicates that the Bushveld magmatic event at ca. 2054 Ma was regionally extensive across the northern Kaapvaal Craton and is consistent with relatively rapid emplacement of mantle-derived magmas along the Thabazimbi

  10. Microtextural characterisation of the Lower Zone in the western limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: evidence for extensive melt migration within a sill complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Maier, Wolfgang D.

    2017-08-01

    The Lower Zone of the Bushveld Complex comprises an up to 2-km-thick package of different ultramafic rock types with an approx. 90-cm-thick, sulphide-bearing noritic interval that occurs in the western and eastern limbs. The distribution and geometry of the zone are highly variable across the Complex, showing pronounced, yet laterally discontinuous layering on different scales. Together with the ubiquitous lack of large-scale fractionation in the Mg# of orthopyroxene, variable Sr isotope compositions and erratic Pt/Pd ratios, these observations strongly suggest an emplacement of the Lower Zone as a sill complex, as these contrasting geochemical characteristics are difficult to account for in a large Bushveld magma chamber, as previously suggested. It is more likely that these sills were episodically fed from a sub-Bushveld staging chamber, and variably contaminated, while passing through the crust before their final emplacement in the Lower Zone. Detailed mineralogical and microtextural work based on high-resolution elemental mapping of a set of samples, covering the entire Lower Zone stratigraphy of the western Bushveld shows that the variations in the late crystallising interstitial mineral mode are different from what would be expect, if all phases crystallised from a fixed initial mass of interstitial liquid. The interstitial mineral mode, represented by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and other late stage phases, shows variable ratios of these minerals ranging from ca. 21:15:64 to 75:17:8. In comparison to modelled expected ratios, most of the analysed rocks have higher amounts of early crystallising interstitial phases (e.g. plagioclase, clinopyroxene), relative to late crystallising phases (e.g. quartz, alkali feldspar). Therefore, interstitial melt must have migrated at different stages of fractionation during cumulate solidification, as a consequence of either compaction or displacement by convecting interstitial liquids. Two samples, however, show the opposite

  11. No Evidence for Connectivity between the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Molopo Farms Complex from Forward Modeling of Receiver Functions

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    Skryzalin, P. A.; Ramirez, C.; Durrheim, R. J.; Raveloson, A.; Nyblade, A.; Feineman, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex contains one of the most studied and economically important layered mafic intrusions in the world. The Rustenburg Layered Suite outcrops in northern South Africa over an area of 65,000 km2, and has a volume of up to 1,000,000 km3. Both the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Molopo Farms Complex in Botswana intruded the crust at 2.05 Ga. Despite being extensively exploited by the mining industry, many questions still exist regarding the structure of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, specifically the total size and connectivity of the different outcrops. In this study, we used receiver function analysis, a technique for determining the seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle, to search for evidence of the Bushveld at station LBTB, which lies in Botswana, between the Far Western Limb of the Bushveld and the Molopo Farms Complex. The goal of our study was to determine whether a fast, high-density mafic body can be seen in the crust beneath this region using receiver functions. Observation of a high density layer would argue in favor of connectivity of the Bushveld between The Far Western Limb and the Molopo Farms Complex. We forward modeled stacks of receiver functions as well as sub-stacks that were split into azimuthal groups which share similar characteristics. We found that there was no evidence for a high velocity zone in the crust, and that the Moho in this region is located at a depth of 38 ± 3 km, about 8-9 km shallower than Moho depths determined beneath the Bushveld Complex. These two lines of evidence give no reason to assume connectivity between the Bushveld Igneous Complex and the Molopo Farms Complex, and rather suggest two separate intrusive suites.

  12. V[subscript s] structure of the crust containing the Bushveld Complex

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgaswane, EM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The crustal structure of the Bushveld Complex is investigated by jointly inverting high-frequency teleseismic receiver functions and 2–60 sec Rayleigh wave group velocities for 16 broadband seismic stations spanning the Bushveld Complex. Rayleigh...

  13. The mineralogy and mineral associations of platinum group elements and gold in the Platreef at Zwartfontein, Akanani Project, Northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Frits; Viljoen, Fanus; Knoper, Mike

    2012-09-01

    The mineralogy of the platinum-group elements (PGE), and gold, in the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex, was investigated using an FEI Mineral Liberation Analyser. Polished sections were prepared from 171 samples collected from two boreholes, for the in-situ examination of platinum group minerals (PGM). PGM and gold minerals encountered include maslovite (PtBiTe, 32 area% of total PGM), kotulskite (Pd(BiTe), 17 %), isoferroplatinum (Pt3Fe, 15 %), sperrylite (PtAs2, 11 %), cooperite (PtS, 5 %), moncheite (PtTe2; 5 %), electrum (AuAg; 5 %), michenerite (PdBiTe; 3 %), Pd alloys (Pd, Sb, Sn; 3 %), hollingworthite ((Rh,Pt)AsS; 2 %), as well as minor (all <1 area% of total PGM) merenskyite (PdBiTe2), laurite (RuS2), rustenburgite (Pt0.4Pd0.4Sn0.2), froodite (PdBi2), atokite (Pd0.5Pt0.3Sn0.2), stumpflite (PtSb), plumbopalladinite (Pd3Pb2), and zvyagintsevite (Pd3Pb). An observed association of all PGM with base metal sulfides (BMS), and a pronounced association of PGE tellurides, arsenides and Pd&Pt alloys with secondary silicates, is consistent with the remobilisation and recrystallisation of some of the PGM's during hydrothermal alteration and serpentinisation subsequent to their initial (primary) crystallisation from BMS (e.g. Godel et al. J Petrol 48:1569-1604, 2007; Hutchinson and McDonald Appl Earth Sci (Trans Inst Min Metall B) 114:B208-224, 2008).

  14. Magmatogene fluids of metal-bearing reefs in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Based on research data on fluid inclusions in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, L. M.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Gora, M. P.; Shevko, E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in the Merensky Reef quartz and later pegmatite veins crosscutting the Platreef rocks of the Bushveld Complex are studied by a suite of advanced high-precision methods. Based on the conducted studies, we identify a few types of fluids, some having been separated during the crystallization of volatile matter-rich residual melt of original basic magma, while others are derivatives of later felsic (granite) melts that formed crosscutting veins in fully devitrified ultrabasic and basic rocks. The earliest fluid is captured by quartz in symplectitic intergrowths with intercumulus plagioclase from the Merensky Reef pyroxenite occurs as a homogenous dense dry reduced gas (CH4-N2 ± CO2) mixture separated from the aluminosilicate melt at 800-900°C and 3050 bar. The following heterophase highly concentrated fluids (60-80 wt % NaCl eq.) separated at over 550°C and below 3050 bar transport a large number of metals. Major saline components of such fluids included Na, K, Fe, Ca, and Mn chlorides, Ca and Na sulphates and carbonates. According to LA ICP-MS analysis data, inclusions of these fluids contain high concentrations of Fe, Cr, K, and Na at the level of a few wt % and also significant contents of Cu, Sn, Sb, Mo, Au, Ag, Bi, and Ni in a concentration range from a few to thousands of ppm. Relatively lower-temperature (much higher than 450°C) fluids accompanying the crystallization of crosscutting quartz-feldspar pegmatite veins at the Platreef are also highly concentrated (from 70-80% to 40-14 wt % NaCl eq.), oxidized and metal-bearing. High concentrations of metals such as Na, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Pb at the level of wt % and also Ni, Co, Cu, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, and Bi (1-500 ppm) in inclusions in quartz of later pegmatite veins suggest the possible participation of magmatogene fluids related to later felsic intrusions in the redistribution of primary magmatic concentrations of metals. The oxidation of reduced heterophase fluids may be the most important

  15. Trace Elements in the Dullstroom Volcanics Provide Insight for the Origin of the Bushveld Igneous Complex

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    Krcmaric, J. A.; Feineman, M. D.; Bybee, G. M.; Ducea, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    The 2.06 Ga Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa hosts one of the Earth's oldest and largest mafic layered intrusion. The Critical Zone of the BIC supplies 75% of the world's platinum, as well as significant amounts of palladium, chromium, and vanadium. The economic importance of the BIC has made it a target for numerous studies, but its origin and bulk composition still remain poorly understood today. The Rooiberg Group is a volcanic suite that represents the first pulse of Bushveld magmatism. In this study we present geochemical data from 27 samples of the Dullstroom Formation, which consists of alternating Low-Ti and High-Ti suites of predominantly basaltic andesite, as well as andesite and dacite. These volcanic rocks provide a unique opportunity to assess the bulk composition of mafic magmas associated with the BIC, which is usually obscured by the segregated layering characteristic of the intrusive complex. Whole-rock major element concentrations were determined by ICP-AES analysis and trace element concentrations were determined by Quadrupole ICP-MS analysis. Major element data is consistent with most samples being sub-alkaline tholeiites that range in composition from basalt to dacite. Trace element data reveals the low-Ti and high-Ti series of the Dullstroom are similar in compositions to the low-Ti and high-Ti suites of the Karoo flood basalts, respectively, and both experienced mixing, assimilation and fractional crystallization processes as it resided in an upper crustal magma chamber before being erupted. An enrichment in fluid-compatible elements and a depletion in fluid-incompatible elements suggests a subduction modified sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) contributed to the genesis of the parental magma.

  16. Iron Isotope Fractionation in the Bushveld Igneous Complex Provide Insight into Fractional Crystallization

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    Rios, K. L.; Feineman, M. D.; Bybee, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Dated at 2.056 Ga and encompassing an estimated 65,000 km2 in surface area and 650,000 km3 in volume the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa contains the largest and most unique layered mafic intrusion in the world. It contains 80-90% of the world's minable platinum group elements. Scientists are interested in understanding the origin of this intrusion due to its massive size, unique assemblage of minerals, and strongly zoned stratigraphy. Iron isotopes may help us to understand the roles of partial mantle melting and fractional crystallization in magma genesis and differentiation. For example, it may be possible to determine what role fractional crystallization of oxides and sulfides played in the formation of the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) by comparing δ56Fe in samples from the Lower, Critical, Main and Upper Zones. The use of MC-ICPMS has made it more routine to study the fractionation of stable iron isotopes in natural systems; however, this technique has only been applied in a few studies of the RLS, mostly restricted to the Upper Main and Upper Zones. In this study δ56Fe was determined in Upper Zone magnetite, Critical Zone chromitite and Critical Zone sulfides using MC-ICP-MS. Previous research has shown that early crystallizing mafic phases incorporate the lighter 54Fe isotope leaving a residual magma with a higher δ56Fe value. Therefore, if the Upper Zone magma represents a high-degree differentiate of the parental Bushveld magma, then magmas from the Upper Zone would be expected to have a higher δ56Fe than magmas contributing to the Lower, Critical and Main Zones. The results of this experiment were indeed consistent with this hypothesis. The δ56Fe values recorded for the three sample types were: magnetite 0.19 ±0.03‰; sulfides -0.45 ±0.03‰ to -0.81 ±0.03‰; and chromitite 0.03 ±0.05‰. The sulfides of the Critical Zone are isotopically lighter than would be predicted based on equilibrium sulfide-melt fractionation, if the parental

  17. Rock mass condition, behaviour and seismicity in mines of the Bushveld igneous complex.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haile, AT

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This project report gives an overall view of the rock mass environment of the Bushveld complex and influence on the mine design practices. The main focus of the project was to survey the currently available data and conduct further analysis in order...

  18. Competitive platinum-group-metal (PGM) supply from the Eastern Limb, Bushveld Complex: Geological, mining and mineral economic aspects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGill, JE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available -GROUP-METAL (PGM) SUPPLY FROM THE EASTERN LIMB, BUSHVELD COMPLEX: GEOLOGICAL, MINING, AND MINERAL ECONOMIC ASPECTS Dr. Jeannette E. McGill & Prof. Murray W. Hitzman ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ? COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (CSIR) ? Centre for Mining... Innovation ? Office of Graduate Studies, Fogarty Endowment ? Mr. VISHNU PILLAY (EXECUTIVE HEAD: JV?S ? Anglo Platinum) ? ACADEMIC ADVISORS Prof. Murray Hitzman (Economic Geology); Dr. Hugh Miller (Mining Engineering); Prof. Rodderick Eggert (Mineral...

  19. Re-Os and S isotope evidence for the origin of Platreef mineralization (Bushveld Complex)

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    Yudovskaya, M.; Belousova, E.; Kinnaird, J.; Dubinina, E.; Grobler, D. F.; Pearson, N.

    2017-10-01

    The Bushveld Complex contains the largest platinum-group element (PGE) deposits of the world that are represented by persistent stratiform reefs highly enriched with PGE with respect to underlying and overlying rocks. New Re-Os isotope and elemental LA MC-ICPMS data on platinum-group minerals (PGM) from the mineralized reefs are presented with implications to correlation between the different segments of the Bushveld Complex and a role of superimposed processes at the reef formation. We analyzed laurite (RuS2), hollingworthite (RhAsS), sperrylite (PtAs2) and Pt-Fe alloys from the Merensky Reef, Pseudoreef and the PGE reef of the Platreef. The measured 187Os/188Os value for Platreef laurite is 0.1751 ± 0.0004 whereas the ratios for sperrylite and hollingworthite range to slightly higher values (0.1713-0.1818 and 0.1744-0.1835 respectively). The observed textures of the analyzed PGM, such as Pt-Fe symplectites in base metal sulfides (BMS), laurite inclusions in chromite and sperrylite rims around sulfide-silicate aggregates, are interpreted as features of primary magmatic crystallization whereas hollingworthite overgrowths and exsolutions in sperrylite are likely to have originated from later solid state transformation or metasomatic processes. The Platreef is a composite sill-like body in the northern limb correlative to the Critical Zone in terms of stratigraphic position, whole-rock geochemistry and isotope characteristics. The pristine magmatic character of sulfides and PGM in the stratiform reefs at the top of the Platreef strongly resembles the style of Merensky Reef mineralization. However, the basal part of the Platreef pyroxenitic sequence is variably contaminated and mineralized with a significant hydrothermal overprint. Sulfides from underlying Lower Zone peridotite yield δ34S values varying from +9‰ to +14.2‰ that are much higher than the values for the overlying Platreef and are a consequence of sulfur assimilation from sedimentary sulfates. The

  20. Iron isotopic evolution during fractional crystallization of the uppermost Bushveld Complex layered mafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenker, Laura D.; VanTongeren, Jill A.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Simon, Adam C.

    2017-03-01

    We present δ56Fe (56Fe/54Fe relative to standard IRMM-014) data from whole rock and magnetite of the Upper and Upper Main Zones (UUMZ) of the Bushveld Complex. With it, we assess the role of fractional crystallization in controlling the Fe isotopic evolution of a mafic magma. The UUMZ evolved by fractional crystallization of a dry tholeiitic magma to produce gabbros and diorites with cumulus magnetite and fayalitic olivine. Despite previous experimental work indicating a potential for magnetite crystallization to drastically change magma δ56Fe, we observe no change in whole rock δ56Fe above and below magnetite saturation. We also observe no systematic change in whole rock δ56Fe with increasing stratigraphic height, and only a small variation in δ56Fe in magnetite separates above magnetite saturation. Whole rock δ56Fe (errors twice standard deviation, ±2σ) throughout the UUMZ ranges from -0.01 ±0.03‰ to 0.21 ±0.09‰ (δ56FeaverageWR = 0.10 ±0.09‰; n = 21, isotopically light outlier: δ56FeWR = -0.15‰), and magnetites range from 0.28 ±0.04‰ to 0.86 ±0.07‰ (δ56FeaverageMgt = 0.50 ±0.15‰; n = 20), similar to values previously reported for other layered intrusions. We compare our measured δ56FeWR to a model that incorporates the changing normative mineralogy, calculated temperatures, and published fractionation factors of Fe-bearing phases throughout the UUMZ and produces δ56FeWR values that evolve only in response to fractional crystallization. Our results show that the Fe isotopic composition of a multiply saturated (multiple phases on the liquidus) magma is unlikely to change significantly during fractional crystallization of magnetite due to the competing fractionation of other Fe-bearing cumulus phases.

  1. Further assessment of seismic hazard/risk in the Bushveld Complex platinum mines and the implication for regional and local support design.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brink, AVZ

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available /s. Subsequent seismic monitoring provided the confirmation of this specification. A stope support design methodology and parameters are given. A single example of the need for better regional support was demonstrated. An abutment pillar greatly reduced.... .............................................................................. 25 3.4 The determination of an energy absorption criterion for the platinum reefs of the Bushveld Complex. ............................................................................. 26 3.5 The type of support system that would satisfy the energy...

  2. Multiple Sulfur Isotopes In The Molopo Farms Complex May Shed Light On Mechanisms Of Mineralization In The Bushveld Igneous Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, N.; Feineman, M. D.; Bybee, G. M.; Penniston-Dorland, S.; Farquhar, J.; Draper, C.; Escobar, E.; Gates, M.; Renusch, J.

    2016-12-01

    The 2.056 Ga Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is host to the world's largest layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion, the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS), which has >80% of the world's known platinum group elements (PGEs) reserves. The BIC results from large-volume melt extraction from the mantle and may provide insight into the formation and compositional evolution of continental crust. Despite its scientific and economic importance, the total magma volume is poorly known. This is in part because the relationship between the BIC and nearby intrusive bodies of similar age remains uncertain. In this study, we present major element, trace element, and multiple sulfur isotope data for a suite of samples spanning the stratigraphy of the Molopo Farms Complex (MFC), a layered mafic intrusion located 200 km west of the Far Western Limb of the RLS. Similar to the RLS, the MFC contains an ultramafic lower zone, a mafic main zone, and an incompatible element enriched granophyric unit near the contact with the roof rocks. However, it has no Critical Zone, and an insignificant concentration of PGEs. Since the PGEs in the RLS are primarily hosted in sulfides, it has been inferred that the mineralization is closely linked to the source and behavior of sulfur. The RLS displays mass independent fractionation of sulfur (S-MIF; denoted by ∆33S), which suggests incorporation of surface-derived materials into the magma prior to or during emplacement. Multiple sulfur isotopes of MFC samples also show non-zero mean ∆33S (0.04±0.02‰, 1sd), although it is lower than the mean for the RLS (0.11±0.02‰, 1sd). Similarities in trace element ratios between the MFC mafic zone and RLS marginal zone suggest the same parental magma contributed to both intrusions. Taken together, these results suggest that both the RLS and the MFC started with similar magmatic compositions, and while both assimilated sulfur with an Archean surface-derived component, the RLS received more of this component in

  3. Distribution of platinum-group elements in the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex: a combined PGM and LA-ICP-MS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, D. A.; McDonald, I.

    2007-08-01

    Detailed mineralogical and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry studies have revealed the physical manifestation of the platinum-group elements (PGE) within the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The PGE in the Platreef were originally concentrated in an immiscible sulfide liquid along with semi-metals such as Bi and Te. As the sulfide liquid began to crystallize, virtually all the Os, Ir, Ru and Rh partitioned into monosulfide solid solution (mss), which on further cooling, exsolved to form pyrrhotite and pentlandite with Os, Ir and Ru remaining in solid solution in both phases with Rh prefentially partitioning into pentlandite. Platinum, some Pd and Au were concentrated in the residual sulfide liquid after mss crystallization, and were then concentrated in an immiscible late stage melt along with semi metals, which was expelled to the grain boundaries during crystallization of intermediate solid solution (iss) to form Pt and Pd tellurides and electrum around the margins of the sulfide grains. Tiny droplets of this melt trapped in the crystallizing mss and iss cooled to form Pt-Bi-Te microinclusions in all sulfide phases, whilst the excess Pd was accommodated in solid solution in pentlandite. Minor redistribution and recrystallization by hydrothermal fluids occurred around xenoliths and at the very base of the mineralized zone within the footwall, however, the overall lack of secondary alteration coupled with the volatile-poor nature of the gneissic footwall have allowed the preservation of what may be the most ‘primary’ style of Platreef mineralization. The lack of PGM inclusions within early liquidus phases suggests very early sulfur saturation in the Platreef, lending support to theories involving S saturation occurring prior to intrusion of the Platreef, possibly within a staging chamber.

  4. Proterozoic Bushveld-Vredefort catastrophe: Possible causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, W. E.; Twist, D.

    1988-01-01

    Bushveld Complex and Vredefort Dome are unique features, formed in close proximity during the same time interval, approximately 2 Ga. Both show evidence of catastrophic events in the shallow marine environment of the otherwise stable Kaapvaal Craton. Explanation by multiple impacts of an asteroid, brecciated by an inter-asteroidal collision and disintegrating in Earth's gravity field is supported by pseudotachylite, shatter cones, coesite, and stishovite at Vredefort but these shock phenomena were not found in the Bushveld Complex. The Bushveld Complex was formerly interpreted as a lopolith, a view incompatible with gravity, electrical resistivity, magnetic, and seismic-reflection data. It is outlined by five inward-dipping lobes of layered ultramafic-mafic plutonic rocks that partly coalesce to form a basin-like feature 400 km in diameter and 65,000 sq. km. in area, equivalent to a small lunar mare. The Bushveld Complex is orders of magnitudes larger than other proposed terrestrial impact structures and differs from them in important ways. Its principal members, in order of age, are Rooiberg Felsite, RLS, and Lebowa Granite. The Bushveld-Vredefort events occurred during the interval from neutral or reducing atmosphere to oxidizing atmosphere. This transition is usually related to the evolution of photosynthesizing organisms. If the impact hypothesis for Bushveld-Vredefort can be confirmed, it may represent a global catastrophe sufficient to contribute to environmental changes favoring aerobic photosynthesizing eukaryotes over anaerobic prokaryotes.

  5. Determination of silica activity in Bushveld rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D. L.; Nolan, J.; Viljoen, E. A.

    1980-08-01

    Values of silica activity have been calculated for Bushveld rocks from an extension of the mafic layered sequence north of the town of Bethal in the south-eastern Transvaal as well as the Roossenekal area in the eastern limb of the Complex. The samples examined contain the coexisting assemblage olivine, Ca-poor pyroxene, Ca-rich pyroxene and plagioclase. This enabled silica activities to be calculated from the following reactions: (Mg, Fe)2SiO4+SiO2⇆2(Mg, Fe)SiO3, CaAl2SiO6+SiO2⇆CaAl2Si2O8. Parallel curves of increasing silica activity with fractionation were established 0.20 log units apart. This represented a pressure of emplacement for the top of the layered zone in the Bethal area of 2.72±0.79 kbars. A value of 1.47±0.62 kbars was obtained for the Roossenekal area. These values are equivalent to 9.1±2.6 km and 4.9±2.1 km respectively, the latter figure being consistent with the minimum thickness of 4550 m of felsite and granophyre originally overlying the layered sequence and still preserved in the area west of Roossenekal.

  6. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  7. Plant communities of the Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld is one of eight major vegetation types (MVT described for the Soutpansberg-Blouberg region. The plant communities of this MVT are described in detail. Main ecological drivers of the vegetation structure and species composition of these communities are discussed and some conservation recommendations are made. Phytosociological data from a subset of 72 Braun-Blanquet sample plots collected in the Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld were classified using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and ordinated using a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun-Blanquet floristic-sociological approach to vegetation classification using the computer software MEGATAB and JUICE. Eight plant communities were identified and described as Commiphora tenuipetiolata-Adansonia digitata short open woodland, Ledebouria ovatifolia-Commiphora mollis short bushland, Phyllanthus reticulatus-Acacia nigrescens short bushland, Tinnea rhodesiana-Combretum apiculatum short bushland, Dichrostachys cinerea subsp. africana-Spirostachys africana low thickets, Themeda triandra-Pterocarpus rotundifolius short closed grassland on steep basaltic slopes, Cyperus albostriatus-Syzygium cordatum sandveld wetlands, and Sesamothamnus lugardii-Catophractes alexandri tall sparse shrubland. These plant communities are event-driven ecosystems, predominantly infl uenced by frequent droughts, exposure to desiccation and unpredictable rainfall events. The complex topography of the Soutpansberg further contributes to the aridity of these ecosystems. The classifi cation and ordination analyses show similar groupings in the vegetation of the Soutpansberg Arid Mountain Bushveld. This confi rms the usefulness of complimentary analysis, using both classifi cation and ordination methods on a single data set in order to examine patterns and to search for

  8. Mapping the 3-D extent of the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld layered mafic intrusion from geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Cole, Janine; Khoza, Tshepo David; Webb, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Geophysical models image the 3D geometry of the mafic portion of the Bushveld Complex north of the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament (TML), critical for understanding the origin of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion and platinum group element deposits. The combination of the gravity and magnetic data with recent seismic, MT, borehole and rock property measurements powerfully constrains the models. The intrusion north of the TML is generally shallowly buried (generally 12,000 m, averaging ∼4000 m. A feeder, suggested by a large modeled thickness (>10,000 m) and funnel shape, for Lower Zone magmas could have originated near the intersection of NS and NE trending TML faults under Mokopane. The TML has been thought to be the feeder zone for the entire Bushveld Complex but the identification of local feeders and/or dikes in the TML in the models is complicated by uncertainties on the syn- and post-Bushveld deformation history. However, modeled moderately thick high density material near the intersection of faults within the central and western TML may represent feeders for parts of the Bushveld Complex if deformation was minimal. The correspondence of flat, high resistivity and density regions reflect the sill-like geometry of the Bushveld Complex without evidence for feeders north of Mokopane. Magnetotelluric models indicate that the Transvaal sedimentary basin underlies much of the Bushveld Complex north of the TML, further than previously thought and important because the degree of reaction and assimilation of the Transvaal rocks with the mafic magmas resulted in a variety of mineralization zones.

  9. Effective utilization of the valley bushveld | AJ | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the arid Valley Bushveld to its full potential is discussed. Boer goats and Dorpers select forage of different quality within this veld type. In addition, Dorpers are chiefly grazers while Boer goats are browsers. The results show that more browsers can be maintained per unit area than grazers and that the ...

  10. The browse value of the Eastern Cape valley bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding value of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld in terms of crude protein, digestible dry matter, digestible energy and metabolic energy, as selected by oesophageal fistulated Boer- and Angora goats was determined. Results show that the Valley Bushveld maintains a high feed value throughout the year. The high ...

  11. In-mine (tunnel-to-tunnel) electrical resistance tomography in South African platinum mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ; Ramirez and Daily, 1997a, 1997b), but these surveys 173 were of a small-scale and non-mining nature. Arai (Arai, 1995), and more recently Eso 174 and co-workers (Eso et al., 2006a; Eso et al., 2006b) exploited survey geometries 175 similar to what.... & Trickett, J. C. 2001. Three-dimensional reflection seismics as a tool to optimise mine design, planning and development in the Bushveld Igneous Complex. Paper presented at the 7th Biennial SAGA Conference and Exhibition, Drakensburg, South Africa. Eso...

  12. The production potential of the Eastern Cape Valley Bushveld. | A.J. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Valley Bushveld has an accumulated fodder reserve of which only a small percentage is really available to the grazing animal for production purposes. Results indicate that to increase the production potential of browse any utilization program should be constructed around long rest periods. However, grasses make an ...

  13. Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous condition, which affects multiple organ systems. This study aimed to determine the presenting features of children with TSC in Cape Town, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a TSC clinic, and clinical features at presentation were ...

  14. Magnetic, Chemical and Mössbauer Tracking of the Solid Solution of Fe and Exsolution of Magnetite in Plagioclase of the 2.05 Ga Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, S. A.; Tegner, C.; Robinson, P.; Dyar, M. D.; Church, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping magnetic fields is a primary tool to explore Earth and other planets. Understanding the nature of oxide exsolutions (or lack of) in silicate minerals gives constraints to interpret the magnetic signatures of planetary crusts when combined with chemical mapping techniques. Exsolution of magnetite (mgt) from silicates provides a stable recorder of the field at the time of exsolution. We explore relationships between plagioclase chemistry and mgt exsolution by EMP, XRF, Mössbauer, and magnetic measurements. These are compared to chemical and magnetic properties of the bulk rock samples. We examine links between chemical evolution and magnetic signatures. 28 gabbroic samples, with similar total FeO (0.2-0.6 wt%) in plagioclase contain Fe in very different forms: as Fe in solid solution, or exsolved, as micron to submicroscopic needles of mgt. Minor chemical substitution of Fe in plagioclase can be represented by three logical but structurally implausible end members: Fe2+[Fe2+Si3]08 with maximal Fe2+; Fe3+[Fe3+3 Si]08 with maximal Fe3+; and an intermediate component Fe2+[Fe3+2Si2]08 equivalent to 1 mgt (4 Ox) + 2 quartz (4 Ox). Mössbauer measurements of Fe3+/FeT on 28 plagioclase separates indicate that the 1st and 3rd end members describe 20 compositions, so that exsolution of mgt and volumetrically equivalent quartz, though depleting total Fe, would increase the proportion of Fe2+. Five sample compositions are colinear with the 3rd, and only 3 samples appear to contain a significant proportion of the 2nd. Volume of exsolved magnetite, 0 to 0.09%, was determined from Ms values, and its magnetic state by Preisach and FORC measurements. Plagioclase (+rock) results are in three groups, where An indicates similar magma evolution: A) An74-58, FeOwt% 0.21-.39; B) An69-58, FeO 0.35-.63; C) An66-57; FeO 0.23-.42. A) with low Fe is dominantly paramagnetic with Fe in solid solution. B) with highest Fe lacks primary magnetite, but has abundant exsolved mgt. Paradoxically Group C with compositions like A, has both primary precipitate mgt and up to 0.1% exsolved mgt. Varied NRM intensities appear to reflect contributions from primary mgt. Presence of exsolved mgt must be controlled by varied cooling environments and a mgt + quartz saturation surface in the volume An-Ab-Fe2+[Fe2+Si3]08-Fe2+[Fe3+2Si2]08.

  15. Management goals for wildlife reserves in grassveld and bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and therefore require control. A means of measuring the success of management is outlined. Keywords: condition; cover; fire; game reserves; genetic diversity; goals; management; management strategy; nature reserves; range; reserves; soil; south africa; species composition; species diversity; veld; veld condition; wildlife ...

  16. Power and precision of replicated helicopter surveys in mixed bushveld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Reilly

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that aerial game counts in South Africa are often applied in a non-standardised, unreplicated fashion. They contribute to poor management decisions based on their results as they may be subject to large statistical Type I and II errors. Replicate counts of large herbivores were conducted in a 8 500 ha sample site in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve in July 1991. These data were used to estimate precision of the counts and estimate statistical power to detect population changes for different combinations of replications and significance levels.

  17. Arhaeoastronomical analysis of Levinsadovka sacrificial complex (South Russia)

    CERN Document Server

    Vodolazhskaya, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    The article presents research data using arhaeoastronomical methods of Levinsadovka settlement sacrificial complex in Northern Black Sea coast. In this work, new method of accounting terrain elevations using topographic maps was developed in arhaeoastronomical studies. Calculations of azimuths of the sun and moon rise and set in the astronomically significant moments of the year were made and astronomical regularities in the organization of the sacrificial complex identified. Related to the moon directions, as the most dedicated, identified. Revealed that the stone tools and fragments, used as sacrifices, mark the direction to the northern minor standstill moonrise. A similar situation was found on two archaeological sites: in Bezymennoye II settlement South sanctuary and in Pustynka settlement religious building. Drawing on ethnographic and folklore data, it is concluded about semiotic connection of stone tools, found in these religious constructions, with the "thunderstones" and meteorites.

  18. Acacia tortilis subsp. heteracantha productivity in the Tugela Dry Valley Bushveld: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Milton

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia tortilis Hayne subsp.  heteracantha (Burch. Brenan dominates secondary succession in the Tugela Dry Valley Bushveld of the Natal midlands. The parts of KwaZulu in this veld type are impoverished, overpopulated and over-grazed. Preliminary results indicate that at a density of 2 700 ± 600 trees/ha there is a standing crop of c.2,87 t/ha (DM of acacia twigs suitable for hand pruning and milling into fodder, but that this is a costly process. Herbage biomass peaked at 0,73 t/ha (DM. Veld condition assessments suggested a stocking rate of|0,l AU/ha (grazers, but actual grazer stocking rates may be many times this density. It is recommended that the browser/grazer ratio be altered to make use of the c. 1,05 t/ha (DM of shoot growth produced annually by A. tortilis subsp.  heteracantha.

  19. Capsular Myrtaceae 10. The Metrosideros Complex: M. angustifolia (South Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    As is the case with Tepualia stipularis for South America, Metrosideros angustifolia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. 3 (1797) 270, is the sole representative of the capsular Myrtaceae in Africa. It occurs as a shrub or small tree at lower elevations, often along river banks, in the south-west corner of South

  20. Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... is underlain by intrusive igneous rocks (granite and gneiss) of the Lebowa Granite Suite (LGS), which are part of the Bushveld. Igneous Complex (Johnson ... then frozen until they were delivered to the accredited CSIR. Analytical Laboratory in Stellenbosch. Samples were filtered through 0.45 µm pore size ...

  1. LATE TRIASSIC OBLIQUE EXTRUSION OF UHP/HP COMPLEXES IN THE ATBASHI ACCRETIONARY COMPLEX OF SOUTH TIANSHAN, KYRGYZSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhumation and tectonic emplacement of eclogites and blueschists take place in forearc accretionary complexes by either forearc- or backarc-directed extrusion, but few examples have been well analysed in detail. Here we present an example of oblique wedge extrusion of UHP/HP rocks in the Atbashi accretionary complex of the Kyrgyz South Tianshan.

  2. Remotely sensing the thickness of the bushveld complex UG2 platinum reef using borehole rada.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simmat, CM

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available departures of the reefs from planarity. Surveys are run in ~200 m near-horizontal boreholes that are drilled into the footwalls of the reef. Careful laboratory measurements of the Jonscher dielectric parameters of the stratigraphic column through the UG2 reef...

  3. Complex equality - some notes on redistribution in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Coetzee

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I attempt to show that a theory o f redistribution can be derived from Walzer's political theory as presented in his Spheres o f justice. I argue that this theory shows in what areas o f South Africa’s public life redistribution is required, and what patterns of redistribution should be followed Walzer’s political theory leans heavily on the notion of shared understandings. In South Africa there are many areas of public life in which interpretations of these understandings are in conflict. I attempt to identify these areas and to show what premisses underlie the conflicting interpretations.

  4. Complex systems, multilingualism and academic success in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scholars of academic success in higher education in South Africa struggle to find an integrated framework that can explain the interplay between heterogeneous elements that combine in dynamic ways to influence the academic success of students. Language of teaching and learning is indicated as an important element in ...

  5. The management of complex pancreatic injuries | Krige | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. South African Journal of Surgery Vol. 43(3) 2005: 92-102. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  6. Complexity and the Idea of Human Development | Hurst | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I agree with Cilliers that deconstruction is exemplary in this respect, but aim to broaden the adventure by suggesting ideas for a 'pragmatics of complexity' involving vocabulary, concepts, strategies, metaphors, and heuristics derived also from other philosophers and psychoanalytic theorists. The difficulty of complex thought ...

  7. Deconstruction and complexity: a critical economy | Preiser | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compare this critique with the work of Edgar Morin, one of the foremost thinkers of contemporary complexity and argue for the possible contributions that both thinkers provide towards an understanding of complex phenomena in the world. We then move on to illustrate the particular economy of thinking we are forced to ...

  8. Leading and Managing in Complexity: The Case of South African Deans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Oliver; Cross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deanship in universities has become more complex and challenging. Deans in South African universities take up their positions without appropriate training and prior executive experience, and with no clear understanding of the ambiguity and complexity of their roles. This paper calls for appropriate leadership development…

  9. Adaptive management for complex communal rangelands in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy that promotes adaptability and resilience, and is itself responsive to changing dynamics, should be sought. Complex systems modelling with an inclusive group of stakeholders holds potential for realising such policy. Keywords: non-linear systems, resilience, social–ecological systems, vulnerability. African Journal of ...

  10. Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetically inherited condition that manifests with benign non-invasive hamartomas in multiple organ systems and is associated with varied clinical presentations.[1,2]. The prevalence of TSC worldwide is reported as 1 in 6 000 newborns.[1-4]. Equivalent data from Africa are lacking.

  11. Thermal modeling of the UHP Maksyutov Complex in the south Urals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Leech, M.; Willingshofer, E.

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional thermal modeling of the subduction and exhumation of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Maksyutov Complex in the south Ural Mountains tests factors influencing the low modern heat flow in the Urals and the feeble preservation of UHP index minerals. Best-fit models are obtained with initial

  12. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, south Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Karup-Møller, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilímaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  13. Alteration of steenstrupine-(Ce) from the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Rose-Hansen, John

    2017-01-01

    Steenstrupine-(Ce) from two localities, Taseq and Mellemelv, both in the Ilímaussaq complex of South Greenland has been studied. At Taseq ussingite veins contain idiomorphic steenstrupine-(Ce) crystals with decomposed central parts, marginal zones of very thin rhythmically/oscillatory precipitate...

  14. The South African developmental landscape: restricted potentials or expansive, complex adaptive opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Burman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the South African developmental landscape is currently locked into an overly technical, path dependent paradigm that is unlikely to be capable of embracing the complex challenges identified by the recent National Development Plan. The article explores the internal logic of the existing path dependent, technical condition from the perspective of complexity, in the context of the Department of Science and Technology’s Fifth Grand Challenge and “continuous change”. It is argued that drawing ideas from complexity into future developmental trajectories can add value to the National Development Plan: Vision 2030, but to do so will require dynamic mind-set shifts across multiple developmental scales and interfaces if new approaches to managing development that embraces complexity, rather than denies it, is to emerge. Keywords: development; complexity; path dependency; epistemological vigilance; sense-making; National Development Plan Disciplines: Complexity Studies; Transdisciplinary studies; Management studies; Public management; Political studies; Economics; Development Studies

  15. Strategic and tactical determinants for South Africa PGM supply

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McGill, JE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available , Bushveld Complex, be considered, by investors, in preference to the Western Limb? Strategic & Tactical determinants for the PGM sector Deposit Legislation Economy Geology Econ Infra Mining Strategic Determinants Factor Description Decision support... S1 Global PGM sector Economic Fundamentals Global Economy S2 National Policy Framework Legislative Environment to support resource development RSA Governmental Frameworks S3 Direct eastern limb factors The Eastern limb contains sufficient...

  16. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  17. Enrolling adolescents in HIV vaccine trials: reflections on legal complexities from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Glenda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is likely to be the first country in the world to host an adolescent HIV vaccine trial. Adolescents may be enrolled in late 2007. In the development and review of adolescent HIV vaccine trial protocols there are many complexities to consider, and much work to be done if these important trials are to become a reality. Discussion This article sets out essential requirements for the lawful conduct of adolescent research in South Africa including compliance with consent requirements, child protection laws, and processes for the ethical and regulatory approval of research. Summary This article outlines likely complexities for researchers and research ethics committees, including determining that trial interventions meet current risk standards for child research. Explicit recommendations are made for role-players in other jurisdictions who may also be planning such trials. This article concludes with concrete steps for implementing these important trials in South Africa and other jurisdictions, including planning for consent processes; delineating privacy rights; compiling information necessary for ethics committees to assess risks to child participants; training trial site staff to recognize when disclosures trig mandatory reporting response; networking among relevant ethics commitees; and lobbying the National Regulatory Authority for guidance.

  18. Population isolates in South Tyrol and their value for genetic dissection of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroni, F; Pichler, I; De Grandi, A; Volpato, C Beu; Vogl, F D; Pinggera, G K; Bailey-Wilson, J E; Pramstaller, P P

    2006-11-01

    The study of genetic isolates is a promising approach for the study of complex genetic traits. The small and constant population size, lack of migration, and multiple relationships between individuals in the isolate population could reduce the genetic diversity, and lead to increased levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD). We studied the extent of LD on Xq13 in six population isolates from South Tyrol in the Eastern Italian Alps. We found different levels of LD in our study samples, probably reflecting their degrees of isolation and their demographic histories. The highest values were obtained in Val Gardena (ranking among the highest levels of LD in Europe) and in Stelvio, which qualified as a microisolate according to historical information, and biodemographic and genealogical criteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two Ladin-speaking populations are genetically distant from each other, and from their German-speaking neighbours, and are characterized by a smaller effective population size than the neighbouring valleys. These peculiar characteristics suggest that South Tyrol could be a unique resource for the study of complex diseases, showing all the characteristics of isolated populations with the advantage of including, in a fairly homogeneous environment, two genetically differentiated sub-populations. This could allow investigators to gain an insight into the contribution of genetic heterogeneity in complex diseases.

  19. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  20. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ditlopo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective: This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD remuneration policy. Design: Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results: The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions: The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  1. Submarine geology of South Kona landslide complex: investigation using ROV Kaiko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokose, H.; Yoshida, S.

    2002-12-01

    KR01-12 cruise of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center using ROV KAIKO and its mother ship R/V KAIREI were carried out around Hawaii islands in the early fall of 2001. During this cruise, two dives of ROV KAIKO were made on western submarine flank of the island of Hawaii: South Kona landslide complex (K210:proximal part of the south Kona landslide, K211: distal block of the landslide). One single channel seismic reflection line was collected from vicinity of the above dive sites. These areas have never been systematically studied using submersible due to the bad sea state and /or the depth of outcrops. Valuable information about the submarine geology and in situ rock samples from western franks of the island of Hawaii were obtained. K211 site is one of the distal landslide block and can be divided into 3 geological units from bottom to top: picritic sheet lava and hyaloclastite, volcaniclastic deposit with picritic breccia, muddy breccia with highly vesiculated ol basalt. On the other hand, rocks recovered from K210 are composed mainly of aa clinker and aa lava which are highly vesiculated and reddish in color. The rocks from K210 is similar to the upper part of K211 in their bulk rock chemistry. Based on the geological and bulk rock chemistry, rocks recovered from both sites should be erupted subaerially. It suggests that these landslide blocks were composed subaerial portion of the paleo-Mauna Loa volcano.

  2. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.

  3. Everyday (inequality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Helman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (reproduced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective: This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (inequality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design: Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results: The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (reproduced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (inequality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.

  4. Complex adaptive HIV/AIDS risk reduction: Plausible implications from findings in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Chris J; Aphane, Marota A

    2016-05-16

    This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads. While the analysis that is presented is unconventional, it is plausible that this perspective may hold potential to develop a biosocial response - which the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has called for - that reinforces the biomedical opportunities that are now available to achieve the ambition of ending AIDS by 2030.

  5. Multiscale complex network analysis: An approach to study spatiotemporal rainfall pattern in south Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Marwan, Norbert; Rathinasamy, Maheswaran; Oeztuerk, Ugur; Merz, Bruno; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of the climate sytems has been of tremendous importance to different branches such as agriculture, flood, drought and water resources management etc. In this regard, complex networks analysis and time series analysis attracted considerable attention, owing to their potential role in understanding the climate system through characteristic properties. One of the basic requirements in studying climate network dynamics is to identify connections in space or time or space-time, depending upon the purpose. Although a wide variety of approaches have been developed and applied to identify and analyse spatio-temporal relationships by climate networks, there is still further need for improvements in particular when considering precipitation time series or interactions on different scales. In this regard, recent developments in the area of network theory, especially complex networks, offer new avenues, both for their generality about systems and for their holistic perspective about spatio-temporal relationships. The present study has made an attempt to apply the ideas developed in the field of complex networks to examine connections in regional climate networks with particular focus on multiscale spatiotemporal connections. This paper proposes a novel multiscale understanding of regional climate networks using wavelets. The proposed approach is applied to daily precipitation records observed at 543 selected stations from south Germany for a period of 110 years (1901-2010). Further, multiscale community mining is performed on the same study region to shed more light on the underlying processes at different time scales. Various network measure and tools so far employed provide micro-level (individual station) and macro-level (community structure) information of the network. It is interesting to investigate how the result of this study can be useful for future climate predictions and for evaluating climate models on their implementation regarding heavy

  6. Eudialyte decomposition minerals with new hitherto undescribed phases from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Rose-Hansen, J.; Sørensen, H

    2010-01-01

    Eudialyte is a distinctive mineral in the agpaitic group of peralkaline nepheline syenites. The paper describes the alteration of eudialyte from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland, which is the type locality for eudialyte, as well as for agpaitic rocks. Two types of alteration are distinguished: alteration of eudialyte to catapleiite is widespread in the complex, whereas alteration to zircon only occurs in strongly altered rocks. additionally, the fol-lowing minerals have been identified...

  7. Mineral X, a new thalcusite homologue from the Ilimaussaq complex, South Greenland Contribution to the mineralogy of Ilimaussaq, no. 144

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral X is assumed to be a new member of the thalcusite homologous series with the structural formula TlCu2NS2N+1 with N=1.5. It was found in loose ussingite-analcime boulders on the Taseq slope towards the Narsaq Elv in the northern part of the Ilimaussaq complex in South Greenland in associat...

  8. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues. PMID:27293123

  9. Petrogenesis of Late Triassic ultramafic rocks from the Andong Ultramafic Complex, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nak Kyu; Choi, Sung Hi

    2016-11-01

    To constrain the source and tectonomagmatic processes that gave rise to the Andong Ultramafic Complex (AUC) in South Korea, we determined the clinopyroxene Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope and trace element compositions as well as the whole-rock and mineral compositions for the Late Triassic (ca. 222 Ma) ultramafic rocks from the complex. They are composed of dunites, wehrlites, pyroxene/hornblende peridotites, and pyroxenites. The constituent minerals are olivines, diopsides/augites, bronzites, calcic-amphiboles, and spinels. Clinopyroxenes exhibit a convex-upward rare earth element (REE) pattern, with an apex at Sm. The whole-rock compositions plot away from the residual mantle peridotite trends, with variable but lower Al2O3 and SiO2 contents, and higher CaO, FeO*, and TiO2 contents at a given value of MgO. Estimated equilibrium temperatures for the AUC rocks range from 420 to 780 °C. These observations, together with the absence of reaction or melt impregnation textures, indicate that the AUC ultramafic rocks are magmatic cumulates emplaced within the crust rather than residual mantle or mantle-melt reaction products. The AUC clinopyroxenes have compositions intermediate between the oceanic island basalt- and arc basalt-related cumulate clinopyroxenes. The AUC spinels have lower Cr#s than the arc-related magmatic cumulate spinels. They plot within the field for spinels from mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) on a TiO2 vs. Cr# diagram. However, the AUC clinopyroxenes have much more radiogenic Sr ([87Sr/86Sr]i = 0.70554 to 0.70596), unradiogenic Nd ([εNd]i = - 1.0 to - 0.3), and Hf ([εHf]i = + 4.4 to + 6.6) isotopic compositions than those of the MORB or fore-arc basalts (FAB). In the Sr-Nd isotopic correlation diagram, the AUC clinopyroxenes plot in the enriched extension of the ;mantle array;. They also have more elevated 207Pb/204Pb ratios at a given 206Pb/204Pb than those of the MORB or FAB. In the Nd-Hf isotope space, the AUC clinopyroxenes have somewhat elevated 176Hf

  10. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  11. Changing land- and seascape environments at Cape Sable, a coastal wetland complex in south florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaswinkel, B.; Wanless, H.; Rankey, E.

    2003-04-01

    Cape Sable, a large coastal wetland complex at the southern tip of the Florida peninsula (U.S.), is currently undergoing dramatic changes in land- and seascape in response to historical sea level rise. The rise in sea level is progressively inundating a low marl ridge that has separated interior freshwater marshes of the Everglades from marine waters, leading to rapid widening of both natural tidal creeks and constructed canals. The linear rate of widening (0.7 to 1.2 meter per year since 1922) reflects a system out of equilibrium, in which the channels are seeking to accommodate the volume of water in the tidal prism. Rising sea level has enlarged the tidal prism by expanding the intertidal zone into former low-lying uplands. Opening of the channels has resulted in the creation and erosive widening of secondary channels into adjacent wetlands, further enlarging the tidal prism and tendency to widening. In the vicinity of some tidal inlets, the shoreline has eroded over 310 meters (since 1922; an overall rate of 4.6 m/yr), although erosion occur in steps in response to hurricanes (category 5 hurricanes in 1935, 1960 and 1992). In addition to changing channel morphology and beach erosion, rising sea level has shifted the mangrove/ freshwater marsh ecotone boundary inland significantly. Continued sea-level rise will inundate the marl ridge and accelerate erosion and breakup of the Cape Sable beach shoreline. The coastal red mangrove wetland could possibly keep pace with accelerated sea level rise, but hurricane setbacks negate this effect in south Florida. Category 4 and 5 hurricanes devastate the red mangrove forests and set into motion a phase of root-peat substrate decay and subsidence which has caused stepwise loss of both coastal and interior forests during the past 70 years of rapidly rising sea level. Changes in the coastal wetland environments of south Florida, in which critical habitats are imminently threatened, are driven by nonlinear processes that

  12. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    An extraordinary lava pond complex is located on Axial Volcano's distal south rift. It was discovered in EM300 multibeam bathymetry collected in 1998, and explored and sampled with ROVs Tiburon in 2005 and Doc Ricketts in 2013. It was surveyed with the MBARI Mapping AUV D. Allan B. in 2011, in a complicated mission first flying above the levees at constant depth, then skimming ~5 m over the levees at a different constant depth to survey the floors, then twice switching to constant altitude mode to map outside the ponds. The AUV navigation was adjusted using the MB-System tool mbnavadjust so that bathymetric features match in overlapping and crossing swaths. The ~1-m resolution AUV bathymetry reveals extremely rough terrain, where low-resolution EM300 data had averaged acoustic returns and obscured details of walls, floors, a breach and surrounding flows, and gives context to the ROV observations and samples. The 6 x 1.5 km pond complex has 4 large and several smaller drained ponds with rims 67 to 106 m above the floors. The combined volume before draining was 0.56 km3. The ponds overflowed to build lobate-flow levees with elongate pillows draping outer flanks, then drained, leaving lava veneer on vertical inner walls. Levee rim depths vary by only 10 m and are deeper around the southern ponds. Deep collapse-pits in the levees suggest porosity of pond walls. The eastern levee of the northeastern pond breached, draining the interconnected ponds, and fed thick, rapidly-emplaced, sheet-flows along the complex's east side. These flows travelled at least 5.5 km down-rift and have 19-33 m deep drained ponds. They extended up-rift as well, forming a 10 x 2.5 km ponded flow with level 'bathtub rings' as high as 35 m above the floor marking that flow's high-stand. Despite the breach, at least 0.066 km3 of the molten interior of the large ponds also drained back down the eruptive fissures, as the pond floors are deeper than the sill and sea floor outside the complex. Tumulus

  13. The insect pest complex and related problems of lowland rice cultivation in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halteren, van P.

    1979-01-01

    CHAPTER 1.

    The Department of Entomology of the Research Institute for Agriculture at Maros is concerned with insect pests of food crops, and serves the needs of farmers, most of them living near subsistance level, and of extension workers.

    South Sulawesi, formerly known as South

  14. The chaebol and the US military–industrial complex: Cold War geopolitical economy and South Korean industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Glassman; Young-Jin Choi

    2014-01-01

    Among scholars of East Asia, the role of US military offshore procurement (OSP) and the military–industrial complex (MIC) has been underplayed in explanations of rapid industrial transformation. Yet the foundations of industrialization in places such as South Korea, when analyzed in strongly ‘national–territorial’ and state-centric terms of the predominant, so-called ‘neo-Weberian’ accounts, remain inadequately illuminated. We argue that a geopolitical economy approach focusing on the roles o...

  15. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan; Yasuhito Osanai; Nobuhiko Nakano; Tatsuro Adachi; Amril Asy’ari

    2015-01-01

    DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristi...

  16. The composition of ambient and fresh biomass burning aerosols at a savannah site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Aurela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in climate change, and have adverse effects on human health. Given South Africa�s status as a rapidly-developing country with increasing urbanisation and industrial growth, information on the quality of ambient air is important. In this study, the chemical composition of ambient particles and the particles in fresh biomass burning plumes were studied at a savannah environment in Botsalano, South Africa. The results showed that Botsalano was regularly affected by air masses that had passed over several large point sources. Air masses that had passed over the coal-fired Matimba power station in the Waterberg, or over the platinum group metal smelters in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, contained high sulfate concentrations in the submicron ranges. These concentrations were 14 to 37 times higher compared with air masses that had passed only over rural areas. Because of the limited nature of this type of data in literature for the interior regions of southern Africa, our report serves as a valuable reference for future studies. In addition, our biomass burning study showed that potassium in the fresh smoke of burning savannah grass was likely to take the form of KCl. Clear differences were found in the ratios for potassium and levoglucosan in the smouldering and flaming phases. Our findings highlight the need for more comprehensive chamber experiments on various fuel types used in southern Africa, to confirm the ratio of important biomass burning tracer species that can be used in source apportionment studies in the future.

  17. Metamorphism of eclogites from the UHP Maksyutov Complex, south Ural Mountains, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlick, T. D.; Leech, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Maksyutov Complex is a mid- to late Paleozoic ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) subduction terrane in the south Ural Mountains of Russia. Radial fractures around quartz inclusions in garnet, omphacite, and glaucophane interpreted as pre-existing coesite; and microdiamond aggregates in garnet identified by Raman spectroscopy demonstrate Maksyutov rocks were subducted to UHP conditions (>2.8 GPa for coesite and >3.0 GPa for diamond at 600°C). Peak UHP eclogite-facies metamorphism (Grt+Omp+Ph+Coe+Rt ×Ttn) took place at c. 385 M and Maksyutov rocks were exhumed through retrograde blueschist-facies metamorphism (Grt+Gln+Ph+Qz×Chl×Ep) by 360 Ma. Pseudosections were constructed to constrain the P-T conditions recorded by the equilibrium mineral assemblanges in eclogites and their retrograded equivalents using bulk rock XRF analysis in the system Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 and the suite of free energy minimization programs, Perple_X 6.6.8 [Connolly 2009] with the internally consistent end-member thermodynamic database from Holland and Powell [1998] (mod 2004); solution models for omphacite (Holland and Powell, 1996), clinoamphibole (Dale et al. 2005), white mica (Coggon & Holland 2002, Auzanneau et al 2010), chlorite and garnet (Holland and Powell 1998; Powell and Holland 1999), and feldspar (Thompson and Hovis 1979; Newton et al. 1980) were used with H2O as a saturated component. Both conventional thermometry, using microprobe analyses and Grt-Cpx cation exchange as well as pseudosection modeling result in higher peak equilibrium temperatures than has been previously been reported in the Maksyutov. Pseudosection modeling gives minimum P-T conditions of 625°-675°C and 2.8-3.1 GPa for peak assemblages from the least retrogressed eclogites, while Fe-Mg exchange thermometry yields temperatures of 775°C × 25°C for pressures ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 GPa.

  18. Eudialyte decomposition minerals with new hitherto undescribed phases from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Rose-Hansen, J.; Sørensen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Eudialyte is a distinctive mineral in the agpaitic group of peralkaline nepheline syenites. The paper describes the alteration of eudialyte from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland, which is the type locality for eudialyte, as well as for agpaitic rocks. Two types of alteration are distinguis......Eudialyte is a distinctive mineral in the agpaitic group of peralkaline nepheline syenites. The paper describes the alteration of eudialyte from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland, which is the type locality for eudialyte, as well as for agpaitic rocks. Two types of alteration...... are distinguished: alteration of eudialyte to catapleiite is widespread in the complex, whereas alteration to zircon only occurs in strongly altered rocks. additionally, the fol-lowing minerals have been identified in the altered eudialyte: aegirine, K-feldspar, albite, analcime, fluorite, monazite, apatite...... in the complex. Alteration to zircon is caused by fluids of external origin or by fluids expelled from intersecting lujavrite and pegmatite dykes. Alteration to catapleiite is caused by late-magmatic interstitial fluids. The alteration has resulted in distinct fractionation of some elements; Zr is, for instance...

  19. Forecasting Excessive Rainfall and Low-Cloud Bases East of the Northern Andes and Mesoscale Convective Complex Movement in Central South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gasbarro, Marc

    2003-01-01

    ...) over multiple areas of operation in South America. Heavy rainfall and low-cloud base events along the northeastern Andes foothills are examined, as well as, mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs...

  20. A new semi-subterranean diving beetle of the Hydroporus normandi-complex from south-eastern France, with notes on other taxa of the complex (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hydroporus galloprovincialis sp. n. is described from Jouques, north-east of Aix-en-Provence in south-eastern France (Provence). The new species belongs to the Hydroporus memnonius-group, within which it is the only ascertained normandi-complex species of the French fauna. The habitat (small springs) and morphological features of the species suggest a semi-subterranean life style. It can be separated from the other species of the complex notably by its more elongated and parallel-sided habitus, by its wider pronotum and flatter dorsal surface, and furthermore differs from H. normandi Régimbart, 1903 by a different shape of the gonocoxa. Illustrations are provided for other described normandi-complex species and subspecies for comparison. Analyses of partial cox1 sequences indicate that the three sampled H. normandi-complex species (H. galloprovincialis sp. n., H. normandi and H. lluci Fery, 1999) diverged recently; their relationships are unresolved. H. galloprovincialis sp. n. is for the moment the only species of the genus Hydroporus Clairville, 1806 endemic to continental France.

  1. 3D modelling of Trompsburg Complex (in South Africa) using 3D focusing inversion of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalate, Ali Nejati; Aghajani, Hamid; Kahoo, Amin Roshandel; Moazam, Sahar

    2017-06-01

    The Trompsburg complex is a huge layered mafic igneous rock that is located near the town of Trompsburg in the Free State Province, South Africa that does not outcrop on the surface. Here, we construct 3D model of Trompsburg intrusion using 3D focusing inversion of gravity data. The inversion of gravity data is one of the most important topics in the quantitative interpretation of practical geophysical data. Focusing inversion can produce compact solution and recover the sharp boundaries between intrusive body and host rocks. In focusing inversion of Trompsburg gravity data we set focusing parameter equals 0.02. According to the geological information, lower density bound set to -0.1 g/cm3 and upper density bound set to 0.5 g/cm3. The results of 3D inversion in this study indicate that the Trompsburg Complex is a deep bowl-shaped intrusion which is extended to 33(km) below the surface. It is like an oval in horizontal plane sections with major axis of nearly 50 km in west- east direction and north- south minor axis about 30 km. The obtained results confirms that this complex could be related to intraplate magmatism.

  2. The Skills Cline: Higher Education and the Supply-Demand Complex in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosser, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between Grade 12 learner preferences for study in higher education, student enrolment in higher education programmes, and student graduations in different programme areas, considering the match between these supply-side indicators and a forecast of skills demand in South Africa as a first step towards…

  3. Complex etiology and pathology of mycotoxic nephropathy in South African pigs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stoev, SD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous nephropathy in pigs seen in South Africa was found to have multi-mycotoxic etiology involving several mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA), penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) in addition to a not yet identified mycotoxin...

  4. Enacting Understanding of Inclusion in Complex Contexts: Classroom Practices of South African Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Petra; Nel, Mirna; Nel, Norma; Tlale, Dan

    2015-01-01

    While the practice of inclusive education has recently been widely embraced as an ideal model for education, the acceptance of inclusive education practices has not translated into reality in most mainstream classrooms. Despite the fact that education policies in South Africa stipulate that all learners should be provided with the opportunities to…

  5. A new generation of healthcare buildings in South Africa: complexities and opportunities for greening

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available , efficient, healing environment desirable for healthcare delivery. In South Africa there has been a commitment to transform the healthcare sector through the introduction of the national health insurance system which is to be unfolded over a 14 year period...

  6. Working with complexity: experiences of caring for mothers seeking residential parenting services in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Dickinson, Marie; Dahlen, Hannah Grace

    2017-02-01

    To investigate staff perception of the changing complexity of mothers and infants admitted to two residential parenting services in New South Wales in the decade from 2005-2015. For many mothers with a young child, parenting is difficult and stressful. If parenting occurs within the context of anxiety, mental illness or abuse it often becomes a high-risk situation for the primary caregiver. Residential parenting services provide early nursing intervention before parenting problems escalate and require physical or mental health focused care. A qualitative descriptive design using semi-structured interview questions was used as phase three of a larger study. Data were gathered from 35 child and family health nurses and ten physicians during eight focus groups. Three main themes emerged: (1) dealing with complexity; (2) changing practice; and (3) appropriate knowledge and skills to handle greater complexity. There was a mix of participant opinions about the increasing complexity of the mothers presenting at residential parenting services during the past decade. Some of the nurses and physicians confirmed an increase in complexity of the mothers while several participants proposed that it was linked to their increased psychosocial assessment knowledge and skill. All participants recognised their work had grown in complexity regardless of their perception about the increased complexity of the mothers. Australian residential parenting services have a significant role in supporting mothers and their families who are experiencing parenting difficulties. It frequently provides early intervention that helps minimise later emotional and physical problems. Nurses are well placed to work with and support mothers with complex histories. Acknowledgement is required that this work is stressful and nurses need to be adequately supported and educated to manage the complex presentations of many families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A complex approach on integrated late bilinguals’ English VOT production: a study on south Brazilian immigrants in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Flores Kupske

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a Complex perspective to language, this study explores the correlation between length of residence (LOR in London and the production of word-initial English voiceless stops by late south Brazilian bilinguals who have an integrative motivation towards the host language and culture. To this end, 12 immigrants are compared to 10 standard southern British English monolinguals. Acoustic analysis of VOT duration is reported. The results demonstrated that the immigrants’ VOT values for English increased along with LOR. The bilinguals with the longest LOR revealed a production of English VOT within the range expected for the controls. These findings can be interpreted as evidence for language as a Complex Adaptive System, and for the hypothesis that the neuroplasticity and the cognitive mechanisms for language development remain intact during the lifespan.

  8. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh [South African Young Nuclear Professional Society, PO Box 9396, Centurion, 0157 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  9. Ambition, Regulation and Reality. Complex use of land and water resources in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this book I present three case studies of the complex regulation of use of land and water resources in Luwu. Attention to the role of legalcomplexity -the existence of different sources and definitions of normative-legal regulation in

  10. Ambition, Regulation and Reality. Complex use of land and water resources in Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this book I present three case studies of the complex regulation of use of land and water resources in Luwu. Attention to the role of legalcomplexity -the existence of different sources and definitions of normative-legal regulation in

  11. Environmental Perceptions of Rural South African Residents: The Complex Nature of Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.; Strife, Susie; Twine, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The state of the local environment shapes the well-being of millions of rural residents in developing nations. Still, we know little of these individuals’ environmental perceptions. This study analyzes survey data collected in an impoverished, rural region in northeast South Africa, to understand the factors that shape concern with local environmental issues. We use the “post-materialist thesis” to explore the different explanations for environmental concern in less developed regions of the world, with results revealing the importance of both cultural and physical context. In particular, gendered interaction with natural resources shapes perceptions, as does the local setting. Both theoretical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:20514147

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the Afroedura nivaria (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) species complex in South Africa provides insight on cryptic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhubo, Buyisile G; Tolley, Krystal A; Bates, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    The Afroedura nivaria species complex (A. nivaria, A. karroica, A. amatolica, A. tembulica and A. halli) is a morphologically conservative group of medium-sized flat geckos endemic to South Africa and Lesotho. Species are allopatric, as are some populations within species that are separated by large expanses of unsuitable habitat. Because of this isolation of populations we hypothesised that several cryptic species may be present. To investigate this hypothesis we constructed a molecular phylogeny using multiple markers, and included representatives of other Afroedura species. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses (439bp 16S, 593bp ND4, 948bp RAG1) strongly supported the genetic distinctiveness of the five described species. However, the A. nivaria species complex as currently described is not monophyletic, as A. karroica was positioned outside a clade containing all other Afroedura species, and A. pondolia (which was presumed to belong to a different species complex) was recovered within the A. nivaria complex. Several distinct clades within A. halli and A. nivaria were also recovered, and the narrowly-distributed A. amatolica consisted of two highly divergent clades. We also conducted a multivariate analysis using 19 morphological characters to investigate whether the clades recovered by the phylogeny were distinct in terms of head, body and limb shape. The analysis showed some variation between clades in terms of locomotor apparatus (forelimbs and feet), head and body dimensions, but overall the morphological differences were minor. This morphological conservatism in the A. nivaria complex may be a result of adaptation to similar microhabitats. Exclusive of A. karroica, the results suggest that there are at least nine species in this complex, of which four are cryptic and undescribed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted.

  14. Tectonic evolution of kid metamorphic complex and the recognition of Najd fault system in South East Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Yasser M.; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.; Arnous, Mohamed O.

    2017-03-01

    A low-to medium-grade metamorphic belt of a volcano-sedimentary succession occurs in the eastern side of South Sinai as a part of the northernmost extension of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in Egypt. The belt is known as the Kid metamorphic complex. It is considered as one of the major belt among the other exposed metamorphic belts in South Sinai. Here, we detect and investigate the signature of the Najd Fault system in South Sinai based on detailed structural analysis in field and digital image processing. The enhanced satellite image and the geo-spatial distributions confirm that the Kid belt is essentially composed of nine Precambrian units. Field relations and geometrical analysis of the measured structural data revealed that the study area underwent four successive deformational phases (D1-D4). D1 is an upright tight to isoclinal large-scale folds that caused few F1 small-scale folds and a steeply dipping S1 axial plane foliation. The second deformational event D2 produced dominant of sub-horizontal S2 foliation planes accompanied with recumbent isoclinal folds and NW-SE trending L2 lineations. The main sense during D2 was top-to-the-NW with local reversals to the SE. The third folding generations F3 is recorded as axial plane S3-surfaces and is characterized by open concentric folding that overprinting both F1 and F2 folds and has a flexural-slip mechanism. F3 fold hinges plunge to the west-northwest or east-southeast indicate north-northeast-south-southwest shortening during D3. The fourth deformational event D4 is characterized by NE plunging open concentric folding overprint the pre-existing fold generations and formed under flexural slip mechanism reflecting coaxial deformation and indicating change in the stress regime as a result of the change in shortening from NE-SW to NW-SE. This phase is probably accompanied with the final assembly of east and west Gondwana. The dextral NW-SE shear zone that bounded the southwestern portion of the metamorphic belt is

  15. Interrupting the balance: reconsidering the complexities of conflict in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendle, Naomi

    2014-04-01

    By the start of 2014, violent conflict had erupted across much of South Sudan following initial violence in Juba on 15 December 2013. The speed with which the fighting has spread raises questions regarding the impact of national-level politics on violence at the local level. This article develops a framework in which violent conflict can be comprehended as a response to the interruption of the negotiation of the balance of power between groups; the negotiation is interrupted when that balance tips in favour of one group, such as through changes in the national political market or government reforms. The article provides two cases studies of attempts to strengthen the state that inadvertently interrupted local power relations between groups. In response, the groups engaged in violent conflict to reinstate a balance of power. Both examples involve conflict among Dinka groups from 2005 to 2008. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  16. A taxonomic bibliography of the South American snakes of the Crotalus durissus complex (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANZOLINI PAULO E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made of the taxonomic literature on South American rattlesnakes (genus Crotalus, family Viperidae. Two main areas are emphasized: the attribution of the names proposed in the eighteenth century by Linnaeus and Laurenti, and the current scheme of division in subspecies. The attribution of names is examined based on the original descriptions and on relevant previous and contemporary literature. The presently adopted scheme, proposed by Klauber (1941, 1972 is found not entirely satisfactory, but reasonable enough - besides being hallowed by use. The scheme of geographical differentiation, intrinsically important and with broad practical implications (differentiation of the venom is found to be the culmination of a long series of deficient analyses, and in urgent need of proper investigation.

  17. Zirconosilicates in the kakortokites of the Ilímaussaq Complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, T.

    2016-01-01

    mineral stabilities in terms of component activities in the late-stage melts and fluids. Widespread alteration of EGM to catapleiite records an overall increase in water activity, and reflects interaction of EGM with late-magmatic Na-, Cl- and F-rich aqueous fluids at the final stages of kakortokite......-magmatic fluids, in which REE-F compounds are insoluble and remobilization of REE as Cl complexes is inhibited by precipitation of nacareniobsite-(Ce) and various Ca-REE silicates. A subsequent decrease in F– activity would furthermore restrict the mobility of Zr as hydroxyl-fluoride complexes, and promote...

  18. Toward an analytical framework for understanding complex social-ecological systems when conducting environmental impact assessments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bowd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of biophysical impacts has historically dominated environmental impact assessment (EIA practice. Despite the emergence of social impact assessment, the consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA is variable, as is the extent of their integration in EIA findings. There is growing recognition for the need to move EIA practice toward sustainability assessment, characterized by comprehensiveness, i.e., scope of impacts, integration, i.e., of biophysical and socioeconomic impacts, and a greater strategic focus. This is particularly the case in developing regions and in countries like South Africa, which have statutory requirements for the full consideration of socioeconomic impacts in EIA. We suggest that EIA practice could benefit from incorporating evolving theory around social-ecological systems (SES as an effective way of moving toward sustainability assessment. As far as we are aware, our study constitutes the first attempt to apply and formalize SES constructs to EIA practice within a regulated procedure. Our framework goes beyond conventional scoping approaches reliant on checklists and matrices by requiring the EIA practitioner to cocreate a conceptual model of the current and future social-ecological system with the implicated communities. This means social and biophysical impacts are assessed integratively, and that communities participate meaningfully in the EIA process, thereby helping address two of the most common shortfalls of EIA practice. The framework was applied in two case studies, establishment of community-based accommodation linked to existing tourism infrastructure (Eastern Cape, South Africa, and a proposed wine estate (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The framework revealed impacts, which would not be considered in a biophysically-oriented EIA, and helped identify development synergies and institutional and governance needs that are equally likely to have been overlooked. We suggest the framework has value as a

  19. Complexity in word-formation processes in New Varieties of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the article, the focus is on lexical innovation and morphologically complex forms in a corpus of approximately 703 300 words from the Vaal Weekly community newspaper. The data are analysed according to semantic domains and morphological structure. To determine if SAE has gone beyond Phase three of Schneider's ...

  20. Stratigraphic and compositional complexities of the late Quaternary Lethe tephra in South-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Ager, T.A.; Reger, R.D.; Pinney, D.S.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently discovered Lethe tephra has been proposed as a latest Pleistocene marker bed in Bristol Bay lowland NE to the Cook Inlet region, Alaska, on the basis of correlations involving a single "Lethe average" glass composition. Type deposits in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, however, are chemically heterogeneous-individual lapilli as well as aggregate ash deposits have glass compositions that range from the average mode to much higher SiO2 and K2O. Moreover, a lake-sediment core from the Cook Inlet region contains one ash deposit similar to "Lethe average" and other, closely underlying deposits that resemble a mixture of the average mode and high-Si high-K mode of proximal deposits. Synthesis of previously published radiocarbon ages indicates a major eruption mainly of "Lethe average" mode about 13,000 14C yr BP. As many as six deposits in the Cook Inlet region-five chiefly "Lethe average" mode-range from about 13,000 to 15-16,000 14C yr BP, and an early Holocene deposit in the Bristol Bay lowland extends the minimum age range of Lethe tephra throughout this region to 8000 14C yr BP. Because of the appearance of "Lethe average" composition in multiple deposits spanning thousands of years, we urge caution when using a Lethe-like composition as a basis for inferring a latest Pleistocene age of a tephra deposit in south-central Alaska. Linear variation plots suggest that magma mixing caused the Lethe heterogeneity; multiple magmas were involved as well in other large pyroclastic eruptions such as Katmai (Alaska) and Rotorua (New Zealand). Lethe is an example of a heterogeneous tephra that may be better compared with other tephras by use of plots of individual analytical points rather than by calculating similarity coefficients based on edited data. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  1. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  2. Response of the South Pacific Convergence Zone to imposed circulation and moisture perturbations in an intermediate level complexity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, M. J.; Lintner, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has identified a connection between the strength of low-level trade wind inflow from the relatively dry southeastern Pacific basin and the position of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). This circulation-precipitation relationship has been noted in composite analysis applied to reanalysis data as well as to output from current generation climate models, although the causality is ambiguous. Additionally, given that prior studies exhibit deep vertical structures associated with changes to low-level inflow east of the SPCZ, the relationship between low-level inflow variability and the propagation of upper level mid-latitude synoptic disturbances into the SPCZ remains unclear. Thus, forcing models with prescribed circulation and moisture anomalies may be instructive for untangling the dynamic and thermodynamic contributions to such interactions, as well as their potential causality. To that end, we use the Quasi-equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model 2 (QTCM2), an intermediate complexity model with a separate boundary layer of fixed height imposed at the base of the free troposphere, to explore the response of the SPCZ, and more broadly convection across the South Pacific, to perturbed low- and upper-level circulation and moisture fields east of its climatological position. Preliminary results suggest a strong precipitation response to strengthened low-level trade wind inflow, hypothesized to be the result of increased convergence in the climatological SPCZ, with an associated decrease in Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) precipitation. Conversely, there is a limited precipitation response to weakened low-level trade wind inflow despite a notable (2-3 g kg-1) increase in specific humidity, suggesting the climatological low-level inflow is already associated with the necessary moisture threshold for deep convection. Ultimately, these results suggest dynamics play a stronger role than thermodynamics in the interaction as modeled by QTCM2.

  3. Petrogenesis of cogenetic silica-oversaturated and -undersaturated syenites of Abu Khruq ring complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogahed, Moustafa M.

    2016-12-01

    The upper Cretaceous Abu Khruq ring complex (ARC) is located in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt displays concentric zonation of syenitic rocks from quartz-rich syenite at the margin, through alkali feldspar syenite to nepheline syenite in the centre. The syenitic rocks occur with nepheline monzogabbro, volcanic rocks (phonolite and trachyte) and the quartz- and nepheline-bearing pegmatites. Rocks of contrasting composition (mafic and salic) exhibit sophisticate geometric relationships. The nepheline monzogabbroic rocks have pillowy xenoliths forms within the salic (nepheline syenite and quartz alkali feldspar syenite) rocks, suggesting synchronous emplacement of the mafic and salic magmas. Clinopyroxene analysis of mafic and salic plutonic rocks of the ARC revealed that the overall pyroxene trend suggesting that fractionation involved a late, progressive increase in Na, in a reaction of the type Ca Mg Fe2+↔Na Fe3+. The chemistry of the analysed amphiboles are compositionally similar to those from typical differentiated peralkaline suites. Geochemically, the complex is enriched in the LILE, HFSE and REE. The concentrations of the compatible elements (V, Sr and Ba) generally decrease with increasing silica, consistent with fractional crystallization. A generalised increase in the Nb/Ta from the nepheline monzogabbro to nepheline syenite compositions is attributed to titanite fractionation. All the rock samples show relative increment of the LREE content than the HREE indicating weak to steep fractionated REE patterns (La/Yb) from 9.43 to 10.86, and thus retaining the geochemical characteristics of anorogenic suites. The magma sources of ARC are not derived from normal primitive mantle. The early stages of differentiation involved extensive olivine and pyroxene fractionation, the fractionation of amphibole, titanite, magnetite, apatite and feldspar may have been involved in the genesis of the salic differentiated compositions. The deviation towards silica

  4. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  5. An overstepped segmented lagoon complex on the KZN continental shelf, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Leuci, R.; Thackeray, Z.; Cooper, J. A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently collected multibeam data from the Durban Bight, KwaZulu-Natal, reveal a drowned calcarenite barrier complex, stranded by sea level rise during transgression. Three theoretical responses of barrier systems to sea level rise exist: 1) erosion of the drowning coastline via wave erosion; 2) translation whereby coastal landforms are shifted landward and up depositional profile; and 3) rollover where the entire coastline is overstepped and stranded. Here we present an extremely rare example of an overstepped series of coastal barriers preserved in the mid shelf. Our objectives are to: 1) provide detailed observations of the seafloor and subsurface geomorphology of the study area; 2) provide a model for how such features may have formed in light of oceanographic and sea level constraints. A 20 km2 portion of seafloor was mapped using a 160 KHz WMB-160F multibeam echosounding system. Positions and attitude estimations were provided by a Furuno SC30 system. All data were corrected to depth relative to MSL after reconciliation with sound velocity profiles and tidal fluctuations. All data resolve to ~ 5 m in the horizontal domain. Bathymetric data were complemented by ~ 100 km of high resolution, single-channel Boomer data. We recognise several features that closely resemble features of contemporary segmented lagoon and lake systems. These are semi-circular seafloor depressions, arcuate ridges, cuspate spits and prograding submerged barriers. These overlie a series of compound incised valley networks, the fill of which comprises five distinct seismic facies. These are dominantly moderate to weak amplitude, onlapping reflector packages, interspersed with laterally continuous, high amplitude, sheet-like reflectors. Incised valley fills terminate in onlapping/downlapping facies within which isolated bodies of sigmoid moderate amplitude reflector configuration occur. An initial incised valley was formed following a sea level lowering to the Last Glacial Maximum ~ 18 000

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8). The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for.

  7. Double disclosure bind: complexities of communicating an HIV diagnosis in the context of unintended pregnancy in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Tamaryn L; Voce, Anna; King, Rachel L; Giddy, Janet; Sheon, Nicolas M; Butler, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Disclosure of HIV status is widely promoted in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), but a number of context-specific factors may mediate disclosure outcomes. To better understand HIV-disclosure dynamics, we conducted in-depth interviews among 62 HIV-positive pregnant women accessing PMTCT services in Durban, South Africa. Transcripts were coded for emergent themes and categories. Thirty-nine women (63 %) had been recently diagnosed with HIV; most (n = 37; 95 %) were diagnosed following routine antenatal HIV testing. Forty-two women (68 %) reported unplanned pregnancies. Overall, 37 women (60 %) reported an unintended pregnancy and recent HIV diagnosis. For them, 2 life-changing diagnoses had resulted in a double-disclosure bind. The timing and stigma surrounding these events strongly influenced disclosure of pregnancy and/or HIV. PMTCT-related counseling must be responsive to the complex personal implications of contemporaneous, life-changing events, especially their effect on HIV-disclosure dynamics and, ultimately, on achieving better maternal mental-health outcomes.

  8. Structural styles and zircon ages of the South Tianshan accretionary complex, Atbashi Ridge, Kyrgyzstan: Insights for the anatomy of ocean plate stratigraphy and accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Miao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Orozbaev, Rustam; Bakirov, Apas; Sakiev, Kadyrbek; Pak, Nikolay; Ivleva, Elena; Zhou, Kefa; Ao, Songjian; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhixin

    2018-03-01

    The anatomy of an ancient accretionary complex has a significance for a better understanding of the tectonic processes of accretionary orogens and complex because of its complicated compositions and strong deformation. With a thorough structural and geochronological study of a fossil accretionary complex in the Atbashi Ridge, South Tianshan (Kyrgyzstan), we analyze the structure and architecture of ocean plate stratigraphy in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The architecture of the Atbashi accretionary complex is subdivisible into four lithotectonic assemblages, some of which are mélanges with "block-in-matrix" structure: (1) North Ophiolitic Mélange; (2) High-pressure (HP)/Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) Metamorphic Assemblage; (3) Coherent & Mélange Assemblage; and (4) South Ophiolitic Mélange. Relationships between main units are tectonic contacts presented by faults. The major structures and lithostratigraphy of these units are thrust-fold nappes, thrusted duplexes, and imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy. All these rock units are complicatedly stacked in 3-D with the HP/UHP rocks being obliquely southwestward extruded. Detrital zircon ages of meta-sediments provide robust constraints on their provenance from the Ili-Central Tianshan Arc. The isotopic ages of the youngest components of the four units are Late Permian, Early-Middle Triassic, Early Carboniferous, and Early Triassic, respectively. We present a new tectonic model of the South Tianshan; a general northward subduction polarity led to final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean in the End-Permian to Late Triassic. These results help to resolve the long-standing controversy regarding the subduction polarity and the timing of the final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean. Finally, our work sheds lights on the use of ocean plate stratigraphy in the analysis of the tectonic evolution of accretionary orogens.

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Carbon Under Complex Circulation Schemes on a Large Continental Shelf: The Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Feifei; Dai, Minhan; Cao, Zhimian; Wu, Kai; Zhao, Xiaozheng; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Junhui; Gan, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    We examined the distribution and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) based on a large data set collected from the northern South China Sea (NSCS) shelf under complex circulation schemes influenced by river plume, coastal upwelling, and downwelling. The highest surface values of ˜117 μmol L-1 were observed nearshore in summer suggesting high DOC supplies from the river inputs, whereas the lowest surface values of ˜62 μmol L-1 were on the outer shelf in winter due to entrainment of DOC-poor subsurface water under strengthened vertical mixing. While the summer coastal upwelling brought lower DOC from offshore depth to the nearshore surface, the winter coastal downwelling delivered higher surface DOC to the midshelf deep waters from the inner shelf fueled by the China Coastal Current (CCC) transporting relatively high DOC from the East China Sea to the NSCS. The intensified winter downwelling generated a cross-shelf DOC transport of 3.1 × 1012 g C over a large shelf area, which induced a significant depression of the NSCS DOC inventory in winter relative to in autumn. In addition to the variable physical controls, net biological production of DOC was semiquantified in both the river plume (2.8 ± 3.0 μmol L-1) and coastal upwelling (3.1 ± 1.3 μmol L-1) in summer. We demonstrated that the NSCS shelf had various origins of DOC including riverine inputs, inter-shelf transport and in situ production. Via cross-shelf transport, the accumulated DOC would be exported to and stored in the deep ocean, suggesting that continental shelves are a potentially effective carbon sink.

  10. Astrophyllite-group minerals from the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland (contribution to the mineralogy of Ilímaussaq no. 123)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, R.; Karup-Møller, Sven; Rose-Hansen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for astrophyllite-group minerals from hydrothermal veins and pegmatites of the Ilimaussaq complex, South Greenland. The analyses fall mainly into two groups: (1) niobophyllites with the highest Nb/(Nb+Ti) ratios yet recorded (∼0.9), occurring only in the...... oxygen fugacity, whereas those in the pegmatites were formed from water-rich melts which were hotter (≥450°C), less basic and more oxidized. © 2007 The Mineralogical Society.......Electron microprobe analyses are presented for astrophyllite-group minerals from hydrothermal veins and pegmatites of the Ilimaussaq complex, South Greenland. The analyses fall mainly into two groups: (1) niobophyllites with the highest Nb/(Nb+Ti) ratios yet recorded (∼0.9), occurring only...

  11. Comprehensive evaluation technology for shale gas sweet spots in the complex marine mountains, South China: A case study from Zhaotong national shale gas demonstration zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and development of marine shale gas reservoirs in South China is challenged by complex geological and geographical conditions, such as strong transformation, post maturity, complex mountains and humanity. In this paper, the evaluations on shale gas sweet spots conducted in Zhaotong demonstration zone in the past six years and the construction of 500 million m3 shale gas productivity in Huangjinba region were discussed, and the results of shale gas reservoir evaluations in China and abroad were investigated. Accordingly, it is proposed that another two key indicators be taken into consideration in the evaluation on shale gas sweet spots in marine mountains in South China, i.e. shale gas preservation conditions and pore pressure, and the research on ground stress and natural microfracture systems should be strengthened. Then, systematic analysis was conducted by integrating shale gas multidisciplinary data and geological and engineering integration study was carried out. Finally, a 3D model, which was composed of “geophysics, reservoir geology, fracture system and rock geomechanics”, was established for shale gas reservoirs. Application practice shows that the geological engineering integration and the 3D reservoir modeling are effective methods for evaluating the shale gas sweet spots in complex marine mountains in South China. Besides, based on shale gas sweet spot evaluation, 3D spatial congruency and superposition effects of multiple attributes and multiple evaluation parameters are presented. Moreover, the short-plate principle is the factor controlling the distribution patterns and evaluation results of shale gas sweet spots. It is concluded that this comprehensive evaluation method is innovative and effective in avoiding complex geological and engineering risks, so it is of guiding significance in exploration and development of marine shale gas in South China.

  12. Phylogeny of Amazona barbadensis and the Yellow-headed Amazon complex (Aves: Psittacidae): a new look at South American parrot evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantówka, Adam Dawid; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Strzała, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis) is the sole parrot of the genus Amazona that inhabits only dry forests. Its population has been dropping; therefore it has been the topic of many studies and conservation efforts. However, the phylogenetic relationship of this species to potential relatives classified within the Yellow-Headed Amazon (YHA) complex are still not clear. Therefore, we used more extensive data sets, including the newly sequenced mitochondrial genome of A. barbadensis, to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Various combinations of genes and many phylogenetic approaches showed that A. barbadensis clustered significantly with A. ochrocephala ochrocephala from Colombia and Venezuela, which created the Northern South American (NSA) lineage, clearly separated from two other lineages within the YHA complex, the Central (CA) and South American (SA). Tree topology tests and exclusion of rapidly evolving sites provided support for a NSA+SA grouping. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the YHA complex and its colonization of the American mainland. The NSA lineage likely represents the most ancestral lineage, which derived from Lesser Antillean Amazons and colonized the northern coast of Venezuela about a million years ago. Then, Central America was colonized through the Isthmus of Panama, which led to the emergence of the CA lineage. The southward expansion to South America and the origin of the SA lineage happened almost simultaneously. However, more intensive or prolonged gene flow or migrations have led to much weaker geographic differentiation of genetic markers in the SA than in the CA lineage.

  13. Phylogeny of Amazona barbadensis and the Yellow-headed Amazon complex (Aves: Psittacidae: a new look at South American parrot evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dawid Urantówka

    Full Text Available The Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis is the sole parrot of the genus Amazona that inhabits only dry forests. Its population has been dropping; therefore it has been the topic of many studies and conservation efforts. However, the phylogenetic relationship of this species to potential relatives classified within the Yellow-Headed Amazon (YHA complex are still not clear. Therefore, we used more extensive data sets, including the newly sequenced mitochondrial genome of A. barbadensis, to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Various combinations of genes and many phylogenetic approaches showed that A. barbadensis clustered significantly with A. ochrocephala ochrocephala from Colombia and Venezuela, which created the Northern South American (NSA lineage, clearly separated from two other lineages within the YHA complex, the Central (CA and South American (SA. Tree topology tests and exclusion of rapidly evolving sites provided support for a NSA+SA grouping. We propose an evolutionary scenario for the YHA complex and its colonization of the American mainland. The NSA lineage likely represents the most ancestral lineage, which derived from Lesser Antillean Amazons and colonized the northern coast of Venezuela about a million years ago. Then, Central America was colonized through the Isthmus of Panama, which led to the emergence of the CA lineage. The southward expansion to South America and the origin of the SA lineage happened almost simultaneously. However, more intensive or prolonged gene flow or migrations have led to much weaker geographic differentiation of genetic markers in the SA than in the CA lineage.

  14. UPDATE OF THE MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES SPECIES COMPLEX BY INCLUDING SPECIMENS FROM SOUTH TYROL (ITALY AND CARINTHIA (AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARIC S.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships of the Austropotamobius pallipes species complex were assessed in several recent genetic studies by analysing sequences of the mitochondrial DNA. Although the Alpine region is known to harbour great extents of morphological and genetic diversity, none of the previous studies included populations from South Tyrol in Northern Italy and Carinthia in Southern Austria. In order to clarify their taxonomic status white-clawed crayfish were sampled from six populations in South Tyrol and three populations in Carinthia. Phylogenetic analyses are based on partial DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene, which were supplemented with sequences deposited in GenBank. All surveyed individuals from the six populations in South Tyrol comprised a single haplotype that equalled the already described haplotype S3. This haplotype is distributed in Plansee (Austria as well as several other localities in Italy and Switzerland, and belongs to the A. italicus carinthiacus clade. The investigated specimens from all three Carinthian populations also displayed one single haplotype. However, this haplotype clustered in the A. italicus carsicus clade and has not been published before. Our study clearly shows that neither Austrian crayfish populations from Plansee and Carinthia, nor populations from South Tyrol and Carinthia belong to the same phylogenetic lineage.

  15. Contact metamorphism, partial melting and fluid flow in the granitic footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Z.; Mogessie, A.; Molnar, F.; Severson, M.; Hauck, S.; Lechler, P.; Arehart, G.

    2012-04-01

    The footwall of the South Kawishiwi Intrusion (SKI) a part of the Mesoproterozoic (1.1 Ga) Duluth Complex consists of Archean granite-gneiss, diorite, granodiorite (Giant Range Batholith), thin condensed sequences of Paleoproterozoic shale (Virginia Fm.), as well as banded iron formation (Biwabik Iron Fm). Detailed (re)logging and petrographic analysis of granitic footwall rocks in the NM-57 drillhole from the Dunka Pit area has been performed to understand metamorphic processes, partial melting, deformation and geochemical characteristics of de-volatilization or influx of fluids. In the studied drillhole the footwall consists of foliated metagranite that is intersected by mafic (dioritic) dykes of older age than the SKI. In the proximal contact zones, in the mafic dykes, the orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+quartz+Fe-Ti-oxide+hornblende±biotite porphyroblasts embedded in a plagioclase+K-feldspar+orthopyroxene+apatite matrix indicate pyroxene-hornfels facies conditions. Migmatitization is revealed by the euhedral crystal faces of plagioclase and pyroxene against anhedral quartz crystals in the in-situ leucosome and by the presence of abundant in-source plagioclase±biotite leucosome veinlets. Amphibole in the melanosome of mafic dykes was formed with breakdown of biotite and implies addition of H2O to the system during partial melting. Towards the deeper zones, the partially melted metatexite-granite can be characterized by K-feldspar+plagioclase+quartz+ortho/clinopyroxene+biotite+Fe-Ti-oxide+apatite mineral assemblage. The felsic veins with either pegmatitic or aplititic textures display sharp contact both to the granite and the mafic veins. They are characterized by K-feldspar+quartz±plagioclase±muscovite mineral assemblage. Sporadic occurrence of muscovite suggest local fluid saturated conditions. Emplacement of gabbroic rocks of the SKI generated intense shear in some zones of the granitic footwall resulting in formation of biotite-rich mylonites with

  16. The Permian Whitehill Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa): deciphering the complexity and potential of an unconventional gas resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Annette E.

    2014-05-01

    A key energy policy objective of the South African government is to diversify its energy mix from coal which constitutes 85% of the current mix. Gas will play a key role in the future South African economy with demand coming from electricity generation and gas-to-liquids projects. A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2011 concluded that there could be as much as 485 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the South African Karoo Basin. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. The present study compiles existing data from literature review and new data from outcrop analogue studies on the Permian Whitehill Formation, the main target formation for future shale gas production, including thickness, depth, maturity, TOC, lithologies, sedimentary and organic facies, and dolerite occurrence to provide a first reference dataset for further investigations and resource estimates.

  17. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  18. Receptor modelling and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds measured at a regional background site in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, Kerneels; Vestenius, Mika; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Hellén, Heidi; Vakkari, Ville; Venter, Marcell; Josipovic, Miroslav; Hakola, Hannele

    2018-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can have significant impacts on climate and human health. Certain VOCs are proven to be carcinogenic and toxic, which can affect human health directly and indirectly. In order to develop climate change reduction strategies and to assess the impacts of VOCs on human health, it is crucial to determine the sources of VOCs, which can be emitted from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The aim of this study was to perform source apportionment using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis on VOC data collected at a regional background location affected by the major sources in the interior of South Africa, which include the western- and eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex, the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation, the Vaal Triangle, the Mpumalanga Highveld and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. In addition, a risk assessment study was also performed in view of the major source regions affecting Welgegund in order to quantify the impacts of anthropogenic VOCs measured at Welgegund on human health. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station located on a commercial farm approximately 100 km west of Johannesburg for a period of more than two years. PMF analysis revealed ten meaningful factor solutions, of which five factors were associated with biogenic emissions and five with anthropogenic sources. Three of the biogenic factors were characterised by a specific biogenic species, i.e. isoprene, limonene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), while the other two biogenic factors comprised mixtures of biogenic species with different tracer species. The temporal factor contribution for the isoprene, limonene and MBO factors correlated relatively well with the seasonal wet pattern. One anthropogenic factor was associated with emissions from a densely populated anthropogenic source region to the east of Welgegund with a large number of industrial activities, while

  19. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in south-eastern Romania: evidence of G1-G3 and G6-G10 complexes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, L; Bazzocchi, C; Brunetti, E; Mihailescu, P; Bandi, C; Mastalier, B; Cordos, I; Beuran, M; Popa, L G; Meroni, V; Genco, F; Cretu, C

    2013-06-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect Echinococcus granulosus is the aetiological agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is a public health problem in many eastern European countries, particularly in Romania, where the infection causes a high number of human and animal cases. To shed light on the transmission patterns of the parasite, we performed a genotyping analysis on 60 cyst samples obtained from patients who live in south-eastern Romania and who underwent surgery for liver or lung CE. DNA was extracted from the endocysts or the cyst fluids, and fragments of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 mitochondrial genes (cox1 and nd1, respectively) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. We found that most of the samples analysed (59/60) belonged to the G1-G3 complex (E. granulosus sensu stricto), which contains the most widespread and infective strains of the parasite. We also identified the first human patient infected by a non-G1-G3 genotype of E. granulosus in this country. As the DNA sequence of this cyst sample showed maximum homology with the G6-G10 complex (Echinococcus canadensis), this is, in all likelihood, a G7 genotype, which is often found in pigs and dogs in most countries of eastern and south-eastern Europe. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. "Girls need to behave like girls you know": the complexities of applying a gender justice goal within sexuality education in South African schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara; Macleod, Catriona Ida

    2016-11-01

    Sexuality education, as a component within the Life Orientation (LO) programme in South African schools, is intended to provide young people with knowledge and skills to make informed choices about their sexuality, their own health and that of others. Key to the programme are outcomes relating to power, power relations and gender. In this paper, we apply a critical gender lens to explore the ways in which the teaching of sexuality education engages with larger goals of gender justice. The paper draws from a number of ethnographic studies conducted at 12 South African schools. We focus here on the data collected from focus group discussions with learners, and semi-structured interviews with individual learners, principals and Life Orientation (LO) teachers. The paper highlights the complexities of having gender justice as a central goal of LO sexuality education. Teaching sexuality education is reported to contradict dominant community values and norms. Although some principals and school authorities support gender equity and problematize hegemonic masculinities, learners experience sexuality education as upholding normative gender roles and male power, rather than challenging it. Teachers rely heavily on cautionary messages that put more responsibility for reproductive health on female learners, and use didactic, authoritative pedagogical techniques, which do not acknowledge young people's experience nor facilitate their sexual agency. These complexities need to be foregrounded and worked with systematically if the goal of gender justice within LO is to be realised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa) in Europe and South America (Ecuador)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Przybós, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    .... Herein new stands of several species of the Paramecium aurelia complex are presented from Europe including P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, P. triaurelia, P. octaurelia, P. novaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia...

  2. Some geodynamic complexities related to the evolution of Bengal Fan and the neotectonic activity of the south Indian shield

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.

    Plate remains remains complex and uresolved. Though recent analysis of few multichannel seismic sections from the Central Bengal Fan could resolve some of the ambiguities, views still differ on several aspects such as the nature and age of the oceanic...

  3. The physical and chemical interaction of the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex with sandstone and basaltic country rock of the Eriksfjord Formation, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Andrew; Finch, Adrian; Martin, Craig; Hutchison, William

    2017-04-01

    The Gardar province of South Greenland hosts a number of peralkaline igneous centres associated with rifting between ca. 1350 and 1130 Ma. Due to its remarkable agpaitic ([Na+K]/Al > 1.2) mineralogy and economic potential by enrichment in REE and U, the Ilimaussaq intrusive complex has been the subject of intense study and is dated at 1160 Ma, representing late-Gardar magmatism. While the complex is famed for its extreme composition, resulting from extended fractionation, little consideration has been given to the interaction of this rare magma with its surrounding country rock, the Eriksfjord Formation. Current understanding dictates that the Ilimaussaq complex remained a sealed system throughout its emplacement and solidification, allowing for its extended fractionation and autometasomatism by volatile-rich magmatic fluids. Here we test this understanding and present data that provides evidence for both physical and chemical interaction of the agpaitic magma with surrounding country rock. Magmatic dykes and veins are observed permeating the country rock up to 300 m from the complex's contact. Multiple methods of chemical analysis of these features are utilised to determine the degree of contamination of the magma and the means of propagation of these fluids. Firstly, the bulk rock geochemistry of roof zone, dykes and country rock are compared to assess contamination/alteration; secondly, sulphur isotopic data are presented to further highlight contamination with variation from magmatic to surface signatures; and thirdly, mineral compositions within dykes are analysed to track variation in magmatic fluid composition with distance from the chamber wall. The Ilimaussaq intrusive complex provides a unique opportunity to study the physical and chemical permeability of common rocks (sandstone and basalt of the Eriksfjord Fm.) when intruded by a low viscosity, low temperature magma. Quantifying the interaction of this intrusion with its country rock allows for a better

  4. Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research: Reflections on the Research Approach Used to Understand the Complexity of Maternal Health Issues in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; Manandhar, Mary; Hemmings, Joanne; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2017-07-01

    Many methodological approaches have been used to understand cultural dimensions to maternal health issues. Although a well-designed quantitative survey with a representative sample can provide essential information on trends in behavior, it does not necessarily establish a contextualized understanding of the complexity in which different behaviors occur. This article addresses how contextualized data can be collected in a short time and under conditions in which participants in conflict-affected zones might not have established, or time to establish, trust with the researchers. The solution, the Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER) approach, is illustrated through a study whereby South Sudanese marginalized women were trained to design research instruments, and collect and analyze qualitative data. PEER overcomes the problem that many ethnographic or participatory approaches face-the extensive time and resources required to develop trusting relationships with the community to understand the local context and the social networks they form.

  5. The complex role of social care services in supporting the development of sustainable identities: Insights from the experiences of British South Asian women with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Kulsoom Jawaid; Unwin, Gemma; Larkin, Michael; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2017-04-01

    Carers and service users with intellectual disabilities from minority ethnic groups have typically been reported to be dissatisfied with the social care services they receive. However, service users themselves have rarely been asked directly about their experiences of social care. This paper aims to understand the meaning of social care services in the lives of South Asian women with intellectual disabilities, in the United Kingdom. 10 British South Asian women with mild-moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed about their experiences of social care services. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The analysis produced three super-ordinate themes, which focus on how services facilitate the development of complex identities, how the participants explored their sense of being 'stuck' between cultures as they negotiated their journeys towards independence, and the triple disadvantage which they experienced as a consequence of the intersection between gender, ethnicity and disability. The participants were broadly satisfied with the role which services played in these domains, and appeared to find them valuable and helpful. The results suggest that the participants successfully managed complex identity issues, such as acculturation processes, with the support of services. It may be helpful to give more explicit consideration to the positive role which good services can play in supporting people with intellectual disabilities in the development of their identities and goals, alongside the more traditionally 'concrete' objectives of such social care. Engagement with families in 'positive risk-taking' is likely to be an important component of success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The complex early life history of a marine estuarine-opportunist fish species, Solea turbynei (Soleidae from temperate South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine A. Strydom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The early life history stages and ecology of Solea turbynei, a marine estuarine-opportunist species, is described from nursery areas in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Early life history stages were collected over multiple years from known nursery habitats using plankton, fyke and larval seine nets. The larvae are described using morphometric measurements, meristic counts and pigmentation based on 29 individuals. Solea turbynei is differentiated from other Soleidae by the small size at flexion (3-4 mm, low myomere count and presence of two characteristic blotches of pigment on the dorsal fin. This species has a unique early life history strategy in that the larvae progressively span nearshore, surf zone and estuarine habitats with ontogeny. Abundance of preflexion stages peaks in summer in nearshore waters, indicative of peak spawning period but preflexion larvae are present throughout the year, indicating protracted spawning by adults. At flexion stage, larvae utilize surf zones where metamorphosis and settlement takes place. Early juveniles migrate into the sandy lower reaches of estuaries, after which fish take up residency to adulthood. Warm water is important for larval growth and survival in the nearshore, while turbidity shows a positive relationship with recruitment into estuarine nurseries.

  7. The relationship between habitat complexity and nursery provision for an estuarine-dependent fish species in a permanently open South African Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Timothy; James, Nicola C.; Potts, Warren M.; Rajkaran, Anusha

    2017-11-01

    Estuarine-dependent marine fish species rely on shallow, sheltered and food rich habitats for protection from predators, growth and ultimately recruitment to adult populations. Hence, habitats within estuaries function as critical nursery areas for an abundance of fish species. However, these habitats vary in the degree of nursery function they provide and few studies have quantitatively assessed the relative nursery value of different habitat types within estuaries, particularly in the context of habitat complexity. This study aimed to assess the nursery value of the dominant vegetated habitats, namely the submergent Zostera capensis (Setch.) (seagrass) beds and emergent Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald (salt marsh) beds in the Bushmans Estuary, South Africa. Biomass and stem density were sampled seasonally in order to gain insight into the vegetation dynamics of seagrass and salt marsh beds. Aerial cover, canopy height and underwater camera imagery were used to develop multiple complexity indices for prioritizing habitat complexity. The relatively consistent results of the dimensionless indices (interstitial space indices and fractal geometry) suggest that Z. capensis exhibits an overall greater degree of complexity than S. maritima, and hence it can be expected that fish abundance is likely to be higher in Z. capensis beds than in S. maritima habitats. Underwater video cameras were deployed in seagrass, salt marsh and sand flat habitats to assess the relative abundance and behaviour of the estuarine-dependent sparid Rhabosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881) in different habitats. The relative abundance of R. holubi was significantly higher in Z. capensis seagrass than S. maritima salt marsh and sand flats, whilst the behaviour of R. holubi indicated a high degree of habitat use in structured habitats (both Z. capensis and S. martima) and a low degree of habitat use in unstructured sand flat habitats.

  8. The complexity of consent: women's experiences testing for HIV at an antenatal clinic in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Maman, Suzanne; Msomi, Sibekezelo; Makhanya, Nduduzo; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2010-05-01

    Informed consent has historically been a cornerstone to ensuring autonomy during HIV testing. However, recent changes to global guidance on HIV testing have led to substantial debate on what policy provisions are necessary to ensure that consent remains meaningful in the context of testing. Despite disproportionate rates of testing during pregnancy, pregnant women's perspectives on the HIV testing process are underrepresented in the testing discourse. This study explores women's experiences with HIV testing and the consent process in a public antenatal clinic in South Africa. Qualitative interviews with 25 women were conducted at the clinic at either an antenatal visit or an infant immunization visit that followed HIV testing. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. Women were categorized into one of the three groups based on their perceptions of choice in consenting for an HIV test. Matrices were used to allow for cross-category and cross-case comparison. Half of the women described having a clear choice in their decision to test. Others were less clear about their choice. Some women felt they had no choice in testing for HIV. None of the women stated that they were tested without having signed a consent form. We found that half of the women's narratives illustrated direct and indirect ways in which providers coerced them into taking an HIV test while receiving antenatal care. As the new guidance on HIV testing is implemented in different settings, it is critical to monitor women's testing experiences to ensure that a woman's right to make an informed, voluntary choice is not violated. Furthermore, models of testing that allow us to meet broader public health goals while simultaneously respecting women's autonomy are needed.

  9. Environmental drivers of spatial patterns of topsoil nitrogen and phosphorus under monsoon conditions in a complex terrain of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwanyong; Choi, Kwanghun; Spohn, Marie; Park, Soo Jin; Huwe, Bernd; Ließ, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in topsoils are critical for plant nutrition. Relatively little is known about the spatial patterns of N and P in the organic layer of mountainous landscapes. Therefore, the spatial distributions of N and P in both the organic layer and the A horizon were analyzed using a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) digital elevation model and vegetation metrics. The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of vegetation and topography on the spatial patterns of N and P in a small watershed covered by forest in South Korea. Soil samples were collected using the conditioned latin hypercube method. LiDAR vegetation metrics, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and terrain parameters were derived as predictors. Spatial explicit predictions of N/P ratios were obtained using a random forest with uncertainty analysis. We tested different strategies of model validation (repeated 2-fold to 20-fold and leave-one-out cross validation). Repeated 10-fold cross validation was selected for model validation due to the comparatively high accuracy and low variance of prediction. Surface curvature was the best predictor of P contents in the organic layer and in the A horizon, while LiDAR vegetation metrics and NDVI were important predictors of N in the organic layer. N/P ratios increased with surface curvature and were higher on the convex upper slope than on the concave lower slope. This was due to P enrichment of the soil on the lower slope and a more even spatial distribution of N. Our digital soil maps showed that the topsoils on the upper slopes contained relatively little P. These findings are critical for understanding N and P dynamics in mountainous ecosystems.

  10. Patterns of millipede (Diplopoda), centipede (Chilopoda) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five habitat types (white sand bushveld, brown sand bushveld, general mixed bushveld, rocky outcrops and mopane woodland) within the Greater Makalali Conservancy, Limpopo Province, South Africa, were studied using four successful sampling methods (active searching of two types of quadrats, pitfall traps and drive ...

  11. Geological mapping and spectral based classification of basement rocks using remote sensing data analysis: The Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; Sadek, Mohamed F.

    2017-10-01

    The Pan-African Neoproterozoic Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex in the extreme South Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises dismembered ophiolite assemblages tectonically thrusted over pelite-psammopelite, quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and island-arc schistose metavolcanics. The whole sequence is intruded by syn-late to post tectonic mafic and felsic intrusions. The enhanced Landsat-8 band ratio (bands 6/2, 6/7 and 6/5 × 4/5) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Principal Component (PC2, PC6, and PC5) successfully discriminated most of the exposed lithological units and produced a detailed geological map. Granitoids, psammopelite-pelite, gneiss and serpentinite-talc carbonate rocks have been discriminated using ASTER kaolinite, clay, sericite-muscovite and calcite-carbonate indices respectively. Three spectral based classification algorithms have been compared using Landsat-8 and the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets to obtain the best lithological classification for the exposed basement rock units. Results from the present study revealed that, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier algorithm provided the best lithological classification accuracy (97.72%) using the combination of 9 ASTER bands and 20 ASTER derivative images. The results of the present study concluded that, the integrated data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images are effective in the discrimination and classification of the basement rock units exposed at Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex and can be applied in similar areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  12. Complex longitudinal diversification across South China and Vietnam in Stejneger's pit viper, Viridovipera stejnegeri (Schmidt, 1925) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Fei; Zhong, Guang H; Chen, Xin; Myers, Edward A; Che, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Ziegler, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Q; Burbrink, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Viridovipera stejnegeri is one of the most common pit vipers in Asia, with a wide distribution in southern China and Vietnam. We investigated historical demography and explored how the environment and climatic factors have shaped genetic diversity and the evolutionary history of this venomous snake. A total of 171 samples from 47 localities were sequenced and analysed for two mitochondrial gene fragments and three nuclear genes. Gene trees reveal the existence of two well-supported clades (Southwest China and Southeast China) with seven distinct and strongly supported, geographically structured subclades within V. stejnegeri. Estimation of divergence time and ancestral area suggests that V. stejnegeri originated at ~6.0 Ma in the late Miocene on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The estimated date of origin and divergence of the island populations of Taiwan and Hainan closely matches the geological origin of the both islands. The mtDNA gene tree reveals the presence of west-east diversification in V. stejnegeri populations. Complex orogenesis and heterogeneous habitats, as well as climate-mediated habitat differentiation including glacial cycles, all have influenced population structure and the distribution of this taxon. The validity of V. stejnegeri chenbihuii is questionable, and this subspecies most probably represents an invalid taxon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rare earth elements in apatite as a monitor of magmatic and metasomatic processes: The Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirner, Aurelia L. K.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Wenzel, Thomas; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Markl, Gregor

    2015-07-01

    Textural and compositional variations of apatite from the plutonic Ilímaussaq complex in South Greenland and its surrounding country rocks track magmatic and metasomatic processes. Detailed back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging reveals various types of apatite textures including (i) growth zonation (concentric, oscillatory as well as sector zonation) formed during magmatic differentiation, (ii) resorption and overgrowth textures due to fluid/melt induced metasomatic overprint of precursor apatite and (iii) replacement textures indicating the destabilization of apatite in favor of monazite. In the least evolved rocks of the Ilímaussaq complex, apatite incorporates rare earth elements and Y (REY) mainly via the coupled substitution Ca2 + + P5 + = REY3 + + Si4 +. In the more evolved peralkaline rocks and in metasomatically overprinted rocks, however, the coupled substitution 2 Ca2 + = REY3 + + Na+ becomes increasingly relevant, and apatite incorporates successively more LREE compared to HREE as shown by increasing (La/Gd)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios. Similarly, at the contact between the Ilímaussaq rocks and the granitic country rocks, the metasomatic effect of the emplacement of the Ilímaussaq melts is preserved in partly resorbed precursor apatite, which is overgrown by REY-enriched apatite with higher (La/Gd)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios compared to apatite from granites more distant from the contact. This study shows, that apatite textures and compositions are suitable to track both primary magmatic and later fluid-present metasomatic processes. The incorporation of REY in apatite is not only dependent on the amount of REY present but also depends largely on Na activity in the apatite-precipitating melts and fluids.

  14. Application of geographic population structure (GPS) algorithm for biogeographical analyses of populations with complex ancestries: a case study of South Asians from 1000 genomes project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranajit; Upadhyai, Priyanka

    2017-12-28

    The utilization of biological data to infer the geographic origins of human populations has been a long standing quest for biologists and anthropologists. Several biogeographical analysis tools have been developed to infer the geographical origins of human populations utilizing genetic data. However due to the inherent complexity of genetic information these approaches are prone to misinterpretations. The Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm is an admixture based tool for biogeographical analyses and has been employed for the geo-localization of various populations worldwide. Here we sought to dissect its sensitivity and accuracy for localizing highly admixed groups. Given the complex history of population dispersal and gene flow in the Indian subcontinent, we have employed the GPS tool to localize five South Asian populations, Punjabi, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu and Bengali from the 1000 Genomes project, some of whom were recent migrants to USA and UK, using populations from the Indian subcontinent available in Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) and those previously described as reference. Our findings demonstrate reasonably high accuracy with regards to GPS assignment even for recent migrant populations sampled elsewhere, namely the Tamil, Telugu and Gujarati individuals, where 96%, 87% and 79% of the individuals, respectively, were positioned within 600 km of their native locations. While the absence of appropriate reference populations resulted in moderate-to-low levels of precision in positioning of Punjabi and Bengali genomes. Our findings reflect that the GPS approach is useful but likely overtly dependent on the relative proportions of admixture in the reference populations for determination of the biogeographical origins of test individuals. We conclude that further modifications are desired to make this approach more suitable for highly admixed individuals.

  15. Assessment of the ARW-WRF model over complex terrain: the case of the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Iman; Bonnardot, Valérie; Sturman, Andrew; Quénol, Hervé; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2017-08-01

    Global warming has implications for thermal stress for grapevines during ripening, so that wine producers need to adapt their viticultural practices to ensure optimum physiological response to environmental conditions in order to maintain wine quality. The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to accurately represent atmospheric processes at high resolution (500 m) during two events during the grapevine ripening period in the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa. Two case studies were selected to identify areas of potentially high daytime heat stress when grapevine photosynthesis and grape composition were expected to be affected. The results of high-resolution atmospheric model simulations were compared to observations obtained from an automatic weather station (AWS) network in the vineyard region. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the ability of the WRF model to reproduce spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters at 500-m resolution. The model represented the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological variables very well, with an average model air temperature bias of 0.1 °C, while that for relative humidity was -5.0 % and that for wind speed 0.6 m s-1. Variation in model performance varied between AWS and with time of day, as WRF was not always able to accurately represent effects of nocturnal cooling within the complex terrain. Variations in performance between the two case studies resulted from effects of atmospheric boundary layer processes in complex terrain under the influence of the different synoptic conditions prevailing during the two periods.

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of Complexity of Human Pathogen-Specific CD4 T Cell Responses in Healthy M. tuberculosis Infected South Africans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative analysis of the HLA restriction, antigen and epitope specificity of human pathogen specific responses in healthy individuals infected with M. tuberculosis (Mtb, in a South African cohort as a test case. The results estimate the breadth of T cell responses for the first time in the context of an infection and human population setting. We determined the epitope repertoire of eleven representative Mtb antigens and a large panel of previously defined Mtb epitopes. We estimated that our analytic methods detected 50-75% of the total response in a cohort of 63 individuals. As expected, responses were highly heterogeneous, with responses to a total of 125 epitopes detected. The 66 top epitopes provided 80% coverage of the responses identified in our study. Using a panel of 48 HLA class II-transfected antigen-presenting cells, we determined HLA class II restrictions for 278 epitope/donor recognition events (36% of the total. The majority of epitopes were restricted by multiple HLA alleles, and 380 different epitope/HLA combinations comprised less than 30% of the estimated Mtb-specific response. Our results underline the complexity of human T cell responses at a population level. Efforts to capture and characterize this broad and highly HLA promiscuous Mtb-specific T cell epitope repertoire will require significant peptide multiplexing efforts. We show that a comprehensive "megapool" of Mtb peptides captured a large fraction of the Mtb-specific T cells and can be used to characterize this response.

  17. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana, a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Valdez

    Full Text Available Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana, a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July, whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes. Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period.

  18. Geochronology of granulite, charnockite and gneiss in the poly-metamorphosed Gaozhou Complex (Yunkai massif), South China: Emphasis on the in-situ EMP monazite dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Hong; Liu, Yung-Hsin; Lee, Chi-Yu; Xiang, Hua; Zhou, Han-Wen

    2012-07-01

    The in-situ EMP (electron microprobe) monazite age dating performed directly in the polished sections, in addition to the conventional U-Pb zircon and EMP monazite age dating on grains from heavy mineral concentrates, has been applied to the granulite, charnockite and gneiss in the Gaozhou Complex of the Yunkai massif in South China. While the conventional dating systems all give Caledonian ages, the in-situ EMP monazite ages provide more information to reveal not only detailed age groups pertaining to the Caledonian orogeny but also traces of later thermal events overprinting these rocks. For granulites, although some monazites present zoning (concentric, patchy and complex) in the BSE images, no discernable age differences are observed. Resetting of the Th-U-Pb monazite dating system under the high temperature condition could be the reason. Ages of homogeneous monazite in garnet porphyroblast (ca. 440 Ma) of the garnet-cordierite granulite that match nicely with the U-Pb zircon ages are systematically older than those in the matrix (ca. 430 Ma). The same case of two age groups is also present in the orthopyroxene-biotite granulite as revealed by monazite inclusions in plagioclase and orthopyroxene and those in quartz, respectively. For charnockites, despite similar ages of ca. 430 Ma are given by monazite in biotite and zircon in the rock, significant younger ages are obtained from monazites with particular features. Relict monazites with a breakdown texture to form successive layers of apatite and allanite in the rim as well as those which are close to the biotite-chlorite microvein always show a similar age of ca. 230 Ma. Moreover, tiny monazites in close association with the garnetiferous corona mainly surrounding orthopyroxene give rise to another age group around 370 Ma. For gneissic rocks, monazites enclosed by quartz give 434 Ma and those setting in the chlorite-epidote microvein of a paragneiss yield 237 Ma, consistent with the U-Pb zircon core-rim age

  19. Hydrothermal alteration and Cu-Ni-PGE mobilization in the charnockitic rocks of the footwall of the South Kawishiwi intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkó, Zsolt; Mogessie, Aberra; Molnár, Ferenc; Krenn, Kurt; Poulson, Simon R; Hauck, Steven; Severson, Mark; Arehart, Greg B

    2015-06-01

    In the Neoarchean (~ 2.7 Ga) contact metamorphosed charnockitic footwall of the Mesoproterosoic (1.1 Ga) South Kawishiwi intrusion of the Duluth Complex, the primary metamorphic mineral assemblage and Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide mineralization is overprinted by an actinolite + chlorite + cummingtonite + prehnite + pumpellyite + quartz + calcite hydrothermal mineral assemblage along 2-3 cm thick veins. In calcite, hosted by the hydrothermal alteration zones and in a single recrystallized quartz porphyroblast, four different fluid inclusion assemblages are documented; the composition of these fluid inclusions provide p-T conditions of the fluid flow, and helps to define the origin of the fluids and evaluate their role in the remobilization and reprecipitation of the primary metamorphic sulfide assemblage. Pure CO2 fluid inclusions were found as early inclusions in recrystallized quartz porphyroblast. These inclusions may have been trapped during the recrystallization of the quartz during the contact metamorphism of the footwall charnockite in the footwall of the SKI. The estimated trapping pressure (1.6-2.0 kbar) and temperature (810-920 °C) conditions correspond to estimates based on felsic veins in the basal zones of the South Kawishiwi intrusion. Fluid inclusion assemblages with CO2-H2O-NaCl and CH4-N2-H2O-NaCl compositions found in this study along healed microfractures in the recrystallized quartz porphyroblast establish the heterogeneous state of the fluids during entrapment. The estimated trapping pressure and temperature conditions (240-650 bar and 120-150 °C for CO2-H2O-NaCl inclusions and 315-360 bar and 145-165 °C for CH4-N2-H2O-NaCl inclusions) are significantly lower than the p-T conditions (> 700 °C and 1.6-2 kbar) during the contact metamorphism, indicating that this fluid flow might not be related to the cooling of the Duluth Complex and its contact aureole. The presence of chalcopyrite inclusions in these fluid inclusions and in

  20. Hydrothermal alteration and Cu–Ni–PGE mobilization in the charnockitic rocks of the footwall of the South Kawishiwi intrusion, Duluth Complex, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkó, Zsolt; Mogessie, Aberra; Molnár, Ferenc; Krenn, Kurt; Poulson, Simon R.; Hauck, Steven; Severson, Mark; Arehart, Greg B.

    2015-01-01

    In the Neoarchean (~ 2.7 Ga) contact metamorphosed charnockitic footwall of the Mesoproterosoic (1.1 Ga) South Kawishiwi intrusion of the Duluth Complex, the primary metamorphic mineral assemblage and Cu–Ni–PGE sulfide mineralization is overprinted by an actinolite + chlorite + cummingtonite + prehnite + pumpellyite + quartz + calcite hydrothermal mineral assemblage along 2–3 cm thick veins. In calcite, hosted by the hydrothermal alteration zones and in a single recrystallized quartz porphyroblast, four different fluid inclusion assemblages are documented; the composition of these fluid inclusions provide p–T conditions of the fluid flow, and helps to define the origin of the fluids and evaluate their role in the remobilization and reprecipitation of the primary metamorphic sulfide assemblage. Pure CO2 fluid inclusions were found as early inclusions in recrystallized quartz porphyroblast. These inclusions may have been trapped during the recrystallization of the quartz during the contact metamorphism of the footwall charnockite in the footwall of the SKI. The estimated trapping pressure (1.6–2.0 kbar) and temperature (810–920 °C) conditions correspond to estimates based on felsic veins in the basal zones of the South Kawishiwi intrusion. Fluid inclusion assemblages with CO2–H2O–NaCl and CH4–N2–H2O–NaCl compositions found in this study along healed microfractures in the recrystallized quartz porphyroblast establish the heterogeneous state of the fluids during entrapment. The estimated trapping pressure and temperature conditions (240–650 bar and 120–150 °C for CO2–H2O–NaCl inclusions and 315–360 bar and 145–165 °C for CH4–N2–H2O–NaCl inclusions) are significantly lower than the p–T conditions (> 700 °C and 1.6–2 kbar) during the contact metamorphism, indicating that this fluid flow might not be related to the cooling of the Duluth Complex and its contact aureole. The presence of chalcopyrite

  1. Origins of cryptic variation in the Ediacaran-Fortunian rhyolitic ignimbrites of the Saldanha Bay Volcanic Complex, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Stevens, G.; Frei, D.; Joseph, C. S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Saldanha eruption centre, on the West Coast of South Africa, consists of 542 Ma, intracaldera, S-type, rhyolite ignimbrites divided into the basal Saldanha Ignimbrite and the partly overlying Jacob's Bay Ignimbrite. Depleted-mantle Nd model ages suggest magma sources younger than the Early Mesoproterozoic, and located within the Neoproterozoic Malmesbury Group and Swartland complex metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that form the regional basement. The Sr isotope systematics suggest that the dominant source rocks were metavolcaniclastic rocks and metagreywackes, and that the magmas formed from separate batches extracted from the same heterogeneous source. No apparent magma mixing trends relate the Saldanha to the Jacob's Bay Ignimbrites, or either of these to the magmas that formed the Plankiesbaai or Tsaarsbank Ignimbrites in the neighbouring Postberg eruption centre. The magmas were extracted from their source rocks carrying small but significant proportions of peritectic and restitic accessory minerals. Variations in the content of this entrained crystal cargo were responsible for most of the chemical variations in the magmas. Although we cannot construct a cogent crystal fractionation model to relate these groups of magmas, at least some crystal fractionation occurred, as an overlay on the primary signal due to peritectic assemblage entrainment (PAE). Thus, the causes of the cryptic chemical variation among the ignimbrite magmas of the Saldanha centre are variable, but dominated by the compositions of the parent melts and PAE. The preservation of clear, source-inherited chemical signatures, in individual samples, calls into question the common interpretation of silicic calderas as having been formed in large magma reservoirs, with magma compositions shaped by magma mingling, mixing, and fractional crystallization. The Saldanha rocks suggest a more intimate connection between source and erupted magma, and perhaps indicate that silicic magmas are too

  2. Th-U-total Pb Geochronology of Authigenic Monazite Near the top of the Sturtian-Marinoan Interglacial, Adelaide Rift Complex, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, K. H.; Wernicke, B. P.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Adelaide Rift Complex in South Australia contains the type sections for Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits. The litho- and chemostratigraphy of these deposits play a central role in evaluating global Neoproterozoic ice age hypotheses ("snowball Earth") and Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions, but precise ages on igneous units do not yet exist. We report preliminary results of in situ Th-U-total Pb electron microprobe dating of monazite in sandstones within the Holowilena Ironstone ("older" Sturtian glacial at Enorama Creek) and at the top of the Enorama Shale (youngest pre-Marinoan, interglacial clastics at Elatina Creek). Several distinct populations are recognized. First, rounded cores with high Th, U, and Y + HREE abundances are interpreted as igneous or metamorphic detrital grains and yield ca. 1590 Ma, ca. 1280-1300 Ma, and ca. 1040 Ma dates related to well-known orogenic events in surrounding cratonic regions. A second group also occurs as "cores" but contains significantly lower U and Y + HREE, characteristics that may be indicative of an authigenic origin. Some rounded domains may represent "recycled" authigenic grains and yield dates of ca. 880 Ma and ca. 760 Ma. However, a subset observed in the Enorama sample occurs as very small (~2 x 10 microns), euhedral lathes that are unlikely to have survived a detrital history and yield a date of 680 +/-23 Ma. The youngest population forms very low Th and U, inclusion-rich overgrowths with ca. 500 Ma dates (Delamerian Orogeny) that probably grew hydrothermally. The recognition of "recycled" authigenic monazite further emphasizes the detail in textural and petrological documentation that is required for accurate geochronological interpretations. The date of 680 +/-23 Ma (1) provides an estimate for the age of the base of the Trezona carbon isotopic anomaly just beneath the Marinoan glacial deposits, (2) provides an absolute minimum age constraint on the underlying Sturtian glacial deposits, and (3) is

  3. Grain to outcrop-scale frozen moments of dynamic magma mixing in the syenite magma chamber, Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Renjith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magma mixing process is unusual in the petrogenesis of felsic rocks associated with alkaline complex worldwide. Here we present a rare example of magma mixing in syenite from the Yelagiri Alkaline Complex, South India. Yelagiri syenite is a reversely zoned massif with shoshonitic (Na2O + K2O=5–10 wt.%, Na2O/K2O = 0.5–2, TiO2 <0.7 wt.% and metaluminous character. Systematic modal variation of plagioclase (An11–16 Ab82–88, K-feldspar (Or27–95 Ab5–61, diopside (En34–40Fs11–18Wo46–49, biotite, and Ca-amphibole (edenite build up three syenite facies within it and imply the role of in-situ fractional crystallization (FC. Evidences such as (1 disequilibrium micro-textures in feldspars, (2 microgranular mafic enclaves (MME and (3 synplutonic dykes signify mixing of shoshonitic mafic magma (MgO = 4–5 wt.%, SiO2 = 54–59 wt.%, K2O/Na2O = 0.4–0.9 with syenite. Molecular-scale mixing of mafic magma resulted disequilibrium growth of feldspars in syenite. Physical entity of mafic magma preserved as MME due to high thermal-rheological contrast with syenite magma show various hybridization through chemical exchange, mechanical dilution enhanced by chaotic advection and phenocryst migration. In synplutonic dykes, disaggregation and mixing of mafic magma was confined within the conduit of injection. Major-oxides mass balance test quantified that approximately 0.6 portions of mafic magma had interacted with most evolved syenite magma and generated most hybridized MME and dyke samples. It is unique that all the rock types (syenite, MME and synplutonic dykes share similar shoshonitic and metaluminous character; mineral chemistry, REE content, coherent geochemical variation in Harker diagram suggest that mixing of magma between similar composition. Outcrop-scale features of crystal accumulation and flow fabrics also significant along with MME and synplutonic dykes in syenite suggesting that Yelagiri syenite magma chamber had evolved

  4. Predictive complexation models of the impact of natural organic matter and cations on scaling in cooling water pipes: A case study of power generation plants in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosire, G. O.; Ngila, J. C.; Mbugua, J. M.

    This work discusses simulative models of Ca and Mg complexation with natural organic matter (NOM), in order to control the incidence of scaling in pipes carrying cooling water at the Eskom power generating stations in South Africa. In particular, the paper reports how parameters such as pH and trace element levels influence the distribution of scaling species and their interactions, over and above mineral phase saturation indices. In order to generate modelling inputs, two experimental scenarios were created in the model solutions: Firstly, the trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn were used as markers for Ca and Mg complexation to humic acid and secondly the effect of natural organic matter in cooling water was determined by spiking model solutions. Labile metal ions and total elements in model solutions and water samples were analysed by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. ICP-OES results revealed high levels of K, Na, S, Mg and Ca and low levels of trace elements (Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Al and Zn) in the cooling water samples. Using the Tipping and Hurley's database WHAM in PHREEQC format (T_H.DAT), the total elemental concentrations were run as inputs on a PHREEQC code, at pH 6.8 and defined charge as alkalinity (as HCO3-) For model solutions, PHREEQC inputs were based on (i) free metal differences attributed to competitive effect of Ca and the effect of Ca + Mg, respectively; (ii) total Ca and Mg used in the model solutions and (iii) alkalinity described as hydrogen carbonate. Anodic stripping peak heights were used to calculate the concentration of the free/uncomplexed/labile metal ions (used as tracers) in the model solutions. The objective of modelling was to describe scaling in terms of saturation indices of mineral phases. Accordingly, the minerals most likely to generate scale were further simulated (over a range of pH (3-10) to yield results that mimicked changing p

  5. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864) species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakona, Albert; Skelton, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE) at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to Pseudobarbus afer across the species' distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i) the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii) the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii) the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv) the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to Pseudobarbus phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to Pseudobarbus afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the Pseudobarbus afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for Pseudobarbus afer s.s (Mandela lineage), revalidate Pseudobarbus senticeps (Krom lineage) as a distinct species, and describe a new species Pseudobarbus swartzi (St Francis lineage). The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both Pseudobarbus afer and Pseudobarbus swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger) scales (25-33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10-12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales) and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate Pseudobarbus senticeps from Pseudobarbus afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the

  6. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864 species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Chakona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to P. afer across the species’ distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to P. afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the P. afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for P. afer s.s (Mandela lineage, revalidate P. senticeps (Krom lineage as a distinct species, and describe a new species P. swartzi (St Francis lineage. The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both P. afer and P. swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger scales (25–33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10–12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate P. senticeps from P. afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from P. swartzi sp. n. by possession

  7. "I Could Have Done Everything and Why Not?": Young Women's Complex Constructions of Sexual Agency in the Context of Sexualities Education in Life Orientation in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lou-Marie; Shefer, Tamara; Oakes, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Progressive policies protecting women's rights to make reproductive decisions and the recent increase in literature exploring female sexual agency do not appear to have impacted on more equitable sexual relations in all contexts. In South Africa, gender power inequalities, intersecting with other forms of inequality in society, pose a challenge…

  8. Association between avian assemblages and mountain bushveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the bird species diversity associated with vegetation communities found on a single mountain slope in the Usuthu Gorge Community Conservation Area, northern KwaZulu-Natal. Thirteen sample sites were surveyed on a monthly basis for 12 months. Over this period, 279 birds and 55 species were ...

  9. Growth of continental crust and its episodic reworking over >800 Ma: evidence from Hf-Nd isotope data on the Pietersburg block (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Moyen, Jean-François; Doucelance, Régis; Martin, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    The formation and evolution of the continental crust during the Precambrian, and in particular during the Archaean eon (4.0-2.5 Ga), is still a matter of debate. In particular, it is not yet clear in which tectonic environment the genesis of crust took place and how the large volume of granitoid rocks that form ~70% of the Archaean crust were extracted from the mantle. Many studies highlighted that radiogenic isotope systems, especially Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd, are powerful tools to unravel the respective extent of crustal growth and recycling in Archaean terranes. This work presents coupled Hf and Nd isotope data (analyzed both in situ in accessory minerals and in whole rock samples) of Meso- to Neoarchaean granitoids, applied to unravel the processes of crust formation and evolution of the Pietersburg crustal block in South Africa. This crustal segment, the northermost one of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton, is separated from older crust (3.65-3.10 Ga) by a large-scale suture zone, and the processes related to amalgamation of both blocks and their subsequent evolution are still unclear. The Pietersburg block is made up of a wide range of Archaean granitoid rocks, including tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) series, high-K monzogranites as well as (grano)diorites belonging to the so-called "sanukitoid" group [1], all intruded by late Paleoproterozoic alkaline complexes. Age determinations highlighted two stages of granitoid formation: (1) TTG magmatism took place episodically over >400 Ma between 3.34 and 2.89 Ga, with a major pulse at 2.97-2.90 Ga; while (2) all the other (high-K) granitoid types emplaced subsequently between 2.84 and 2.69 Ga before a long magmatic shutdown until the intrusion of alkaline complexes at ~2.00 Ga [2-3]. Isotope systematics reveal that these two stages are related to juvenile crust formation and crust reworking, respectively. Indeed, all Hf-Nd isotope data from TTG gneisses are suprachondritic, pointing to a juvenile origin and precluding

  10. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Cid, Pedro; de la Torre, Pilar; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Dos Santos, M Cristina; Borges, Adolfo; Bremo, Adolfo; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2010-01-01

    We report a comparative venomic and antivenomic characterization of the venoms of newborn and adult specimens of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus, and of the subspecies cumanensis, durissus, ruruima, and terrificus of South American Crotalus durissus. Neonate and adult C. simus share about 50% of their venom proteome. The venom proteome of 6-week-old C. simus is predominantly made of the neurotoxic heterodimeric phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2) crotoxin) (55.9%) and serine proteinases (36%), whereas snake venom Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (SVMPs), exclusively of class PIII, represent only 2% of the total venom proteins. In marked contrast, venom from adult C. simus comprises toxins from 7 protein families. A large proportion (71.7%) of these toxins are SVMPs, two-thirds of which belong to the PIII class. These toxin profiles correlate well with the overall biochemical and pharmacological features of venoms from adult (hemorrhagic) and newborn (neurotoxic) C. simus specimens. The venoms of the South American Crotalus subspecies belong to one of two distinct phenotypes. C. d. cumanensis exhibits high levels of SVMPs and low lethal potency (LD(50)), whereas C. d. subspecies terrificus, ruruima, and durissus have low SVMP activity and high neurotoxicity to mice. Their overall toxin compositions explain the outcome of envenomation by these species. Further, in all C. simus and C. durissus venoms, the concentration of neurotoxins (crotoxin and crotamine) is directly related with lethal activity, whereas lethality and metalloproteinase activity show an inverse relationship. The similar venom toxin profiles of newborn C. simus and adult C. durissus terrificus, ruruima, and durissus subspecies strongly suggests that the South American taxa have retained juvenile venom characteristics in the adult form (paedomorphism) along their North-South stepping-stone dispersal. The driving force behind paedomorphism is often competition or predation pressure. The increased

  11. Mineralogy and geochemistry of REE-Zr-Nb mineralised nepheline syenites in the peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borst, Anouk Margaretha

    for these elements. This thesis focusses on the Mesoproterozoic Ilímaussaq complex (c. 1160 ± 5 Ma) in Southern Greenland, a well-known alkaline intrusion that hosts significant resources of REE, as well as zirconium, niobium, tantalum, uranium, lithium and zinc. The Ilímaussaq complex is part of the rift....... The present study focusses on the lower part of the magmatic sequence in the southern part of the complex (Kringlerne), comprising a c. 250 m thick sequence of spectacularly layered syenites called kakortokites. The kakortokites are of particular interest for their enrichment in Zr, Nb, Ta and REE, largely...

  12. Successive, large mass-transport deposits in the south Kermadec fore-arc basin, New Zealand: The Matakaoa Submarine Instability Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geoffroy Lamarche; Cathy Joanne; Jean-Yves Collot

    2008-01-01

    Four >100 km3 mass-transport deposits (MTDs) identified from their morphology and seismic facies across the Matakaoa Margin and Raukumara fore-arc basin, NE New Zealand, constitute the Matakaoa Submarine Instability Complex (MSIC...

  13. Rocas Verdes Ophiolite Complexes in the Southernmost Andes: Remnants of the Mafic Igneous Floor of a Back-arc Basin that Rifted the South American Continental Crust in the Late Jurrassic and Early Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    The Rocas Verdes are an en echelon group of late Jurassic and early Cretaceous igneous complexes in the southernmost Andes. They consist of mafic pillow lavas, dikes and gabbros interpreted as the upper portions of ophiolite complexes formed along mid-ocean-ridge-type spreading centers. When secondary metamorphic affects are accounted for, the geochemistry of mafic Rocas Verdes rocks are similar to ocean-ridge basalts (MORB). The spreading centers that generated the Rocas Verdes rifted the southwestern margin of the Gondwana continental crust, during the start of break-up in the southern Atlantic, to form the igneous floor of a back-arc basin behind a contemporaneous convergent plate boundary magmatic arc. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous sediments from both the magmatic arc on the southwest and the continental platform on the northeast of the basin were deposited in the Rocas Verdes basin, and these sediments are interbedded with mafic pillow lavas along the margins of the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. Also, mafic dikes and gabbros intrude older pre-Andean and Andean lithologies along both flanks of the Rocas Verdes, and leucocratic country rocks are engulfed in the Rocas Verdes mafic complexes. These relations indicate that the Rocas Verdes complexes formed in place and are autochthonous, having been uplifted but not obducted, which may explain the lack of exposure of the deeper ultramafic units. Zircon U/Pb ages of 150+/-1 Ma for the Larsen Harbour Formation, a southern extension of the Rocas Verdes belt on South Georgia Island, and 138+/-2 Ma for the Sarmiento complex, the northernmost in the Rocas Verdes belt, indicate that this basin may have formed by "unzipping" from the south to the north, with the southern portion beginning to form earlier and developing more extensively than the northern portion of the basin. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the Rocas Verdes basin developed in conjunction with the displacement of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening of

  14. Fusarium keratitis in South India: causative agents, their antifungal susceptibilities and a rapid identification method for the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Mónika; Shobana, Coimbatore S; Singh, Yendrembam R B; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Selvam, Kanesan P; Kredics, László; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2013-09-01

    Seventy Fusarium isolates derived from human keratomycosis were identified based on partial sequences of the β-tubulin (β-TUB) and translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) genes. Most of the isolates were confirmed as members of the F. solani species complex (75.71%), followed by the F. dimerum species complex (8.57%), the F. fujikuroi species complex (8.57%), the F. oxysporum species complex (4.29%) and the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (2.86%). A combined phylogenetic tree was estimated including all the 70 isolates. Isolates belonging to different species complexes formed separate clades. In this study, we also report the first isolation of F. napiforme from human keratomycosis. A new method based on a specific EcoRI restriction site in the EF-1α gene was developed for the rapid identification of F. solani. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates to seven antifungals were determined by broth microdilution method. Terbinafine, natamycin and amphotericin B proved to be the most effective drugs, followed by voriconazole. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clotrimazole, econazole and itraconazole were generally high (≥64 μg ml(-1) ). The interactions between the two most effective antifungals (natamycin and terbinafine) were determined by checkerboard microdilution method. Synergism (71.8%) or no interaction (28.2%) was revealed between the two compounds. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Inhalation Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Complex Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures in an Electronic Waste and Urban Area in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Shejun; Tian, Mi; Zheng, Xiaobo; Gonzales, Leah; Ohura, Takeshi; Mai, Bixian; Simonich, Staci L. Massey

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from May 2010 to April 2011 in a rural e-waste area and in Guangzhou, South China, to estimate the lifetime inhalation cancer risk from exposure to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), high molecular weight PAHs (MW 302 PAHs), and halogenated PAHs (HPAHs). Seasonal variations in the PAH concentrations and profile within and between the e-waste and urban areas indicated different PAH sources in the two areas. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, BaP, dibenz[ah]anthracene, and dibenzo[al]pyrene made the most significant contribution to the inhalation cancer risk. MW 302 PAHs accounting for 18.0% of the total cancer risk in the e-waste area and 13.6% in the urban area, while HPAHs made a minor contribution (e-waste area and from 9.3 to 737 per million people in Guangzhou. PAH exposure accounted for 0.02 to 1.94% of the total lung cancer cases in Guangzhou. On average, the inhalation cancer risk in the e-waste area was 1.6 times higher than in the urban area. The e-waste dismantling activities in South China led to higher inhalation cancer risk due to PAH exposure than the urban area. PMID:22913732

  16. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    SOUTH AFRICA. Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely — that IDRC opened its own new assessment of its approach to South ...

  17. Cytogenetic Analysis of the South American Fruit Fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae Species Complex: Construction of Detailed Photographic Polytene Chromosome Maps of the Argentinian Af. sp.1 Member.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Gariou-Papalexiou

    Full Text Available Genetic and cytogenetic studies constitute a significant basis for understanding the biology of insect pests and the design and the construction of genetic tools for biological control strategies. Anastrepha fraterculus is an important pest of the Tephritidae family. It is distributed from southern Texas through eastern Mexico, Central America and South America causing significant crop damage and economic losses. Currently it is considered as a species complex; until now seven members have been described based on multidisciplinary approaches. Here we report the cytogenetic analysis of an Argentinian population characterized as Af. sp.1 member of the Anastrepha fraterculus species complex. The mitotic karyotype and the first detailed photographic maps of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes are presented. The mitotic metaphase complement consists of six (6 pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the salivary gland polytene complement shows a total number of five long chromosomes that correspond to the five autosomes of the mitotic karyotype and a heterochromatic network corresponding to the sex chromosomes. Comparison of the polytene chromosome maps between this species and Anastrepha ludens shows significant similarity. The polytene maps presented here are suitable for cytogenetic studies that could shed light on the species limits within this species complex and support the development of genetic tools for sterile insect technique (SIT applications.

  18. South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovutor Owhoeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.

  19. Light rare earth element systematics as a tool for investigating the petrogenesis of phoscorite-carbonatite associations, as exemplified by the Phalaborwa Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Lorenzo; Bolhar, Robert; Frei, Dirk; Harlov, Daniel E.; Samuel, Vinod O.

    2017-12-01

    In-situ trace element analyses of fluorapatite, calcite, dolomite, olivine, and phlogopite have been undertaken on representative phoscorite and carbonatite rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic Phalaborwa Complex. Textural and compositional characterization reveals uniformity of fluorapatite and calcite among most of the intrusions, and seems to favor a common genetic origin for the phoscorite-carbonatite association. Representing major repositories for rare earth elements (REE), fluorapatite and calcite exhibit tightly correlated light REE (LREE) abundances, suggesting that partitioning of LREE into these rock forming minerals was principally controlled by simple igneous differentiation. However, light rare earth element distribution in apatite and calcite cannot be adequately explained by equilibrium and fractional crystallization and instead favors a complex crystallization history involving mixing of compositionally distinct magma batches, in agreement with previously reported mineral isotope variability that requires open-system behaviour.

  20. U-Pb zircon geochronology and phase equilibria modelling of a mafic eclogite from the Sumdo complex of south-east Tibet: Insights into prograde zircon growth and the assembly of the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Rayner, N.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Palin, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Sumdo complex is a Permian-Triassic eclogitic metamorphic belt in south-east Tibet, which marks the location of a suture zone that separates the northern and southern Lhasa terranes. An integrated geochronological and petrological study of a mafic eclogite from the complex has constrained its tectonometamorphic history and provides a case study of zircon growth in eclogite as a product of prograde dissolution-precipitation. In situ U-Pb geochronology indicates that the eclogite contains a single population of zircon with a crystallisation age of 273.6 ± 2.8 Ma. The morphology and chemistry of the zircon grains are consistent with growth by dissolution-precipitation of protolith magmatic zircon. The presence of zircon grains as inclusions in the cores of peak phases indicates that zircon dissolution-precipitation occurred during prograde metamorphism, and calculated pressure and temperature conditions over which mineral inclusions in zircon are stable suggest that the zircon most likely precipitated at 15.5-16.5 kbar and 500-560 °C. Subsequent peak metamorphism is calculated to have reached pressure-temperature conditions of 27 ± 1 kbar and 670 ± 50 °C. Previous studies, which have documented a range of peak metamorphic conditions from high- to ultrahigh-pressure at c. 266-230 Ma, indicate that the Sumdo complex is a composite belt that experienced protracted eclogite exhumation. The results of this study are consistent with this interpretation, and extend the age range of high-pressure metamorphism in the complex to over 40 Myr. Analysis of published pressure-temperature-time data indicates two systematic behaviours within this spread. First, peak metamorphic temperatures declined over time. Second, eclogite exhumation occurred in two discrete intervals: soon after formation, and during the demise of the subduction zone. The latter behaviour serves as a reminder that eclogite exhumation is the exception rather than the rule.

  1. The stubble-field plant communities on lowland complexes in South-Eastern Poland. P. II. Plant communities of the Eu-Polygono-Chenopodion alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesława Trąba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Part I deals with the Panico-Setarion stubble plant communities. Part II describes the Eu-Polygono-Chenopodion plant communities. Part II is based on 89 photosociological records. The Eu-Polygono-Chenopodion plant communities develope on soil rich in nutrients (brown soil developed from silts loess and clay; alluvial soils developed from silts and loams; chernozem and black soils, belongs to wheat complexes. Two plant communities are distinguished: 1 Oxalis stricta-Euphorbia esula community; 2 Veronica persica community divided into four variants. The floristic diversity of these plant communities reflects the ecological conditions of the examined region.

  2. Tectogenesis of the rocks surrounding the Winnsboro intrusive complex and reconnaissance and petrography of the Pageland pluton; South Carolina Geothermal Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourland, W.C.; Farrar, S.S.

    1978-09-29

    Major post-tectonic plutons of the easternmost Piedmont in the southern Appalachians have been of primary interest because of their high radiogenic heat production. Such heat production comes from a linear map trend including the Winnsboro, Liberty Hill, Pageland, and Lilesville plutons which parallel the proposed eastern Piedmont Fault system of Hatcher and others (1977). This study, in examining regional versus contact metamorphism and crosscutting relationships between the Winnsboro and Pageland complexes and the major folds and mylonitic zones of this area, provides a relative time framework for the tectonic and plutonic events.

  3. Are There Consistent Grazing Indicators in Drylands? Testing Plant Functional Types of Various Complexity in South Africa’s Grassland and Savanna Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A.; Oomen, Roelof J.; du Preez, Chris C.; Ruppert, Jan C.; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants’ functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa’s grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be

  4. Species delimitation in frogs from South American temperate forests: The case of Eupsophus, a taxonomically complex genus with high phenotypic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Correa

    Full Text Available One of the most characteristic and abundant amphibian taxa of South American temperate forests is Eupsophus. The ten currently recognized species of the genus have been divided in two species groups, roseus and vertebralis, but most of them, eight, belong to the roseus group. Recent phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies have suggested that species diversity of the roseus group could be underestimated. An examination of the literature shows that species of the roseus group exhibit high levels of variation in their external characteristics, particularly those used as diagnostic characters, which compromises their taxonomy and hinders their field recognition. High levels of variation were also observed in several new populations of the roseus group discovered in southern Chile (36°-40°S, which could not be identified to the species level by their external characteristics. On the other hand, the literature reveals a scarse karyotype differentiation and a high bioacoustic uniformity among the species of the roseus group. We performed a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear genes to reevaluate the species diversity of the roseus group, including all the nominal species of Eupsophus and new populations. This analysis was complemented with three species delimitation approaches, General Mixed Yule Coalescent, multi-rate Poisson Tree Process and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery. We favored a conservative delimitation of only four species for the roseus group, a result more consistent with the distribution of pairwise genetic distances, and the available chromosome and bioacoustic evidence. The four recognized lineages, which have nearly completely allopatric distributions, are named after the earliest nominal species that they include, but because high levels of phenotypic variation, they are not diagnosable by consistent differences in external morphology. We discuss the implications of this new proposal for the taxonomy and

  5. The North South Paleozoic to Quaternary trend of alkaline magmatism from Niger Nigeria to Cameroon: Complex interaction between hotspots and Precambrian faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngako, Vincent; Njonfang, Emmanuel; Aka, Festus Tongwa; Affaton, Pascal; Nnange, Joseph Metuk

    2006-07-01

    The alkaline magmatism from Niger-Nigeria to Cameroon forms large scale magmatic provinces across the African plate. It displays a N-S trend from Aïr in Niger to Jos Plateau in Nigeria changing southeastwards towards Cameroon. We have compiled recent petrological, geochemical and structural data on these magmatic provinces. The data show that although there is a general age decrease from one province to another (407 ± 8 Ma in Aïr to ⩽66 Ma in Cameroon), there is no age migration in any given province, except in the Nigeria province (Younger Granites) where a rough NE-SW age decrease is observed. The relationship between these different magmatic provinces that share similar geochemical data, added to the SW-NE parallel trends of Nigeria, Benue Trough and Cameroon Line, is difficult to explain in terms of a simple northward motion of the African plate over a single hotspot. In the light of recent tectonic models, we suggest complex interaction between, on the one hand, at least two mantle plumes acting in succession (including the St. Helena mantle plume) and, on the other hand, lithospheric fractures that induce oblique alignments of new magmatic complexes.

  6. What can Fe stable isotopes tell us about magmas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausberg, Niklas

    in magmas, Fe. Fe isotope compositions of magmatic rocks exhibit systematic differences, where the heaviest compositions are found in rhyolites and granites. Understanding of these systematics is complicated by a lack of constraints on Fe isotope fractionation among minerals and liquids under magmatic...... the differentiation of magmas from the perspective of Fe stable isotopes, integrated with petrology, by studying igneous rocks and their constituent phases (minerals and glasses) from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa, Thingmuli, Iceland, Pantelleria, Italy, and the Bishop Tuff, USA. The findings are interpreted...... in terms of available theory, experiments and forward modeling incorporating petrologic constraints. Mafic cumulate rocks from the Bushveld Complex exhibit resolvable whole rock Fe isotopic variation with modal mineralogy and mineral composition, to a 1st order reflecting partitioning of Fe3+ and Fe2...

  7. Past soil erosion history recorded by lake sediments in mountain areas (north and south French Alps): complex interactions with climatic and human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguet-Covex, C.; Poulenard, J.; Arnaud, F.; Disnar, J.-R.; Sabatier, P.; Wilhelm, B.; Jouffroy-Bapicot, I.; Rey, P.-J.; David, F.; Malet, E.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion rates and patterns are influenced both by hydrological activity and the evolution of soil-vegetation cover. This soil-vegetation cover is in turn impacted by climatic changes and human activities through deforestation, grazing and agriculture. Such land uses are reported in mountain areas since several millennia (the Neolithic or Bronze Age in the Alps). The effects of these activities and climatic changes on erosion and above all on soil cover are relatively few documented. However, a good knowledge of these processes is important to better evaluate the future evolution of soils and the sustainability for agricultural practices, in the context of global change. Because lakes act as traps of erosion products, lake sediments represent interesting continuous archives of past soil evolution and erosion. They provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct at high resolution the soil history over long time periods and thus to determine the timing of changes in response to climate and/or anthropogenic pressures. As a result of the Pygmalion research program, we present the study of two small mountain catchment in north (Lake Anterne, 2063 m asl) and south French Alps (Lake Lauzanier, 2285 m asl), covering the Holocene and the last 1000 years, respectively. To trace the past soil erosion erosion history and bring arguments about the origin of changes, mineral and organic geochemical analyses were performed and combined with quantitative reconstructions of terrigenous inputs. To emphasize our assumptions about the origins of recorded changes, a pluridisciplinary approach (palynology, archaeology...) was also adopted. The study of Lake Anterne shows the second half of the Holocene is characterized by four important phases of erosion. These phases are underlined by high flood frequencies and different geochemical composition of sediments. These geochemical signatures reveal changes of sediment sources related to different erosion patterns. In particular, the first phase

  8. Clonal Structure and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Invasive Infections in Paediatric Patients from South Poland: Association between Age, spa Types, Clonal Complexes, and Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilczyszyn, Weronika M; Sabat, Artur J; Akkerboom, Viktoria; Szkarlat, Anna; Klepacka, Joanna; Sowa-Sierant, Iwona; Wasik, Barbara; Kosecka-Strojek, Maja; Buda, Aneta; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of current study was to examine clonal structure and genetic profile of invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from infants and children treated at the Jagiellonian University Children's Hospital of Krakow, Poland. The 107 invasive S. aureus isolates, collected between February 2012 and August 2014, were analysed retrospectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis were performed to determine clonal distribution, diversity and gene content in regard to patients characteristics. In total, 107 isolates were recovered from 88 patients with clinical symptoms of invasive bacterial infection. The final set of 92 non-duplicate samples included 38 MRSA isolates. Additionally, a set of 54 S. aureus isolates collected during epidemiological screening was genotyped and analysed. There were 72 healthcare-associated (HCA) and 20 community-onset (CO) infection events caused by 33 and 5 MRSA isolates, respectively. The majority of isolates were affiliated with the major European clonal complexes CC5 (t003, spa-CC 002), CC45 (spa-CC 015), CC7 or CC15 (t084, t091, spa-CC 084). Two epidemic clones (CC5-MRSA-II or CC45-MRSA-IV) dominated among MRSA isolates, while MSSA population contained 15 different CCs. The epidemiological screening isolates belonged to similar genetic lineages as those collected from invasive infection cases. The HCA infection events, spa types t003, t2642 or CC5 were significantly associated with infections occurring in neonates and children under 5 years of age. Moreover, carriage of several genetic markers, including erm(A), sea (N315), egc-cluster, chp was significantly higher in isolates obtained from children in this age group. The spa types t091 and t008 were underrepresented among patients aged 5 years or younger, whereas spa type t008, CC8 and presence of splE was associated with infection in children aged 10 years or older. The HCA-MRSA strains were most frequently found in children under 5

  9. Polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex (Leaota Massif, South Carpathians) constrained by petrological data and monazite ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    The Leaota Massif in Romania consists of a flat-lying sequence of five structurally concordant units displaying mutual and partly internal lithologic and metamorphic contrasts. The lower part of the lithologic sequence is the Iezer Complex, a medium-grade psammopelitic unit with a structurally concordant thin granite sill located at its upper part. The lower limit of the granite is marked discontinuously by hornfels, also present as enclaves, which experienced intense strain and a subsequent low-pressure thermal overprint. Both granite and hornfels were affected by a medium-temperature, medium- to high-pressure event (Săbău, 2000). This event was also identified in gneisses below the hornfels. These rocks contain the assemblage garnet-phengite-chloritoid-kyanite which had overprinted an older garnet-kyanite-staurolite-biotite-muscovite assemblage. Available U-Th zircon ages indicate 472.7 ± 7.3 Ma (Balintoni et al. 2009) for the granite. Monazite geochronology (Săbău & Negulescu, 2013) reveals for the associated hornfels (1) inherited ages of 528 ± 17.86 Ma overprinted by pervasive Ordovician contact metamorphism (462 ± 4.54 Ma), slightly postdating the age of magmatic zircon in the granite, (2) Silurian to Early Devonian recrystallization episodes, and (3) a Variscan medium- to high-pressure metamorphic overprint responsible for the garnet-phengite-kyanite assemblage. New petrological and geochronological data constraining the polymetamorphic evolution of the upper part of the Iezer Complex were acquired from kyanite-garnet mylonitic gneisses made up of large garnet porphyroclasts embedded in a strongly deformed matrix. Large garnets are rich in quartz, phengite, epidote, kyanite, rutile, and ilmenite inclusions. Biotite, chlorite, apatite, monazite, and Al-cerite inclusions are also present. Garnet porphyroclasts are wrapped by laminae of small garnet - white mica - biotite - quartz or zoisite - kyanite - plagioclase alternating with bands made up of fine

  10. Effects of genetic changes to the begomovirus/betasatellite complex causing cotton leaf curl disease in South Asia post-resistance breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briddon, Rob W; Akbar, Fazal; Iqbal, Zafar; Amrao, Luqman; Amin, Imran; Saeed, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-06-24

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) has been a problem for cotton production across Pakistan and north-eastern India since the early 1990s. The appearance of the disease has been attributed to the introduction, and near monoculture of highly susceptible cotton varieties. During the intervening period the genetic make-up of the virus(es) causing the disease has changed dramatically. The most prominent of these changes has been in response to the introduction of CLCuD-resistant cotton varieties in the late 1990s, which provided a brief respite from the losses due to the disease. During the 1990s the disease was shown to be caused by multiple begomoviruses and a single, disease-specific betasatellite. Post-resistance breaking the complex encompassed only a single begomovirus, Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), and a recombinant version of the betasatellite. Surprisingly CLCuBuV lacks an intact transcriptional-activator protein (TrAP) gene. The TrAP gene is found in all begomoviruses and encodes a product of ∼134 amino acids that is important in virus-host interactions; being a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (host defence) and a transcription factor that modulates host gene expression, including microRNA genes. Recent studies have highlighted the differences between CLCuBuV and the earlier viruses that are part of on-going efforts to define the molecular basis for resistance breaking in cotton. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation and emplacement of two contrasting late-Mesoproterozoic magma types in the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex (South Africa, Namibia): Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen H.; Frei, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The Namaqua Metamorphic Complex is a Mesoproterozoic low-pressure, granulite facies belt along the southern and western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The NMC has formed between ~ 1.3 and 1.0 Ga and its central part consists essentially of different types of granitoids intercalated with metapelites and calc-silicate rocks. The granitoids can be subdivided into three major groups: (i) mesocratic granitoids, (ii) leucocratic granitoids and (iii) leucogranites. The high-K, ferroan mesocratic granitoids (54-75 wt% SiO2) have a variable composition ranging from granitic to tonalitic, and contain biotite and/or hornblende or orthopyroxene. They are strongly enriched in REE and LILE, indicating A-type chemical characteristics, and are depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb, Ta and Ti. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites (68-76 wt% SiO2) differ from the other group in having a granitic or slightly syenitic composition containing biotite and/or garnet/sillimanite. They have lower REE and MgO, FeOt, CaO, TiO2, MnO concentrations, but higher Na2O and K2O contents. Compositional variations in mesocratic granitoids indicate their formation by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma. Leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites lack such trends, which suggests melting of a felsic crustal source without subsequent further evolution of the generated magmas. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the mesocratic granitoids are consistent magmatic differentiation of a mantle derived, hot (> 900 °C) parental magma. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites granites were formed from low-temperature magmas (history is best compatible with steady and long-lasting heat transfer from mantle sources, suggesting a continental back-arc situation as the most likely setting of the NMC in the late Mesoproterozoic.

  12. A profile of perceived stress factors among nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, Maria; Erwee, Danelle; Serfontein, Isabel; Visser, Maré; Calitz, Frikkie J W; Joubert, Gina

    2017-03-16

    Nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients experience unique stress factors that can influence their personal well-being and work performance. To compile a profile of stress factors experienced by nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC). This descriptive study included 89 nursing staff members from this environment. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and determine personal and occupational stressors. The data were summarised by frequencies and percentages (categorical variables) and means or percentiles (numerical variables). Most participants were aged between 46 and 55 (41.2%), female (93.2%) and black (93.2%), and 76.7% had children or dependant minors. The main stressors among participants were pressure providing financially for their children and dependant minors (71.2%), caring for them (39.4%) and fearing them moving away (25.8%). Occupational stressors included high workload (66.3%), lack of decision-making by superiors (58.1%), underpayment (53.5%), endangerment of physical health (52.3%) and safety (50.0%), working hours (51.2%), pressure of expectations from superiors (48.8%), uncertainty of employment (48.8%), work responsibilities (47.7%) and perceiving that skills and training were not appreciated. They experienced stress regarding health issues such as hyper- and hypotension (35.3%). Because of stress 34.5% of participants took leave, 34.5% developed depression and 14.3% had panic attacks. Most of the respondents experienced personal and occupational stress that influenced their health, which poses serious challenges for the management of the FSPC. Security should be upgraded, medical and psychological support for the staff and care facilities for their dependants should be provided, and financial problems experienced by these staff members should be addressed. The workload of the nursing staff at FSPC needs urgent attention. This

  13. A profile of perceived stress factors among nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conradie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients experience unique stress factors that can influence their personal well-being and work performance. Objectives: To compile a profile of stress factors experienced by nursing staff working with intellectually disabled in-patients at the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC. Methods: This descriptive study included 89 nursing staff members from this environment. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and determine personal and occupational stressors. The data were summarised by frequencies and percentages (categorical variables and means or percentiles (numerical variables. Results: Most participants were aged between 46 and 55 (41.2%, female (93.2% and black (93.2%, and 76.7% had children or dependant minors. The main stressors among participants were pressure providing financially for their children and dependant minors (71.2%, caring for them (39.4% and fearing them moving away (25.8%. Occupational stressors included high workload (66.3%, lack of decision-making by superiors (58.1%, underpayment (53.5%, endangerment of physical health (52.3% and safety (50.0%, working hours (51.2%, pressure of expectations from superiors (48.8%, uncertainty of employment (48.8%, work responsibilities (47.7% and perceiving that skills and training were not appreciated. They experienced stress regarding health issues such as hyper- and hypotension (35.3%. Because of stress 34.5% of participants took leave, 34.5% developed depression and 14.3% had panic attacks. Conclusion: Most of the respondents experienced personal and occupational stress that influenced their health, which poses serious challenges for the management of the FSPC. Security should be upgraded, medical and psychological support for the staff and care facilities for their dependants should be provided, and financial problems experienced by these staff members should be addressed. The workload of

  14. Crystal mat-formation as an igneous layering-forming process: Textural and geochemical evidence from the 'lower layered' nepheline syenite sequence of the Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhuber, Matthias J.; Marks, Michael A. W.; Bons, Paul D.; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor

    2015-05-01

    The lower layered nepheline syenite sequence (kakortokites) of the Mesoproterozoic alkaline to peralkaline Ilímaussaq complex, South Greenland shows spectacular rhythmic meter-scale igneous layering. The 29 exposed units have sharp contacts against each other and each of these units consists of three modally graded layers dominated by arfvedsonitic amphibole, eudialyte-group minerals, and alkali feldspar, respectively. This study uses field observations on changes in mineral orientation, recurrent mineral textures, compositional data from eudialyte-group minerals and amphibole, and settling rate calculations based on a modified Stokes' equation to explain the igneous layering of the kakortokites. We propose that the three major cumulus minerals (amphibole, eudialyte s.l., and alkali feldspar) were separated from each other by density contrasts, resulting in modally graded layers within each unit. The densest of these three minerals (amphibole) formed crystal mats within the cooling magma body. These crystal mats acted as barriers that inhibited large-scale vertical migration of melts and crystals with increasing effectiveness over time. The sub-volumes of magma captured in between the crystal mats evolved largely as geochemically independent sub-systems, as indicated by the observed trends in mineral composition.

  15. Stratiform chromite deposit model: Chapter E in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Ruth F.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A new descriptive stratiform chromite deposit model was prepared which will provide a framework for understanding the characteristics of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. Previous stratiform chromite deposit models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been referred to as Bushveld chromium, because the Bushveld Complex in South Africa is the only stratified, mafic-ultramafic intrusion presently mined for chromite and is the most intensely researched. As part of the on-going effort by the USGS Mineral Resources Program to update existing deposit models for the upcoming national mineral resource assessment, this revised stratiform chromite deposit model includes new data on the geological, mineralogical, geophysical, and geochemical attributes of stratiform chromite deposits worldwide. This model will be a valuable tool in future chromite resource and environmental assessments and supplement previously published models used for mineral resource evaluation.

  16. South American sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  17. IAASB IN SOUTH AFRICA COMPLEXITIES & CHALLENGES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayley Barker Hoogwerf

    2017-01-01

    The IAASB is an international standard-setting body tasked with issuing standards that promote high-quality auditing, assurance and other related-service engagements that are performed consistently...

  18. Draft genome sequences of two fluoroquinolone-resistant CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli ST90 (ST23 complex) isolated from a calf and a dairy cow in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Luciana; Fernandes, Miriam R; Ienne, Susan; de Souza, Tiago A; Gregory, Lilian; Cerdeira, Louise; Lincopan, Nilton

    2017-12-01

    Farm animals have been recognised as important carriers and reservoirs of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to report the draft genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant (MDR) CTX-M-15-producing E. coli strains (47VL and 13B) isolated from different bovine hosts (a calf and a dairy cow), housed separately in a commercial dairy farm in Brazil. Total genomic DNA of the E. coli isolates was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq paired-end 300-bp sequencing platform. Sequence reads were de novo assembled using the A5-miseq pipeline and polishing assembly in Geneious v.R9. The NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline v.3.2 was used for genome annotation, whereas whole-genome sequences were analysed using bioinformatic tools from the Center of Genomic Epidemiology and EnteroBase. E. coli 47VL generated a total of 3238770 and E. coli 13B a total of 1422808 paired-end reads of ca. 190× and ca. 80×, respectively. The resistome revealed that both isolates carried resistance genes to aminoglycosides, β-lactams, macrolides, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and tetracycline. Comparative analyses revealed clonal relatedness. In fact, both isolates belonged to sequence type ST90 (clonal complex CC23) and phylogroup AxB1. To our knowledge, these are the first draft genome sequences of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST90 isolated from bovines in South America. These data can be used to elucidate genetic features that contribute to colonisation and adaptation of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  20. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  1. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  2. South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiy Chelkeba

    legal state succession scenarios of South Sudan to the 1929 and 1959 Nile water ... Section 2 surveys the legal regime and the institutional framework that govern the utilization of the Nile river with particular emphasis to the 1929 and 1959 ..... On the other hand, some Egyptian writers are of the opinion that the Nile.

  3. Global South: Anthropological Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna; Kalb, Don

    2015-01-01

    The global south is a complex and dynamic concept that straddles multiple social science and humanist disciplines. Emerging around 2000, it reflects the agenda of two ascending forces in those years: the antiglobalist (alterglobalist/global justice) movement and the World Social Forum, on the one...... hand, and an alliance of Southern states within the World Trade Organization on the other. Generally seen as an inheritor of the emancipatory thought behind the notion of the ‘third world,’ in the social sciences the idea of the ‘global south’ is also entangled with more classical academic themes...

  4. South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239.

  5. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  6. Agglomeration Effects in South-South FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Alessia Amighini; Chiara Franco

    2012-01-01

    The progressive rise in the amount of South-South FDI flows has inspired a number of studies to account for possible determinants. Using firm-level data on FDI flows from 2003 until 2011, we examine what determines green field FDI among the group of low and middle income countries (South-South FDI), with special regard to the role played by agglomeration economies. We separately consider manufacturing and services sectors. Our main findings confirm the hypotheses according to which both count...

  7. U-Pb and Pb-Pb study of the Murchison Greenstone Belt and of the Evander gold-bearing basin, South Africa. Implications for the evolution of the Kaapvaal craton; Etude U-Pb et Pb-Pb de la Murchison Greenstone Belt et du bassin aurifere d'Evander, Afrique du Sud. Implications pour l'evolution du Kaapvaal craton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poujol, M

    1997-12-01

    This study presents new U-Pb and Pb-Pb isotopic data for both the Central Rand Group from the Evander Goldfield and the Murchison Greenstone Belt (Republic of South Africa). The Evander Goldfield, where no previous isotopic data have been derived, is located in the eastern side of the Witwatersrand basin. The oldest age measured is ca. 3180 Ma, while the majority of detritus falls in the range 3050-2850 Ma. New growth of zircon (or isotopic resetting of older detritus) appears to have been associated with deposition of the Ventersdorp lavas at ca. 2.7 Ga. A small proportion of the pyrite, mainly extracted from unaltered sediments in the Kimberley Reef footwall, yields ages that are in excess of the minimum depositional age of the Witwatersrand Basin. Authigenic pyrite, as well as detrital grains from highly altered portions of the Kimberley Reef, define two main events. The Pb signature of the 2370 Ma event is probably associated with burial of the basin by the upper portion of the Transvaal sequence, and suggests circulation of highly radiogenic fluids. Isotopic signatures for the 2020 Ma event are probably related to Bushveld intrusion and/or Vredefort catastrophism, and appear to be associate with a fluid that was less radiogenic. The present study shows a number of new results which support a complex, multi-stage evolution and genesis of the Au-U deposits within the Witwatersrand Basin. The Murchison Greenstone Belt constitutes one of the world's largest antimony producing areas and also hosts gold, as well as volcanogenic massive sulfide Cu-Zn mineralization and emeralds. The goal of this study is to determine the age of the belt as well as the timing of mineralization and, also, to assess the potential role of granitoids in the ore-forming processes. The data identify an episode of greenstone formation between 3.09 Ga and 2.97 Ga. Three main magmatic events are identified at ca. 2.97, 2.82 and 2.68 Ga. Pyrites associated with both Sb-Au and Cu

  8. [South] Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects.

  9. Ecotoxicology of waters under the influence of a petrochemical complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, R.; Zandonai, V.; Ries, M.A. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petrquimico do Sul

    1993-12-31

    This work summarizes the regular monitoring and studies conducted by SITEL - The Integrated Wastewater Treatment System of South Petrochemical Complex (South Brazil) - in order to evaluate the full environmental impact on waters in the area of influence of the effluents of the above mentioned Complex. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Bezada, Max; Thybo, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity pert....... We also image significant positive and negative anomalies (±3.0%) unconnected to the cratons under the cratonic keels and in the transition zone. We are currently inverting the P wave data using different reference models, and examining the S-wave travel times....

  11. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  12. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  13. The role of primary school teachers in HIV prevention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, I; Naidoo, S; Chikte, U M

    2001-12-01

    South Africa has the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world. The need for an intensive campaign against its spread cannot be overemphasised. Such efforts may be particularly effective if introduced prior to the onset of risk behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge of grade 3 and 4 schoolteachers on HIV/AIDS and their opinion on educating their pupils about HIV prevention. A self-administered questionnaire with knowledge, perception and sociodemographic variables was sent to all 120 grade 3 and 4 teachers in the Southern Bushveld district of Northern Province. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The response rate was 67% (N = 81) and 87.7% were females. The mean age of the respondents was 37.7 (+/- 8.7 SD) years, 55% had a 3-year teacher's training qualification and 27% had a 4-year training qualification. The average teaching experience was 12 years. Most respondents (93.8%) had knowledge of what HIV/AIDS is, but only 85.2% indicated it could be prevented. 14.8% either did not know HIV/AIDS could be prevented or were not sure. Some teachers had an incomplete understanding of the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore only 9% mentioned education as a way to prevent HIV/AIDS and 16% abstinence. Of the respondents, 58% indicated teaching HIV prevention to their pupils. Of those who do not teach HIV prevention, 41.2% believed that the pupils were too young, and 20.6% claimed non-availability of guidelines and resources as reasons for not teaching. A significant negative correlation was found between level of qualification and teaching of HIV to pupils (p many primary school teachers were found to be wanting in their HIV/AIDS knowledge. This suggests that the schoolteachers would need to be adequately trained prior to their involvement in HIV/AIDS education to pupils. Grade 3 and 4 teachers may be considered suitable to provide HIV education to their pupils, but there is a

  14. The corruption bogey in South Africa: Is public education safe?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South. Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's ...

  15. South Africans in flux: Exploring the mental health impact of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the context of post-apartheid South Africa mental health professionals are increasingly faced with the complexities linked to people leaving the country, those left behind and those returning. In an attempt to illustrate the mental health challenges linked to the South African migration phenomenon, this article will firstly ...

  16. Water service delivery challenges in a small South African municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household water security problems associated with water service delivery in South Africa are recognisably intractable, multi-scaled, comprising many actors and elements and having no single solution. There is a global and South African trend towards systemic approaches to addressing such complex water challenges.

  17. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  18. Using the law to combat public procurement corruption in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since South Africa's political transition in 1994, corruption has been a major feature of the country's politics. However, the complexity of post-apartheid South African politics has sometimes prevented allegations and suspicions of corruption from being adequately dealt with by the law. This article examines the legal ...

  19. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  20. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  1. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. South Central Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, I.D.; Waters, CN.; Collinson, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The South Central Ireland region extends from the South Munster Basin north to the southern margin of the Dublin Basin and from Wexford in the southeast to the Burren in the northwest (Fig. 22.1). The region is dominated by strata of Mississippian age, with Pennsylvanian strata preserved in boreholes in south Co. Wexford and in the upper part of the Leinster and Kanturk Coalfields. Throughout the South Central region, the Tournaisian strata present below the Waulsortian mud-ban...

  3. Apparel in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Robertson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Apparel is the largest labor-intensive manufacturing industry in South Asia, and is a major employer of women. Although South Asia’s apparel sector benefits from many of the same favorable conditions as East Asia’s, performance in South Asian apparel remains well below that of East Asia. The objective of this study is to identify the policy changes necessary for South Asia to capitalize on...

  4. carbene complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{µ-S-C(=NR)(O–Ar–CH3)}]n with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) car- bene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)–OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to ...

  5. South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, which represents most medical professionals in South Africa. Other websites related to this journal: http://www.samj.org.za/index.php/samj. Back issues of the journal from years 1886 - 2002 can be found on the journal's website under ...

  6. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African Society for Research in Music (SASRIM). It gives priority to the publication of research on South African music, but continues to represent the wider field of research interests in the country and in the rest of Africa. The journal invites work from any ...

  7. Improving South African school effectiveness through distributed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa the context in which school decisions are made has become more complex. The Ministry of Education is increasingly calling on school leaders to take on more responsibility in the decentralised management of their respective schools. In addition, gender issues in education have become an increasingly ...

  8. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  9. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  10. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Strategy I. Alice x ∈ {0, 1}n. ⇒. ⇐. Bob y ∈ {0, 1}n. Naive strategy. Alice sends x to Bob. Bob tells Alice if x = y. Cost. Requires n + 1 bits of communication. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  11. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  12. Complex derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  13. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  14. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least one of the features listed. Major diagnostic features for Carney Complex Spotty skin pigmentation with ... called large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCST) Thyroid cancer Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma, meaning tumors that grow on ...

  15. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  16. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-01-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  17. An Advanced Fracture Characterization and Well Path Navigation System for Effective Re-Development and Enhancement of Ultimate Recovery from the Complex Monterey Reservoir of South Ellwood Field, Offshore California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, Steve; Ershaghi, Iraj

    2006-06-30

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to over 10,000,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intended to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. In the first phase of the project, state of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic, interference tests and production logs were employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database were used in the construction of a new geologic model of the fracture network. An innovative fracture network reservoir simulator was developed to better understand and manage the aquifer’s role in pressure maintenance and water production. In the second phase of this project, simulation models were used to plan the redevelopment of the field using high angle wells. Correct placement of the wells is critical to intersect the best-developed fracture zones and to avoid producing large volumes of water from the water leg. Particula r attention was paid to those areas of the field that have not been adequately developed with the existing producers. In cooperation with the DOE and the PTTC, the new data and the new fracture simulation model were shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the methodologies developed in this project. This report presents a summary of all technical work conducted during Budget Periods I

  18. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner; Iraj Ershaghi

    2003-10-31

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  19. AN ADVANCED FRACTURE CHARACTERIZATION AND WELL PATH NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE RE-DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF ULTIMATE RECOVERY FROM THE COMPLEX MONTEREY RESERVOIR OF SOUTH ELLWOOD FIELD, OFFSHORE CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Horner

    2004-04-29

    Venoco Inc, intends to re-develop the Monterey Formation, a Class III basin reservoir, at South Ellwood Field, Offshore Santa Barbara, California. Well productivity in this field varies significantly. Cumulative Monterey production for individual wells has ranged from 260 STB to 8,700,000 STB. Productivity is primarily affected by how well the well path connects with the local fracture system and the degree of aquifer support. Cumulative oil recovery to date is a small percentage of the original oil in place. To embark upon successful re-development and to optimize reservoir management, Venoco intends to investigate, map and characterize field fracture patterns and the reservoir conduit system. State of the art borehole imaging technologies including FMI, dipole sonic and cross-well seismic, interference tests and production logs will be employed to characterize fractures and micro faults. These data along with the existing database will be used for construction of a novel geologic model of the fracture network. Development of an innovative fracture network reservoir simulator is proposed to monitor and manage the aquifer's role in pressure maintenance and water production. The new fracture simulation model will be used for both planning optimal paths for new wells and improving ultimate recovery. In the second phase of this project, the model will be used for the design of a pilot program for downhole water re-injection into the aquifer simultaneously with oil production. Downhole water separation units attached to electric submersible pumps will be used to minimize surface fluid handling thereby improving recoveries per well and field economics while maintaining aquifer support. In cooperation with the DOE, results of the field studies as well as the new models developed and the fracture database will be shared with other operators. Numerous fields producing from the Monterey and analogous fractured reservoirs both onshore and offshore will benefit from the

  20. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  1. Complex chimerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  2. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  3. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  4. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  5. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  6. phenanthroline complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural analyses. Mass spectral studies of the complexes indicate both the compounds to produce identical cationic species viz., [Co(phen)2Cl2]+ in methanol solution. ... Cobalt(III); X-ray structure; Catecholase activity; DNA cleavage; Anti-cancer activity. 1. ..... necrotic as judged by the staining, nuclear morphology.

  7. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China). Lecithin from soya bean was a product of. Sangon (Shanghai, China). Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and lecithin (400 mg) were dissolved in 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran and stirred.

  8. Complex Criminality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, D.; Abels, D.; van der Wilt, H.

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of essays on the wide diversity of meanings of complex criminality. These essays were written to commemorate a national gathering of PhD candidates, from criminal law departments of different universities, at the University of Amsterdam on the 6th of June 2014.

  9. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  10. peroxo complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The investigation of dioxygen binding and activation in dinuclear iron complexes has attracted recent interest because of the presence of carboxylate bridged dinuclear iron sites in several biologically important proteins, such as the R2 protein of ribonucleotide reductase, the hydroxylase component of methane ...

  11. carbohydrate complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ferrocene-carbohydrate conjugates38,39 have lead to the design and study of the cytotoxic activity of metal com- plexes containing carbohydrate ligands. Hence, here we present the detailed synthesis and characteriza- tion of the carbohydrate triazole ligands and their Pd- complexes together with the crystal structures of ...

  12. Ntem Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zena

    New ages were obtained from charnockites and tonalites collected in the So'o Group in the Ntem Complex. The rocks were analyzed for their petrography, tectonics and 207Pb/206Pb zircon minimum ages of their zircons as well as .... Owona, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box.

  13. Plasticisation and complexation of certain polymers in supercritical CO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Master Thesis September 2004 PLASTICISATION AND COMPLEXATION OF CERTAIN POLYMERS IN SUPERCRITICAL CO2 Labuschagne P CSIR, Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Abstract Conventional encapsulation methods...

  14. Experimental and petrological constraints on local-scale interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at middle-crustal conditions: Example from the Limpopo Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaction textures and fluid inclusions in the ∼2.0 Ga pyroxene-bearing dehydration zones within the Sand River biotite-hornblende orthogneisses (Central Zone of the Limpopo Complex suggest that the formation of these zones is a result of close interplay between dehydration process along ductile shear zones triggered by H2O-CO2-salt fluids at 750–800 °C and 5.5–6.2 kbar, partial melting, and later exsolution of residual brine and H2O-CO2 fluids during melt crystallization at 650–700 °C. These processes caused local variations of water and alkali activity in the fluids, resulting in various mineral assemblages within the dehydration zone. The petrological observations are substantiated by experiments on the interaction of the Sand River gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids at 750 and 800 °C and 5.5 kbar. It follows that the interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, NaCl fluids is accompanied by partial melting at 750–800 °C. Orthopyroxene-bearing assemblages are characteristic for temperature 800 °C and are stable in equilibrium with fluids with low salt concentrations, while salt-rich fluids produce clinopyroxene-bearing assemblages. These observations are in good agreement with the petrological data on the dehydration zones within the Sand River orthogneisses.

  15. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  16. South African Gastroenterology Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Gastroenterology Reviewis written by specialists in the field. Its aim is to publish articles pertinent to the practising Gastroenterologist in South Africa. It is distributed to a broad spectrum of clinicians who have an interest in clinical gastroenterology and hepatology. Other websites related to this ...

  17. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ..... Africa and Africans as indigenous to South Africa is erroneous .… The history books show us that the original inhabitants of South Africa are the Khoi and San people, ..... IOL News 2007 White Teen Joins Friend for Xhosa Ritual.

  18. a South African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-05-30

    May 30, 2013 ... Although it is accepted that the estimate of GHG emissions from animal agriculture has been ..... crude fibre content of the diets. It should also be born in mind that intensive ... Animal agriculture in South Africa. The South African red meat industry was deregulated in 1992 and import control was abolished in.

  19. South Sudan Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SSMJ is the a multi-professional journal in the South Sudan which caters for the needs of Doctors, Nurses, Midwives, Clinical Officers, Pharmacists and all other cadres in the health profession. Its vision is to see a well-trained, skilled professionals delivering high quality healthcare to the population of the South Sudan.

  20. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  1. South African Actuarial Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journalis published by the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA). It is issued free to members of ASSA and will also be made available to them on the Society's website for access via the Internet. The focus of SAAJ is on actuarial research–particularly, but not exclusively, on research of relevance to ...

  2. A comparison of some methods used to estimate the grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Schmidt

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province was estimated in a number of different ways using rainfall and herbaceous composition and phytomass data. The results indicate that the grazing capacity under the present environmental conditions should be approximately 50 of the recommended agricultural grazer stocking rate. This is in agreement with recent literature, indicating that the methods used should be suitable for determining a first approximation of grazing capacity in the mixed bushveld of Northern Province.

  3. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  4. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  5. Towards a comprehensive framework to govern the main sustainability issues of inland industrial complexes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvuma, GG

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available for inland industrial complexes in South Africa. The social and economic benefits warrant the government support of such industrial complexes, but the negative consequences, for present and future generations, need to be considered in a comprehensive manner...

  6. Innovation in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As our world becomes more global and competitive yet less predictable, the focus seems to be increasingly on looking to innovation activities to remain competitive. Although there is little doubt that a nation’s competitiveness is embedded in its innovativeness, the complex environment should not be ignored. Complexity is not accounted for in balance sheets or reported in reports; it becomes entrenched in every activity in the organisation. Innovation takes many forms and comes in different shapes.Objectives: The study objectives were, firstly, to establish the determinants for complexity and how these can be addressed from a design point of view in order to ensure innovation success and, secondly, to determine how this changes innovation forms and applications.Method: Two approaches were offered to deal with a complex environment – one allowing for complexity for organisational innovation and the other introducing reductionism to minimise complexity. These approaches were examined in a qualitative study involving case studies, open-ended interviews and content analysis between seven developing economy (South African organisations and seven developed economy (US organisations.Results: This study presented a proposed framework for (organisational innovation in a complex environment versus a framework that minimises complexity. The comparative organisational analysis demonstrated the importance of initiating organisational innovation to address internal and external complexity, with the focus being on the leadership actions, their selected operating models and resultant organisational innovations designs, rather than on technological innovations.Conclusion: This study cautioned the preference for technological innovation within organisations and suggested alternative innovation forms (such as organisational and management innovation be used to remain competitive in a complex environment. 

  7. Nigeria-China Economic Relations Under the South-South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regrettably, these dreams still remain unfulfilled. The experience gained by the developing countries after several years of bilateral interaction with the North underscores the idea that South-South trade should be symmetrical. However the most discernible pattern in the South-South relationship is still asymmetrical. A case ...

  8. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  9. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Joseph L

    2011-01-01

    The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively

  10. Magnetic Investigations in the J-M Reef Section of the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnukowski, J. D.; Ferre, E. C.; Butak, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Stillwater J-M reef, the only economic platinum deposit in the USA, consists of a 0.5 to 4 m-thick stratiform zone of platinum group element (PGE)-rich sulfides in a layered mafic intrusion. The origin of this reef, purely magmatic or related to late-stage magmatic fluids, remains ambiguous. I propose to test these two genetic hypotheses using rock magnetism. Fractional crystallization trends deduced from petrological models would produce a sharp increase in magnetite and pyrrhotite content near the solidus. In contrast, percolation of sulfur-rich fluids through a crystal mush would produce a gradual increase in magnetite and pyrrhotite up to a fluid permeability barrier. Continuous logging of the magnetic properties of drillcores, combined with petrographic observations, will allow to test these two models. Petrologic similarities between PGE reefs suggest that they share common physico-chemical origins, therefore, understanding the J-M reef genesis would have implications for other deposits such as the Bushveld Complex and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. The J-M reef formation has been explained by two alternative models: 1) magmatic model - magma replenishment causes thermal convection at the interface between two magmas, inducing PGE leaching by a sulfur-saturated magma, followed by precipitation of sulfide droplets; 2) fluid fluxing model - a sulfur-rich residual, late magmatic fluid migrates upward through the crystal mush leading to PGE concentration along a magmatic permeability barrier against the hanging wall. Both models account for the majority of geochemical and petrological observations and may not be fundamentally mutually exclusive. However, understanding the origin of PGE reefs would certainly benefit from new approaches. Preliminary data shows systematic inch-scale cycling variations of magnetic susceptibility (Km) in the hanging-wall that supports the magmatic model. The discovery of this magnetic cyclicity matters because this core does not

  11. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  12. and complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrin Ken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials have a strange propensity to behave as either a complex media or a simple media depending on the precise question being asked. This review paper offers a summary of granular flow rheologies for well-developed or steady-state motion, and seeks to explain this dichotomy through the vast range of complexity intrinsic to these models. A key observation is that to achieve accuracy in predicting flow fields in general geometries, one requires a model that accounts for a number of subtleties, most notably a nonlocal effect to account for cooperativity in the flow as induced by the finite size of grains. On the other hand, forces and tractions that develop on macro-scale, submerged boundaries appear to be minimally affected by grain size and, barring very rapid motions, are well represented by simple rate-independent frictional plasticity models. A major simplification observed in experiments of granular intrusion, which we refer to as the ‘resistive force hypothesis’ of granular Resistive Force Theory, can be shown to arise directly from rate-independent plasticity. Because such plasticity models have so few parameters, and the major rheological parameter is a dimensionless internal friction coefficient, some of these simplifications can be seen as consequences of scaling.

  13. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  14. South and Southwest HSRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  15. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  16. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  17. South African Defense Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    identified as mainly a terrorist 33 or guerrilla threat. The evolution of policy can be seen in the actions of the South African government in the years...Simonstown naval base was transferred from Britain in 1957. In November 1969, the SAAF transferred Langebaan air base to the SAN, and it became SAS Flamingo ... Evolution of a White South African Nation as Reflected in the Controversty Over the Assignment of Armed Forces Abroad, 1912-1976 (Athens: Ohio University

  18. South-South cross-border patient travel to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikanda, Abel; Crush, Jonathan

    2017-12-13

    This paper explores intra-regional South-South cross-border patient travel within the context of Southern Africa. South Africa, in particular, has been widely touted as one of the emerging destinations of high-end patients from the Global North alongside other destinations such as Brazil, India, Costa Rica and Thailand. Using South Africa as a case study, the paper demonstrates that South-South cross-border patient travel is far more significant than North-South patient travel both in numerical and financial terms. Every year, thousands of patients from neighbouring countries travel to South Africa in search of medical treatment for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. Despite its size and importance, the South-South flow of patients in Southern Africa is not fully understood and requires further scholarly research.

  19. Engendering Responses to Complex Emergencies: Lessons from South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    have taken on food production activities. As the stress mounts, women sometimes become more conservative and withdrawn, overburdened by the increased...they are delivering security assistance or food aid, national and international organizations frequently overlook another dynamic that runs through all...addressing the immediate needs of affected communities, such as saving lives and providing water, food , and shelter, at the expense of addressing gender

  20. South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  1. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  2. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  3. Apartheid's Alcatraz: the Barberton prison complex during the early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this two-part article is to examine in detail the public discourse surrounding the Barberton Prison Complex during the early 1980s, at the height of the apartheid era. The prisons within the Barberton Prison Complex were notorious as being among the most punitive of the many prisons within apartheid South ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of metal complexes of antifolate drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Antibacterial activity of metal complexes of antifolate drug pyrimethamine. Omoruyi G. Idemudia and Peter A. Ajibade*. Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Accepted 16 March, 2010. Ag(I), Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes of ...

  5. The Asama igneous complex, central Japan: An ultramafic-mafic layered intrusion in the Mikabu greenstone belt, Sambagawa metamorphic terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, T.

    1994-11-01

    The Asama igneous complex comprises layered mafic and ultramafic plutonic rocks exposed over about 500×6000 m in the Mikabu greenstone belt, Sambagawa metamorphic terrain of Mie Prefecture; its margins terminate by faults, and there is no trace of chilled rocks. The exposed layered sequence is about 460 m thick, and includes dunite, plagioclase wehrlite, olivine gabbro and two-pyroxene gabbro. The crystallization sequence of essential cumulus minerals is olivine, followed by plagioclase and clinopyroxene together, and finally the appearance of orthopyroxene. Olivine systematically varies in composition from Fo 89 to Fo 78 with stratigraphic height in the lower to middle portion of the layered sequence. The composition of clinopyroxene changes from Ca 49Mg 46Fe 5 to Ca 40Mg 47Fe 13 upward in the layered sequence; cumulus orthopyroxene, which occurs at the top of the exposed layered sequence, has a composition of Ca 2Mg 74Fe 24. Cumulus chromite occurs as disseminated grains in peridotitic rocks, and tends to increase its {Fe3+}/{(Cr+Al+Fe 3+) } ratio with stratigraphic height. The most aluminous chromite [ {Cr}/{(Cr+Al)} = 0.48 ] occurs in dunite that crystallized shortly before plagioclase began to separate as an essential phase. The {Cr}/{(Cr+Al)} ratio of the most aluminous chromite, coupled with the crystallization order of essential minerals, suggests that the Asama parental magma was moderately enriched in plagioclase and clinopyroxene components in the normative mineral diagram plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene. It was similar to a Hawaiian tholeiite and different from the Bushveld and Great "Dyke" parental magmas that were more enriched in orthopyroxene component; it also differed from mid-oceanic ridge basalts that are more depleted in the orthopyroxene component. The Asama clinopyroxene and chromite show characteristically high TiO 2 contents and are also similar to those in Hawaiian tholeiites. The Asama igneous complex probably resulted from the

  6. Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...

  7. Identity, race and faith: The role of faith in post-Apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    John Klaasen

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced an unprecedented influx of migrants in the 21st century. Immigration and race have contributed to the raising of important questions of identity and social inclusion. Immigration and race are two crucial phenomena for the church in South Africa because the overwhelming majority of immigrants to South Africa are affiliated to Christianity and active participants in worshipping communities.This article is an attempt to critically engage with the complex phenomena of...

  8. Biotechnology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.

  9. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m......A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...

  10. South American perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxon, S.

    1999-03-01

    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  11. South African mining experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.D. (British Coal Corporation (UK). North Selby Mine)

    1992-09-01

    The article details the author's visit to South Africa on the 1990 Institution of Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineers Travelling Scholarship. The author undertook to visit to six coal mines (including two opencast mines and one rail loading terminal), four local engineering manufacturers, three power stations, three gold mines, two diamond mines (both in Botswana), a steel and vanadium works, the 1990 Mining Electra exhibition and the head offices of the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    . Important decisions, such as participation in clinical trials, are likely to be made by those family members who are fluent in English and younger. Social class appears to be more important than ethnicity, and older South Asian people and those from working class backgrounds appear to be more mistrustful. Approachable patients (of the same gender, social class and fluent in English) tend to be 'cherry picked' to clinical trials. This practice was justified because of a lack of time and resources and inadequate support. South Asian patients might be systematically excluded from trials owing to the increased cost and time associated with their inclusion, particularly in relation to the language barrier. Under-representation might also be due to passive exclusion associated with cultural stereotypes. Other characteristics such as gender, age, educational level and social class can also affect trial inclusion. Effective strategies for South Asian recruitment to clinical trials include: using multi-recruitment strategies; defining the demographic and social profiles of the population to be included; using focus groups to identify any potential barriers; consulting representative community members to provide assistance in the study; ensuring eligibility criteria are set as wide as possible; developing educational and recruitment approaches to attract ethnic minority health professionals; ensuring health professionals are adequately trained in culturally and ethnically orientated service provision; determining the most effective mass media to use in study promotion and recruitment; and targeting inner-city, single-handed practices likely to have high ethnic minority populations. Future research should consider: responses when invited to participate; the role of methodological and organisational barriers to recruitment; the complexities of recruitment from a health professional perspective; developing culturally sensitive research methods; the magnitude of the problem of under

  13. Paradigm shifts, South African Defence Policy and the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African paradigm that guided the pre-1994 Total Strategy defence outlook was later opposed and ousted by one that was more explanatory and embracing of the democratic features permeating and envisaged for South African society. This democratic imperative drove the dominant shift in the South African ...

  14. 15Th South African Psychology Congress, Cape Town, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    The 15th South African Psychology Congress of the Psychological Society of South. Africa (PsySSA) was hosted at the International Convention Centre in Cape Town (CTICC),. South Africa. The congress, under the theme Psychology: Past, Present and Future, took place from 11 to 14 August 2009. The first day was taken ...

  15. Being Turned Inside Out: Researching Youth, Morality and Restitution from the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene

    2011-01-01

    This article maps my journey as a scholar engaged in the research of youth morality (located in the Global South); as a beneficiary of injustice having grown up as a white South African; as a navigator of complex personal histories (discovering my mixed race family origins); and arriving at restitution as a career research focus. It reflects on…

  16. The Persistence of Violence in South Africa's Schools: In Search of Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, C. S.; Mokhele, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    Crime, abuse and violence against school children are grave problems in South African schools and are undisputedly on the increase. This article highlights aspects of hostile and violent behaviour in South Africa that contribute to the persistence of school violence. The problem is complex and there are no simple solutions. The article puts…

  17. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  18. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    SACQ). We believe that the UCT. Centre of Criminology's commitment to advancing policy-relevant research and analysis on public safety, criminal justice and evolving forms of crime in South Africa, and the global South more broadly, ...

  19. South-East Asia and Comparative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Watson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how important is context in undertaking comparative and international educational research. It begins by showing how early UNESCO Plans for Asia largely ignored this crucial aspect. It then goes on to trace the development of the twin fields of comparative and international education, their purposes and different approaches and areas of inquiry before turning to South-'‐East Asia. By looking at the context of South-'‐east Asia as a region in its own right, with its diversity and complexities, and by highlighting the region's uniqueness, the paper suggests that there has been too little comparative research across the region as a whole. Too much has been concentrated on individual countries or on a couple of countries at a time. The paper ends by making some recommendations for future comparative educational research.

  20. Social work values, professional unity, and the South African context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drower, S J

    1996-03-01

    As a subsystem of society, the profession of social work reflects the conflicting value systems at play in the broader social context. In South Africa a spectrum of social work associations have in the past and continue in the present to mirror the different value positions evident in wider South African society. The present period of social transition has stimulated debate among South African social workers concerning this divergence and subsequent lack of unity within the profession. However, such debate has failed to pay adequate attention to the effect on professional unity of the interplay among historical and sociopolitical forces, different value dimensions, and the broader social context. This article highlights this interrelationship and the complexities of forging professional unity among social workers in South Africa.

  1. SOUTH AfRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African concert parties have given shows in canteens and palaces, in magnificent opera houses and in assembly workshops; on open-air stages, on lorries and in fields and hangars. Tarpaulins have been spread on the desert sands, and tap dancers have gone into action on table tops or any available flat sur- face.

  2. The South Africa Case

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    54,100. Source: African Renaissance Fund Annual Report: 2004-2005. The ARF 2005-2006 report noted the following beneficiaries and amounts: African Renaissance Fund Grants – 2005-2006. Grant. Value (R'000). Africa Institute of South Africa, Terrorism Commission. 1,700. Liberian disarmament and elections. 25,750.

  3. Phenylketonuria in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demographic conditions and more pressing health priorities in South Africa. This particular screening programme was discontinued in 1986. The results and conclusions are presented here.for the record. S Atr Med J 1995; 85: 33-36. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-known, inherited metabolic disease. It has attained a high ...

  4. South/South, South/North conversations: South Africa, India, the west

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essay explores a model of literary-historical analysis and evaluation that avoids 'anxiogenic' (anxiety-ridden) or competitive comparisons of centres and peripheries: the north versus the south, the First World versus the Third World or, in antagonistic reaction, the Empire writing back to the centre. Instead, a multilingual ...

  5. South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice(SAFP) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, which strives to provide primary care physicians and researchers with a broad range of scholarly work in the disciplines of Family Medicine, Primary Health Care, Rural Medicine, District Health and other related fields. SAFP publishes original ...

  6. South Asia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat-Kelpša Laimonas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in South Asia among Lithuanian scholars is rather low. For a long time the region has remained off the radar screen of Lithuanian foreign policy makers, who were largely focused on Lithuania’s Euro-Atlantic integration and international consolidation issues. But the situation is changing and South Asia is emerging as an increasingly important political and economic partner for Lithuania. This article attempts to outline the general characteristics of the South Asia region, its geographical and geopolitical limits, and its current key issues, in the backdrop of which Lithuania’s relations with the nations of the region are assessed. Arguably, at present Lithuania has little to offer in addressing the fundamental problems of the region, but its role in individual niches can be quite useful. Lithuanian exports of lasers and laser-related technologies to India, along with the growing number of South Asian students in Lithuanian higher education institutions, are brought in as two small but illustrative examples.

  7. North-South Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Melville

    1975-01-01

    Multinational corporations operating mostly in northern Canada export natural resources thus creating jobs and money for foreign shareholders. Similarly, businesses based in southern Canada reap benefits from northern resources. Environmentalists and churches can ally north-south interests to protect northern resources and people from corporate…

  8. South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nectedness with mother (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.194.98) and friend (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.705.72) predicted current substance use. Conclusion: The study documented the important role of positive relationships between street children and their friends/mothers in preventing psychoactive substance use. South African Family Practice ...

  9. Neptune's 'Hot' South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    These thermal images show a 'hot' south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere. The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile, using an imager/spectrometer for mid-infrared wavelengths on Sept. 1 and 2, 2006. The telescope is operated by the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (known as ESO). Scientists say Neptune's south pole is 'hotter' than anywhere else on the planet by about 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit). The average temperature on Neptune is about minus 200 degrees Celsius (minus 392 degrees Fahrenheit). The upper left image samples temperatures near the top of Neptune's troposphere (near 100 millibar pressure, which is one-tenth the Earth atmospheric pressure at sea level). The hottest temperatures are indicated at the lower part of the image, at Neptune's south pole (see the graphic at the upper right). The lower two images, taken 6.3 hours apart, sample temperatures at higher altitudes in Neptune's stratosphere. They do show generally warmer temperatures near, but not at, the south pole. They also show a distinct warm area which can be seen in the lower left image and rotated completely around the back of the planet and returned to the earth-facing hemisphere in the lower right image.

  10. South Africa and Poland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    The typology of countries, namely those with innovation-driven, efficiency-driven and factor-/resource-driven ... Switzerland, Norway, Australia, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Qatar, Puerto Rico,. Tobago and Trinidad ... of the cultures and values of two countries, namely South Africa and Poland, on entrepreneurial intentions ...

  11. Photonics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available -power systems in the ultrashort-pulse (mode-locked) and mid-infrared domains. One potential application is the use of such systems in lunar and satellite laser ranging, where South Africa hopes to combine an existing space geodesy programme with short...

  12. Epilepsy in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consequent increased perinatal brain injury, high levels of head injury in children ... brain (10). There is no published work on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in South Sudan (where cattle ownership predominates) but this disease is probably common where pigs are ... show a spike and wave pattern. A comprehensive ...

  13. South African School Geography:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lorraine Innes

    now poised to prepare geospatially competent school leavers for a GIS-enabled future in South. Africa is discussed ... Studies in the first three years of primary school and that Geography was included with History, ... 1967, Social Studies incorporating Geography, History and Civics became a compulsory subject for learners ...

  14. Nursing in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitter, Hessel H.

    National needs for 1975 have been projected at 450 nurses per 100,000 population. For the South to reach a goal of 300 would require that graduations be increased by 1975 to nearly four times the number graduated in 1966. Practical nurse programs have nearly doubled since 1960; in the last six years, the number of associate degree programs has…

  15. Geography: The South Australian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Malcolm; Shepherd, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Geography as a discipline has a long and healthy history in South Australia. Due to the passion of individual educators and the activities of the Geography Teachers Association of South Australia (GTASA) since its foundation in 1936, South Australia has experienced ongoing curriculum development and indeed innovation in the geographical studies in…

  16. South African Journal of Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education is the official journal of the Education Association of South Africa (EASA) and publishes original contributions from any of the disciplines in Education, in any of the official languages of South Africa. SAJE is ISI accredited (in the Social Sciences Citation index), with an impact Factor is 0.560 ...

  17. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  18. Selatan—Sur—South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Campbell

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Kumpulan puisi dalam Bahasa Indonesia oleh IAN CAMPBELL/Poetry compilation in Indonesian by the Australian poet Ian Campbell. This collection of poems explores the notion of the 'south' from locations in Indonesia, Australia, Chile and Argentina, locations in which the poems were written. Explaining his topographical approach in these poems, Campbell says: "One of the poems, titled in the Indonesian original 'Lejano sur' (Ke Kejauhan Selatan, appears alongside an English version, called 'Further South.' This short poem takes Borges's short story 'Sur' and a reference to Avenida Rivadavia that he includes in 'Sur' as its starting point for crossing into 'the South' from the centre of Buenos Aires. I then explore ideas of southness - as paradoxically moving 'south' away from North into a region where 'the natural elements are supreme'. Recent Chilean poetry eg 'Despedidas Antárticas' by Julio Carrasco (2006 picks up this idea of 'towards the essence' better than recent Australian poetry. Only Tom Griffiths, the historian, has recently explored this in prose. There are Borgesian images of dust/lack of clarity, then we head into a region where eg Torre del Paine, admittedly on the Chilean side of the Andes, come to mind. The stress on the elements - stone, wind, fire - is an allusion to the way Indonesian poet, Acep Zamzam Noor, portrays these elements in a poem 'Batu dan Angin' (Stone and Wind which has strong sufi/meditative elements. We head into the polar area, which because of climate change, is now melting. But there is also an allusion to Douglas Stewart's play 'Fire on the Snow' about the 1911 Scott expedition and the value of 'human failure'. Even the 'essence' is melting and is no longer stable."

  19. Pedagogical guidance for South African Consumer Studies education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumer Studies, offered as a subject in South African secondary schools, has the potential to contribute significantly to the development of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills in learners. Despite the subject being complex and unique, inadequate pedagogical guidance exists for teachers in Consumer Studies.

  20. Daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) modelling approach towards daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa is presented in this paper for the period 2000 to 2009. MARS is a non-parametric multivariate regression method which is used in high-dimensional problems with complex model structures, ...

  1. The relationship between South African CEO compensation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [ALSI]) and (v) the general inflation (Consumer Price Index [CPI] inflation). In the United States of America (USA), substantial data are available on CEO compensation as a multiple of average employee wage, yet very few similar studies have been performed in South Africa. Given the local complexities of inequality,.

  2. Assessing cognitive-linguistic abilities in South African adults living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that the CLQT can be used as an alternative to more expensive, elaborate and time-consuming neuropsychometric evaluations to identify deficits in memory, attention and executive functions as experienced by adults with HIV or AIDS in South Africa. Keywords: AIDS dementia complex; assessment methods; ...

  3. Topographic mapping support in the South African military during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Service system allowed for the expansion of mapping units and the thorough mapping of large areas adjoining our borders. Through all five phases, mapping in the South African military has advanced from hand-produced maps to the utilisation of complex equipment that satisfies the sophisticated mapping ...

  4. Joyce M. Hawkins (Compiler). The South African Oxford School Diction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparing a dictionary for school children confronts the compiler with at least two problems. The first is how to simplify complex definitions, using a limited vocabulary; the second is what words to put in, and what to leave out. Indeed, how does one begin to assess what words South African school children· cur- rently live ...

  5. Grooming great graduates | van Lill | South African Journal of Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation has moved the South African tourism, hospitality and sport industries into a complex business environment with the competitive edge being defined in terms of service and value for money. These industries increasingly judge graduate qualities by conceptual, operational and especially emotional expertise.

  6. Promoting uptake and use of conservation science in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the National Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Areas (NFEPA) project is used as an example to illustrate how to apply this framework and how science projects in South Africa can be better positioned for impact and use. The paper starts by introducing the framework for conceptualising the complex set of dynamic ...

  7. Social dynamics of suicide in South Africa: A theoretical perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide rates in South Africa are on the increase, particularly amongst the youth. What are the complexities of modern life which are driving the increase? The suicidal act of self-destruction signals society's failure to provide good support systems and meaningful psycho-social well-being for its members. With its impressive ...

  8. 78 FR 20369 - South Carolina Disaster #SC-00021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION South Carolina Disaster SC-00021 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... dated 03/29/2013. Incident: Windsor Green Condo Complex Fire. Incident Period: 03/16/2013. Effective...

  9. Clinical judgement within the South African clinical nursing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reform in the South African healthcare and educational system were characterized by the ideals that the country needs to produce independent, critical thinkers. Nurses need to cope with diversity in a more creative way, defining their role in a complex, uncertain, rapidly changing health care environment. Quality clinical ...

  10. Environmental conflicts in the South Durban Basin: Integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a complex mix of large scale industries and major transport networks, the. South Durban Basin (SDB) residential area has been subjected to a considerable amount of environmental impacts and conflicts. A major concern in the area is the effects of air pollution on human health and ecology that are caused by the.

  11. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister locus throughout its lifetime. South Sister is part of a reach of the Cascades unusually active in the last 50kyr, characterized by high vent density, N-S vent alignments, and numerous eruptive units of true rhyolite (≥ 72% SiO2) that distinguishes it from much of the Quaternary Cascade arc; these are eruptive expressions of the complex confluence of arc and intraplate magmatic-tectonic regimes.

  12. Complexity, Modeling, and Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cilliers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that natural resource management (NRM issues are, by their very nature, complex and that both scientists and managers in this broad field will benefit from a theoretical understanding of complex systems. It starts off by presenting the core features of a view of complexity that not only deals with the limits to our understanding, but also points toward a responsible and motivating position. Everything we do involves explicit or implicit modeling, and as we can never have comprehensive access to any complex system, we need to be aware both of what we leave out as we model and of the implications of the choice of our modeling framework. One vantage point is never sufficient, as complexity necessarily implies that multiple (independent conceptualizations are needed to engage the system adequately. We use two South African cases as examples of complex systems - restricting the case narratives mainly to the biophysical domain associated with NRM issues - that make the point that even the behavior of the biophysical subsystems themselves are already complex. From the insights into complex systems discussed in the first part of the paper and the lessons emerging from the way these cases have been dealt with in reality, we extract five interrelated generic principles for practicing science and management in complex NRM environments. These principles are then further elucidated using four further South African case studies - organized as two contrasting pairs - and now focusing on the more difficult organizational and social side, comparing the human organizational endeavors in managing such systems.

  13. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    children born per woman (U.S. = 1.87) Life Expectancy: 80 years (U.S. = 79.7 yrs.; North Korea = 70.1 yrs.) Infant Mortality : 3.9 deaths/1,000...the two allies had deferred for months and that China has protested loudly; and (3) Seoul shut down the Kaesong Industrial Complex, an 11-year-old...differences. For instance, South Korea often hesitates to take steps that antagonize China and has shown mistrust of Japan’s efforts to expand its

  14. Indoor radon concentration forecasting in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, L; Weber, A; Stoppa, G

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a modern statistical technique of multivariate analysis is applied to an indoor radon concentration data base. Several parameters are more or less significant in determining the radon concentration inside a building. The elaboration of the information available on South Tyrol makes it possible both to identify the statistically significant variables and to build up a statistical model that allows us to forecast the radon concentration in dwellings, when the values of the same variables involved are given. The results confirm the complexity of the phenomenon.

  15. Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following synchronization in the Central Bushveld bioregion of South Africa. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next breeding season and are generally seen as the more fertile animals.

  16. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  17. South Asian Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed th...

  18. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  19. North-South Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-15

    included. The Second World consists of the Comunist bloc of nations, includ- ing the Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and...Japan Second World 3. industrial rich autarchic USSR 4. nonindustrial rich/poor autarchic China Third World 5. nonindustrial rich trading Saudi Arabia...political values issuing from the Third World itself rather than from Comunist states. They are the result of seeing North-South relations in the context

  20. Beyond rhetoric: South-South collaboration for REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhantumbo, Isilda; MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-11-15

    Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. In one example of South-South collaboration to do just this, IIED has helped facilitate a Mozambique-Brazil partnership to share expertise and create a unique REDD+ working group. The initiative provides key lessons for other countries contemplating South-South collaboration on REDD+, including the need for charismatic champions, continuity in government representation, and integration across sectors.

  1. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  2. Scenarios for the South African water sector in 2025; Paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassen, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available of the state and the engagement of society, whereas the Development Bank of Southern Africa published Prospects for South Africa’s Future, which identifies 16 drivers and describes 2 scenarios for South Africa (DBSA, 2011). Scenario development process... comes from the children’s story of the race between the tortoise and the hare, which demonstrates the value of a methodical approach. The Busy Bee illuminates the scenario where there is good intent and effort, but ignorance of complexity foils...

  3. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues.

  4. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  5. Statistical analysis for assessing shallow-landslide susceptibility in South Tyrol (south-eastern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Daniela; Troiani, Francesco; Soldati, Mauro; Notarnicola, Claudia; Savelli, Daniele; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Strada, Claudia

    2012-05-01

    This paper conducts a statistical analysis to determine shallow-landslide susceptibility in an approximately 7500-km2 region of the south-eastern Alps (South Tyrol, Italy). The study applies the weight of evidence (WofE) method, which is useful in determining landslide susceptibility in large areas with complex geological and geomorphological settings. The statistical analysis and landslide susceptibility mapping are based on 882 past landslides, three geometric/topographic factors and two anthropogenic factors, which are the most relevant landslide predisposing factors. The quality of the proposed model, particularly the fitting performance, was assessed; the landslide database was divided into a training set to obtain the model and a validation set to estimate the model quality. The results show that the developed susceptibility model predicts an acceptable percentage (75%) of landslides. Therefore, the model can be useful and reliable for land planners and decision makers also due to its cost-effectiveness ratio.

  6. Education crisis in south Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Brown

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Education flourished in refugee camps but young people repatriating to south Sudan are frustrated by a serious shortage of educational opportunities, particularly in secondary education.

  7. Combatting poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Com. (Economics) Combating poverty is at the frontier of analyses in South Africa today. The study to combat poverty in South Africa is six-fold. After setting the nature of the study to be pursued in Chapter 1, the dissertation analyses the theories of poverty in Chapter 2. The record of poverty in South Africa is analysed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the methods to combat poverty in South Africa. Chapter 5 is a summary of the main findings of the study. A proposed structure plan ...

  8. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  9. An analysis of tourism SMEs in South Africa | Saayman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a comparative study of 37 participating countries on an analysis of Small Medium Enterprises (GEM, 2002) it was found that South Africa ranked the lowest of all developing countries, with only 3.3% of the adult population being involved in pursuing exploitable opportunities in various industries. Since 1994 South Africa ...

  10. Malaria in South Sudan 3: laboratory diagnosis | Cornelio | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Malaria in South Sudan 3: laboratory diagnosis. Charles Ochero Cornelio ...

  11. Paediatric triage in South Africa | Cheema | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing child mortality is a high priority in sub-Saharan Africa, and swift, appropriate triage can make an important contribution to this goal. There has been a lot of interest and work in the field of triage of sick children in South Africa over the past few years. Despite this, in many parts of South Africa no formal system for ...

  12. Reflections on educational research in South Africa | Kamper | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is evident that educational research in South Africa has a noteworthy record of national and regional impact. Present threats to its academic stature and praxiological impact can only be overcome by taking appropriate and timely research management action. South African Journal of Education Vol.24(3) 2004: 233-238 ...

  13. South-to-South Collaboration on Genomics Innovation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... collaborate. Researchers will identify lessons from and devise models for programs that stimulate innovation. Based on the research findings, and in consultation with research users, they will devise policy measures to encourage South-to-South collaboration. The project is funded in partnership with Genome Canada.

  14. Depression in the South African workplace | Stander | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression is a common psychiatric disorder and can be costly, having a significant impact on the individual and employers. The South African Depression and Anxiety Group (SADAG) in partnership with HEXOR, with the support of Lundbeck, undertook research into depression in the workplace, because South African ...

  15. Epilepsy in South Sudan | Newman | South Sudan Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Epilepsy in South Sudan. Peter K. Newman. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  16. Cannabis use trends in South Africa | Peltzer | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to synthesise cannabis use data from surveys, specialised alcohol and drug treatment centres, cannabis-related trauma unit admissions and arrestee studies over the past 12 years in South Africa. Results indicate that cannabis is the most common illicit substance used in South Africa, with ...

  17. South Africa's D-day veterans | Bisset | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some 657 members of the South African Union Defence Forces served in North West Europe between D-Day on 6 June 1944 and VE-Day on 8 May 1945, it would seem that relatively few of them were present on D-Day. South Africa's main contributions to the war effort were made in Ethiopia, Madagascar, the ...

  18. Eating disorders in black South African females | Szabo | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of cases is presented documenting the existence of eating disorders in young black South African women. This has implications in terms of both conceptualising these conditions as culture-bound with respect to 'westernisation' and planning health service delivery in an increasingly westernised future South Africa.

  19. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  20. Malaria prophylaxis - the South African viewpoint | Baker | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consensus meeting was held under the auspices of the Department of National Health and Population Development in September 1991 in order to establish local, current consensus on malaria prophylaxis for the South African traveller within South Africa and neighbouring African countries. The meeting was attended by ...

  1. The microbiology of South African dried sausage | Holzapfel | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (1976) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The microbiology of South African dried sausage.

  2. South African personality inventory : the development of an investigation into the psychometric properties of the intellect cluster / A. Labuschagne

    OpenAIRE

    Labuschagne, Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The Employment Equity Act, 55 of 1998, Section 8 (Government Gazette, 1998) provides clear guidelines for psychometric testing in South Africa. Due to the cultural complexity of the South African population, personality tests in particular do not always comply with these specifications. Most personality tests used in South Africa have been developed in and imported from other countries, and are consequently not always appropriate for all cultural groups. Also, the majority of indigenous perso...

  3. Women's right to care and treatment within PMTCT interventions in South Africa - examined from an empowerment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Maria Munk; Gold, Evelina; Holton, Christina

    2006-01-01

    This project discusses the complexities and constraint for women's participation in 'Prevention of mother to child programmes' in South Africa. These complexities are identified in both the national level, a community level and an interpersonel psycological level. While identifying we analyse these from an empowerment approach and suggest how empowerment in a theoretical manner could mitigate and reduce the complexities#

  4. Short communication: Parentage verification of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communication: Parentage verification of South African Angora goats, using microsatellite markers. ... South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home ... Eighteen markers were tested in 192 South African Angora goats representing different family structures with known and unknown parent information.

  5. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  6. The (reshaping of South Park's humor through literary references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajović Stefan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the complex relationship between a lauded American animated sitcom South Park on the one side, and literature, especially satire, on the other side. Upon asserting the bond between literature and popular culture, numerous references presented in the show are pointed out, namely the stance the authors take on literature and the act of reading, the types and subtypes of humor exhibited, and topicality. Finally, using the writing of Mikhail Bakhtin, South Park itself is treated as literature as its type of humor is a continuation of an age-old literary tradition of laughter. The conclusion asserts this as it is revealed that South Park owes much of its popularity to the literary aspect of the humor exhibited in the show.

  7. African Journals Online: South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. The SSMJ is the a multi-professional journal in the South Sudan which caters for the needs of Doctors, Nurses, Midwives, Clinical Officers, Pharmacists and all other cadres in the health profession. Its vision is to see a well-trained, skilled professionals delivering high quality healthcare to the ...

  8. violence in South African society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My Smile: An exploration into the causes of youth violence in South Africa,4 and Youth Violence: Sources and Solutions in South Africa.5 It is also reflected in popular concerns about ..... experts, widely substantiated by global research and supported by international best practice, simply had no traction against popular ...

  9. Art Renaissance in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jim

    1990-01-01

    South Carolina's requirement that school districts identify and serve artistically gifted/talented students in grades 3-12 has led the State Department of Education to develop support activities, as establishing curriculum guidelines, showcasing successful programs, and creating leadership roles for the South Carolina Arts Commission and the…

  10. South African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Surgery is published by the South African Medical Association and publishes papers related to surgery. Other websites related to this journal: http://www.sajs.org.za/index.php/sajs. Vol 55, No 4 (2017). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ...

  11. Archives: South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... Archives: South African Music Studies. Journal Home > Archives: South African Music Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 13 of 13 Items ...

  12. Archives: South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 341 ... Archives: South African Medical Journal. Journal Home > Archives: South African Medical Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 341 ...

  13. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  14. in South Africa in 2000

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    through a regular supply of crude wine as part of their wages. Alcohol has also been used to exert control over labour ... an integral part of the South African economy, and the wine and brewing industries have made South Africa an ..... marketing and increased alcohol counter~advertising. August 2007, Vol. 97, No. 8 SAM].

  15. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  16. South African Journal of Botany

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Botany, the official journal of the South African Association of Botanists publishes papers which make an original contribution to any field of Botany. Papers are accepted on the understanding that their contents have not been published, or submitted for publication, elsewhere. All submitted ...

  17. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Tb(III) complexes in UV-A light of 350 nm.61 The complexes are thus of importance for therapeutic appli- cations in the treatment of accessible tumours like skin melanoma. 3.3 Photoactive non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes. Lanthanide complexes of non-macrocyclic ligands have recently been studied mainly by ...

  18. Resilient response characterisation of hot-mix asphalt mixes for a new South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd (SANRAL) is in the process of revising the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). A necessary part of this programme is to develop resilient response models. Dynamic (complex) modulus has been used...

  19. Genetic variations in the Dravidian population of South West coast of India: Implications in designing case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha D′Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Despite the complex genetic origins of the Indian population, our study indicated a low level of genetic differentiation among Dravidian language-speaking people of south India. Case-control studies of association among Dravidians of south India may not require stratification based on language and caste.

  20. Crocodiles count on it: Regulation of discharge to Lake St Lucia Estuary by a South African peatland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, J. S.; Grundling, P.; Grootjans, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mfabeni mire is located within the iSimangaliso Wetland Park in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province on the Indian Ocean sea-board of South Africa. This mire complex includes open peatland with occurrences of sedge communities, Sphagnum (rare in South Africa), and swamp forest which is common in

  1. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    OpenAIRE

    R M�ller

    2004-01-01

    The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the developm...

  2. South African Gastroenterology Review: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Gastroenterology Review: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > South African Gastroenterology Review: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Morphometric study of Euchiton traversii complex (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.; Breitwieser, I.; Ward, J.M.; Walsh, N.G.; Ladiges, P.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken into alpine and subalpine species of Euchiton Cass. (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae) in the Euchiton traversii species complex in south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. Phenetic analysis of both field-collected and herbarium specimens resolved the following six taxa

  4. Vacancy complexes in carbon and boron nitride nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashapa, MG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 12, 7796-7806, 2012 Vacancy Complexes in Carbon and Boron Nitride Nanotubes M. G. Mashapa1,2, ? N. Chetty1 and S. Sinha Ray2,3 1 Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa...

  5. Adverse reaction to veterinary multivitamins and vitamin B complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been reported that dogs in South-western Nigeria react adversely to injectable veterinary multivitamins and human vitamin B complex preparations. Experimentation and interview survey were concurrently conducted to identify the type of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) that the indications produced. For the survey ...

  6. The Treatment of Complex Urethral Strictures Using Ventral Onlay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare the outcome of free onlay Buccal Mucosa Graft (BMG) with onlay penile Skin Island Flap (SIF) urethroplasty in the treatment of complex urethral strictures. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted at the Universitas Academic Hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

  7. Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous Bromine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous. Bromine and Acidic Bromate: A Possible Cytoprotective. Role against Hypobromous Acid. Reuben H. Simoyi1*, Kevin Streete2, Claudius Mundoma2 and Rotimi Olojo2. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa.

  8. Diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NC 4.0. Diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex: A South African consensus response to international guidelines. P J de Vries,1 MB ChB, MRCPsych, PhD; L Leclezio,1 MSc (Med) Neurosci; J M Wilmshurst,2 MB BS, ...

  9. South Asia and US Interests: Peripheral, But Impossible to Ignore (1 Billion+ People Can Quickly Get Your Attention)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Barbara B; Boyle, James; Milas, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    ...) and ethnic complexities that dwarf anything Europe can boast, the region remains problematic for the United States South Asia has rarely been seen as vital to American interests, though crises in the area have brought...

  10. Main characteristics and review of mineral resources of the Kabanga-Musongati mafic-ultramafic alignment in Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblond, A.; Tack, L.

    1999-08-01

    The first part of this paper gives the main characteristics of the Kabanga-Musongati (KM) mafic-ultramafic alignment in Burundi. This 350 km long alignment, with an emplacement age of 1275±11 Ma (UPb on zircon), extends from Burundi to Uganda. In Burundi, where the KM alignment consists of nine main massifs, a petrological study has defined stratigraphical units comparable to those identified in other layered igneous massifs, such as the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe and the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The second part of this paper deals with the metallogeny of the KM alignment in Burundi. A review of the well-known deposits is given. Their stratigraphical position and likely origin are discussed in the light of petrological results. New data on platinum group elements (PGE) are provided. Finally, pathways for future mineral exploration are proposed, in particular for PGE-rich sulphides.

  11. Unpacking the complexity of planning with persons with cognitive disability and complex support needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Susan; Dew, Angela; Dowse, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Planners will engage with people with cognitive disability and complex support needs in the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme, but the specific skills needed to build sustainable plans with this group are not yet known. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the barriers and facilitators to planning with people with cognitive disability and complex support needs. Focus groups were held with 99 planning practitioners across metropolitan and regional locations in New South Wales, Australia. Thematic analysis showed planners need to build a partnership based on mutual trust and respect with a person with complex support needs and harness a range of skills to respond to individual support needs, learning capacity, systemic hurdles and life challenges. Planner skills can be used to address barriers to planning for people with cognitive disability and complex support needs. Gaining skills took professional support and personal commitment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  13. Factors influencing Internet banking adoption in South African rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinamano C. Ramavhona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The banking industry globally provides Internet banking to offer their customers easy access to banking services. The banks in South Africa, like their counterparts in other parts of the world, offer Internet banking to customers. However, the majority of South Africans in rural areas do not adopt and use Internet banking despite its convenience, the availability of Internet banking infrastructure, the effort of banks in promoting Internet banking awareness and Internet security.Objectives: This research investigated factors which influence the adoption and use of Internet banking in the context of South African rural areas.Method: In this study, a quantitative research approach was used. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS tool.Results: The perceived compatibility, trialability and external variables such as awareness and security were found to have significant influence in the adoption of Internet banking in South African rural areas, whereas relative advantage was found not to be a significant factor. Security and the complexity of Internet banking were also revealed as some of the factors hampering the intention to adopt Internet banking in South African rural areas.Conclusion: The lack of awareness on Internet banking services and its benefits such as its convenience and the possibility to conduct banking transactions from any location with Internet is found to be the reason for South African rural area retail bank consumers’ reluctance to adopt Internet banking. The majority of retail bank customers in South African rural areas do not use Internet banking because of the lack of resources, such as computers with Internet access. The security of transactions conducted over the Internet is the main concern and significant element that customers consider before adopting Internet banking in South African rural areas as they perceive it as being easily exposed

  14. Factors influencing Internet banking adoption in South African rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinamano C. Ramavhona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The banking industry globally provides Internet banking to offer their customers easy access to banking services. The banks in South Africa, like their counterparts in other parts of the world, offer Internet banking to customers. However, the majority of South Africans in rural areas do not adopt and use Internet banking despite its convenience, the availability of Internet banking infrastructure, the effort of banks in promoting Internet banking awareness and Internet security. Objectives: This research investigated factors which influence the adoption and use of Internet banking in the context of South African rural areas. Method: In this study, a quantitative research approach was used. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS tool. Results: The perceived compatibility, trialability and external variables such as awareness and security were found to have significant influence in the adoption of Internet banking in South African rural areas, whereas relative advantage was found not to be a significant factor. Security and the complexity of Internet banking were also revealed as some of the factors hampering the intention to adopt Internet banking in South African rural areas. Conclusion: The lack of awareness on Internet banking services and its benefits such as its convenience and the possibility to conduct banking transactions from any location with Internet is found to be the reason for South African rural area retail bank consumers’ reluctance to adopt Internet banking. The majority of retail bank customers in South African rural areas do not use Internet banking because of the lack of resources, such as computers with Internet access. The security of transactions conducted over the Internet is the main concern and significant element that customers consider before adopting Internet banking in South African rural areas as they perceive it as being easily

  15. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  16. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  17. Developing healthcare in South Sudan | Bregazzi | South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Research in South Africa - Quo Vadis? | Stutterheim | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (1971) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Adaptive leadership: fighting complexity with complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Peter

    2014-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Contemporary crises have become increasingly complex and the methods of leading through them have failed to keep pace. If it is assumed that leadership matters—that it has a legitimate effect on the outcome of a crisis, then leaders have a duty to respond to that adaptation with modifications of their own. Using literature sources, the research explores crisis complexity, crisis leadership, and alternative leadership strategies. Specifically, the research evaluates the app...

  20. Arbovirus surveillance in South Carolina, 1996-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A; Dowda, H E; Tolson, M W; Karabatsos, N; Vaughan, D R; Turner, P E; Ortiz, D I; Wills, W

    2001-03-01

    Arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in South Carolina (USA) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE), Flanders virus, Tensaw virus (TEN), and a variant of Jamestown Canyon virus (JC). Mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 South Carolina counties beginning in June 1996, and ending in October 1998, and tested for arboviruses. Of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mosquitoes representing 34 mosquito species or complexes), 15 pools were positive. Virus isolations included EEE from 1 pool each of Anopheles crucians complex and Culex erraticus; a variant of JC from 1 pool of An. crucians complex; a California serogroup virus from 1 pool of Aedes atlanticus/tormentor; TEN from 5 pools of An. crucians complex and 1 pool each of Culex salinarius and Psorophora ciliata; Flanders virus from 1 pool of Culiseta melanura; and Potosi virus from 1 pool each of Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Psorophora columbiae. Of 300 mosquito pools tested by antigen-capture assay for EEE and SLE (14,303 mosquitoes representing 16 mosquito species or complexes), 21 were positive for EEE and I was positive for SLE. Positive EEE mosquito pools by antigen-capture assay included An. crucians complex (14 pools), Anopheles punctipennis (1 pool), Anopheles quadrimaculatus (1 pool), Cq. perturbans (4 pools), and Cs. melanura (1 pool). One pool of Cx. salinarius was positive for SLE by antigen-capture assay. Arbovirus-positive mosquito pools were identified from 12 South Carolina counties, all located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and from 4 of 8 Carolina bays surveyed.

  1. Fire Ants (Solenopsis spp.) and Their Natural Enemies in Southern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Briano; Luis Calcaterra; Laura Varone

    2012-01-01

    We review the fire ant research conducted by the ARS-South American Biological Control Laboratory (SABCL) since 1987 to find a complex of natural enemies in southern South America and evaluate their specificity and suitability for field release as self-sustaining biological control agents. We also include those studies conducted by the ARS-Center for Medical, Agriculture, and Veterinary Entomology in the United States with the SABCL collaboration. Ecological and biological information is repo...

  2. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  3. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to ... majority of carbohydrates should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars, rather than processed or ...

  4. Karst Aquifer Recharge: A Case History of over Simplification from the Uley South Basin, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article “Karst aquifer recharge: Comments on ‘Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers’, by Adrian D. Werner, 2014, Water 6, doi:10.3390/w6123727” provides misrepresentation in some parts of Somaratne [1]. The description of Uley South Quaternary Limestone (QL as unconsolidated or poorly consolidated aeolianite sediments with the presence of well-mixed groundwater in Uley South [2] appears unsubstantiated. Examination of 98 lithological descriptions with corresponding drillers’ logs show only two wells containing bands of unconsolidated sediments. In Uley South basin, about 70% of salinity profiles obtained by electrical conductivity (EC logging from monitoring wells show stratification. The central and north central areas of the basin receive leakage from the Tertiary Sand (TS aquifer thereby influencing QL groundwater characteristics, such as chemistry, age and isotope composition. The presence of conduit pathways is evident in salinity profiles taken away from TS water affected areas. Pumping tests derived aquifer parameters show strong heterogeneity, a typical characteristic of karst aquifers. Uley South QL aquifer recharge is derived from three sources; diffuse recharge, point recharge from sinkholes and continuous leakage of TS water. This limits application of recharge estimation methods, such as the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB as the basic premise of the CMB is violated. The conventional CMB is not suitable for accounting chloride mass balance in groundwater systems displaying extreme range of chloride concentrations and complex mixing [3]. Over simplification of karst aquifer systems to suit application of the conventional CMB or 1-D unsaturated modelling as described in Werner [2], is not suitable use of these recharge estimation methods.

  5. Complex systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems theory is concerned with identifying and characterizing common design elements that are observed across diverse natural, technological and social complex systems. Systems biology, a more holistic approach to study molecules and cells in biology, has advanced rapidly in the past two decades. However, not much appreciation has been granted to the realization that the human cell is an exemplary complex system. Here, I outline general design principles identified in many complex s...

  6. The simple complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zalesny, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  7. South African Actuarial Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Advisory Panel: Anthony Asher (Australia) Gary Blumsohn (USA) Howard Bolnick (USA) David Bowie (UK) Barry Childs (South Africa) Rob Dorrington (South Africa) Peter Doyle (South Africa) Angus Macdonald (UK) Heather McLeod (New Zealand) Peter Withey, President of the Actuarial Society of South Africa.

  8. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  9. The Visibility Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert

    1993-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex of a collection O of n pairwise disjoint convex objects in the plane. This 2–dimensional cell complex may be considered as a generalization of the tangent visibility graph of O. Its space complexity k is proportional to the size of the tangent visibility graph. We

  10. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    . 2 radicals ... Crystal structure of the complex was determined by X-ray diffraction and is reported elsewhere. 5. The complex is stable towards hydrolysis at least for 10 h as checked by its ..... served in Co(III) aquo-ammonia complexes where.

  11. Pioneers in South African Anaesthesia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 1). He matriculated in South. Africa from Pretoria Boys High School, and qualified with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery degree from the University of Cape Town (UCT) in 1950. After passing the Conjoint Diploma in ...

  12. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  13. Eosinophilic Oesophagitis | Abuelhassan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. SOUTH AFRICA: POLITICAL LIFE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shubin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is currently facing several political dilemmas that influence the entire social organization of the country. Thus, the historicity of the political processes that permeate South African society today,  the power plays of the country's elites, as well as the external influences that act internally through the political parties of South Africa, and the presence of important African nation within the scope of the BRICS, are essential elements for understanding the South African policy context. Through of experiences in loco, this article establishes a comprehensive analysis of the situation, not only pointing out the political agents which actively intervene in this game, but also constructing possible scenarios for the unfolding of the events.

  15. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  16. Pleistocene reef development in Bulukumba, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Andi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary reefs are commonly studied right now to explain climate change during that time. They act as a good archive of climate change, because their development is influenced by climate condition. The research area is located in the southern tip of Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi. The objective of this research is to define the development of the reef. Methods applied in this research are field survey of 4 line transects along reef cliff. Laboratory work is mostly on petrographic and biofacies analyses in order to reconstruct the reef development. Four reef biofacies have developed in this study namely 1 Coralgal framestone - wackestone, 2 Massive coral framestone facies, 3 Platylike coral Bindstone facies, and 4 Branching Coral Bafflestone facies. Based on the facies association and organism accumulation, the reefs are interpreted to be developed within a reef complex in a shallow marine environment.

  17. Neuropsychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-21

    This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.

  18. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  19. Meconium aspiration in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ct Dis cand virus of uman. 991; us ion in une tes in. 1-179. a- eral infants g el is of om. ; 9: l acute us. Meconium aspiration in. South Africa. M. Adhikari, E. Gouws. This retrospective study of 569 cases of meconium aspiration from 11 institutions in South Africa reveals a high incidence varying from 4 to 11/1 000 and a ...

  20. South Africa in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  1. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  2. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  3. Estimating sample size for a small-quadrat method of botanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in eight plant communities in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. Illustrates with a table. Keywords: Botanical surveys; Grass density; Grasslands; Mixed Bushveld; Nylsvley Nature Reserve; Quadrat size species density; Small-quadrat method; Species density; Species richness; botany; sample size; method; survey; south africa

  4. Nutritive value of Acacia tree foliages growing in the Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia trees form the third largest woody plant family in southern Africa and are an important ecological component of the bushveld vegetation that is prevalent in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The purpose of the study was to determine types and amounts of tannins and also to evaluate the nutritive value of tree ...

  5. The extent of the Cratonic keel underneath the Southern African region: A 3D image using Finite-Frequency Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssof, M.; Bezada, M.; Thybo, H.; Levander, A.

    2010-12-01

    We have re-examined the P body wave data from the South Africa Seismic Experiment (Carlson et al, EOS 77, 1996) across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and the Bushveld complex. Using finite-frequency kernels, we inverted the P-wave delay times to obtain 3-D images of compressional velocity perturbations in the mantle beneath the Southern African cratons to depths as great as the bottom of the transition zone. We utilized P-wave cross-correlation arrival times at three different frequency bands 1, 0.5 and 0.25 Hz. All P-wave arrivals were hand-processed. Crustal corrections were calculated using a crustal model we derived from PdS receiver functions using H-K analysis (Zhu and Kanamori, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2000), and varied with azimuth. We chose damping for the inversion by examining the model norm-data misfit L curve. Checkerboard resolution tests showed good model recovery for 8°x8° anomalies with Vp variations of ±1.5%; 4°X4° checkerboards showed moderately good recovery. To try to isolate the depth extent of anomalies in the model we ran two suites of squeezing tests: 1) We reduced the maximum depth of the model from 1000 to 700 to 410 km. 2) For a 1000 km deep model we increased the damping parameter in the deeper layers progressively and examined the rms misfit and the imaged structure. Visual inspection of the tomographic images produced from these inversions showed that the lateral distribution of structures remained unchanged as the depth of the model was reduced and deep structures persist even with large damping, but with the rms error changing significantly. This indicates to us that the deeper structures are real. We have obtained a new P-wave tomography model showing the depth extent of the cratonic keel. We can distinguish the lateral and the vertical extent in Vp variations between the Archean and modified regions such as the Bushveld complex, and the mobile belts surrounding the cratons. The high velocity (+1.0%) cratonic roots extend to

  6. Sm-Nd Ages of Two Meta-Anorthosite Complexes Around ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron ages are reported for two stratiform meta-anorthosite complexes emplaced into the Archean supracrustal-gneiss association in the amphibolite facies terrain around Holenarsipur, in the Dharwar carton, South India. While these metaperidotite-pyroxenite-gabbro-anorthosite complexes are ...

  7. Food Allergy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L

    2017-06-01

    Whilst food allergy seems to have increased significantly in many developed countries in the past few decades, quality data on the burden of food allergy in many developing countries is scanty. Until recently, South Africa had a dearth of robustly designed food allergy studies. This article summarizes some of the recent research and observations regarding food allergy from the South African setting. South Africa has recently seen two important food allergy prevalence studies in selected and unselected populations. Both show allergy rates in keeping with those in several westernized countries. The major difference between sensitization and allergy rates in these studies emphasizes the vital role of the food challenge in differentiating true food allergy from asymptomatic sensitisation in equivocal cases. Eczema, young age and living in an urban population are important risk factors for food allergy in South Africa. Egg and peanut allergy are the most common food allergies in both selected and unselected populations in South Africa. In peanut allergy, Ara h 2 is the most useful component in differentiating true allergy from tolerance in peanut-sensitized patients. Use of internationally derived 95% positive predictive values for peanut and egg allergy produced many false positives in South African studies. Studies in South Africa show a trend towards more conservative introduction of peanut in eczema patients, which needs to be addressed in the light of recent studies showing a protective effect of earlier introduction of peanut. "Novel" allergies such as galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose allergy, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and eosinophilic oesophagitis are being described with increasing frequency in South Africa. The surprisingly high prevalence of food allergy in South Africa points towards possible involvement of South Africa in the so-called "food allergy epidemic". This has major implications on the planning of health services in the allergy sector

  8. [Chemical characteristics of precipitation in South China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong-Wei; Long, Ai-Min; Xie, Lu-Hua; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rainwater samples were collected in the summer on "Shiyan 3" during the 2012 South China Sea Sectional Scientific Survey. The concentrations of anion and cation, and pH in precipitation were determined and backward trajectories of air mass were simulated to analyze the chemical characteristics of ions and examine the source of ions. The results indicated that the mean pH value of precipitation was 6.3, with 5.6 of minimal value in summer in South China Sea. The order of anion and cation abundance was Cl(-) > S04(2-) > NO3(-) and Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > K(+). Cl(-) was the major anion and Na(+) was the major cation, with concentrations of 2 637.5 microeq x L(-1) and 2095.5 microeq x L(-1), respectively, showing that they were the characteristics of marine atmospheric precipitation. There was a good linear relationship between each pair of 7 ions, with correlation coefficient above 0.9, suggesting that they may have a common source. However, the correlation coefficients were lower between NO3(-) and other ions than the others, suggesting that NO3(-) had more complex sources. The concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) in precipitation may be related to coral environment in South China Sea. The backward trajectories in 6 stations showed that the air mass was from south and southwest of South China Sea, without passing through above the continent. These results suggested that precipitation affected by human ion source can be ignored in summer in South China Sea.

  9. Colonial legacy as a source and a problem in South-South Cooperation: The Case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Borisovna Pavlova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the key narratives of colonial legacy as nodal points in the articulation of the Brazilian agenda in the South-South cooperation. Brazil’s aspirations for regional leadership and attempts to increase its international prestige are analyzed in a constructivist framework. Most importantly, our theoretical reasoning departs from the constructivist take on the agent-structure debate, proposed by A. Wendt in 1987. This approach, firstly, helps to clarify the main difficulties which Brazil faced in Latin America and to examine Brazilian efforts to overcome colonial legacy in order to secure regional leadership, one of the principal goals of its foreign policy. Secondly, colonial legacy can be seen as an unconditional source for the geographical expansion of Brazil’s influence and the increasing the number if its allies by means of the South-South cooperation. Thirdly, we demonstrate the very complex relationship on the structural level between the BRICS project and the problem of colonial legacy. Using the example of Brazil as a state which, on the one hand, has not been able to overcome the postcolonial complex, and on the other, is actively performing political rituals aimed at demonstrating its increasing power, we can more clearly outline the possibilities and limitations inherent in the structure of contemporary international system. Finally, this research suggests that BRICS, a group that claims to articulate the principles of the new world order, more beneficial for the states of the South, has limited chances to succeed with that mission.

  10. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  11. "Springtime in the South Is Like a Song in My Heart": Raina Telgemeier's "Drama," the Romanticization of the Plantation South, and the Romance Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michelle Ann

    2017-01-01

    This essay explores the complex relationship that exists between the romance plot and the romanticization of the antebellum South in Raina Telgemeier's critically acclaimed and commercially successful graphic novel, "Drama." The text's use of a "Gone With the Wind"-style musical as its romantic and thematic pivot point…

  12. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  13. More about inorganic complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Alfred;

    1980-01-01

    This article is a sequel to the one which appeared earlier in this Journal ("Inorganic Complexes: An Introduction" Hyphen VOil. I, Number 3, Spring 1978, pp. 31 - 39) and which dealt with certain aspects of the chemistry of complexes, notably: their definition, stereochemistry, nomenclature and some of their chemical properties. In this article we shall examine the stability of complexes and review some of the applications of coordination compound" in chemis~ry.

  14. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  15. South China Sea kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, J. C.; Gao, J.; Zhao, M.; Wu, J.; Ding, W.; Yeh, Y. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the age of the youngest South China Sea (SCS) oceanic crust is controversial (e.g. 15.5 Ma (Briais et al., JGR 1993) and 20.5 Ma (Barckhausen et al., MPG 2014)). Recently, Sibuet et al. (Tectonophysics 2016) pointed out that post-spreading magmatic activity ( 8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East sub-basin. Their compilation of available swath bathymetric data shows that, if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is globally characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055°in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065° and N085° in the oldest portions of the SCS, suggesting the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending instead of E-W. We present an updated version of the whole SCS structural sketch based on previously published swath bathymetric trends and new detailed magnetic lineations trends compiled from an extremely dense set of magnetic data. The new structural sketch shows: - The distribution of conjugate kinematic domains, - The early opening of the NW and East sub-basins, before a jump of the rift axis, - A second ridge jump in the East basin, - The different expressions of the post-spreading magmatism in the East and SW sub-basins. In the East sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions led to the formation of extrusive basalts associated with the presence of numerous volcanoes (Wang et al., Geological Journal 2016). In the SW sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions deformed and uplifted the already formed oceanic crust and oldest overlying sediments, resulting in the formation of a double post-spreading ridge belt previously identified as the shoulders of the extinct spreading rift axis. This preliminary work will be used to identify magnetic lineations not polluted by the post-spreading magmatism. The unfolded Manila trench

  16. The use of English in South African science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Edmund Cobbing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific reports, articles, strategies and plans in South Africa (and elsewhere are often written in unnecessarily confusing, complex and obscure language. While this is often unintended, it can be used by some to assert authority and discourage inquiry or dissent. Specialist styles of writing and jargon used by business, management or socio-economic development professionals are often copied or echoed in other contexts where their meaning is less clear. Although there is some very clear scientific writing in South Africa, confusing and obscure writing is common and may even be a growing problem. This style of writing may act as a barrier to entry for speakers of English as a second language (the majority of South Africans, who must devote extra time to mastering the medium rather than the content of science writing. The problem is even found in some school textbooks aimed specifically at speakers of English as a second language. The various uses of poor language in science in South Africa have unwanted and potentially serious implications, including supporting unwanted power and institutional hierarchies, alienating the general public, confusing decision-makers, hampering efforts towards transformation, discouraging debate, and diverting time and energy away from scientific work and cooperation.

  17. Understanding the effects of carbocyclic sugars constrained to north and south conformations on RNA nanodesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taejin; Barchi, Joseph J; Marquez, Victor E; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2011-02-01

    Relatively new types of the modified nucleotides, namely carbocyclic sugars that are constrained to north or south (C2' or C3' exo) conformations, can be used for RNA nanoparticle design to control their structures and stability by rigidifying nucleotides and altering the helical properties of RNA duplexes. Two RNA structures, an RNA dodecamer and an HIV kissing loop complex where several nucleotides were replaced with north or south constrained sugars, were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The substituted south constrained nucleotides in the dodecamer widened the major groove and narrowed and deepened the minor groove thus inducing local conformational changes that resemble a B-form DNA helix. In the HIV kissing loop complex, north and south constrained nucleotides were substituted into flanking bases and stems. The modified HIV kissing loop complex showed a lower RMSD value than the normal kissing loop complex. The overall twist angle was also changed and its standard deviation was reduced. In addition, the modified RNA dodecamer and HIV kissing loop complex were characterized by principal component analysis (PCA) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD). PCA results showed that the constrained sugars stabilized the overall motions. The results of the SMD simulations indicated that as the backbone δ angles were increased by elongation, more force was applied to the modified RNA due to the constrained sugar analogues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deservingness to state health services for South-South migrants: a preliminary study of Costa Rican providers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldade, Kate; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2012-03-01

    Health services for undocumented migrants highlight the complex politics of the "right to health". South-South migrants, an emerging focus of migration scholarship, compose an estimated 40 percent of the world's 200 million international migrants. In Costa Rica, internationally renowned for its public health achievements, undocumented Nicaraguan migrants number between 8 and 16 percent of the population. In spite of historical, linguistic, and ethnic congruencies between peoples of the sending and receiving countries at the ends of this migratory path, access to health services is limited for migrants experiencing illegality in the global economic South. Costa Rican health providers articulated concepts of deservingness to health services for undocumented Nicaraguan migrants. This article is based on a preliminary study with a purposive sample of 22 Costa Rican health services providers. Interviewed over two field research periods (June 2005-July 2006; July, 2008), providers addressed four types of health services for undocumented migrants. Overall their views on the deservingness of health services for undocumented migrants reflected a utilitarian approach. Specifically, their talk reflected: (1) the limits to state responsibility for ensuring the health of individuals not pertaining to the nation; and (2) a concern for the threats posed to the health of Costa Rican nationals. Costa Rican providers' perceptions on health services for migrants offer partial insight for the development of future migrant health policies in receiving countries of the global economic South. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tuberculosis in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Rudi

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the key factors and remaining challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in complex emergencies. A complex emergency is "a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the ongoing United Nations country programme." Some 200 million people are believed to live in countries affected by complex emergencies; almost all of these are developing countries that also bear the main burden of TB. The effects of complex emergencies impact on TB control programmes, interfering with the goals of identifying and curing TB patients and possibly leading to the emergence of MDR-TB. There are many detailed descriptions of aid interventions during complex emergencies; yet TB control programmes are absent from most of these reports. If TB is neglected, it may quickly result in increased morbidity and mortality, as was demonstrated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Somalia. TB is a major disease in complex emergencies and requires an appropriate public health response. While there is no manual to cover complex emergencies, the interagency manual for TB control in refugee and displaced populations provides valuable guidance. These programmes contribute to the body of evidence needed to compile such a manual, and should ensure that the experiences of TB control in complex emergencies lead to the establishment of evidence-based programmes.

  20. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  1. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells

  2. The Acacia Senegal complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Ross

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief account of the present slate of knowledge of the species in the  Acacia senegal complex is given. A short description of each species is provided together with a key to the identification of the species. Attention is drawn to the taxonomic difficulties encountered within the complex.

  3. Complexity and valued landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael M. McCarthy

    1979-01-01

    The variable "complexity," or "diversity," has received a great deal of attention in recent research efforts concerned with visual resource management, including the identification of complexity as one of the primary evaluation measures. This paper describes research efforts that support the hypothesis that the landscapes we value are those with...

  4. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  5. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  6. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  7. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing ...

  8. Thermochemiluminescent Cyclodextrin Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luider, Theo M.; Hummelen, Jan C.; Koek, Johannes N.; Wynberg, Hans

    1990-01-01

    Thermochemiluminescent complexes of an adamantylideneadamantane 1,2-dioxetane and a cyclodextrin are non-volatile at the temperatures used to excite the thermochemiluminescence. The complexes can be encapsulated in immunosensitized microcapsules, e.g., liposomes, to provide a labeled immunoreagent

  9. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2015-10-01

    FeO content and temperature of crystallization of clinopyroxene-rich rocks (Talkington et al., 1984; Von Gruenewaldt et al., 1990. Nickel-rich pentlandite is the main sulfide in the Faryab complex. The composition of this is mineral is consistent with the crystallization in an equilibrium condition (Song et al., 2008. The sulfide may have been introduced from external sources during upward movement and emplacement of parent magma. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to the Research Council of Shiraz University for financially supporting this study. References Edwards, S.J., Pearce, J.A. and Freeman, J., 2002. New insights concerning the influence of water during the formation of podiform chromitite. Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 349 (3 139-147. Evans, A.M., 2000. Ore geology and industrial minerals. An Introduction. Black well Pub, Oxford, London, 389 pp. Naldrett, A.J., 2004. Magmatic Sulfide Deposits: Geology, Geochemistry and Exploration. Springer, New York, 727 pp. Rajabzadeh, M.A., Moosavinasab, Z., 2013. Mineralogy and distribution of Platinum-Group-Minerals (PGM and other solid inclusions in the Faryab ophiolitic chromitites, Southern Iran. Mineralogy and Petrology, 107 (6: 943-962. Song, X., Zhou M., Tao Y., and Xia, J., 2008. Controls on the metal compositions of magmatic sulfide deposits in the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Chemical Geology, 253 (1-2: 38-49. Talkington, R.W., Watkinson, D.H, Whittaker P.J., Jones P.C., 1984. Platinum group minerals and other solide inclusions in chromite of ophiolitic complexes: occurrences and petrological significance. Tschermakes Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 32 (4: 285-301. Von Gruenewaldt, G., Dicks, D., Wet J. and Horsch, H., 1990. PGE mineralization in the western sector of the Eastern Bushveld complex. Mineralogy and Petrology, 42 (1: 71-95.

  10. Book Review:Victimology in South Africa | Hargovan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Victimology in South Africa, Author: Robert Peacock (Editor), Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers, Pages: 221, Price: R359, ISBN: 978-0627030208. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v47i1.5 · AJOL African ...

  11. Vitamin D status of older South Africans | Charlton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detennine the vitamin D status of older 'coloured' South Africans who had not sustained a fracture. Design: Cross-sectional analytic study. Methods: A random sample of 200 non-institutionalised subjects in Cape Town aged ≥65 years was drawn using a two-stage cluster design. Trained fieldworkers ...

  12. Human fascioliasis in South Africa | Black | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus.

  13. An overview of Agricultural Extension in South Africa | Koch | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first 69 years of agricultural extension saw the establishment of a diversity of compartmentalized services: to the commercial (white) sector and to the black, Indian and Coloured communities. Agricultural co-operatives, community organizations and the private sector also rendered services. The South African Society for ...

  14. Access to public healthcare in South Africa | Plaks | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to healthcare is considered to be a basic human right. This paper explores the concept of access to public healthcare, with a particular focus on affordability, accessibility and accommodation. Furthermore, it highlights certain issues around the concept of access in the South African setting, by analysing the results ...

  15. Taxation of life insurance in South Africa revisited | Clover | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the theoretical framework underlying the four-funds basis for taxing life insurance in South Africa and records the historical steps in the development of the basis from inception to its current form. It goes on to evaluate the basis in its current form and to propose possible changes that should be ...

  16. An inventory of the South african fitness industry | Draper | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 3 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  17. An inventory of the South african fitness industry | Draper | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to create an inventory of fitness facilities in South Africa, their location, equipment and services offered, and the demographics, education and training of the staff working in these facilities. Design. A total of 750 facilities were identified, and descriptive data were gathered from 442 facilities ...

  18. Palmar Dermatoglyphs of South Mrican Indians | Grace | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with similar data from South African Blacks and Coloureds of the Durban area. A vary high prevalence of loops in area III of both hands is an Indian characteristic; a high frequency of ulnar loops in the hypothenar area, and a low pattern intensity in area IV are caucasoid features which the Indians share with Europeans.

  19. Paediatric triage in South Africa | Cheema | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Child Health. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  20. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma in South Africa | Rees | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the exposure experiences of South African mesothelioma cases, with emphasis on the contribution made to the caseload by different fibre types, the proportion of subjects with no recall of asbestos exposure and only environmental contact, and the importance of putative causes other than asbestos.

  1. X-linked hypophosphataemia in South Africa | Basu | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives.To investigate the pattern of clinical presentation in a series of South African subjects with X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) with particular reference to ethnic differences in presentation and inheritance, and to determine the perceptions and psychosocial problems associated with the disease. Design and ...

  2. Pulmonary scar carcinoma in South Africa | Jenkins | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association between lung scarring and the subsequent development of cancer remains controversial. South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis in the world, and resultant scarring may predispose to malignancy. The country also carries a very high burden of smoking and ...

  3. Demand for actuarial resources in South Africa | Terblanche | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developments, such as international accounting standards and Solvency II, are creating demand. At the same time, emigration of actuaries and actuarial students creates shortages and a much tighter actuarial resource market. This paper covers the current demographics of the membership of the Actuarial Society of South ...

  4. Cannabis use trends in South Africa | Peltzer | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 4 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  5. Learning from south-south comparison: the education systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare two education systems in the southern hemisphere and particularly from the SADEC countries, namely, Madagascar and South Africa. Research was done by means of field observation as well as through discussions and interviews with role players at regional education ...

  6. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  7. South African Hepatitis C management guidelines | Botha | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JF Botha, C Kassianides, HR Schneider, E Song, CWN Spearman, SW van der Merwe. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Gastroenterology Review Vol. 3(1) 2005: 18-21. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sagr.v3i1.30725.

  8. [South-South cooperation: what role for the North?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lery, A

    1997-09-01

    The First African Meeting for South-South Cooperation in Reproductive Health/Family Planning and Population was held in Tunis in July 1997. Tunisian participants from the Ministry of Public Health and other officials met with representatives of 12 Francophone African countries, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations. The meetings were intended to assist each country in establishing partnerships to facilitate projects related to reproductive health, family planning, and population. The meeting was an initiative of the Partnership in Population and Development, an outgrowth of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The Partnership establishes networks and strategic action alliances among all parties currently or potentially interested in reproductive health to promote exchanges of information and experience, technical assistance, and technology transfers. The Partnership countries are Bangladesh, Colombia, Egypt, Kenya, Indonesia, Mexico, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Several other countries have participated in Partnership projects. France and the principal French public and private organizations interested in population and development problems should follow the progress of the South-South Partnership. The Partnership should demonstrate its effectiveness and its willingness to work in close cooperation with the northern hemisphere countries in technical as well as financial aspects.

  9. 15Th South African Psychology Congress, Cape Town, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    South Africa. The congress, under the theme Psychology: Past, Present and Future, took place from 11 to 14 August 2009. The first day was taken up by workshops that focused on, amongst other topics, forensic and neuropsychology, early interventions of alcohol, and ethics. The authors feel that the theme of the congress ...

  10. Haiti: The South African perspective | van Hoving | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and problem statement. The South African response to the Haitian earthquake consisted of two independent nongovernment organisations (NGOs) working separately with minimal contact. Both teams experienced problems during the deployment, mainly owing to not following the International Search and ...

  11. Understanding the epidemic of HIV in South Africa | Williams | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To investigate the magnitude and the time course of the HIV epidemic in the provinces of South Africa from the antenatal clinic HIV surveys. Design. We analysed the data on the provincial prevalences of HIV infection from 1990 to 1996 using maximum likelihood methods to determine the intrinsic growth rate and ...

  12. Rural health and transformation in South Africa | Reid | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. South African Medical Journal Vol. 96(8) 2006: 676-677. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... Journal Quality ...

  13. Multiple sclerosis in South Africa | Modi | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to ...

  14. Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae): insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Subhasis Panda; Indranil Kirtania

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron arboreum Sm., placed under the genus Rhododendron L. in the family Ericaceae Juss. consists of c. 1000 species, of these c. 102 species occur in India. R. arboreum Sm. is restricted to a few South Eastern Asian countries. In India, the species is distributed in the Himalayas, North Eastern India and hill tops of South Western Ghats. Detailed investigations of the genus were studied by several workers but nobody studied variation in R. arboreum complex. A few workers described pol...

  15. South Korea's Current Status of FMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moon, Hyoungill

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis looks at where South Korea stands on FMS from the U.S, considering its economy, technology development, military expenditure, and dispute condition using Multiple Regression model. South Korea...

  16. pressure in South Africa in 2000

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attributable fractions were calculated and applied to revised burden of disease estimates for the relevant disease categories for South Africa in 2000. Monte Carlo simulation- modelling techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa.

  17. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  18. South African red data book - fishes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skelton, PH

    1977-07-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 28 threatened South African fish species, of which five are considered to be endangered (Barbus trevelyani, Klegethon, Treurensis, Oveodaimon quathlambae and Clarias cavernicola), one to be endangered in South Africa...

  19. Comparative embryogenesis of Australian and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinidae, Teleostei),from the Cape south coast of South Africa and from Australia, with comparative remarks on the development of juveniles in oviparous species. The sperm intromitted into the female duct fertilise the eggs within the follicles.

  20. Bibliography of marine biology in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography was sponsored by the Marine Biology Section of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). It has been attempted to include all publications which appeared before the end of 1977, either in South...

  1. Archives: South African Journal of Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 53 ... Archives: South African Journal of Higher Education. Journal Home > Archives: South African Journal of Higher Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Southern Ocean - South African cooperative research programme.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    SANCOR

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available South African research in the Southern Ocean has already produced some important and illuminating results. Most of these efforts, however, were of an individual and uncoordinated nature. Due to increasing interest in the ocean- in South Africa...

  3. South African Journal of Botany: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. South African Journal of Botany Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development University of Natal Pietermaritzburg Private Bag X01 Scottsville 3209, South Africa Street address: Carbis Road, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3201 ...

  4. South African Journal of Education: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > South African Journal of Education: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Libraries in South Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/southcarolina.html Libraries in South Carolina To use the sharing features ... Columbia University of South Carolina School of Medicine Library 6311 Garners Ferry Road Columbia, SC 29208 803- ...

  6. [Dengue and other arboviral diseases in South-East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, V; Vong, S; Buchy, P

    2009-08-01

    The most medically significant arboviruses causing human illness in south-east Asia belong to the genera Flavivirus (dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin, Zika, etc.) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya, Sindbis, Getah, etc.). All of these arboviral diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue virus is the most prevalent arbovirus in south-east Asia and constitutes a major public health problem. Japanese encephalitis virus is also widespread in the region and symptomatic infection is associated with high mortality and severe neurological morbidity. Chikungunya virus causes mild but extremely painful illness. The number of Chikungunya cases has been increasing since early 2009. Epidemiological data show a steady, sometimes exponential, increase in the number of arbovirus infections in Asia. The spread of these viral infections can be linked to a number of complex factors.

  7. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  8. The legal status of the fetus in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Talat; Pickering, A; Erasmus, K; Pardey, J; Beran, Roy G

    2012-09-01

    The issue of how to define the legal status of the fetus is complex. Three clinical cases with fetal losses following motor vehicle accidents raise important issues regarding the legal status of the unborn child. Legislation was submitted to the New South Wales Parliament in the form of the Crimes Amendment (Grievous Bodily Harm) Bill 2005 (NSW) but was subsequently repealed. Medical technological advances make the viability of a fetus a shifting standard and encourage the comparison between newborns and late-term fetuses, offer increased fetal health status information and provide greater capacity to maintain the life of babies born prematurely. In view of the sophisticated state of medical care available in New South Wales, the three cases reviewed highlight the discrepancy between the medical recognition of the fetus as a patient and its lack of legal recognition.

  9. Logistics of Guinea Worm Disease Eradication in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H.; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P. Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-01-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical–logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries. PMID:24445199

  10. Shaking Eden: Voyages, Bodies and Change in the Social Construction of South American Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro Martín

    2015-05-01

    South America presents a clear example of the importance of displacements and exchanges in shaping human societies. Nevertheless, the academic works, following the ideas of the first European visitors, have tended to see it as an undisturbed Eden in a `state of nature.´ For too long, South American societies were thought of as small units without history, isolated from each other. The opposition to the excesses of diffusionism helped to reinforce that image. However, in recent years this static and `naturaĺ representation has collapsed. New works from the most varied perspectives show us a changing and interconnected South America, where the notions of body, person and territory are complex social constructions and not the expression of an 'unmediated' experience of the world. We discuss the implications of these new perspectives of thinking on South America for the study of ways of perceiving and representing the sky in this region.

  11. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; hide

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm (sup -1) far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north the cloud, which extends from 55 North to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the South Pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in December 2013 showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 South. The ring was centered 4 degrees from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in January 2014) was also offset by 4 degrees, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 South with a minimum at 80 South. The shape of the gas emissions distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the South Pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline during 2015-16.

  12. Bridging the gap: western rock skinks (Trachylepis sulcata) have a short history in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portik, Daniel M; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R

    2011-04-01

    Phylogeographic patterns in wide-ranging species in southern Africa remain largely unexplored, especially in areas north of South Africa. Here, we investigate population structuring, demographic history, and the colonization pattern of the western rock skink (Trachylepis sulcata), a rock-dwelling species with a range extending from southwestern South Africa into Angola. Using 1056 bp from the mitochondrial marker ND2 and > 2.5 kb from three nuclear genes (EXPH5, KIF24, RAG-1), we constructed allele networks, generated extended Bayesian skyline plots and performed population clustering analyses. Analyses of historical demographic patterns show an overall southward range expansion from Northern Namibia into Southern Namibia and South Africa, although we find contrasting genetic breaks across these geographic regions using nuclear and mitochondrial data. We suggest that mtDNA has introgressed across a nuclear break corresponding to the Knersvlakte region of South Africa, a previously proposed biogeographic barrier for rupicolous species. This pattern of mitochondrial variation contrasts sharply to that of other South African taxa previously investigated, which all show significant mtDNA differentiation across the Knersvlakte region. Additionally, while other taxa show divergences dating to the Pliocene, T. sulcata appears to be a recent arrival in southern Africa, having crossed this barrier and colonized South Africa in the mid-Pleistocene. The complex phylogeographic history of T. sulcata corroborates the intricate patterns of genetic variation found in South African taxa and provides novel insight into historical processes affecting species distributed across Namibia. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of wind energy potential in the south-south geopolitical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... wind energy as an alternative to conventional fossil fuel. However, there is limited report on the potentials of wind energy generation in the South-. South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Therefore, this paper aims at evaluating wind energy potentials in the south-south region to select an appropriate location for ...

  14. Science councils in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR celebrated its 60th anniversary in 2006 by taking a long, hard look at its continuing role in South Africa. This paper was written by the CSIR Fellows, at the invitation of the Department of Science and Technology, to capture some...

  15. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    Caroline Agboola holds a National Research Foundation Scarce. Skills Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Department of Sociology,. University of Johannesburg. She obtained her PhD in Sociology from the University of South Africa. Her research on women ex- prisoners was supported by the National Research Foundation.

  16. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Others v South African Rugby Football. Union and Others, an .... administration and administrative activities to ensure that the exercise of public powers does not adversely affect the rights of individuals.47. It is clear that administrative law effectively regulates what the administration may or may not do, and what ...

  17. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  18. Sedating children in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regarding 'Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in. South Africa1 we thank the authors for publishing their research thereby giving us documentary proof of what we know to be widespread practice. Sedation has, for many years, been poorly documented and not subject to the standards in respect of monitoring ...

  19. Developing healthcare in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Need. The provision of healthcare in South Sudan is offered by a 'mixed economy' of public hospitals and clinics, private hospitals and clinics, international aid organisations, and traditional community practice. Yet for most of the 11.7 million population [1], the provision of both primary and secondary healthcare is ...

  20. ENSO forecasts in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The SST prediction systems currently being used at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are presented. In particular, the skill of these systems to predict Niño3.4 SST and how...

  1. Language Laboratories in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Arie

    1992-01-01

    Reviews trends in language instruction and the use of language laboratories in South African higher education from 1962 to 1990, paying particular attention to racial differences and the movement from an audio-lingual method to a communicative language technique. Questions the wisdom of equipping institutions with sophisticated hardware without…

  2. Training psychiatrists in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    published study questioned whether, in relation to otolaryngology specialist training, South African universities provide equivalent training. The findings were that they do not. The authors cited a lack of oversight by the HPCSA.3 If there is a national exit exam, there must be equivalent training across all academic platforms ...

  3. Political killings in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NFP, on the other hand, raised questions about whether the judgment was correct, pointing out that Mthembu had been receiving threats at the time when he was killed.3. ESTABLISHING THE FACTS ABOUT. POLITICAL KILLINGS. There is no established system for collecting data on political killings in South Africa ...

  4. South African Journal of Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Education (SAJE) publishes original research articles reporting on research that fulfils the criteria of a generally accepted research paradigm; review articles, intended for the professional scientist and which critically evaluate the research done in a specific field in education; and letters in which ...

  5. South African Actuarial Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where possible, published works should be cited in preference to unpublished works. A statute should be referred to as, e.g., 'the Pension Funds Act, 1956, 3 with a footnote giving its full name and number and except in the case of the Parliament of South Africa, the legislature. 3.6.5 In the text, except where the citation itself ...

  6. Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhdeep; Ponniah, Manickam; Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ramachandran, Vidya; Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Raju, Hari Kishan; Perumal, Vanamail; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated chikungunya outbreaks in South India and observed a high attack rate, particularly among adults and women. Transmission was facilitated by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in peridomestic water containers, as indicated by a high Breteau index. We recommended vector control measures and health education to promote safe water storage practices. PMID:18826830

  7. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS to ...

  8. South African Crime Quarterly 59

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In February this year, Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) released the findings of the 2015/16 Victims of Crime Survey, and announced that it would release the 2016/17 results in November. Victim surveys, though not without fault, capture valuable data relating to crime, justice and safety that are not typically collected by ...

  9. Life in South Korea Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  10. Human fascioliasis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2003;74(4):117-122. 10. Ajona R, Riancho JA, Aguado JM, Salesa R, Gonzalez-Macias J. Fascioliasis in developed countries: A review of classic and aberrant forms of the disease. Medicine 1995;74(1):13-23. Accepted 11 July 2013.

  11. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  12. South Texas Maquiladora Suppliers Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J. Michael

    This project was undertaken to assist South Texas industries in improving export to nearby Mexican maquiladoras (factories). The maquiladora program is based on co-production by two plants under a single management, one on each side of the border. Activities addressed four objectives: (1) to determine the dollar value, quantity, and source of the…

  13. tional antipsychotic in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    report cost advantages or cost neutrality for these new agents. However, considerable differences in health care service pro- vision make it difficult to generalise these findings to South. Africa. Method. We compared the direct costs (private and public sector) of treating schizophrenia with an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine ...

  14. Getting Skills Right: South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in South Africa. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; education and training policies targeting skills…

  15. South Asians in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  16. South African Journal of Geomatics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Geomatics (SAJG) publishes peer-reviewed original papers within the broad discipline of Geomatics (including surveying techniques, technology and applications, mine surveying, hydrographic surveying, cadastral systems, land tenure, development planning, GIS, photogrammetry and remote ...

  17. South African Crime Quarterly 57

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute for Security Studies/UCT

    iNStitute for SeCurity StuDieS & uNiverSity of CAPe towN. 8. In South Africa, criminal prosecutions of people driving while .... The following data and information were evaluated for each specimen: date of sample acquisition (i.e. date of .... measure of quality assurance. It is for this reason that appropriate quality controls and.

  18. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  19. South African Homelands as Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of frontier zones, the homelands emerge as areas in which the future of the South African postcolony is being renegotiated, contested and remade with hyper-real intensity. This is so because the many fault lines left over from apartheid (its loose ends, so to speak) – between white and black; between...

  20. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…